Use of English B2 for all exames

f m m **■ wki.I E. MOUTSOUm Use of English B2 for all exams E. Moutsou Published by: MM Publications www.mmpublications.com [email protected] Of...

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E. MOUTSOU m

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Use of English B2 for all exams

E. M outsou

Published by: M M Publications www.mmpublications.com [email protected]

Offices

Great Britain - Greece - Poland - France - Cyprus - U.S.A. - Turkey Associated companies and representatives throughout the world. Copyright © 2009 MM Publications All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the publishers. Produced in the EU

C1103002007-5239

ISBN: 978-960-443-928-7

btradm tm U se

of English B2 for the FC E Exam ination and other exam s is intended for B2 level students. It systematically

teaches grammar and vocabulary and prepares students thoroughly for all exams.

The FCE Use of English Paper contains four parts and lasts 45 minutes. The task types and the number of questions in each part are presented in the following table. PA RT

T A SK T Y P E

N U M B E R O F Q U EST IO N S/M A R K S

1

Multiple-choice cloze

12 (one mark per question)

2

Open cloze

12 (one mark per question)

3

Word formation

10 (one mark per question)

4

Key word transformation

8 (two marks per question)

This book is divided into 15 units, followed by a Final FCE Test and a Final ECCE Test.

The vocabulary and grammar taught has been distributed in 12 units (Units 1-4, 6-9 and 11-14), each of which

s divided into two sections. In the first section, in units 1,3,6,8,11,13 there is a selection of collocations and expressions, while in units 2,4, 7, 9,12,14 there is a selection of prepositional phrases. Phrasal verbs, words •vith prepositions, grammatical structures and key word transformations are presented and practised in all 12 units. This section ends with two exercises which are similar in format to tasks in the FCE Use of English paper and ECCE Grammar and Vocabulary sections, but which test only the items taught in the corresponding unit.

In the second section, a number of groups of easily confused words and derivatives are presented and practised, followed by two exercises which test only the items taught in the corresponding unit.

Units 5,10 and 15 are consolidation units which revise the material previously taught. Each of them is actually a complete Use of English Practice Test following the exact format of the FCE/ECCE examinations, but testing only the items taught in the four units preceding it.

The Final FCE Test and Final ECCE Test are modelled on the Cambridge Use of English Paper and on the Grammar and Vocabulary sections of the University of Michigan Examination for the ECCE.

The reference section at the end of the book includes an overview of English Grammar, vocabulary notes with definitions of easily confused words, exam tips and three appendices. These appendices alphabetically present prepositional phrases, words with prepositions and derivatives.

The Teacher’s Book consists of two sections. The first section is the Student's Book with the answers overprinted. The second section includes notes for the teacher and three photocopiable Revision Tests with Key.

C

o

r

t e

UNIT1

p. 6

UNIT 2

p. 16

UNIT 3

p. 26

UNIT 4

p. 36

UNIT 5

p. 46

UNIT 6

p. 50

UNIT 7

p. 60

UNIT 8

p. 70

UNIT 9

p. 80

v

t s

Section I

Section 2

Collocations with go, come, reach, get Collocations of the type noun+of+noun Phrasal verbs with come, go and be Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Tenses

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of work and employment) introduction to Derivatives

Prepositional phrases of time and place Phrasal verbs with get, pull and throw Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Relative Clauses-Clauses of Time

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of time and viewing) Adjectives in -ful, -less and nouns in -ship deriving from noun roots

Expressions with day, year and time Collocations with hold, run, catch and keep Phrasal verbs with look, check, watch and show Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Adverbs-ComparisonsArticles-Uncountables

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of people and education) Adjectives in -al, -y, -ous, -ly (+adverbs) and nouns in -hood deriving from noun roots

Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous) Phrasal verbs with keep, hold, catch, carry, wear, work and move Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Determiners-Pronouns

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of travel and tourism) Adjectives in -ic, -ical, verbs in -ise and nouns in -ist, -ian, -dom deriving from noun roots

Consolidation 1(Units 1-4) Collocations with do and make Collocations with break, change, cut, turn and draw Adverbial expressions Phrasal verbs with make, do, grow, pass, fill and leave Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Infinitive /-ing form

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topic of money) Common negative prefixes

Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous), linking phrases Phrasal verbs with break, burn, cut and turn Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Modal Verbs

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topic of thinking) Verbs in -en and nouns in -ness, -nee, -ncy, -cy deriving from adjective roots

Collocations with leave, put, set, shake, miss and lose Collocations/Expressions with way Sentence linkers Phrasal verbs with put, lay, set, settle Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Passive Voice Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous) Phrasal verbs with mix, run, hang, fall, hurry and try Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Pronouns-Causative Form

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topic of communication) Verbs in -ise and nouns in -ity, -hood deriving from adjective roots

Words easily confused (miscellaneous) Inflections of nouns, adjectives, adverbs and verbs

Section 1 UNIT 10

p. 9 0

UNIT 11

p. 94

UNIT 12

p. 104

UNIT 13

p. 114

UNIT 14

p. 124

Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous) Phrasal verbs with call, speak, tell and count Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Reported Speech

UNIT 15

p, 134

Consolidation III (Units 11-14)

Section 2

Consolidation II (Units 6-9) Collocations with follow, have, take, give, pay, bring and mind Phrasal verbs with take, close, knock, clean, clear and drop Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Clauses of concession, reason, purpose and result

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of crime and punishment) Adjectives in -able, -ible, -ent, -ant and nouns in -ery, -ence, -ance, -ant deriving from verb roots

Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous) Phrasal verbs with bring, give, hand, burst and blow Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Conditionals

Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of health and illness) Nouns in -ion, -ation, adjectives in -ive, -ative and nouns in -al deriving from verb roots

Adjective +Noun Collocations Collocations with say and tell Idiomatic expressions with all Phrasal verbs with lie, stand, sit, save, dress, pay, end, point, lock and let Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Unreal Past

Words easily confused (miscellaneous) Nouns in -ment, -ure, -er, or and -ee deriving from verb roots

Words easily confused (miscellaneous) Irregular Derivatives Adjectives and nouns deriving from the name of a country or continent Adverbs and pronouns ending in -body, -one, -thing, -where, -how, -ever and -self

Final FCE T e s t ......................................................................................................................................................... 138 Final ECCE Test ....................................................................................................................................................142 G ram m ar R e v ie w ........ ............................................................................................................................................147 V o ca b u la ry N o te s ....................................................................................................................................................165 Exam T ip s .................................................................................................................................................................171 A p p en d ix I: P re p o s itio n a l P h ra s e s ...................................................................................................................... 173 A p p en d ix II: W o rd s w ith P re p o s itio n s .................................................................................................................174 A p p en d ix III: D e riv a tiv e s ............................................................................................................. ......................... 176

Collocations/Expressions A Com plete the b lanks w ith the verbs go, come, reach or get. better

to sleep

revenge

on sb’s nerves

a decision

rid of

red

off sb's back

to terms with

ready

an agreement

down to business

into trouble

the sack

lost

over the top

dark

in handy

the job

even with

B Com plete the sentences w ith the co llocatio n s / expressions in the box below. Use each one o n ly once. in somebody's shoes

on top of

1 Mr Johnson is

in search of

on the safe side

in charge of

in trouble with

the company’s marketing department.

2 People who systematically cheat the tax system will one day be

the Tax Department.

3 The doctor insisted that I should be given a thorough check-up just to b e __ 4 The children wandered around the neighbourhood_______________________

their lost dog.

5 Nobody would want to b e ___________________________ , not with all those debts he has to pay off. 6 After weeks of hard work, Kevin was confident he was finally

C

the situation.

Com plete the collocation s below w ith the w ords in the box. You m ay use some of the words m ore than once. In some cases m ore than one w ord m ay be correct. bar

bunch

can

clap

flash

flock

pair

pint

set

sheet

swarm

tube

.of pyjamas

.of paper

.of scissors

.of lightning

.of soap

of sheep

.of beer

. of sunglasses

.of rules

.of birds

.of thunder

of traffic lights . of flowers

.of toothpaste

of bees

Phrasal Verbs Read the sentences on the left and m atch the phrasal verbs w ith th eir definition s on the right by w riting the correct num ber in the box next to each definition. A

COME 1 While cleaning the basement, I came across something I thought I had lost years ago. 2 Joe came into a lot of money, which changed his life completely. 3 Why doesn’t Julie come round to our place anymore? 4 The scientists took months to come up with a solution to their problem. 5 Richard came down with a bad cold the day before his exams. 6 It took the woman a few minutes to come round / to after she had fainted.

stop by, visit inherit find by chance regain consciousness be taken ill with think of and suggest

unit 0 1 B GO 1 They decided to go ahead with their trip despite the bad weather conditions.

move / travel around, visit match

2 Once you have finished cleaning, you can goon with your job.

explode

3 The doctor wanted to go over the test results with his patient. 4 That tie goes with your suit nicely.

start sth

5 Luckily no one was injured when the bomb went off.

continue doing

6 While visiting Rome, we went round all the major archaeological sites.

turn sour, start to decay

7 The child went through a lot before recovering completely.

examine / discuss in detail

8 The milk went off after only an hour in the scorching heat.

suffer

9 What’s going on in there? Open the door!

happen

C BE 1 What's on this weekend at the theatre?

leave

2 We were promised that the hard times would be over soon.

support, in favour of

3 I was about to leave home when some unexpected visitors arrived.

end

4 I'm for the mayor's plan to relocate the town hall.

be ready to

5 What are the boys up to? Don’t tell me they’re ruining the garden again!

be shown / performed

6 I must be off now. My parents are expecting me for dinner.

do (usually sth wrong)

Words with Prepositions A Com plete the blanks w ith prepositions. Adjectives

Nouns

Verbs

excellent

an answer

associate

experienced

an expert

concentrate

oraise sb sth sth

sth

provide sb

sth

provide sth

sb

haDDV

sb

(take) pride

conaratulate sb

haDDV

sth

a reply

cooDerate

proud

a report

deal

sudd Iv

sb

sth

respected

an opportunity

include

sudd Iv

sth

sb

sb

succeed

responsible

B Read the fo llow in g sentences and com plete them w ith prepositions. 1 Congratulations Rodney! I'm so happy___________ you and your wife. 2 I would be more than happy to provide you___________ our company's catalogue. 3 We supply all major companies___________ our products. 4 She takes great pride___________ her work. That’s why she's the best in her field. 5 The government will provide housing___________ the homeless. 6 You shouldn't be proud___________ yourself. What you did was wrong! 7 The government supplied food and medicine___________ the victims of the hurricane. 8 The journalist was praised___________ his report____________ the starving children of Africa.

unit0 1 Grammar Revision (Tenses) See G ram m ar R e v ie w page 147 ^ Read the text below and com plete each blank w ith one word. A ll m issing w ords are a u x ilia ry verbs (is, was, have, has, had, do, does, did etc.). My life (1)________________________ improved a lot since last year. You see, before that I (2 )________________________ been working in the same job for five years and

-4

:

fesh .w .

I (3 )________________________ beginning to feel rather bored. I ( 4 ) ________________ getting ready to apply for another job when one day my boss called me into her office. "Our company (5 ) _____________________ planning to expand overseas," she said. "We ( 6 ) _________________________ thinking of starting with Spain, therefore we will ( 7 ) ________________________ needing some of our best employees to support our new branch there. ( 8 ) ___________________ you think you would be interested in a transfer?" Naturally I accepted, although at the time I ( 9 ) ________________________ not know that they (1 0 )_________________________ also going to promote me to assistant manager.

By the end of this month, I will have (11)________________________ living in Madrid for a year. You can't imagine how exciting my life (12)________________________ become.

B Pu t the verbs in brackets into the Past Sim ple, Past Progressive, Presen t Perfect Sim ple or Presen t Perfect Progressive and com plete the boxes w ith the tim e w ords below. Use each tim e w ord o n ly once. for

while

yet

still

when

ago

already

since

M a ry________________________ (have) a bath yesterday evening, I was in the kitchen.

1

I ________________________ (cook) her favourite dish because I _________________________ (want) to surprise her. s h e ________________________ (come) into the kitchen, she couldn't believe her eyes! 2 Jim:

Mum, I ________________________ (look) for my black belt I

the past hour and

________________________ (not find) it._________________________ you

________________________ (see) it anywhere? Mother: No, but I think you________________________ (lend) it to your brother about a week Jim:

Oh, you're right. He________________________ (not give) it back to me. I bet he_________________________ (wear) it all week. Where is he now, Mum?

Mother: I'm afraid Mark________________________

________________________ (leave).

He________________________ (get) up about an hour before you_________________________ (do). 3 I ________________________ (work) on this project I ________________________ (not finish) it

this morning but . What am I going to tell my boss?

unit 0 1

M y sister loves cats. /

She has gone to Italy. (She is still there.)

She loves cats. /

She has been to Italy. (She has returned.)

M y sister she loves cats. I bought this bike two years ago. /

(Only one subject in each sentence.)

(Past Simple + ago) There is a book on the table.

IhaveboughttM s bike-t-wo-year-s-ag©:

It is Susan’s.

Tbeught4hisWke^wejyears-beforer'

(Use there when m entioning sth fo r the firs t time.

I have had this bike for two years. /

Use it fo r sth already mentioned.)

(Present P erfect+for) I-have4fei&bike4©rtw©-yeafsr- -

They don't have a car. S (have = own)

I have had this bike since 1998. /

They haven't got a car. / (have got =own)

(Present Perfect + since + time)

They don't haveget aear. They-haven’tacar.

I have had this bike since I was sixteen. / (Present Perfect + since + Past Simple)

He has a bath every morning. / (have = take) He doesn’t have a bath every morning. / Hehas-gotabath every morning.

I have hadtWs-bi^esince two years ago. (Only one time word in each sentence.) I haven't studied for a week, (refers to the past: The last time I studied was a week ago.)

James didn't use to smoke so much. /

I have to study for a week, (refers to the future: I

James didn't used to smoke so much.

must study fo r a week before I do sth else.)

(did/didn’t + bare infinitive)

I haven't eaten spaghetti for six months. /

I do speak French. / (emphasis)

I have-to^at-spaghetti for-six months.

He does eat snails. / They did buy a house. / W e did saw the thief. (do/does/did + bare infinitive)

Key Transformations I have never been to Malta before.

The last time I saw her was a year ago.

It is the first time I have ever been to Malta.

I last saw her a year ago. I haven’t seen her for a year.

I had never been to Malta before.

It has been a year since I last saw her.

It was the first time I had ever been to Malta.

It is a year since I last saw her.

When did he start working? How long has he been working? How long is it since he started working?

unit 0 1

Examination Practice A Read the text below and th in k of the w ord w hich best fits each space. Use o n ly one w ord in each space.

MONGY There is no doubt that money, in the form that we know it today, (1)_

what

keeps modern economic life functioning. Yet, throughout history, money, in whatever form, has provided people (2)________________________ the ability to buy (3)_________________________ sell goods. Thousands of years (4 )________________________ , civilisations (5)_________________________ to rely on the barter system as a way of exchanging goods. Within this system a person had to exchange one thing for another. This meant that the two parties involved had to (6 )________________________ an agreement as to what they thought their products were worth. Items such (7)________________________ wheat, tobacco and livestock have all been used as money at one time or another. It was not until much later that humans came up (8 )________________________ the idea of money in the form of metal coins. So why (9 )________________________ the barter system come to an end? The answer is simple. Coins were much easier to handle and carry around. Since then, the use of coins has become widespread. It has made commerce simpler and has given countries an opportunity (10)________________________ development by doing business with other countries further afield, which they (11)________________________ never done business with before. In recent years, paper money has become more common all over the world, as it is easier to use. It (12)________________________ not be long, however, before plastic cards take over completely, replacing coins and paper money.

6 Com plete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar m eaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given unchanged. You m ust use betw een tw o and five w ords, in clu d in g the w ord given. 1 We last went abroad a long time ago. not

W e______________________

.a long time.

2 When did they start living in the suburbs? have

How

in the suburbs?

3 It's the first time she has ever had problems with the authorities, trouble

She________________________________________________

with the authorities before.

4 When Carl was young, he went to a holiday camp every summer, used

When Carl was young, he____________________________

. a holiday camp every summer.

5 After the earthquake, the government supplied food and medicine to the homeless, provided

After the earthquake, the government______________________________________

6 Lucy hasn't visited me since February. was

The last__________________________________________________________ in February.

7 How long has he had this car? bought

How long__________________________________________________________ this car?

8 I haven't caught a cold for ages, down

I last_________

.ages ago.

.food and medicine.

unit 0 1

Words easily confused Use the correct form of the w ords in the boxes to com plete the sentences in each group A-H below. You m ay use some of the words m ore than once. In som e cases, m ore than one w ord m ay be correct.

job

occupation

work

employment

profession work long hours.

1 People in the medical

as a computer analyst, you need a degree in computer science.

2 In order to get a (n )__

3 Betty has been out o f _____________________ __since January. 4

agencies help people find work in their field.

5 I was asked to write my present________________________ on the application form.

B

task

course

duty of cleaning the room after the meeting.

1 They were set the

to make the patients feel comfortable.

2 It is a nurse's____

at university.

3 Her marks are quite high, so she can choose between a medical or a law

employer

employee

colleague

attendant

are expected to be at work by 8.30. Our

3 A ll_________

insists on it.

for a law firm before entering politics.

4 Jill worked as a(n)

at the office are friendly.

5 All m y __________

_______ in the armed forces.

6 Bob is a senior

crew

staff gave a speech in the town centre last night.

1 A member of a political

at our school have formed a basketball team.

2 The teaching_________

_ had no luck in finding the missing child,

3 The search___________

served drinks as the ship set sail.

4 The ship's____________

aim

officer

__ is responsible for parking customers’ cars.

2 The car park

party

clerk

helped me choose a jumper that suited me.

1 The shop

D

assistant

goal

intention

challenge

success

ambition

1 The Maths problem was a (n )________________________ and took me over an hour to solve. 2 T h e ________________________ of environmental organisations is to stop environmental destruction.

unit 01 3 People with

will always try to achieve their

4 Their first album was a great

and sold two million copies worldwide.

5 I have n o __________________

achieve

fulfil

of changing my plans for tonight.

cope

1 John

deal

face

succeed

in convincing his boss to give him the day off.

2 He doesn’t

_____with crisis situations very well.

3 Despite his health problems, Joe

his ambition to play in the local football team.

4 The Johnstons a r e _____________

financial difficulties after Mrs Johnston lost her job.

5 Kim put a lot of work into her project and

_____________________ excellent results.

6 During his career as a teacher, he h a s ___

manage

run

operate

with students from different backgrounds.

undertake

1 You have to read the instructions carefully before you 2 Brett couldn't find experienced staff so h e ___________ 3 Kate was supposed to

skills

qualities

his business on his own for a few months.

the training of the new staff.

4 The company is _____

H

the photocopying machine.

by two people who share the responsibilities.

qualifications

experience

1 To get the job you must have three years’

in telecommunications and the necessary

_________________________ one of which is a university degree. 2 Leadership_______________________are required by a Prime Minister, as well as communication 3 Learning to windsurf was a fantastic________________________ !

A Look at the sentences below. W h at p art of speech (verb, noun, ad jective or adverb) is each of the w ords in bold typ e?

unit 0 1

Each part of speech has a different function in the sentence. describe actions, events, feelings or situations. (e.g. The two patterns differ from each other.) refer to people, animals, things, actions, situations or ideas. (e.g. There is a difference between the two patterns.) 2 2 E 5 2 E Z S I describe the qualities of nouns. (e.g. This pattern is different from that one.) describe verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, phrases or whole sentences. (e.g. The two patterns have been differently designed.) A lot of English words can be used as roots for the formation of other words, which are called derivatives. Most adverbs, for instance, are formed by adding the ending -ly to the root adjective. careful 4 carefully

terrible 4 terribly

different 4 differently

B Choose the co rrect w ord A, B or C to com plete the follow ing sentences. 1 The zoo's main ___________________________ are the pandas. A attractively

B attractive

C attraction

2 The teacher w a s ___________________________ with the student because he didn’t do his homework. A anger

B angry

C angrily

3 Before I set off on my journey, my father told me to d rive ___________________________ . A safe

B safety

C safely

4 What's th e ___________________________ between increase and decrease? A difference

B differently

C different

5 I hired a ___________________________ to take pictures at my wedding. A photographer

B photography

C photographic

6 Despite his age, he leads an ___________________________ life. A activity

B acting

C active

7 She completed the project___________________________ and was promoted. A success

B successfully

C successful

C Read the sentences below and decide w hat part of speech is m issing. Then, com plete the sentences w ith the correct form of the w ords in capitals. 1 I love sitting on my new sofa. It's so (Part of speech:______________________) _______________________ .

COMFORT

2 She chose light-coloured furniture to (Part of speech:______________________) ____________________ BRIGHT up her dull flat. 3 It’s certainly (Part of speech:__ ___________________ ) ________________________to drive at high speed.

DANGER

4 August is a (Part of speech:................... ............... ) ___________

PEACE

_______ month in our city, as

everyone is away on holiday. 3

unit01 5 The (Part o f speech:_____________________ ) _______________________ held up the bank and

ROB

stole £200 0 00 . 6 Nobody could find the (Part of speech:_____________________ ) _______________________ to the

SOLVE

d iffic u lt Maths problem. 7

Even though they had financial difficulties, they were (Part of speech:_____________________ )

HAPPY

______________________ married. 8

I feel very (Part of speech:_____________________ ) _______________________ today. I th in k I’ll have

SLEEP

some coffee.

Examination Practice A R ead th e tex t b e lo w and d e c id e w h ich an sw er A, B, C o r D b est fits each space.

F I N D I N G

My firs t (1)_

E M P L O Y M E N T

was as a sales (2)_

I w anted to w ork part-tim e, because I was still studying (3).

at a large d epartm ent store. ___university and I was only

( 4 )________________________to w ork a few nights a week.

I came (5)_

the advertisem ent in the local

newspaper. I rem em ber the intervie w as though (6 )

were yesterday. The personnel

m anager sat behind a large desk. He asked me various questions w hich surprised me because all I w anted was to w ork in sales. An hour later, I was to ld th a t I had g ot the jo b and was given a co ntract to go (7 )

. I was to be trained fo r ten days before I

to ok m y post. Also, as a m em ber of ( 8 ) _________________ ;______ I was entitled to some benefits, including discounts.

When I eventually started, I was responsible (9 ).

the to y section. I really enjoyed it there

and I loved dem onstrating the differen t toys. I was surprised at how frien dly my ( 10) ___ were, too. They made w orking there fun even when we had to (11)____________________

custom ers who

(12)____________________ on our nerves. On the whole, w orking there was a great experience which I will never forget.

1 2

A occupation

B job

C work

D employment

A employee

B attendant

C officer

D assistant

3

A in

B on

C at

D for

4

A excellent

B able

C proud

D experienced

5

A across

B into

C on

D round

6

A it

B I

C that

D there

7

A on

B over

C ahead

D with

8

A staff

B crew

C team

D party

9

A of

B at

C with

D for

A assistants

B staff

C colleagues

D employees

A control

B deal with

C manage

D cooperate

A came

B went

C got

D were

10 11 12

Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals.

AN UNUSUAL OUTING Last week I made a (1)_____

to my cousin Alex, offering to

take him to an (2 )____________________ park. He was very excited because it was his (3) him up, he was very (4)

_________ place. However, from the moment I picked ____________which surprised me since

SUGGEST AMUSE FAVOUR NOISE

his behaviour was (5)______________________ very different. At one point,

NORMAL

while waiting to get on a ride, he disappeared. (6 )______________________ ,

LUCK

the manager, who was very (7)______________________ .found him an hour

HELP

later amongst a crowd. Apparently, Alex had seen a famous basketball player and wanted his autograph. He (8 )______________________ to me immediately but I

APOLOGY

was so (9 )______________________ at him that we left. It was then that I made

ANGER

the (10)______________________ never to take Alex out again.

DECIDE

Prepositional Phrases A

C o m p lete th e b la n k s w ith th e p re p o s itio n s in , o n o r at.

__________

a farm

__________

the right/left

__________ __prison

___________ __ a queue

__________

work

__________

the North

__________ __ the back of

___________ __ school

__________

town

__________

17 Walkley Road

__________ __ the door

___________ __ the suburbs

__________

university

__________

the outskirts

__________ __ the mountains

___________ __ rows/a row

__________

the country

__________

an island

__________ __ the crossroads

___________ __ Park Avenue

B Read th e sentences a n d c o m p le te th e m w ith th e p re p o s itio n s in , o n o r at. 1 My brother is working part-tim e___________ the hospital. 2

There is a TV s e t___________ the corner of the room.

3 James s its ___________ the fro n t of the class. 4

They went on a boat rid e ___________ the river.

5

Homeless people sleep___________ the streets of most major cities.

6

He had to stay___________ hospital for a week after his operation.

7

My girlfriend is waiting for m e___________ the corner.

8

The robbers parked their c a r___________ fro n t o f the bank.

C Read th e sentences a nd c o m p le te th e m w ith th e p re p o s itio n s in , on, at, by, for, fro m o r o u t. 1 You can hand in your assignments___________ Tuesday____________ the very latest. 2 A tattoo is ___________ life. So, think carefully before deciding on having one done. 3 Kick-off is in tw enty minutes, s o ___________ the meantime, do your warm-up exercises. 4

the beginning, I didn’t want to have a p a rty ____________my birthday, but now I’ve changed my mind.

5 Typewriters are already___________ o f date. 6 You should read the in trod uctio n___________ the beginning of the book. 7

now on, no one is allowed to enter the school building during the lunch break.

8

I haven’t seen Michael___________ ages, so I’m going to visit h im ________

9

It’s a pity I have to remain indoors___________ such a nice day.

10 I can’t talk to y o u ___________ the moment. Ring me back____________ a while. 11 It’s difficult to see the moon in the s ky___________ day. 12 I’m really worried about Sam. He should have been here___________ now.

the weekend.

unit0 2

Read the sentences on the left and m atch the phrasal verbs w ith their definitions on the right b y w ritin g the correct num b er in the box next to each definition. GET 1 Jo e w as a fussy p e rs o n and difficult to get on /along with. escape

2 T h e police s u r r o u n d e d the build in g, m a k in g it difficult for the crim in als

o v e rc o m e to get away. m a n a g e to live 3

He a lw ays gets away with his bad behavio ur. have a g o o d relationship

4 A large p e rc e n ta g e of the p o p u la tio n get by on v e r y little m oney. 5

avoid being punished

It took Betty m o n th s to get over h er f a th e r’s death.

B PULL, THROW 1 T h e authoritie s de cla re d the b u ildin g unsafe and had it pulled down get rid of sth unwanted immediately . 2

demolish

A stra ng e rattling noise forc ed the d riv e r to pull over o n t o the hard

m o v e closer to the side

shoulder.

of the road and stop (for vehicles)

3

It w as tim e I threw out / away m y old trainers. T h e y w e re torn.

Words with Prepositions A Com plete the blanks w ith prepositions. Adjectives

Nouns

Verbs

amazed

a de scrip tion

distinguish

careful

a failure

e x o e rim e n t

crowded

a search

glance

fed up

a solu tion

he a r

re a dy satisfied

re m in d sb sth

(=have inform ation about) hear

(=teii sb again to do sth) re m in d sb

sb/sth

sb

(-h a v e new s fro m ) join

smile specialise stare vote

Read the follow ing sentences and com plete them w ith prepositions. 1 M u st I a lw ays remind y o u _______________ the need to follow the p r o p e r p roc e du re ? 2 I h a v e n ’t heard _______________ Lisa for o v e r t w o w e e k s now. 3 T h e police released a description_______________ the w a n t e d man.

4 T h e park w a s crowded _______________ enthusiastic te e na ge rs ce le bra ting the end of the school year. 5 T h e r e m u s t be a solution_______________ y o u r p ro b le m . 6 “I’m a failure_______________ life,” de cla re d the f a m o u s a cto r to his a d o rin g fans. 7 In s o m e cult ures staring _______________ pe op le is co n sid e re d offensive.

sb/sth

(= seem sim ilar to sb/sth)

re gard sb/sth

B

sth

unit 0 2 8 Have you heard ____________ the latest medical discovery? 9 A final search____________ evidence at the scene of the crime proved fruitless. 10 You remind m e ____________ myself when I was your age.

Grammar Revision (Relative Clauses - Clauses of Time) See Grammar Review page 148 A

,

Read the text belo w and complete each blank with one word. A ll the missing w ords are relative pronouns or adverbs.

Marilyn Monroe, (1 )___________________________ was one of the world’s most famous film stars, was born in 1926. Marilyn, ( 2 ) ___________________________ real name was Norma Jean Baker, had a miserable childhood. She grew up in Los Angeles, ( 3 ) ___________________________ she spent most of her early years in foster homes. That’s ( 4 ) ___________________________ she still felt lonely even when she became famous. She worked as a model and also played minor roles in various films before making “Niagara”, the film ( 5 ) ___________________________ made her very popular. In 1954 she married Joe di Maggio, with ( 6 ) ___________________________ she entertained American troops fighting in Korea. She went on to make many films, some of ( 7 ) ___________________________ were very successful such as “Some Like it Hot”, “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes” and “ Bus Stop”. Her film career ended tragically in 1962, ( 8 ) ___________________________ she died at the age of th irty six.

B Choose A, B, C or D to complete the following sentences.

1

Celia was driving to the airport, she realised that she had left her passport at home. A As soon as

B As

C During

D Until

2 I will have finished studying___________________________ the film starts. A until

B while

C by the time

D once

3 The audience started clapping___________________________ the singer came on stage. A by the time

B the moment

C while

D just

4 Peter won’t leave___________________________ he has finished all his work. A until

B by

C just as

D when

5 I haven’t heard from h im ___________________________ we finished school. A before

B as soon as

C after

D since

6 Jane was working as a jo u rn a list___________________________ she was writing her first book. A during

B while

C just as

D once

7 My mother used to c r y ___________________________ she heard this song. A by the time

B the moment that

C whenever

D until

8 The police officer returned my driving licence___________________________ he had checked it. A just as

B until

C while

D after

9 She burst out laughing___________________________ she saw the clown. A as soon as 10

B since

C until

D while

we got back to the hotel, it was already dark. A The moment that

B A s soon as

C By the time

D Once

unit 0 2

M y brother, who]s
The room (which/that) he works in is small./

for a multinational company, (subject: who)

The-*Qom4n-where-he-werks is small.-

Jennifer’s brother, who you met Qajfi at her party last

T-h©K>©m-where-heworks-inis-small;-

week, is an engineer, (object: who)

The-r©et»inthat'he-werks- is-smaftv— -

(Have only one word fo r the subject or the object o f ? I have 3,000 stamps, some of which are valuable. S

the relative clause.)

I-kave-3-,00©-sta«tps,-someoHhat arevaiuabfe Ann’s father, who/whom we met last week, is ill. /

(expressions o f quantity+whom/which/whose)

Am^s-father, that w e met last w cck,4s-ift— (That is not used in non-defining relative clauses.)

? When I grow up, I want to become a dentist. / Whefl-f will grow up, I want-to-becomea-dentist.

husband. /

He said he would call as soon as he returned. / He-said-he-wo a ldreali-as-SQ&nas-foewoutd return,

(preposition + whom /which)

(Never use will and would after time words)

The man with whom she is talking is her

The-Haafl with who/tfrat-sheis-talking'isfrer

s>I visited two museums while I was on holiday. /

Jausban4r-

The man (who(m)/that) she is talking with is her

I visited two museums during my holiday. /

husband. /

TA4sited4¥fe^Hise«ms^aHng^wasiMriTOftday-~

(w ho/w hom /w hich/that+prepositions)

(during + noun)

The room where he works is small. / The room in which he works is small. /

Key Transformations & Students who wish to go on the day-trip should write their names on this list.

She always watched TV after she did / had done her homework.

Students wishing to go on the day-trip should write their names on this list.

& I will sign the document when I read / have read it. I will sign the document after I read / have read it.

® She always did her homework first and then she

I won’t sign the document before I read / have read

watched TV.

it.

She never watched TV until she did / had done her

I won’t sign the document until I read / have read it.

homework. She never watched TV before doing / having done

<0 Andrew left after/before breakfast.

her homework.

Andrew left after/before having (had) breakfast.

She would never watch TV before she did / had

Andrew left after/before he (had) had breakfast.

done her homework. She always watched TV after doing / having done her homework.

unit02 Examination Practice A Choose the correct answer. 1 The Smiths built a huge house___________ the outskirts

6 The electricity will be reconnected______________

of the town.

the bill.

a. in

b. on

a. when you will pay

b. when you pay

c. at

d .to

c. when you are paying

d. during you pay

2 Once th e y ____________ we'll talk to them about it.

7 There are people who manage to g e t___________

a. came

b. will come

on very little money.

c. come

d. are coming

a. with

b. over

c. round

d. by

3 The m an____________ in the front row is Mrs Davidson's nephew.

8 The h o te l___________ we stayed was perfect.

a. who is sitting

b. where is sitting

a. in where

b. in which

c. who sitting

d. that sitting

c. which

d. that

4 " _________ _ now on, you won't be allowed to use

9 The students le ft___________ they finished the test.

your mobile phones at school!" the headmaster warned

a. as soon as

b. as

the students.

c. while

d. until

a. By

b. For

c. At

d. From

10 "What did you do on Saturday?"

5 My grandmother knitted me a ju m p e r___________ are too long. a. which the sleeves

b. that the sleeves

c. the sleeves of that

d. the sleeves of which

"We visited the to w n ___________ our grandfather grew up. a. which

b. that

c. where

d. when

B Complete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar meaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the w ord given.

1 Here’s the house where I lived as a child. in

Here’s the house________________________________;__________________________as a child.

2 I don’t know what made her quit her job. reason I don’t __________________________________________________________ she quit her job. 3 Passengers wishing to get up can do so after the seat belt light has gone off. who

Passengers_____________________________________________________ can do so after the seat belt light has gone off.

4 He didn’t study enough for his exams, so he failed two of them. caused He didn’t study enough for his exams_______________________________________________________ two of them. 5 He always checked his car tyres before setting off on a journey. u ntil

He never s e to ff on a jo u rn e y_____________________________________________ his car tyres.

6 I’ve read all of Jane Austen’s novels and there were only a couple that I didn’t enjoy. m ost

I’ve read all of Jane Austen’s novels,__________________________________________________________ I enjoyed.

7 Dr Williams is a cardiologist and has his surgery on the second floor. whose

Dr W illiams,__________________________________________________________ on the second floor, is a cardiologist.

8 Last week Phil took part in a spelling competition and won first prize, in

Phil won first prize in a spelling com petition______________________________________________________ last week.

unit 0 2

S

e

c

tm

Worcft easily confused . se the correct form of the w ords in the boxes to com plete the sentences in each group A-G below. You m ay use some of the w ords m ore than once. In some cases, m ore than one w ord m ay be correct.

look

see

watch

notice

regard

stare

glance

observe

1 We spent weeks in Africa________________________ the way lions catch their prey. 2 Did y o u ________________________ the tie he was wearing? It had pink elephants on it! 3 The students________________________ the new teacher with curiosity. 4 Always________________________ left and then right before crossing the road. 5 Don’t ________________________ at people like that! It’s really rude. 6 I ________________________ a great science fiction film last night. 7 Before I bought the magazine, I ________________________ through it quickly. 8 I couldn’t h elp ________________________ the big red spots on his face. 9 B ill________________________ at his watch and started running. He was late for school.

B 1

find out

invent

discover

detect

Many serious illnesses may be cured if they a r e ________________________ early enough.

2 “We m ust________________________ as much as we can about the gang,” said the detective. 3 Was it Captain Cook w h o ________________________ Australia? 4 The first camera, the Kodak 1, w a s ________________________ by G. Eastman in 1888.

explore

investigate

look for

lookup

(do) research

1 The police came t o ________________________ the murder immediately. 2 I still h ave________________________ to do for my project on sharks. 3 I m ust________________________ this word in the dictionary, because I don’t remember what it means. 4 Mum, I’m ________________________ my trainers. Have you seen them? 5 As soon as the five friends got to the cave, they decided t o ________________________ it.

D

attempt

effort

trial

experiment

1 It takes a lot o f ________________________ and patience to learn how to play a musical instrument. 2 John’s case came t o ________________________ and in the end he was found innocent. 3 The athlete failed in his la s t________________________ to break the world record. 4 Many cosmetic companies claim they don’t carry o u t________________________ on animals. 5 I worked for the company for a (n )________________________ period of two weeks before I was fully employed.

unit 0 2 E

audience

spectators

viewers

sightseers

onlookers

witnesses

1 T h e ________________________ disagreed with the referee’s decision and interrupted the football match. 2 The two teenagers claimed they were ju s t ________________________ and had nothing to do with the fight. 3 Paris attracts thousands o f ________________________ all year round. 4 At the end of the play, t h e ________________________ applauded enthusiastically. 5 T h e ________________________ were asked to give a detailed description of the accident. 6 The concert was broadcast on TV and attracted one b illio n ________________________ worldwide.

memorise

remind

recall

recognise

. her at first. She had changed a lot. _ his phone number because I didn't have a pen to write it down. ______ him to buy coffee, otherwise he’ll forget. ________________scenes of World War II.

view

sight

image

1 The sun affects m y ________________________ when I’m driving, so I always wear sunglasses. 2 We have a s u p e rb ________________________ of the sea from our balcony. 3 The child started to cry at t h e ________________________ of the dogs. 4 The television show was about t h e ________________________ you can visit in Rome. 5 The police arrived at t h e ________________________ of the accident within minutes. 6 An actor’s ________________________ is im portant for his career. 7 I ran out of paint, so I couldn’t finish the sky for the background________________________ in the play. 8 When we were leaving the flower show, we were asked to fill in a questionnaire to give o u r ________________________ on what we had seen.

unit0 2

Derivatives are form ed from n o u n roots, ad jectiv e roots and v e rb roots. In this unit w e w ill deal with adjectives, adverbs and nouns which derive from certain noun roots.

Adjective = Noun + -less

Adjective = Noun + -ful

Noun Root Describing a quality or characteristic (often abstract nouns)

Not having that quality or characteristic

Having enough of that quality or characteristic

care

careless

careful

Adverb = Noun + -fully

#

Adverb = Noun * -lessly carelessly

carefully

■Some other common nouns that form adjectives and adverbs in the same way are: colour, harm, hope, meaning, pain, power and use. • The noun doubt forms the adjective in -ful and the adverb in -fully and in -less. doubt 4 doubtful

doubtfully - doubtless

• In some cases only one of the two adjectives - and corresponding adverbs - derives from the noun root, not both. beauty 4 beautiful - bg$Erttig$s / beautifully - bejjZrfrtessly

end 4

- endless / e rp k rffy - endlessly

In the same way: delightful, dutiful, grateful, aimless, effortless, heartless, homeless, nameless, pointless and shapeless.

• The opposite of some adjectives in -ful is un + noun root + ful, not noun root + less. success 4 successful * unsuccessful

skill 4 skilful * unskilful

truth 4 tru th fu l * untruthful

• Sometimes both adjective forms (noun root + less and un + noun root + ful) derive from the same noun.

In such cases the two adjectives have different meanings. The adjective form un + noun root + ful is the opposite of the adjective in -ful. h e l p h e l p f u l (= sb who gives help)

t

unhelpful (= sb who doesn’t give help) helpless (= sb who needs help)

> The opposite of some adjectives in -less is noun root + -y or noun root +-b le, not noun root + -ful. guilt ^ guiltless 4

g uilty

sense 4 senseless * sensible

sleep 4 sleepless * sleepy value 4 valueless * valuable (note the changes in spelling)

■ Be careful with the meaning of the adjectives derived from price. price ^ pricey (=expensive) 4 priceless (= too valuable to have a price)

Noun Root 1 Somebody in a certain position / occupation author 2 Somebody having a relationship with sb else friend

Noun = Noun + -ship 1 State of being in certain position / occupation authorship 2 Relationship between two people friendship

• Some common nouns that form nouns in the same way as author are: citizen, leader, member and owner. • Some common nouns that form nouns in the same way as friend are: companion, partner and relation. • Some nouns form nouns in - ship with a different meaning: champion, scholar and sponsor.

NOTE: When you are asked to complete a sentence with a suitable word deriving from a given root, read the sentence carefully to decide: 1) what part of speech the missing word is (noun, verb, adjective or adverb), 2) if the missing word has the same meaning as the given root (e.g. success-successful) or the opposite meaning (e.g. success-unsuccessful).

unit 0 2 Com plete the sentences w ith the co rre ct fo rm of the w ords in capitals. 1 The top model w a s ____________________________ dressed in an elegant evening gown.

BEAUTY

2 My street i s ____________________________ because it’s far from any main roads.

PEACE

3 Our football team won t h e ____________________________ at the end of the season and received

CHAMPION

____________________________ from a large company.

SPONSOR

4 There are thousands o f ____________________________ people sleeping in the streets.

HOME

5 I bought a ____________________________ dress but its colours faded after I washed it.

COLOUR

6 I was fined because I was driving ____________________________ .

CARE

7 The directions you gave us were ra th e r____________________________ , as we still got lost.

HELP

8 I am feeling q u ite ____________________________ because I didn’t get enough sleep last night.

SLEEP

9 I got into a business____________________________ with my cousin but it ended up

PARTNER

being ____________________________ . 10 The musical performance was s o ____________________________ that the audience gave

SUCCESS POWER

the orchestra a standing ovation. 11 The witness’ statement didn’t help the police in the investigation, so it proved to b e ____________________________ . 12 The man was found ____________________________ of shoplifting and sentenced

VALUE GUILT

to one month in prison. 13 He h a s ____________________________ completed his postgraduate studies.

SUCCESS

14 The new lazer treatm ent can extract teeth ____________________________ .

PAIN

15 It’s just a ____________________________ dog. There is no need to panic.

HARM

Exam ination Practice A

Read the text belo w and decide which answ er A, B, C or D best fits each space.

A NIGHT A T THE THEATRE Going to the theatre brings back happy memories, as it (1)________________________ me of my very first performance on stage, (2)________________________ was th irty years ago. Parts of that particular night are so vivid that I can still picture myself as though it were yesterday. The excitement amongst the actors, the (3)________________________ applause and the party after the opening night are memories which will remain with me for (4 )________________________ . I don’t know how we managed to do so well. The rehearsals were far from satisfactory because we thought that we could just have two rehearsals a week (5 )________________________ in fact we needed more. The background (6 )________________________ to the last act weren’t ready until an hour before the beginning of the play despite the set builder’s best (7)________________________ .The director was not satisfied (8 )_________________________ anything and he didn’t even want to show up on the first night. Admittedly, I wouldn’t have wanted to either. (9 )________________________ the night finally arrived, we were all a bit worried. I remember (10)________________________ through the curtain ten minutes before the start and being amazed (11)________________________ the (12)________________________ of a full house. Finally, it was time for the curtain to go up. In the end, we proved the director wrong and everything went like clockwork.

unit 0 2

B

1

A recognises

B reminds

C recalls

D memorises

2

A which

B when

C where

D who

3

A onlookers’

B viewers’

C audience's

D spectators’

4

A life

B ages

C a while

D time

5

A where

B when

C which

D whenever

6

A images

B visions

C scenes

D sights

7

A attempts

B efforts

C trials

D tries

8

A by

B in

C at

D with

9

A When

B After

C While

D Until

10

A glancing

B noticing

C staring

D watching

11

A in

B at

C on

D for

12

A view

B vision

C sight

D image

Complete the text belo w with the correct form of the w ords in capitals.

Many people consider (1) ______________________ to be the

FRIEND

most im portant (2)______________________ they can have.

RELATION

It is (3)______________________ to have a friend you can talk

WONDER

to and share (4 ) ______________________ experiences with.

VALUE

However, it is im portant to choose friends (5)_______________

.

An ideal friend should be (6 )______________________

CARE THOUGHT

and when any difficulties arise, hopefully be there for us. Of course, there will be times when we m ight be (7)______________________ of our friends. But, we should

DOUBT

always talk things through in a (8 )______________________

SENSE

way and find a solution to our problems. Moreover, we should be careful not to be (9 )______________________ .

TRUTH

W ithout honesty, the bond between friends is (10)______________________ and not worth anything at all.

USE

Collocations/expressions A

The follow ing expressions in clu d e the w ords day, year and time. Com plete them w ith prepositions.

' day

YEAR this day and age

day

day

A

TIME

all year year

year this time

of the year V

a period of time

sb’s free time

time to time

no time

the first time

have no time

the right time

take time

B Com plete the sentences w ith the collocations /expressions in the box below. the other day in time

pass the time

all day long

call it a day

ahead of its time

at times

time and time again

on time for the time being

1 Despite technical problems, the flight le ft________________________ . 2 We’ll be getting a new printer next month. S o ,________________________ , we have to put up with this one. 3 Most engineers agreed that the car’s design w a s ________________________ . 4 I started a conversation with the person sitting next to me on the bus t o ________________________ . 5 I saw S a lly ________________________ . Did you know that she had broken her leg? 6 The match started at 7 pm and Jack arrived ju s t________________________ for the kick-off. 7 Let’s ________________________ and go home. We’ve been working for over twelve hours without a break. 8 He keeps making the same mistake________________________ . 9 I find it very difficult to agree with y o u ________________________ . Your views can sometimes be extreme. 10 I have been sleepy________________________ today. I don’t know what’s the matter with me.

C Read the sentences and com plete them w ith the co rrect form of the verbs hold, run, catch or keep. 1 The student w a s ________________________ in the act of cheating by the examiner. 2 I just need you t o ________________________ an eye on Sam while I go out. 3 Jenny will certainly________________________ everyone's attention with that dress she's wearing. 4 Blue eyes and red h air________________________ in my family. Only my aunt has brown eyes. 5 When my grandmother was in hospital, I used t o ________________________ her company in the afternoons. 6 Mary is moving to another city, but we promised t o _________________________ in touch with each other. 7

work

J

-...............

a business requires many skills and expertise.

8 You can't rely on Roger. Actually, he's the kind of person that can't________________________ a promise. 9 The winner of the marathon had t o ________________________ his breath before speaking to the journalist. 10 Please________________________ in mind that smoking is not allowed in this building. 11 We a ll________________________ our breath when the winner of the competition was being announced. 12 As I was running t o ________________________ the bus, I slipped and fell. 13 Can y o u ________________________ a secret? Jane is organising a surprise party for Kevin’s birthday! 14 The children________________________ hands while walking down the street.

u nit03

Read the sentences on the left and m atch the phrasal verbs w ith th eir definitions on the right b y w ritin g the correct num ber in the box next to each d efinition .

A LOOK

have a poor opinion of

1 We looked after Ben’s house while he was on holiday.

respect, admire

2 We are all looking forward to the opening game of the season.

warn somebody about potential danger

3 The authorities promised to look into the claims of corruption.

take care of

4 I looked over your essay and can suggest some improvements.

expect sth pleasant to happen

5 Lookout! The pavement is broken and you might trip.

investigate

6 Look up the meaning of the word in the dictionary.

inspect quickly

7 John looks down on people who aren’t as rich as he is.

try to find in a book or list

8 Children often look up to sports heroes. B CHECK, WATCH, SHO W

be careful about

1 We were told to check in at the airport as early as possible.

care for sb or sth, especially because it

2 Guests are kindly reminded to check out by 12 o’clock.

is your responsibility

3 The tourists were told to watch out for pickpockets.

arrive, appear

4 The older children were told to watch over the younger ones.

report one’s arrival at a hotel/airport etc.

5 The man was showing off his new sports car to his friends.

pay the bill and leave (a hotel/clinic etc.)

6 Everybody showed up at the party on Saturday night.

try to make people notice and admire

Words with Prepositions A Com plete the blanks w ith prepositions. Adjectives

Nouns

Verbs

accustomed.

familiar,

. sb(=well known)

knowledge.

fill sth __

addicted___

familiar

_sb C=friendly)

a rise_____

else

amused____

be familiar.

(feel) sympathy.

involve.

astonished .

famous___

a talent_______

know_

(un)aware_

fond_____

a taste________

crazy_____

impressed

cruel_____

interested _

curious.

keen_____

delighted „

known

enthusiastic,

pleased.

excited____

rude

_sth (=know well)

. (=flavour,

brief experience) a taste__________ (= liking, preference) . (=regarded)

typical B Read the fo llow in g sentences and com plete them w ith prepositions. 1 Did you know.

_th e surprise party?

2 Are you familiar.

___ the company's no smoking policy?

3 Do you like the taste

_______ red wine more than that of white wine?

4 He is feared by everyone in the area. He's known___________ ‘The Cleaner'. 5 I’m really keen___________ the idea of spending my holiday on an island in the Mediterranean.

sth

sth

(=have knowledge of)

unit0 3 6 This village looks fa m ilia r___________ me. Have we been here before? 7 A rise___________ inflation would have negative consequences for the country’s economy. 8 I didn’t like olive oil but I’ve developed a taste___________ it now that I’m living in Spain.

Grammar Revision (Adverbs - Comparisons - Articles - Uncountables) See G ram m ar R e v ie w p age 150

A

Read the text b e lo w and complete each blank with one word.

Gianni Versace was one of the (1)__________________________ successful fashion designers (2)__________________________ the 1980s and 1990s. He was born in 1946, in Reggio, a (3)__________________________ small town in Italy, where he learnt how to make clothes. In (4 )__________________________ beginning, he sold his clothes to (5)__________________________ manufacturer In Milan, but he was not as popular then (6)__________________________ he was in later years. Very quickly he developed a personal style, which made him famous. He used bright colours and, over time, his clothes became more and (7)__________________________ extravagant. The more successful his collections were, the (8 )__________________________ his talent was acknowledged. Celebrities (9 )__________________________ Princess Diana and Elton John loved his style. Versace also paid the (10) __________________________ attention to his surroundings (11) __________________________ he did to his clothes and spent (12)__________________________ of money on art and expensive furniture. Versace’s fame, however, is just (13)______________________ side of this story of style, which ended suddenly with his death (14)______________________ the summer of 1997. Some fashion critics have described his clothes (15)__________________________ “fabulous rubbish” and criticised him for using cheap materials. Nevertheless, he has to be seen as one of the most influential designers of his generation.

B Choose A, B, C o r D to com plete the fo llo w in g dialogue.

Jim: Have you made up your mind about where to go on holiday? Mike: I've narrowed down my choices to two (1)___________ large countries, France and Mexico. What do you think?

Jim: Well, France is one of (2) ___________ countries in Europe. Did you know it’s twice (3 )__________1 the UK? Since you’ve got eight weeks off (4) ___________ work, you could go on a cycling tour of the country.

Mike: I'd like to visit (5) ___________ Alps and Mont Blanc, which is (6 ) ____________than any other mountain in Western Europe. I suppose I could also go on long walks in the country, as the climate there is similar (7) ___________ that in Britain. Jim:

Really? I think it’s (8 )___________ warmer. Especially on the Riviera, the Mediterranean in

1 A rather

B most

C far

D too

winter is (9 )___________ temperature as the

2 A larger

B largest

C the larger

D the largest

British coastal waters are in summer! I

3 A bigger than

B as big as C so big as

D as bigger than

can really picture you, tanned and

4 A a

B the

C some

D

-

relaxed, tasting delicious local specialities

5 A an

B the

C some

D

-

(10)__________ Camembert cheese, frogs'

6 A higher

B highest

C the higher

D the highest

legs and snails!

7 A as

B with

c to

D of

Mike: Come on, that sounds disgusting!

8 A more

B most

c much

D quite

Jim: Apparently, they taste (11)___________ better

9 A the same

B same

c similar

D the similar

10 A such

B as

c like

D so

B far

c the

D more

than they sound. Mike: I don’t know. I'd rather go to Mexico and eat tortillas and chilli every day!

11

A pretty

® Mary is the tallest girl in her class. / (the+superlative, for several people / things) Both Mary and Sheila are tall, but Mary is the taller of the two. / (the +comparative, for only two people/things) JBoth Mary and Shoila arc taft-but Mary^s-ttte- tallest of fee-two:—-

0 The train is cheaper than the plane. / The-train ic choapor from the plane.—0 Your story is funnier than mine./ Your story is more amusing than mine. / Your story is more funnier than mine. €> Your house is as big as mine./ YbuEiiQuse is asbigger as mine. -

(as +positive degree+as) Q The children were very excited about the trip. (positive meaning) The children were too excited about the trip. (negative meaning - excessively) Q Lisa is a very/pretty/rather careful driver. (a/an + very/pretty/rather +positive degree ofadj + noun) Lisa is quite a careful driver. (quite + a/an +positive degree of ad] + noun) Lisa drives very /pretty /quite /rather carefully (very/pretty/quite/rather +positive degree ofadv) ® Lisa is rather /much /a little /a bit /a lot /far more careful than Tim. / Lisa drives rather /much /a little /a bit /a lot /far more carefully than Tim. /

@ That's my elder/eldest brother./ (only for brothers, sisters, sons, daughters) That's my older /oldest brother. / My brother is a year older than me. / (older + than) -My-brother is a yoar older than me. (no than after elder) ® He spoke like a lawyer. / (= as if he were a lawyer; he isn't) He spoke as a lawyer. / (= he is a lawyer) He spoke as he was advised to. (as + clause) Hftspoka like ho was-adviscd-to. ® John gave me some important information. / Jolm-gave-m^seme-tepertaHtiHformations. (Uncountable nouns have no plural forms.) John-gave mo an importart-information. — John gave me an important piece of information. / (No a /an immediately before uncountable nouns.)

® The news was really shocking./ The-He-wsweFe^eatty shoeking. (Uncountable nouns go with singular verbs.) (rather/much /a little /a bit/a lot/far+comparative degree ofadj/adv) Lisa is very/ pretty /quite more careful t-han-TimrLisa drives very /protty /quite more carefully than Timr

Key Transformations & Fiona is taller than Gina. Gina is shorter than Fiona. Gina is not as tall as Fiona. & Andrew smokes more than John. John smokes less than Andrew. John does not smoke as much as Andrew. John is not such a heavy smoker as Andrew. John is not so/as heavy a smoker as Andrew. & This is the fastest car I have ever driven. I have never driven such a fast car. I have never driven a faster car than this (one). I have never driven a car as fast as this (one). None of the cars I have driven is/are faster than this (one). None of the cars I have driven is/are as fast as this (one). & She is the worst singer I know. She is /sings worse than any (other) singer I know. No other singer I know is as bad as her /she is. No other singer I know sings as badly as her /she does.

& The atmosphere is becoming more polluted by the day. The atmosphere is becoming more and more polluted. ® His behaviour is becoming more sensible as he gets older. The older he gets, the more sensible his behaviour becomes. The older he gets, the more sensibly he behaves. © He hasn’t got much furniture in his new flat. He has got very little furniture in his new flat. He has got very few pieces of furniture in his new flat. ® George is not usually late. It is not typical of George to be late. It is not like George to be late. ® Your bicycle looks exactly like mine. Your bicycle is exactly the same as mine. Your bicycle is identical to mine.

unit0 3 Examination Practice

A

Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only

one word in each space.

A TALENT FOR LYING Although we are all natural born liars, most of us seem to take it for granted that lying (1 )

bad. However, psychologists argue that lying is just

(2 )

im portant as any other social skill we possess.

We learn (3)_______________________ art of deception very early in life; by the age of five, we have not only become quite efficient at lying, but we have also learnt how to read people's reactions and act accordingly. (4)_______________________ example, if someone is avoiding direct eye contact with us, this makes us think that we're being lied to so we might lie, too. A person's smile is also (5)_______________________ giveaway. A genuine smile makes the skin near the eyes crease, whereas a "put on" smile doesn’t have the (6)_______________________ effect on the facial features (7)_______________________ a real one. Even though both women and men know how to watch (8 )_______________________ for clues that somebody is lying, it is a fact that women are (9 )_______________________ more skilful liars (10)________________________men. Despite this, women are also more affected by other people’s feelings, so they have more sympathy (11)_______________________ them. As a result, women tend to be (12)_______________________ willing to have an honest conversation.

B Complete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar m eaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the w ord given.

1 Sarah is a better swimmer than Jessica. swim

Jessica doesn’t __________________________________________________________ Sarah.

2 Mark and Tony are equally tall. height Mark is __________________________________________________________ Tony. 3 Jane is more enthusiastic about sports than Brendan is. keen

Brendan isn’t _________________________________ ________________________ Jane is.

4 The baby’s temperature kept rising, so we took him to hospital. higher The baby’s temperature w as__________________________________________________________ , so we took him to hospital. 5 Patrick doesn’t usually forget his appointments. like

It is __________________________________________________________ his appointments.

6 As it got darker, we had more difficulty seeing. harder The darker__________________________________________________________ it was for us to see. 7 Daniel is the worst cook I’ve ever known. cook

None of the people I know __________________________________________________________ Daniel.

8 I couldn’t find a bigger house in the area. the

This w as__________________________________________________________ I could find in the area.

9 The children’s performance made quite an impression on us. rather

We w ere_________________________________:________________________ the children’s performance.

10 Jeremy doesn’t run as fast as Jonathan. so

Jeremy is n o t__________________________________________________________ Jonathan.

unit0 3

Words easily confused the correct form of the w ords in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group il-H below. You may t-e som e of the words more than once. In some cases, more than one w ord may be correct.

rise

raise

arise

lift

1 :-iould the n e e d __________________________ , we'll order more food fo r the extra guests. : ' i e charity o rg a n isa tio n __________________________ enough m oney to build a shelter fo r the refugees. 3 The s u n __________________________ in the East and sets in the West. t ,','e __________________________at seven every weekday to get ready fo r school.

5 Can y o u __________________________ the table so th at I can slide the rug underneath?

grow

grow up

bring up

(be) born

become

* n the last six m onths Joe h as__________________________ ta lle r by 15 centim etres. 2 .Vhen Brett w a s __________________________ , he weighed 3.8 kilograms.

3 Most parents have fond m em ories of the years they w e re __________________________ th e ir children.

4 When Je an __________________________ , she wants t o ___________________________ a mechanical engineer.

educate

learn

teach

study

read

instruct

• 1a lw ays__________________________ a book ju s t before I go to sleep. 2 John w a s __________________________ in France, so his French is very good. 3 Michelle works in the g y m __________________________ people how to use the equipm ent properly. 4 In my final year I had t o __________________________ at least fo ur hours every day t o ___________________________ everything th a t was required fo r the exams. 5 I __________________________ Physics and Maths at the local high school. 6 The e xa m in e r__________________________ us to pick up our pens once we h a d ___________________________ the questions carefully.

D

behaviour

attitude

temper

mood

manner

manners

1 My parents had to see the headmaster because of my b a d ____________ _____________ in class. 2 A fter the argum ent, Jake was in a b a d __________________________ and w o u ld n 't speak to anyone. 3 If Betty wants to keep her job, she m ust change h e r __________________________ towards her boss. 4 Where did you learn such excellent ta b le __________________________ ?

unit 0 3 5 The children like him because of his gentle________________________ . 6 Cliff is so calm that I have never seen him lose his________________________ . 7 What you're saying should be done in a professional________________________ .

E

familiar

accustomed

aware

1 I hope you're________________________ of the dangers involved in rock climbing. 2 Is anyone in this classroom________________________ with the word "incubator"? 3 That woman looks________________________ to me. I'm sure I’ve seen her before. 4 Paul is feeling tired because he’s not________________________ to working for so long without a break.

F

custom

habit

fashion

trend

routine

1 Going to work has become a daily________________________ for most people. 2 The general________________________ for men in the 1970s was to have long hair and sideburns. 3 In many countries it is the________________________ to roast turkey for Christmas. 4 Sandra has the bad______________:__________ of biting her nails. 5 Slightly flared trousers are in ________________________ this year so many people are wearing them. 6 If you go shopping, definitely go to Blare's. They've got all the latest________________________ .

G

common

ordinary

usual

normal

regular

1 It is________________________ to feel weak when you are ill, even if you’ve just got a _________________________ cold. 2

exercise means working out for one hour at least twice a week.

3 It was a(n)________________________ weekend. We went to the cinema on Saturday evening and for a drive on Sunday morning, as________________________ . 4 I get on very well with my friends because we have many things in ________________________ .

H

eager

keen

enthusiastic

interested

willing

1 I am ________________________ to help you with your homework if you make an effort. 2 He’s really________________________ on heavy metal music. That’s all he listens to. 3 Please sit down as I'm________________________ to start the meeting. 4 Billy is a(n)________________________ tennis player, so he plays tennis every afternoon. 5 Sheila is________________________ in taking up gardening this spring. 6 We were________________________ about going to Ireland for Christmas.

unit 0 3

In th is u n it w e w ill d eal w ith m ore nouns, adjectives and adverbs derivin g from nouns. Noun Root

Noun = N o u n + - hood

Referring to a person

These nouns describe the state or period of being what the noun root refers to. adult boy

adulthood boyhood

• Some other common nouns that form nouns in the same way are: child, man, mother, parent and woman. • Pay attention to the following: neighbour

neighbourhood

Noun Root

Adjective =Noun +-al

Adverb =Noun +-ally

monument education

monumental educational

monumentally educationally

• Some other common nouns that form adjectives and adverbs in the same way are: accident, addition, emotion, fate, intention, nation, nature, person, profession and tradition. • Note the changes in spelling: commerce ^ commercial 4 commercially

finance 4 financial 4 financially

part 4 partial 4 p artially

confidence 4 confidential 4 confidentially

artifice 4 artificial 4 a rtificially

essence 4 essential 4 essentially

benefit 4 beneficial 4 beneficially Noun Root

Adjective = Noun + - y

Adverb = Noun + - ily

luck

lucky

luckily

• Some other common nouns that form adjectives and adverbs in the same way are: ease, fun, health, noise and s/eep. • Pay attention to the following nouns that form only adjectives: cloud, dirt, hair, rain, risk, snow, sun, wealth and worth. • Note the changes in spelling:

anger

ang/y

angrily

hunger

Noun Root

hungry

hungrily

Adjective = Noun + - ous

Referring to a quality or characteristic

Having the quality or characteristic of the noun root

danger

dangerous

• Some other common nouns that form nouns in the same way are: adventure, fame, humour, nerve and poison. • Some nouns ending in -ion form adjectives in -ious: ambition 4 ambitious

caution 4 cautious

religion -4 religious

suspicion -4 suspicious

infection

• Some nouns ending in -e form adjectives in -eous: advantage • Note the following irregularities:

anxiety -4 anxious

infectious

advantageous

number -4 numerous

courage -4 courageous price

precious

Noun Root

Adjective/adverb = Noun +-ly

day

daily

• Some other common nouns that form (both) adjectives and adverbs are: month, mother, world and year. month 4 monthly:

His m onthly salary is far above the average, (adjective) He gets paid monthly, (adverb)

unit 0 3 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the w ords in capitals. 1

F o u r peop le died in a ________________________________a cc id e nt d u e to t h e ________________________________

FATE, ICE

road co nditions. Local residents a r e _____________________________ b e c a u s e _______________________________

ANGER, NUMBER

accid ents have o c c u rre d there and no m e a s u re s have been taken yet. 2

If y o u r e q u i r e _______________________________ information, d o not hesitate to co n ta ct me.

ADDITION

3

I w o k e up this m o r n in g feeling h a p p y becau se it was a _______________________________ ,

DELIGHT

_______________________________ day.

4

I realised

that the m i s e r a b l e _______________________________ da y s we re

SUN, RAIN

i

o v e r a nd t h a t _______________________________ s u m m e r was just a r o u n d the corner.

LUCK

I get p a i d _____________________________ w h ic h puts a lot of pressure on m e ______________________________at

MONTH, FINANCE

the e nd of th e m o n th . I a m _____________________________ at co ntrolling m y m o n e y o v e r a long p e riod of

HOPE

I

time. 5

7

8

Phil crosses the m a in road on a ____________________________ basis to get to school. He does, h ow e ve r,

DAY

c r o s s ______________________________ by lookin g both ways.

CAUTION

6

PARENT

can be an enjo ya b le experie nce. Yet, m o r e and m o r e co up les these days

are d e c id in g to r e m a i n _____________________________ .

CHILD

Eliza isn’t v e r y ______________________________ lately. I h o p e she wasn't o ffended b y m y c o m m e n t .

FRIEND

I d i d n ’t say i t _______________________________ to h urt her.

INTENTION

M y friend David liked g o in g o n _____________________________ holidays until last s u m m e r w h e n he w as

ADVENTURE

bitten b y a _______________________________ snake and nearly died.

POISON

Examination Practice

A

H

Read the text below and decide w h ich answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

THE ART OF BEING A P A R E N T In o rde r to ( 1 ) ____________________________ children, m a n y qualities are required. As well as the ( 2 ) _________________________ re qu ire m e nts such as love, patience and u nde rstandin g, a sense of h u m o u r is an i m p o rta n t feature of a n y parent's personality. ( 3 ) ____________________________ , it's quite an art to tra nsform a child's bad m o o d into ( 4 ) _____________________________ e v e ry o n e in the family can live with. A n o t h e r aspect of child rearing is teaching children limits and rules. This means the child needs to be ( 5 ) ____________________________ of w h a t his or her rights are and w h a t o the r people's are, too. Setting limits on children must o c c u r on a daily basis. T e m p o r a r y measures d o n ’t achieve a n y th in g but just waste time. A ( 6 ) ____________________________ mistake, however, is be ing ( 7 ) ____________________________ stricter than necessary. Parents must be ( 8 ) ____________________________ to allow their children the o p p o rtu n ity to explore and learn ( 9 ) ____________________________ experience. What's more, most parents m ust k n o w the im p o rta n ce of ( 1 0 ) ____________________________ as it gets children used to certain e v e ry d a y activities. For instance, eating at the sam e time (11)____________________________ their parents gets th e m into the habit of sitting at a table and (1 2 )____________________________ th e m h o w to c o n d u ct them selves properly. Overall, child rearing is no easy task but it is certainly a challenge and a learning experience.

m

m

ir

unit0 3 1

A grow

B grow up

C born

D bring up

2

A routine

B popular

C ordinary

D usual

3

A In fact

B But

c All in all

D As well as

4

A temper

B character

c behaviour

D manner

5

A known

B accustomed

c familiar

D aware

6

A willing

B famous

c common

D continuous

7

A very

B far

c quite

D fairly

8

A keen

B eager

c interested

D willing

9

A by

B on

c from

D with

10

A custom

B routine

c fashion

D trend

11

A like

B as

c than

D of

12

A learns

B educates

c teaches

D instructs

Complete the te x t b elow w ith the correct fo rm o f the w ords in capitals.

ARTHRITIS Arthritis is a general term for aches and pains in the body's joints. Most types of arthritis involve the deterioration of cartilage, which is an (1)________________________ material covering the ends of the

ESSENCE

bones in the joint. When the (2)________________________ cartilage

HEALTH

wears out, it becomes rough and this causes pain when the joint moves. This condition is more common among the elderly, but some people can be sufferers from (3)________________________ .

CHILD

Apart from (4 )________________________ painkillers, little or no

TRADITION

treatm ent is available. However, (5) _______________________

AMBITION

scientists have designed (6 )________________________ joints that

ARTIFICE

can replace the (7)________________________ , worn-out ones. These

PAIN

new joints could prove very (8 )________________________ to arthritis

BENEFIT

sufferers. Although some believe that joint replacement may be (9 )

numerous patients are

COST

(10 )

waiting for this medical

ANXIOUS

breakthrough.

___ j

Prepositional Phrases

A

Complete the blanks with the prepositions in, on, at, for or by. hire/rent

sure/certain

board

public

least

post/air mail

short

cash

the first place

an excursion

one's own

chance

schedule

accident

instance

cheque

a change

other words

a trip/tour

the move

once

private

a good/bad mood

B Read the sentences and complete them with the prepositions in, on, at, under or without.

1 All assignments are due to m o rro w _______________fail. 2 A computer chooses the lottery num bers_______________random. 3 Our house has been_______________ the market for over two months but we haven’t been able to sell it yet. 4 Everyone w as_______________ a state of shock after the devastating news.

5 I w as_______________a loss for words when I was told I had won the prize. 6 The roadworks_______________ progress are responsible for the traffic jams. 7 I can't go out tonight. I’m feeling a b it_______________the weather.

8 The train is _______________sight. It will be pulling in any minute now. 9 Dianne was refused entry to the club because she was_______________age. 10 Final - year students a re _______________a lot of pressure to pass their exams.

11 I have bought this gym equipm ent_______________ approval. I can return it within fifteen days. 12 My brother fa ints_______________ the sight of blood. 13 My wife isn’t here at the moment because she’s away_______________business.

C Complete the sentences with the p re p o sitio n a l p h ra se s in the box below. at a glance

on the road on arrival

in order at heart

for granted

in common

in some respects

1 Although he seems rather abrupt at times, he is very k in d _____________________ . 2 You should not take i t _____________________ that your parents will always support you. 3 Everything was_____________________ and ready to be inspected. 4

, the earthquake doesn't seem to have caused any serious damage.

5 We w ere_____________________ for two days before we reached our destination. 6

at the train station, they went straight to the platform.

7 Even though I don't agree with your overall argument, I do agree with y o u _____________________ . 8 My brother and I don’t have anything_____________________ .

unit 0 4

- c ad the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the o rre ct num ber in the box next to each definition.

A KEEP, HOLD, CATCH 1 The government kept back vital information concerning the oil spill.

rob prevent from being taken away

2 Skaters were warned to keep o ff the thin ice. 3 The students kept on working hard despite the terrible heat.

maintain

4 We were told to keep out of the abandoned house.

reserve, not reveal

5 Ted, you got an A in your Biology test. Keep up the good work!

reach

5 Hold on! I’ll just get my jacket and we can leave.

stay off, not approach

7 Despite his financial problems, he managed to hold on to his fortune. 3 Sorry I'm late, but I was held up in traffic on the way here.

continue delay

9 Two men held up a supermarket last night and stole £ 2000. wait for a short time

• 3 Even though he was injured during the race, he still managed

not enter

to catch up w ith the other runners. CARRY, WEAR, WORK, MOVE

1 It was impossible for Alison to carry on working after receiving start living in

the bad news. 2 Recent studies carried out by the government show that more and more people are relying on the state health system.

continue find a solution, discover

3 The fans got carried away during the concert and climbed onto the stage.

stop living in

4 The tyres of my car have w orn out. I must get new ones.

over-excited

5 I'm too w orn out to go anywhere tonight.

take part in physical exercise

6 Scientists still haven’t worked o u t what caused the death of the animals. 7 W orking out on a regular basis reduces the risk of heart disease. 8 I took a week off work in order to move into my new home. 9 My landlord won't renew my contract so I have to move out by

perform, conduct tired become thin, weak or unsuitable for further use

the end of the month.

Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Adjectives

Nouns

Verbs

bad

a connection

arrive

a building

bound

a decrease

arrive

a city/country

close

an increase

depart

a place

different

a lack

differ

full

a reduction

divide sth

people (=give each a share of sth)

divide sth

sth (=separate into small parts)

aenerous

sb

inferior

divide a number

separate

receive sth

superior

translate sth

terrified

another

another number (Maths) sb onelanauaae

unit 0 4 6 Read the follow ing sentences and com plete them w ith prepositions. 1 Can you please translate this document___________ French____________ English? 2 They arrived___________ the hotel after midnight. 3 The lack___________ medical supplies made the doctors’ task even more difficult. 4 The thieves divided the loot___________ themselves. 5 He's very generous___________ his money and supports various charities. 6 The teacher divided the class___________ four groups for the role-play. 7 The manager is very generous___________ all his staff, regardless of their position in the company. 8 We arrived___________ Frankfurt in the afternoon and looked for a hotel straightaway.

Grammar Revision (Determiners - Pronouns) See G ram m ar R e v ie w page 152 A Read the follow ing text and com plete each blank w ith one word. Very (1 )________________________ people know the real inspiration for cubism, the most important art movement of the 20th century. Almost ( 2 ) ________________________ seems to believe that cubism was created by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, who were ( 3 )________________________ painters. However, ( 4 ) _____________________ can be further from the truth. In the late 19th century another French painter, Paul Cezanne, painted a (5 )________________________ of landscapes, ( 6 ) _________________________ of which greatly influenced Braque and Picasso. (7 )________________________ of these two painters ever tried to hide this fact. Yet, in the past, almost ( 8 ) ________________________ book about cubism tended to concentrate only on Picasso’s and Braque’s achievements, not making ( 9 ) ________________________ reference to Cezanne's influence. Over the years (10 )_________________________ authors have tried to correct this inaccuracy, but to (11)________________________ effect; most people know very (12 )

about Cezanne himself, let alone his work. Nowadays, however,

(13 )

can dispute (14)_________________________ Cezanne’s influence on early cubism or the

importance of this art movement. B Choose A, B, C or D to com plete the follow ing sentences. 1 This film will be very popular among___________________________ who enjoy science fiction. A these

B those

Csome

D someone

2 Fortunately,___________________________ the guests were injured when the fire broke out at the hotel. A none

B none of

C no one

D no one of

3 You needn't buy more milk because there's___________________________ in the fridge. Avery 4

Bmuch

Clot

D lots

;_____________ the students nor the teachers were happy with the educational reforms. A Either

5

B Either of

C Neither

D Neither of

of the members of the committee came up with a different proposal. A Every

B Everyone

C Each

D Anyone

6 We've only got___________________________ time left. Hurry up! A little

Ba little

Cfew

Da few

7 It took Henry a(n)___________________________ day to clear out the attic. A all 8

Ball of

C whole

D complete

of the two girls was given a bicycle as a Christmas present. A Both

B Either

C Every one

D Each one

- There isn’t anything else I can do. S

Either book is interesting. /

There is nothing else I can do. /

Either of these books is/are interesting. /

There isn’t nothing ctoc I can do. -

Neither book is interesting. /

The baby climbed the stairs without any difficulty. /

Neither of these books is/are interesting. /

The baby climbed the stairs with no difficulty. /

None of these books is/are interesting. /

The baby climbed the stems without no difficulty. -

(both +plural verb,

(only one negative word in each sentence)

either/neither+singular verb, either of/neither of/none o f+singular or plural verb)

6 There isn’t much milk left in the fridge. / There isn’t many milk loft in the fridge.-

® You can go to the beach both by bus and by train. S

There is (a) little milk left in the fridge. /

You can go to the beach either by bus or by train. /

There is (a) few milk left in-the fridge. -

You can-go to tho boach and by bus and by train. -

(much, (a) little + uncountable nouns)

(both...and m the one and the other either... or ■* the one or the other)

€i There aren’t many strawberries left in the fridge. S There-aretft much strawberries left in the fridge. -

® He can’t sing and he can’t dance either. /

There are (a) few strawberries left in the fridge. /

He can’t sing or dance (either). /

There are (a) little strawberries left in the fridge:—

He can neither sing nor dance. /

(many, (a) few + countable nouns)

H e can’t neither sing nor dancer

& There is lots / a lot /plenty of information on volcanoes

(neither...nor ■* not the one and not the other)

in this book. There are lots /a lot /plenty of toys in the garden,

@ We were studying all morning. /

children.

We spent the whole morning studying. /

(lots of, a lot of, plenty o f+countable and uncountable nouns)

We spent the all morning studying.-

€> Both of these books are interesting. / Both of thcac books is interesting. -

Key Transformations ® There weren’t a lot of things to see in the gallery

Both Jim and Jack like playing tennis.

There wasn’t much to see in the gallery.

Jim likes playing tennis and Jack does, too.

There was little to see in the gallery.

Jim likes playing tennis and so does Jack.

& Most students didn’t go to the demonstration.

Both Jim and Jack dislike football.

(Very) few (of the) students went to the demonstration.

Neither Jim nor Jack like(s) football.

Hardly anyone went to the demonstration.

Jim doesn’t like football and Jack doesn’t (like it) either. |

Hardly any (of the) students went to the demonstration.

Jim doesn’t like football and neither/nor does Jack.

unit 0 4

Examination Practice A

Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space.

ALERT To have an allergy means that a person is affected either by a substance in the atmosphere (1)____________________ by some sort of food. (2)_____________________days a lot of people suffer from one kind of allergy or another. So, what can people do to fight allergies? If someone is allergic to chocolate, for instance, the simplest (3 )____________________ to do would be to avoid eating any chocolate. If, on the (4)____________________ hand, the allergic reaction is caused by (5)____________________ unknown or difficult to avoid, then the only solution is prescribed medication. The chances of (6)_____________________ having an allergy are bound to be great if allergies (7)___________________in the family. In other words, if one parent suffers from allergies, the child has a th irty percent chance of being allergic, too. If (8)_____________________ parents are affected, the risk doubles. However, there is absolutely (9 )_____________________ logical reason to be terrified (10)______________________that possibility. Those who suffer can carry (11)_____________________ with their lives and not let their allergies wear them out. They shouldn’t feel different (12)_____________________ everyone else.

B Complete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar meaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given unchanged. You must use betw een two and five words, including the w ord given.

1 The washing machine is not working properly. w rong

There is _____________________________________________________the washing machine.

2 Unfortunately, most people didn’t have a good time at the party. hardly

Unfortunately,____________________________________________________ a good time at the party.

3 I didn’t like a single song from their new CD. none

I ____________________________________________________ from their new CD.

4 I’m pretty sure that Mary doesn’t like jazz music and Susan doesn’t either. dislike

I’m pretty sure th a t_____________________________________________________jazz music.

5 There isn’t enough petrol on the market. lack

There is ____________________________________________________ on the market.

6 We realised that both cars were expensive. car

We realised th a t_____________________________________________________cheap.

7 There aren’t a lot of things to remember from that awful trip. little

There_____________________________________________________from that awful trip.

8 I’m afraid I can’t study both Maths and Physics tonight - just one of the two. or

I’m afraid I can _____________________________________________________tonight - not both.

9 They were looking for their lost dog all week. the

They spent_____________________________________________________looking for their lost dog.

10 The concert was sold out two weeks in advance. any

There_____________________________________________________for the concert two weeks in advance.

unit 04

C

/o

c

t im

Words easily confused ;e the correct form of the w ords in the boxes to com plete the sentences in each group A-H below. You m ay some of the w ords m ore than once. In some cases, m ore than one w ord m ay be correct.

transfer

travel

transport

transmit

some money from my savings account to my current account.

need to .

________to work by car.

: My father usually _

to the United States.

3 The goods were__

__by satellite throughout the world.

i The information is.

to Bristol and he is moving there next week.

5 .errygot________

arrive

get

come

reach

appear in time for the first act.

to the theatre but w e.

• t took us a long time to _

on the horizon and within two hours it had.

2 The ocean liner_______

____________ the port.

___to our house tonight?

3 Would you like to.

by a beggar asking for money.

i ! was___________

at the village late at night.

5 W e_____________

carry

approach

fetch

deliver

1 Can you________________________ that bottle from the top shelf? 2 Some supermarkets now arrange for your shopping to be________________________ to your door. 3 I couldn't________________________ the boxes by myself so I asked the shop assistant to bring them to my car.

D

voyage

journey

1 Our class is going on a(n) _

trip

tour

excursion

travel

expedition

cruise

flight

to the zoo tomorrow.

2 Joan kept a diary of her_

through Europe.

3 Our____________________

on the ocean liner lasted two weeks.

4 Many explorers have died on. _______________________ to the Antarctic. 5 It's a nine-hour bus_________

from Melbourne to Sydney.

6 We went on a Mediterranean.

_________for our honeymoon.

7 We were given a(n)_________ 8 Our_______________________

of the ancient castle as soon as we arrived. to Bangkok was delayed so our _

to Asia was put off for a day.

unit 0 4 E

guide

direct

lead

ride

1 I recently bought a bicycle to ________________________ to work. Surprisingly, I get there faster than when I used to drive my car there. 2 Could you please________________________ me to the train station? 3 This road________________________ to the castle at the top of the hill. 4 We were________________________ around the museum and saw its most famous exhibits. 5

the way, John, and we’ll follow you.

F

address

road

street

way

direction

route

path

1 You'll need a map to find your________________________ around this city. 2 I need your new________________________ so that I can keep in touch with you. 3 I’ll find the________________________ to your house by looking up the_________________________ in the directory. 4 We must follow the________________________ Judy gave us, or we’ll never find the_________________________ her house is on. 5 The hikers took the________________________ that led to the castle. 6 They walked carefully through the woods following the________________________ . 7 We were up and ready at sunrise and headed in the________________________ of the mountains.

site

position

1 The

location

point

place

room

space

of the house is ideal, with the living

2 To enter the building 3 W hat______________ 4 Do you live in a .

overlooking the bay.

you must wear a hard hat. do you play in the school football team? _________of your own or do you still rent?

5 The starting___

for the marathon is on the corner of Bell and Church Street.

6 He travelled to a lot of _

_________ while working as a flight attendant.

7 There wasn't enough _

________in the house for the children to play, so I told them to go outside.

8 It took us over half an hour to find a parking

H

foreign

1 He's got a

strange

different

peculiar

curious

accent; I can't understand which part of England he comes from.

2 According to astrologers, Aquarians are

people who want to know everything about

everyone. 3 Melissa buys a ________________________ car every two years. 4 It’s definitely an advantage to know a few________________________ languages. 5 There's a ________________________ smell coming from the kitchen. Is something burning?

unit 0 4

This u nit deals w ith m ore w ords d erivin g from nouns. Noun Root

Verb =Noun +-ise

character

characterise

• Some other common nouns that form verbs in the same way are: apology, computer, economy, hospital, memory, summary, symbol, sympathy and victim. • Pay attention to the following irregularities: criticism criticise emphasis emphasise • Verbs deriving from nouns in -ice are formed by changing the -c into -s: advice 4 advise device 4 devise practice 4 practise

• Some other common nouns that form adjectives and adverbs in the same way are: democrat, diplomat, enthusiast, hygiene and optimist. • Nouns in -y usually form adjectives in -etic: apology apologetic energy 4 energetic sympathy 4 sympathetic • Some nouns form two adjectives, one in -ic and the other in -ical with no difference in meaning: irony 4 ironic/ironical symbol 4 symbolic/symbolical Noun Root (usually subject of study)

Noun (person) = Noun in -ist or-ian

Adjective = Noun in -ical or -ic

Art Biology Chemistry Drama Grammar Logic Mathematics Medicine Music Politics Psychology Science

artist biologist chemist dramatist grammarian logician mathematician

artistic biological chemical dramatic grammatical logical mathematical medical musical political psychological scientific

musician politician psychologist scientist

• The adverbs formed from these adjectives have the ending -icaHy: logical 4 logically scientific 4 scientifically • Some nouns form two adjectives, one in -ic and the other in -ical, but their meaning is different: economics 4 economic (= related to economy or the field o f the economics) economical (= inexpensive, saving money) history 4 historic (= im portant in history) 4 historical (= belonging to history; related to sth that happened in the past) • Very few nouns (eg. physics) form nouns (person) both in -ist and in -ian, but their meaning is different. physics 4 physicist (= a person who has studied or is studying physics) 4 physician (=a doctor) Noun Root

Noun = Noun + -dom

bore king star

boredom kingdom stardom

• Some nouns in -dom are derived from adjectives, not from nouns. The most common ones are: free freedom wise wisdom

i.

unit 0 4 Com plete the sentences w ith the co rrect form of the w ords in capitals. 1 Melina was very

______________about picking up her new scooter.

ENTHUSIAST

2 T h e___________

. is trying to find a ______________________solution to the crisis.

POLITICS, DIPLOMAT

3 Howard is a very

___________ person.

ENERGY

4 We had t o ______ 5

. a lot of words for the spelling test. , I believe that the government should preserve the

MEMORY PERSON, HISTORY

buildings in the city centre. 6 You must__________________

to him for your rude behaviour.

APOLOGY

7 John had to get

_____ help after his mother’s death because he had become

PSYCHOLOGY

ve ry __________

EMOTION

8 The firefighter was given a medal for the

. rescue of the little boy from

HERO

the burning building. 9 The play we saw at the theatre w as_____

SYMBOL

10 The up and coming__________________

_ finally exhibited her paintings in a gallery.

ART

11 Children should be

. examined at least twice a year.

MEDICINE

12 I don’t know what to do now that my friends are away. I feel that I’m going to die o f ______________

BORE

Examination Practice A

Read the text below and decide w hich answ er A, B, C or D best fits each space.

AQXD

EXPERIENCE

As a journalist, I’m asked to travel around the globe to all sorts of (1)________________________ countries. Over the years, I’ve used different means of transport. Of course, for long (2)________________________ , flying is the fastest and safest way to (3)________________________ a far-off destination. Unfortunately, I’m not a very organised traveller and despite my travel agent’s best efforts, (4)_______________________ always goes wrong. Last week, while I was heading for the airport, I realised I had left my passport at home. Obviously, I had to go back so I asked the taxi driver to turn around and take me home. In the meantime, I crossed my fingers and hoped that I wouldn’t miss my (5 )________________________ . All the (6 )________________________ home, the driver was speeding in and out of traffic. He got even more carried (7)________________________ when he got on the motorway, (8 )_________________________ at speeds of up to 150 kilometres per hour. By the time we arrived home, I was (9 )______ __________________ a state of shock and it took me a while to (10)________________________ my breath. So, before driving off again, I decided to pay him (11)_________________________ extra, so that he would go slower as we were bound (12)________________________ have an accident.

unit0 4 1

A curious

B peculiar

C foreign

D strange

2

A travels

B excursions

C tours

D trips

3

A arrive

B reach

C get

D approach

4

A anything

B something

C everything

D nothing

5

A flight

B cruise

C trip

D journey

6

A road

B way

C route

D direction

7

A away

B on

C out

D along

8

A moving

B travelling

C transferring

D transporting

9

A at

B under

C on

D in

10

A hold

B catch

C keep

D find

11

A many

B a little

C a few

D some

12

A to

B for

C in

D of

3 Complete the text b elo w with the correct form of the w ords in capitals. LIFE EXPECTANCY "he longest-living person (1)________________________ recorded lived to be 122 years and 164 days

OFFICIAL

old. In general, the number of people who live to be over one hundred is increasing, especially among women, yet there isn’t a single (2 )________________________ who can fully explain this phenomenon.

SCIENCE

Some of them claim that it’s purely a (3 )________________________ fact.

BIOLOGY

However, in the developing countries, where (4 )________________________ progress is slower, life

SCIENCE

expectancy is much less. According to (5)________________________ records, life expectancy for

MEDICINE

these people is about forty years. (6 )________________________ reasons are mainly responsible for

ECONOMICS

this and as a result a high percentage of the population suffers from m alnutrition. One must also (7 )

the fact that sanitary conditions in developing countries are rather

EMPHASIS

(8 )

.

HYGIENE

To (9 )________________________ , proper housing and sanitation, adequate healthcare and a(n)

SUMMARY

(10) ________________________ diet play an im portant part in a person’s life expectancy.

NUTRITION

5

SECTION 1(FCE format) E ! 0 3 Q L _ _ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide w hich answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Example: 0

A far

B individual

(c)remote

D separate

PA ST MEMORIES I was raised on a farm in a(n) ( 0 ) ________ remote._________ village in the 1950s. The winter months were endless and everything was covered in snow. I was always (1 )________________________ for the warmer weather to come. When spring (2 )________________________ , everything came alive -flowers would bloom and the animals would come out of hibernation. I'd follow the bear tracks and search for them. Once, however, I (3 )________________________ an angry mother bear who saw me (4 )________________________ a threat. ( 5 )_________________________ the sight of the bear I did what my father had told me. I stood still until she stopped growling and walked away. The trick was effective, but looking back now, I realise that the situation was ( 6 ) ________________________ more serious than I thought at the time. By the age of twelve, I had lots of camping (7 )________________________ , as I used to go camping with my dog on my school holidays. We would spend days ( 8 ) ________________________ the forest, catching fish for dinner, ( 9 ) ________________________ at the frogs and the (10 )_________________________ of birds and the insects hopping up and down on the surface of the water. Of course, this was possible only during the warm months. When autumn came, everything went quiet, which was quite (11)________________________

in those parts. It wasn't long (12)________________________ the animals disappeared,

the birds flew south and the snow took over. The place became deserted once again.

1

A keen

B eager

C willing

D enthusiastic

2

A approached

B reached

C appeared

D arrived

3

A dealt with

B came across

C reached

D found out

4

A like

B as

C same as

D such as

5

A In

B By

C At

D On

6

A very

B quite

C so

D far

7

A qualifications

B skills

C qualities

D experience

8

A exploring

B detecting

C researching

D investigating

9

A looking

B noticing

C watching

D observing

10

A swarms

B bunches

C flocks

D sets

11

A ordinary

B usual

C familiar

D regular

12

A until

B after

C since

D before

unit 0 5

:: questions 13-24, read the text below and th in k of the w ord w h ich best fits each space. Use o n ly one w ord in -ich space. There is an exam ple at the beginning (0).

(N M M s ill Nowadays the ( 0 ) __________ most_________ common balloon flights are usually for pleasure or sport, but did you know that ballooning began (13)________________________ a science in the 18th century?

It all started in 1783, (14)________________________ the Montgolfier brothers were looking (15)________________________ the properties of smoke. What (16)________________________ their attention was the fact that smoke could make things rise. They experimented for a year or so (17)________________________ they were ready to show their invention to everyone. On their first attempt, they filled a silk bag (18)________________________ hot air from a fire. The balloon rose more than 1.5 km into the (19)________________________ . Five months later, in November 1783, history was made once more when the first flight carrying passengers left the ground. The volunteers took off from Paris and remained in the air for over twenty minutes.

Soon afterwards, scientists all over Europe became interested (20 )

the potential of ballooning, and

it wasn't long before the activity became very popular. (21 )

of enthusiastic fans also experimented

with ballooning and contributed to its development. In the 19th century, gas balloons were used for many (2 2 )________________________ purposes, the most important one being polar exploration.

In the twentieth century, hot-air ballooning was re-introduced, due to a much improved propane burner. This has (23 )

responsible for a whole new

generation becoming interested in ballooning either for scientific (24 )

sporting reasons.

unit 0 5

For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the w ord given in capitals at the end of each lin e to form a w ord that fits in the space in the same lin e. There is an exam ple at the beginning (0).

SKATEBOARDING

L

In the early 1960s, a new craze swept through the ( 0 ) __

coastaC

cities of the United States.

COAST

Being (25)______________________ fit, the surfers wanted some fun while the surf was low. That's when

PHYSICS

an (26 )______________________ new pastime called skateboarding was born. The skateboard was

ENERGY

(27)______________________ developed by attaching a plank of wood to roller-skates.

ORIGIN

However, skateboarding has undergone (28 )______________________ changes since then.

DRAMA

(29 )______________________ skateboarders now use plastic and fibreglass, which make the

PROFESSION

boards more durable and flexible. Nowadays, skateboarders spend (3 0 )______________________

END

hours performing tricks and stunts many of which are (31)______________________ , so

DANGER

experts (32)______________________ skateboarders to wear protective gear such as helmets and elbow

ADVICE

and knee pads, especially if they are not (33)_____

. A skateboarder goes through

SKILL

many falls before becoming proficient, so it is (34)

_____to take precautions against

SENSE

accidents.

I 2 5 3 QL For questions 35-42, com plete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar m eaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given. Do not change the w ord given. You m ust use betw een tw o and five w ords, in clu din g the w ord given. There is an exam ple at the beginning (0). Example: 0

When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday. used

When I was younger, I __________________ used to-play

_tennis every Sunday.

35 How long have you been living in your new house? moved

How long is it__________________________________________________________ your new house?

36 The police questioned all the eye-witnesses but they didn’t find anyone capable of describing what exactly had happened. none

The police questioned all the eye-witnesses,______________________________________________ of describing what exactly had happened.

37 His computer game addiction is getting worse. and

He is getting__________________________________________________________ computer games.

38 She went out after finishing the housework. until

She didn't go out_____________________________________________________

the housework.

39 I heard that neither of the defendants was found guilty in yesterday's trial, innocent I heard that_________________________________________________

. in yesterday's trial.

40 John feels he doesn't share many interests with his new penfriend. little

John feels he________________________________________

_his new penfriend.

41 The shop where he works is in the city centre, which

The shop________________________

. is in the city centre.

42 He is the most talented player in the team, as

None of the players in the team _

. he is.

unit 0 5

ECTION 2 (ECCE format) rammar -oose the co rrect answer. 3y the end of next week, I _____ _

my project.

a bank

a. will finish

b. will have finished

downtown yesterday,

c. will be finished

d. am finishing

a. on

b. off

c. out

d. up

''his author,

is very popular, has

published a new book.

7. The more you exercise, _____________ you get.

a. that

b. who

a. the fitter

b. the more fitter

c. whom

d. which

c. the most fittest

d. the fittest

Everybody.

*

6. Two masked men held

Mr. Jones. He is a

8. I found very _

_ mistakes in your

'espectable member of our community,

composition,

a. looks up to

b. looks up

a. little

b. few

c. looks down on

d. looks over

c. more

d. much

of them

! ve seen two of his movies but________ was very interesting.

9. Everybody congratulated Mary_____________ her good exam results.

a. either

b. neither

a. for

b. in

c. none

d. both

c. on

d. of

5 My parents_________

here since 1980.

10. He said that he will rent a bigger house when he

a. are living

b. have been living

_____________ a new job.

c. live

d. were living

a. will get

b. is getting

c. gets

d. will be getting

Vocabulary Choose the co rrect answer. 1. The businessman owes h is __________

to his

California_____________ of gold.

excellent public relations. a. success

b. ambition

a. in search

b. in charge

c. challenge

d. goal

c. at the sight

d. at random

2. What we had in

was an interest in

7. After the operation, the patient was_____________ to another hospital.

stamp collecting, a. sight

b. progress

a. transported

b. transmitted

c. common

d. private

c. transferred

d. travelled

3. If any problems __

_j don't hesitate to contact

8. It is Fay s.

to do well in her exams so

that she can study Psychology,

me. a. rise

b. arise

a. challenge

b. intention

c. raise

d. lift

c. qualification

d. skill

4. All the _________

in the stadium applauded the

winner of the marathon when he crossed the finish a. viewers c. onlookers

9. While on vacation in Finland, John went on a(n)_____________ of Lapland, the northern part of the country,

line.

5.

6. During the gold rush, many settlers travelled to

b. audience

a. expedition

b. tour

d. spectators

c. excursion

d. voyage

Parents always say how quickly their children ____

10. Christine has a ______

___ of running ten

kilometres per day.

and become adults. a. bring up

b. rise

a. trend

b. custom

c. raise

d. grow up

c. habit

d. fashion

Collocations/Expressions A Com plete the blanks w ith the verbs m ake or do. ___________ _an appointment _________

an escape

a phone call

fun of

___________ _one's best

_________

a guess

progress

a job

___________ _better/worse

_________

friends (with)

wonders

a choice

___________ _certain/sure

_________

an exercise

an offer

a request

___________ _a complaint

_________

a reservation

wrong/right

sense

___________ _an experiment

_________

a suggestion

ends meet

a trip/voyage

___________ _a decision

_________

matters worse

the most of

/journey

___________ _an excuse (for)

_________

harm/damage

noise

a mistake

___________ _one’s duty

_________

one’s homework

well/badly

a favour

___________ _an effort

_________

money/a profit

an arrangement

up one's mind

a mess (of)

a difference

___________ _a fool of

B Read the sentences below. Com plete the boxes w ith the verbs m ake or do and the blanks w ith prepositions. 1 My lawyer advised me to

the best______________this difficult situation.

2 Before signing the contract, the client wished to 3 The university students are going to 4 Bill wanted to

research

the matter.

the effects of noise pollution on people.

a good impression______________the company's president.

5 The police officer was instructed to 6 Your plan will only 7 If we

some enquiries.

a detailed report_____________ the strange incident. trouble______________the people you are supposedly trying to help.

good use______________our resources, we can achieve our goal.

8 This ugly furniture does not 9 We

justice______________this magnificent house.

a considerable contribution______________the heart foundation every year.

10 Why don’t you

yourself______________home while I get ready?

11 Emissions from factories

considerable harm______________the environment.

12 Everyone stepped aside to

way.

the marching soldiers.

C Com plete the blanks w ith the verbs break, change, tu rn or draw. ___________ shoes

___________

___________ sb’s heart a page

the law

___________

a habit

a promise

___________ trains/buses

_________

direction

a corner

___________ sb’s attention

_________

clothes

the subject

D Read the sentences and com plete them w ith the co rrect form of the verbs break, change, cut or draw. 1 I'll try to ________________ Ted’s mind about leaving his job. 2 No one was willing to ________________ their silence and help the police with their investigation. 3 I decided to make the first move and________________ the ice. 4 Cowboys were known to ____________ ____________ a gun on the slightest of pretexts. 5 The famous athlete Jesse Owens________________ four Olympic records in 1936. 6 My holiday was________________ short when I broke my leg while skiing. 7 Well, to ________________ a long story short, our car broke down in the middle of nowhere.

unit 0 6

\dverbial Expressions iplete the sentences w ith the adverbial expressions in the box below. Use each expression o n ly once.

by and large

last but not least

every now and then

one by one

on my own

as a matter of fact

-ake an effort to visit my grandparents , the lottery numbers I had chosen came up on the screen. -sed a Do-It-Yourself manual and built the tree house__________

3

_____________________ , the final contender is from Venezuela.. 5 Most people are,.

C ______________

, creatures of habit. ., I didn't like the present you gave me.

- ead the sentences on the left and m atch the phrasal verbs w ith th eir definitions on the right by w riting the

rorrect num ber in the box next to each definition.

A

MAKE, DO, GROW

1 The thieves made off with all the precious artefacts in the museum. go towards

2 The boy made up a ridiculous story about alien abduction to avoid sitting

invent

for the exam. 3 Let's make for the nearest village before it gets dark.

become an adult

4 When the baby was born, we made the study into a nursery.

transform, convert

5 I couldn't quite makeoutwhat she was saying, as her English was very

manage to understand

poor.

steai and run away

6 Even though Derek had made up with Joanne, the tension between become friends again

them was still evident.

get rid of

7 Women make up a large proportion of the workforce nowadays. 8 Ever since my salary cut, I've had to do without many little luxuries.

become older and stop a habit

9 The management decided to do away with the old machinery and

endure the lack of

modernised the factory.

constitute, form, be a member of

10 When I grow up, I want to become a singer. 11 We've grown out of the childish pranks we used to play on our teachers.

B PASS, FILL, LEAVE 1 Our neighbour, who was 75 years old, passed away a few months ago. 2 The legends of this tribe have been passed down from father to son over the centuries. 3 The old woman passed out when she saw the thief. 4 I had to fill in a five-page application form for a credit card. 5 Could you please fill up the tank with unleaded petrol? 6 Our best player was left out of the team due to a knee injury.

faint complete die make completely full pass from one generation to the next exclude from

unit 0 6

Words with Prepositions A Com plete the blanks w ith prepositions. Adjectives

Nouns

Verbs

dependent

an advantage

aim

a demand

aDoloaise

enqaqed

sb

equal

a difference

independent

things

married

a difference

sth

a difference

opinion

arateful

sb sth

two

a disadvantage an intention

cover sb/sth sb sth

sth

depend invest

(dis)approve

pay

belong

rely

confess sth doina

sth

sb

sth

consist

waste money/time

contribute

sth

B Read the fo llow in g sentences and com plete them w ith prepositions. 1 I found a part-time job so as not to be financially dependent________________ my parents. 2 The President diplomatically labelled the crisis as a difference________________ opinion between the two nations. 3 We have spent a fortune________________ our new house, but I think it was worth it. 4 The difference________________ price for the same product can vary considerably from store to store. 5 I will always be grateful________________ Susan_________________ her support during my time of need. 6 The difference________________ the rich and poor is staggering in most developing countries. 7 My sister wastes a lot of money________________ clothes she doesn't end up wearing. 8 The report on corruption was completely independent________________ the government.

Grammar Revision (Infinitive, -ing form) See G ram m ar R e v ie w p age 153

Com plete the sentences below w ith the bare infinitive, the full infinitive or the -ing form of the verbs in brackets. You can use either the Present or the Perfect form.

1 We watched the ship________________ (disappear) slowly over the horizon. 2 Forgive m y________________ (get) so upset about such a trivial matter. 3 She begged her brother________________ (lend) her his car, but he refused. 4 The children were not accustomed to ________________ (live) in a village. 5 The thief admitted________________ (steal) the jewels. 6 My wife prevented me from________________ (drive), as I was really tired. 7 My driving instructor encouraged me________________ (take) the driving test. 8 I'm in favour of________________ (keep) the environment clean.

9 How about________________ (leave) on Thursday evening? 10 That man is believed________________ (cause) the accident. 11 They are unlikely________________ (come) home early tonight.

12 The traffic was so heavy that it took me three hours house.

(get) to my country

w v^ eyr

Judy-w as made apologise for lying. ~

* The coffee was too cold for me to drink./ The coffee was too cold for mo to drink it.

(make+bare infinitive in Active Voice,

The coffee wasn’t hot enough for me to drink. /

make+fu ll infinitive in Passive Voice)

The coffee wasn't hot enough for me to drink it. -

Helen used to wake up early. /

tNo object pronouns after too and enough)

Helen is used to waking up early. / Helen will soon get used to waking up early. /

■ She objects to staying up late./ (Subject of-ing form same as subject of main verb)

Helen is used to walcc up early.— -

She objects to the children/children's staying up late. /

Helen will soon get used to walwrap-early....

She objects to their/them staying up late. /

(used to + infinitive, be/get used to +-ingform)

She objects to they staying up late.—

It seems that he hates animals. /

(Subject of-ing form different from subject of main verb)

He seems to hate animals. /

H o Goomc that he hato3 animals. -

- We heard John sing an old song. / (witnessed the whole action)

(It seems/appears+ that-clause

We heard John singing an old song. /

Subject+seem/appear+fu ll infinitive)

(witnessedpart o f an action)

It appears that she didn't lose much weight. /

We heard John to sing an old seng. -

She appears not to have lost much weight. /

(Verbs of the senses in Active Voice+bare infinitive/-ing form)

She doesn't appear to have lost much weight. /

John was heard to sing an old song. /

She appears to not have lost maeh-weight.- -

J ohn was heard sing/singing an old song/(Verbs of the senses in Passive Voice +fu ll infinitive) & The teacher made Judy apologise for lying. /

It is likely/unlikely that John is interested in football. / John is likely/unlikely to be interested in football. / Itis likely/unlikely for John to be interested inioetball. -

The teacher mado Judy to apologise for-lying. Judy was made to apologise for lying. /

Key Transformations g) It took Susan one hour to dye her hair.

There's no point in discussing this matter any further.

Susan took one hour to dye her hair.

It’s no use/good discussing this matter any further.

Susan spent one hour dyeing her hair.

It is not worth discussing this matter any further.

& She found working long hours difficult.

This matter is not worth discussing any further.

She found it difficult to work long hours.

The climbers did not manage to reach the mountain peak.

It was difficult for her to work long hours.

The climbers did not succeed in reaching the mountain

She had difficulty (in) working long hours.

peak.

& I expect that they will arrive soon. I expect them to arrive soon. They are expected to arrive soon. & I suggest we plan a surprise party for him. I suggest planning a surprise party for him.

The climbers were not successful in reaching the mountain peak. The climbers were unsuccessful in reaching the mountain peak. He prevented/stopped his children from going out alone.

W hy not plan a surprise party for him?

He prevented/stopped them from going out alone.

How about planning a surprise party for him?

He prevented/stopped his children's going out alone.

& I don't see why we should discuss this matter any further.

He prevented/stopped their going out alone.

unit 0 6

Examination Practice A

Read the text belo w and think of the w ord which best fits each space. Use only one w ord in each space.

HEALTHY

HEALTHY

“A healthy mind lives in a healthy body” is a saying that is believed to (1)______________________ often been used by the ancient Greeks. Thousands of years later, the same idea still applies. According to health experts, it’s advisable to (2)______________________ eight to ten glasses of water every day. However, water itself is not enough; a balanced diet is essential, too. A healthy body naturally is the result of (3)_______ __________________exercise. Many people, however, do not like gyms and object (4)__________________ _______ going there for different reasons. Some, for instance, say that aerobic sessions are too difficult (5)______________________ follow while others claim that gyms are just too expensive. Many people also claim that they have difficulty in (6)______________________ time to exercise due to their hectic lifestyle, but the truth is that everyone can make a little time every now and (7)__________________ . Regardless of the way people choose to exercise, (8)_ (9)___________________

is important to remember that there’s no point . doing it only for a short period of time.

Last (10)________________ __not least, having a positive attitude and doing (11) _ with negative thoughts contributes (12) _

one’s well-being. In short, following

this simple advice surely helps in having a healthy mind and body.

B Complete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar m eaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the w ord given.

1 John is too immature to make decisions for himself, mature

John is___________________

decisions for himself.

2 He can’t get used to travelling abroad every fortnight, accustomed He__________________________________

. abroad every fortnight.

3 He managed to convince me that it was a safe operation, succeeded

He_________

. that it was a safe operation.

4 Hearing that a war had broken out was a shock to everyone, shocked

Everyone_________________________________

______ that a war had broken out.

5 John told Helen he was sorry he had argued with her. apologised John_______________________________

with her.

6 Nobody liked having a new factory in the area, objected

Everyone_____________________

_a new factory in the area.

7 She couldn’t afford to buy a laptop computer, expensive

A laptop computer____________

________ to buy.

8 More dustbins have been put around so that people won’t throw rubbish in the streets, prevent

More dustbins have been put around________________________________

.rubbish inthestreel

9 It would be difficult for me to adjust to a new working environment, difficulty

I would__________________________________________

_to a new working environment.

10 I don't see why we should wait for the blood test results all day. point

There’s ______________________________________

_the blood test results all day.

11 He first told his mother about his success in the exam, know

His mother______________

about his success in the exam.

12 The police forced the criminal to get into the car. made

P E I

The police______________________

the car.

unit 0 6

Words easily confused Jse the correct form of the w ords in the boxes to com plete the sentences in each group A-I below. You m ay use ;ome of the w ords m ore than once. In som e cases m ore than one w ord m ay be correct. borrow

lend

let

hire

rent

1 My friends and I ________________________ a car to travel around the island. 2 Can you________________________ me some money? I'll pay you back on Friday. 3 Some of the rooms in the country house were________________________ to tourists for the weekends. ________________________ money from the bank to buy a house. 5 My parents________________________ a tutor to help me with Maths. 6 The first thing I did when I went to Crete was________________________ a house by the sea.

spend

waste

save

afford

1 I have been_______________________ a lot of money lately on things I don't really need. I usually_______________________ all my income and don't_______________________ any money for a rainy day. 2 John_______________________ too much time on the computer and doesn't pay enough attention to his homework. Of course, he can't_______________________ to be________________________ time, especially now that he's got exams.

C

bill

fare

fee

fine

ticket

receipt

account

discount

tax

1 The________________________ department expects all customers to get a _________________________ with every purchase they make, otherwise they will have to pay a(n)________________________ . 2 I had to complain to the telephone company about my extremely high phone________________________ , which I was not prepared to pay. In the end they gave me a(n)________________________ and [paid less. 3 When he had his wallet stolen, he didn't have any money to pay for his bus________________________ . 4 I bought an airline________________________ for Madrid with British Airways. 5

is automatically withdrawn from my pay every month.

6 Most universities require that tuition________________________ should be paid at the beginning of each academic year. 7 Sheila got a parking________________________ for parking on the pavement. 8 My parents have a(n)________________________ with the local shop and pay the amount they owe every month.

D

salary

wage

payment

income

bonus

allowance

award

reward

donation

1 M y______________________ gets paid into my bank account every fortnight. 2 Steve’s parents give him a weekly______________________ .which he can use any way he likes. 3 Some people give______________________ to charity organisations. 4 Young workers under the age of 21 get the minimum______________________ set by the law. 5 M y______________________ from my job isn't sufficient to cover my weekly expenses. Only when I get a(n)______________________ as a(n)_______________________ for excellent results can I afford something special for myself. 6 Your car______________________ are due on the 10th of each month. 7 I received a Young Achiever’s ______________________ for getting the best exam score in the school.

unit 0 6 E

owe

own

possess

keep

belong

1 Who does this pen______________________ to? If no one_______________________ it, then I'll_______________________ it. 2 Muhammad Ali_______________________ a lot of strength and speed in the ring. 3 They_______________________ their house, but still________________________ some money to the bank. 4 He's_______________________ all his toys in a box in the attic.

F

price

prize

charge

value

bargain

worth

tip

1 The National Lottery’s main________________________ was £ 2 million. 2 When eating out, it is advisable to leave a ________________________ for the waiter. 3 The thieves stole millions of dollars________________________ of paintings from the gallery. 4 The________________________ of our house has gone up since we renovated it. 5 That restaurant has very reasonable________________________ . It's certainly_________________________ for money and _________ visiting. 6 My new sofa was a real________________________ . I got it for half the price. 7 You can have the appliances delivered free o f______________________.

G

precious

valuable

priceless

worthless

economic

economical

financial

1 Some of Picasso's paintings are________________________ . Only a billionaire could afford to buy them. 2 The police have been guarding the________________________ stones on display at the gallery. 3 When Rose lost her job, she was in a difficult________________________ situation for a while. It didn't help that she hadn't been________________________ and not saved a penny while she was employed. 4 The country’s ________________________ situation has improved ever since the development of the tourist industry. 5 Thank you for your________________________ advice. You've helped me a great deal. 6 Julie gave away some of her fake jewellery because she thought it was________________________ and just took up space.

H

loan

debt

sum

amount

deposit

instalment

budget

1 We're on a tight_______________________ this month because we have many expenses. Our housing and car________________________ are due in the next few days. 2 He had parked illegally and was fined the________________________ of £ 20. 3 Could you please tell me the exact________________________ I owe? 4 Joan went to the bank because she wanted to make a(n)________________________ . 5 He has asked me to lend him money, as he is in ________________________ .

I

cheque

cash

coins

currency

(bank)notes

change

1

When we arrived in Indonesia, we exchanged some of our money for local________________________ .

2

I must take all the________________________I've received as________________________ to the bank and exchange them

3

When paying b y________________________ , always write your address and sign the back of it.

4

I'm paying for the shoes in________________________ .

for________________________ which are lighter.

unit 0 6 _______________________________________________________________________________________

The opposites of many English words are formed by adding a negative prefix to the words. The most common negative prefixes are un-, in-, dis- and mis-. • Most words that derive from the same root take the same negative prefix as the root word:

approve 4 disapprove approving -4 disapproving

approval -4 disapproval approvingly -4 disapprovingly

• Sometimes verbs, nouns, adjectives or adverbs deriving from the same root form their opposites with the addition of d ifferen t negative prefixes: comfort -4 discomfort (noun) comfortable -4 uncomfortable (adjective) fortune -4 misfortune (noun) fortunate -4 unfortunate (adjective) equal -4 unequal (adjective) equality -4 inequality (noun) • Some words of the same category (verbs, nouns or adjectives) deriving from one root form tw o opposites using two different negative prefixes - but with a difference in meaning: ablei adj) -4 unable (=not able), disabled (=handicapped) informed (adj) -4 uninformed (=not informed), misinformed (=wrongly informed) used (adj) -4 unused (=not used), misused (=wrongly/badly used) un + adjective/adverb

the opposite adjective/adverb

attractive attractively ^

unattractive unattractively

un + noun (related to adjective) -> lack of the quality described by the adjective

certain able ability

uncertain

certainty-^ uncertainty

unable inability, disability un + verb 4 doing the reverse of what the verb describes

lock ^

unlock

dress

undress

in + adjective/adverb/noun (related to adjective) 4 the opposite of the original word

efficient

inefficient

• The prefix in- changes to:

efficiently

inefficiently

efficiency

inefficiency

//- before

I-: legal -4 illegal im- before m- and p-: mature ^ immature patient 4 impatient ir- before r-. rational 4 irrational

• The prefix in- is not used to form opposites of verbs. • The prefix in- is not used to form opposites of words beginning with in-:

interesting 4 uninteresting interpret 4 misinterpret integrate 4 disintegrate

dis + verb 4 the opposite effect or reverse of the process described by the original verb

agree -4 disagree

connect -4 disconnect

dis + noun/adjective/adverb 4 the opposite of the root word

agreement -4 disagreement agreeable -4 disagreeable agreeably disagreeably honesty -4 dishonesty honest -4 dishonest honestly -4 dishonestly mis + verb -4 doing what the root describes w rongly or badly

judge -4 misjudge judgement -4 misjudgement

unit 0 6 Com plete the sentences w ith the co rrect form of the w ords in capitals. 1 Even though he’s twenty years old, he is rather______________________.

MATURE

2 Thomas said that he i s ____________________ to attend the meeting because he's ill. I am a little

ABLE

______________________as to whether this is true or not. 3 The student was very

DOUBT

_and answered the question

NERVE, CORRECT

but the teacher asked him to try again. 4 He has become rich in a _____________

way.

HONEST

5 I didn't correct your essay because your writing was sim ply_____________

LEGIBLE

6 The teacher expressed h e r______________________with Tom because he's

SATISFACTION

s o ______________________in class. 7 It was

OBEDIENT

. of you to leave the baby

8 Unfortunately, many climbers have been

RESPONSIBLE, ATTENDED .in their attempts to climb

SUCCESS

Mt Everest. 9 I detest people w h o ____________________

animals or use them in

TREAT, SCIENCE

research. 10 Driving at speeds of 150 kilometres per hour is not o n ly ___________

but

LEGAL

also ______________________.

SAFE

11 H e r______________________to help got her into trouble.

WILLINGNESS

12 Why do you always have t o ______________________with what I say?

AGREE

13 She's a very

. person. She wants everything done immediately.

PATIENT

14 Don't sit in that

___ armchair, sit here.

COMFORTABLE

15 Are you sure you didn't

__________ him? He can't have said that.

UNDERSTAND

Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide w h ich answ er A, B, C or D best fits each space.

PLASTIC MONEY In the past, people bought goods using (1)__________________

. They rarely (2).

money from financial institutions and only when they had (3).

the money, did they buy

what they wanted. Recently, however, there have been great changes in the way people purchase goods. To begin with, some people pay for things by cheque, while others prefer monthly (4 )__________________________ , rather than paying the whole (5 )

at once. Most consumers, though, prefer to buy things using their credit cards.

(6 )

, it is thought that there are benefits to having a credit card. Apart from the fact

that credit cards are handy, some stores offer bonus points to people making purchases, while others give (7 )

on certain products.

On the other hand, credit cards must be used wisely because they can prove disastrous. In the long run, consumers find that they can't (8 )__________________________ without their credit cards and constantly rely (9 )__________________________ them, as they are “easy money”. As a result, some people lose control of their finances spending more than they should and wind up not being able to (10)__________________________. So, they end up in (11).

and have difficulty (12).

it back.

unit 0 6

B

1

A change

B cash

C notes

D currency

2

A lent

B let

C borrowed

D kept

3

A. afforded

B owned

C saved

D possessed

4

A sums

B deposits

C budgets

D instalments

5

A amount

B debt

C bill

D cost

6

A Last but not least

B One by one

C By and large

D Every now and then

7

A bargains

B discounts

C tips

D prizes

8

A go

B make

C be

D do

9

A on

B in

C to

D of

10

A make matters worse

B make ends meet

C do their best

D do business

11

A debt

B loan

C charge

D owe

12

A to pay

B to paying

C in pay

D in paying

Com plete the text below w ith the co rrect form of the words in capitals.

HOMEWORK Homework is a part of every student's school life. (1)__________________________ , many of them

FORTUNATE

(2 )

of the amount of homework they are given, and find it particularly

APPROVE

(3 )

when they have to study a lot before a test. This makes them feel

(4 )

and some even become physically sick when under pressure. Others

FAIR ANXIETY

sometimes find it (5)______________________ to complete their homework, which makes teachers

POSSIBLE

believe it’s an act of (6 )________________________ .

OBEDIENCE

On the other hand, teachers consider homework (7)_____________________________. They believe

BENEFIT

students should have a daily schedule to avoid getting (8 )______________________________ and

ORGANISED

having to hand in (9 )_________________________________ homework. Moreover, teachers think

COMPLETE

(1 0 )________________________ amounts of homework put students' future at risk.

ADEQUATE

Prepositional Phrases A

Complete the blanks with prepositions.

regardless

according _

owing _

but.

due______

because_

instead.

contrary,

except.

apart____

thanks

as______

B Complete the blanks with prepositions.

. spite.

charge.,

. comparison,

control,

favour_____

far . honour,

behalf

well___

C Read the sentences and complete them with the prepositions in, on, at, by, under or to.

1 You’ll find a fairly detailed map of the town

page 40 of this guide.

my parents'surprise I passed all my examinations. the circumstances, the police officer had no other choice but to arrest them. 4 What's

_______your mind, Geoffrey? You look rather worried.

5 I promise to be.

______________ yourside no matter what happens.

6 You look so calm and_____________________ ____________________ ease with yourself. 7

sum up, this book is a good read and I definitely recommend it.

8 I made several attempts to convince her, but________________________ vain. 9 I was

the impression you knew how to operate the video camera.

10 Their willingness to employ me immediately without another interview took me 11

surprise.

a certain extent, your anger is understandable.

Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the correct num ber in the box next to each definition. A

BREAK, BURN

1 I'm buying a new car because my old one keeps breaking down. 2 As soon as the government announced the harsh economic measures, riots broke out throughout the country.

interrupt be destroyed by fire stop functioning

3 The thief broke into the house and stole the jewels. 4 She couldn’t handle being under so much stress so she broke down and started crying.

end a relationship start suddenly

5 I started describing what had happened to the police officer but my sister broke in to tell him something I had forgotten. 6 They broke up after having been together for three years. 7 If Peter doesn't stop working so hard, he'll burn out before his time. 8 By the time the fire brigade arrived, the building had already burnt down.

become exhausted enter illegally lose control of one’s feelings

unit 0 7 B CUT 1 These pictures of film stars were cut out of different magazines.

reduce

2 The doctor told me to cut down on junk food.

cut into small pieces

3 The speaker was cut off by protesters many times during her speech.

cut from/remove

4 Always cut up the meat for the dog, otherwise it will choke on it.

stop doing

5 During the winter the island is cut off from the rest of the world.

interrupt

6 The boys are shouting upstairs. Tell them to cut it out!

isolated

C TURN 1 Turn off the heater. It's very hot in here.

arrive unexpectedly

2 John has turned into a reliable and efficient worker much to my surprise.

reject

3 It turned out to be a great party.

switch off

4 More people turned up at the meeting than I had expected.

switch on

5 Can you please turn down the music? I can’t hear you.

reduce the amount of sound, heat, etc.

6 My application for a visa was turned down again. 7 Don’t forget to turn on the alarm when you leave home.

increase the amount of sound, heat, etc.

8 I want you to know that you can turn to me for help any time.

result in a particular way

9 When Jessica heard her favourite song, she turned up the radio full blast

change to

and started dancing.

come to and ask for

Words with Prepositions A Com plete the blanks w ith prepositions. Adjectives

Nouns

Verbs

an example

believe

an exception

comment

ashamed

iealous

busy

mean

conscious

relevant

an opinion

contrast

friendlv

short

a question

decide

a reaction

dedicate sth

sb

introduce sb

sb/sth

sb

good

sth (=competent)

useful

sb

good

sb (=kind)

useful

sth

good

sb/sth

mean relate

(=beneficial)

think

B Read the fo llow in g sentences and com plete them w ith prepositions. 1 Walter is very good___________ the high jump. 2 Why are you always so mean 3 Wly friend Giles introduced me

Sarah?

the fascinating world of classical music.

unit 0 7 4 The travel book will be useful___________ our trip to Paris at the end of the month. 5 What exactly do you m ean___________ saying I'm arrogant and a snob? 6 Most nouns form their plural in -s, but there are a lot of exceptions___________ this rule. 7 Mrs Ming is a very nice lady. She's always been good___________ me. 8 A glass of orange juice a day is good___________ you. 9 This brochure will be useful___________ all the tourists who visit the sights.

Grammar Revision (M odal Verbs) See G ram m ar R e v ie w page 155 Read the short texts belo w and complete each blank with one word. A ll the missing w ords are m odal verbs (can, could, may, should etc.)

a

As children, they (1)_______________________ to spend a lot of time together. They (2)________________________ go for long bike rides along the coast until they reached the cave. Once there, they (3)_______________________ able to explore it to their heart's content, as no one else knew about this secret hideaway. They felt they (4)_______________________ to keep this place to themselves no matter what.

b

I'm worried about Gene. He hasn't been well lately. Yesterday, he was pale and he (5)_______________________ have been feeling sick, as he (6)_______________________ not eat a thing. I think he (7)________________________ better see a doctor, as he (8)_______________________ have some serious illness he's not aware of. Of course, it (9)_______________________ just be a virus. To be on the safe side, though, I (10)________________________drop by his house later and tell him that he (11)_______________________ do something about it immediately.

c

When used properly, videos (12)_______________________ be very educational for children. Of course, they (13)_______________________ be suitable for their age and children (14)________________________ not just be placed in front of the television and left unsupervised. Parents (15)_______________________ to be actively involved, too, as children (16)_______________________ not be passive viewers; they need someone to interact with while watching.

d

My car broke down yesterday and I (17)______________________ to take the bus to work. I (18)_______________________ have taken a taxi instead, as it was a frustrating experience. We were all squashed together like sardines in a tin and we (19)_______________________ hardly breathe. To make matters worse, an overweight lady standing next to me wanted to get off at one point. "(20)_______________________

you mind moving a bit to the side so that I

(21)______________________get to the door?" she said. She nearly squashed me to death! (22)______________________ the public transportation system be this bad?

unit 0 7

p c a 'A 'ts 't0 f e w

^ w v b e 'r

He must have been working hard lately. / (Positive deductions about thepast) He can't be home now, he is usually at work at this time ofthedayV

@ I must wash my car. / I have to wash my car. / I musHe washmy car. You should wash your car. / You ought to wash your car. /

He can't be watching TV. /

You-sheiridrtewashyottrear. Peter would wash his car every Saturday. S Peter used to wash his car every Saturday. / PetowouM-te^washhisear-every Saturday. (Modal verbs are followed by a bare infinitive (without 'to'.) Note: have to, ought to and used to.) Q Jonathan can play tennis very well. Jonathan could play tennis when he was ten years old. If it doesn't rain, we'll be able to play tennis. I haven't been able to contact Mike this week. (can has no future or perfect tenses so be able to is used in its place.) €> Bill could run quite fast when he was young. (general ability in thepast) The injured athlete was able to finish the race. (ability in aparticular situation in thepast, especially a difficult one.) Q I must go to bed early tonight. I have to get up early every morning. I had to return some books to the library yesterday. I've never had to wait for more than ten minutes at the doctor's surgery. We'll have to work hard on our project next week. (must has nopast, perfect orfuture tenses, so have to is used in itsplace.) @ He must be home now. / He must be watching TV. / (Positive deductions about thepresent/future) He must have arrived early. /

(Negative deductions about thepresent/future) He can't/couldn’t have stolen the money. / Hemustn’thave stolen the money. (Negative deductions about thepast) Ruth needs to see the doctor today. / Ruthneedsee thedoctor today. Does Ruth need to see the doctor today? / Need Ruth see the doctor today? / Ruth doesn't need to see the doctor today. / Ruth needn't see the doctor today. / (need is used as a modal verb only in present tense questions and negations.) They didn't need to return the books to the library today. (=it wasn't necessary and we don't know if they did or not.) They needn't have returned thebooksto the library today. (=it wasn't necessary but they did so nonetheless.) You should apologise. / You ought to apologise. / You had better apologise. / (Refer to the present or future) You should have apologised. / You ought to have apologised. / It would have been better if you had apologised. / Youhadbetterhaveapologised

(Refer to thepast)

Key Transformations Could I (possibly) turn the music down? Do you mind if I turn the music down? Would you mind if I turn/turned the music down? Would you mind my turning the music down? I wonder if I could turn the music down. Your room needs tidying. Your room needs to be tidied. You have/need to tidy your room. It is necessary for you to tidy your room. It is necessary that you tidy your room. It is not necessary for you to go shopping. There is no need for you to go shopping. You don't need/have to go shopping. You needn’t go shopping.

® It was not necessary for you to go to the doctor. There was no need for you to go to the doctor. You needn't have gone to the doctor. & My grandfather went fishing every morning. My grandfather used to go fishing every morning. My grandfather would go fishing every morning. & The students did not manage to finish the project. The students were not able to finish the project. The students were unable to finish the project. The students did not succeed in finishing the project. & (I think /Perhaps) you should take some time off work. (I think /Perhaps) you ought to take some time off work. You had better take some time off work. The best thing you could do is take some time off work. The best thing for you to do is take some time off work.

unit 0 7 Examination Practice A Choose the correct answer. 1. You needn't.

. so much food. There was

7. “Would you mind

plenty of food left over from yesterday,

I must go to the dentist's.”

a. cook

b. to cook

a. my leaving

b. me leave

c. have cooked

d. to have cooked

c. me to leave

d. me to leaving

2. Susan hates Maths and Chemistry but she's really

8. She must

good____________ Science.

. awful when she was told that

she had been fired,

a. to

b. at

a. feel

b. have felt

c. for

d. of

c. felt

d. be felt

3. You had better,

.out tonight. It's raining

9. You

heavily,

_to drink lots of water when you" re on

a diet,

a. not go

b. not to go

a. should

b. must

c. don't go

d. to don't go

c. ought

d. used

4. The climbers didn't succeed

.the

10. Your jeans need _

. before you wear them

mountain peak due to extreme weather conditions,

for the first time,

a. to reach

b. to have reached

a. washing

b. to wash

c. reach

d. in reaching

c. wash

d. have washed

5. It________

. be Annie who is crossing the street;

Annie's taller,

6.

. a little earlier today?

11.

. the weather forecast, it will be cold and foggy at the weekend,

a. mustn't

b. can't

a. Owing to

b. According to

c. wouldn't

d. shouldn't

c. Apart from

d. Instead of

“When are Michael and Julie getting married?”

12. There used to _______

“Well, they won't get married after all. They broke

corner when I was young,

_ a coffee shop on that

____________ two months ago!”

a. have been

b. be

a. out

b. down

c. were

d. being

c. off

d. up

B Complete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar m eaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the w ord given.

1 I'm sure he hasn't refused such a good offer, turned

He_______

.such a good offer.

2 There was no need for the climbers to bring so many supplies, not

The climbers____________

_________ so many supplies.

3 If I were you, I wouldn't stay in the sun without sunscreen, had

You____________________________________

. in the sun without sunscreen.

4 Shall I water the plants for you? like

Would_____

.the plants for you?

5 It is necessary that he doesn’t eat so many sweets, cut

He_____________________

. sweets.

6 I expect that she has invited everyone to her birthday party, must

She______________________________________

7 As a child, David was never in the habit of eating cornflakes, used

As a child, David

_to her birthday party. Sit.

___________ _ cornflakes.

unit 0 7 8 Smoking is not allowed in the building, must

You___________________

_ in the building.

9 Perhaps Julie thought that you would check the report, impression Julie may____________________________

. that you would check the report.

10 It was wrong of you to steal that book, should

You__________________

_that book.

11 She is not obliged to cook if she doesn't have time, have

She_____________

____

_ if she doesn't have time.

Words easily confused Jse the correct form of the w ords in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group A-H below. You may use some of the w ords more than once. In some cases m ore than one w ord may be correct.

think

consider

regard

believe

mean

1 Please

. my offer and call me if you decide to sell.

2 I have been

____ of taking a holiday. I _______________

. I deserve it because I've worked

hard all year. 3 The death penalty is

_____________ as a barbaric practice by most people.

4 I don't_____________

. he really________________________ what he is saying, because he’s usually joking.

5 I didn’t _____________

_ to offend you. Please________________________ me.

B

realise

understand

recognise

meet

introduce

present

appreciate

1 One day I'd like to.

. my favourite film star and get his autograph.

2 That’s the journalist that.

______ the evening news. Don't you_________

3 The teacher didn’t ______

. that the students hadn’t understood what he was saying.

4 Aren't you going to .

____ me to your friend? I haven’t _______________________

5 I _________________

assume

.your help, but you must.

guess

suppose

estimate

1 Since I hadn’t studied for the test, I had to__________________

calculate

predict

most of the answers.

_what the future holds.

4 I _____________________

I'll be late for work, since there’s so much traffic.

5 We had

_____ the value of the house to be around 60,000 dollars, but we hadn’t .

the cost of the renovation.

. her before.

.that I want to do this on my own.

2 We were______________________ to play football today, but we cancelled it. 3 It's almost impossible to.

her?

unit 0 7 D

idea

view

thought

point

1 She's very rude and has no.

aspect

respect

matter

.for anyone.

2 You should consider all___

.of his proposal, because he made some interesting.

3 In m y____________________

_, the education system should change.

4 I can't bear the.

_________of going back to work after such a great holiday.

5 There's no____

____ in talking to Clark about this problem, as he has no _

6 Asa(n)_______

queue

about it.

. of fact, I hired an interior decorator, who gave me some good

line

aisle

corridor

hall

row

1 The cornflakes are in the third 2 Walk down the______________

and the toilet is the third door on your right.

3 The entrance_______________ __________________ to my flat is so small that it’s a waste of space. 4 Please get in________________ __________________ and wait your turn, madam! 5 We were lucky enough to be given seats in the front______________________ at the theatre. 6 There was such a long.

available

spare

. in the bank that I couldn’t be bothered to go in.

free

convenient

handy

1 When I bought my car, I got the air-conditioner.

usable of charge. It really came in

during the summer. 2 Every car must have a(n)_____________________ tyre in the boot. 3 The Red Dog’s new album is now___________ 4 A laptop computer is very__________________

_______ in music stores. . because it is portable and.

anywhere.

5 I'm______________________ tomorrow evening. Would you like to go to the cinema? 6 A car is a very.

G

absence

means of transport compared to buses and trains.

lack

shortage

loss

1 After the accident, my father suffered a gradual______________________ of memory. 2 Vicky’s ______________________ from work was noticed, so the boss rang her at home. 3 The______________________ of rain created severe______________________ of fresh fruit and vegetables. 4 There's a world______________________ of energy and scientists are looking for alternative sources. 5 Although I liked living with my family, I was annoyed by the______________________ of privacy.

H

short

scarce

rare

inadequate

insufficient

1 As a botanist he specialises in______________________ species of plants. 2 The book costs $ 21 and I'm______________________ by one dollar. Could you lend me some money? 3 A(n)______________________ supply of oxygen to the brain can prove lethal. 4 In many parts of the world water is______________________ . 5 Parking space in the city centre is______________________ due to the______________________ number of car parks.

unit 0 7

This unit deals with some verbs and nouns which derive from adjectives.

Adjective Root Describing a quality/state

Verb = Adjective + -en

Noun =Adjective + -ness

Describing the process of acquiring the quality / state of the adjective

The quality / state described by the adjective

darken

darkness

dark

Some other common adjectives that form verbs and nouns in the same way are: fresh, hard, loose, quick, sharp, thick and weak. The adjectives broad, deep and wide form nouns in -th: broad + broaden + breadth deep 4 deepen 4 depth wide

widen 4 width

Some verbs in -en do not derive from adjectives, but from the corresponding nouns:

Adjective

Noun

Verb

high long strong

height length strength fright threat

heighten lengthen strengthen frighten threaten

• The adjective short forms two nouns with a difference in meaning: short

shortness (being short or having little of sth) shortage (lack or insufficient quantity of sth)

Adjective Root in -nt Describing a quality / state

Noun in -nee or -ncy The quality/state described by the adjective

distant intelligent efficient

distance intelligence efficiency

• Most adjectives in -ant/-ent form nouns in -ance and-ence. • Some common adjectives that form nouns in -ance are: arrogant, assistant, ignorant, important, relevant, reluctant, resistant, significant and tolerant. • Some common adjectives that form nouns in -ence are: absent, confident, convenient, different, evident, innocent, patient, present, silent and violent. • Some common adjectives in -ant/-ent that form nouns in -ancy/-ency are: consistent, efficient, fluent, frequent, pregnant, proficient, redundant, transparent, urgent and vacant.

Adjective Root in -te Describing a quality / state

Noun in -cy The quality/state described by the adjective

private

privacy

• Some other common adjectives that form nouns in the same way are: (in)accurate, (in)adequate, (il)literate, immediate, intimate and obstinate. • The adjective secret forms two nouns with a difference in meaning: secret + secret (fact known only to few people and not told to others) secrecy (having/keeping secrets) • The adjective fortunate does not form a noun in -cy but derives from the noun fortune.

unit 0 7 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the w ords in capitals.

1 Despite being a keen camper, I find the 2 In order to

in this forest

DARK, BEARABLE

____________________ your shoulders, you have to do many push-ups at the gym.

3 She didn’t like the colour of her hair, so she decided t o ________________________ it. She was, however, rather

BROAD DARK

about how dark it would become.

ANXIETY

4 The suspect was released because of lack o f ________

.against him.

EVIDENT

5 Being unable to meet John, I rang to apologise for the

_________ I had caused him.

CONVENIENT

. in at least two languages is essential if you want to become an

FLUENT

interpreter. 7 The town council placed restrictions on the water supply due to a

of

SHORT

water that year. 8 There are many complaints about th e ____________________

of facilities for the handicapped,

ADEQUATE

9 The government attempted to reduce____________________

by increasing police patrols.

VIOLENT

10 T h e ________________________ of that lake has never been measured. 11 To calculate the area of a room, you multiply its ___________________

DEEP .by its

LONG, WIDE

12 The doctor advised me to exercise in order t o _____________________

. my back muscles.

STRONG

13 Amanda is unlikely to lose any weight, as she has a

_____for sweets and junk

WEAK

food. 14 Many flights were delayed today, causing growing .

_among the

PATIENT

passengers. 15 In some countries, the percentage o f ____________

. is still very high.

LITERATE

Examination Practice A

Read the text belo w and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

NEW YEAR

I

New Year celebrations date as far back as 2000 BC in Mesopotamia. Yet, the actual date has changed a number of times. There was always a problem because New Year was (1)_______________________ by the movements of the Sun and Moon which allowed room for error. To (2)_______________________ a long story short, it wasn't until 1582, when the calendar we use today was (3). that January 1st became New Year's Day in most cultures. Some cultures, however, celebrate the New Year at various times, according to their calendar and religious traditions. For example, the Chinese celebrate it between the 21st of January and the 19th of February. In (4 )_______________________ with most of the world who celebrate at the beginning of the year, the Jewish people celebrate it in September or early October. In any case, the New Year is a festive occasion. Some people celebrate at home with no (5).

of

champagne, while others party on the streets, watching the fireworks that the city council (6 )____________________

have

provided. Others prefer night clubs, joining the long (7)_______________________ of people waiting to get in and dance the night away. In China, there are parades with dancing dragons and hundreds of people turn (8)_______________________ to look on. It is also common to make New Year’s Resolutions, the (9) _ (10)_______________________ the New Year as a chance to (11)____ (12)To sum.

. being that most people bad habits.

., New Year is a time of celebration that a large proportion of the people look forward to.

unit 0 7

B

1

A calculated

B assumed

C supposed

D considered

2

A break

B change

C cut

D turn

3

A realised

B recognised

C known

D introduced

4

A contrary

B opposite

C contrast

D difference

5

A shortage

B loss

C absence

D scarce

6

A likely

B should

C possibly

D may

7

A aisles

B queues

C rows

D corridors

8

A up

B on

C into

D out

9

A view

B point

C idea

D matter

10

A regard

B think

C believe

D realise

11

A cut

B break

C change

D split

12

A on

B for

C up

D in

Com plete the text below w ith the correct form of the w ords in capitals.

I help and found myself in the

FINANCE

(2) __________________________. position of fulfilling my dream -buying my own house.

DELIGHT

My friends tried to (3)______ __________________me by describing terrible experiences

FRIGHT

nvolving house hunting. I knew that my ordeal would test my (4).

PATIENT

but I was determined to go to any (5)________________________ .

LONG

_ast year I received some (1).

wanted to live close to the city centre so I placed great (6 )______

on

1

a jj

I

H

to (7)__________ ______________the walls up a bit, but that wasn't a problem. I really loved

FRESH

the (8)________________________ of the area, which was (9 )_________________________ ,

QUIET, USUAL

_from the city centre. It was exactly

mm;

IMPORTANT

the location. I inspected numerous houses and finally found one I was happy with. I needed

considering the short (10).

mm

at

DISTANT

what I had dreamed of.

m

m

Collocations/Expressions A Com plete the blanks w ith the verbs leave, put, set or shake. ___________ a stop to sth

___________ hands with sb

pressure on sb

___________ fire to sth

___________ a message

foot in

___________ an example

___________ the table

the alarm clock

B Read the sentences and com plete them w ith the co rrect form of the verbs put, set or shake. 1 The university has____________

. very high standards to attract the best students.

2 Don't________________ the blame on him. He’s not the one responsible for the accident. 3 Je rry ________________ his head in disappointment. 4 She loved the house the minute she________________ eyes on it. 5 Ian________________ a lot of effort into repairing that old car. 6 Mrs Smith

. her children the task of clearing out the attic.

7 After years of imprisonment, the man who had wrongfully been accused of the robbery was finally______

free.

8 They have announced their engagement but they haven't________________ a date for their wedding yet. C Com plete the b lanks w ith the verbs m iss, or lose. . interest in a competition .a chance . money

.a class

.contact

. patience

.weight

.control (over)

.an opportunity

. one's job

. one's temper

. one's way

a train/plane etc.

a person

.a meeting

.a/your turn

a match

D Com plete the sentences w ith the collocations/expressions in the box below. out of the way

underway

make our way to

by the way

1 "This job is going to be done. Im

on the way

have it your way

way ahead

come a long way

one way or another there's no way

way of thinking

way of life

said the manager in a determined voice. .to Julie's house. Will I see you there?

3 This school has

____________since its first year in operation, when it only had twenty students.

4 We were asked to

______________the dining hall.

5 Can you please move

_________________ ? We want to move this big box.

6 Negotiations are____ 7

_to buy a new striker, to improve the team’s chances. our parents will let us go to the rock festival next weekend.

8

whose turn is it to wash the dishes?

9 Once you understand the lecturer's_________________________ his theory becomes quite easy to follow. 10 Why must you always____________________

.? It’s not fair!

11 Stop wasting your time in class, Michael. The rest of the class i s __________ 12 Teenagers tend to idolise film stars and imitate the way they look and their

of you in Mathematics.

‘U o

Sentence Linkers Com plete the sentences/paragraphs w ith the sentence lin kers in the box below. furthermore besides

what is more

otherwise

nevertheless

to be more specific

not only

yet

likewise

to tell you the truth

similarly . does he assign them a lot of

1 The students are not happy with their new English teacher._____________________ homework, but he is also very critical of their work.

2 I felt like complaining to the airport authorities the other day. Our flight was delayed for an unknown reason. , the airline didn't bother to apologise for the inconvenience.__________________ ., I managed to stay calm and get

airline representative I asked was of no help, if not rude._____________ the information I needed. 3

he is slow and not

, I don't think Adam is very good at his job.

, he believes that he is the backbone of the company. He is so annoying!

very creative.

I don't dare to challenge him because of his close friendship with the manager. I would not have a problem telling him a thing or two. 4 If you change address notify m e.__________________________ , do so if your phone number changes. 5 Reading books in a foreign language helps you expand your vocabulary.___________________________watching films helps you get used to the pronunciation.

Phrasal Verbs Read the sentences on the left and m atch the phrasal verbs w ith th eir defin ition s on the right by w ritin g the correct num ber in the box next to each d efinition .

A PUT

devote to

1 Even though it was summer, I still needed to put on a jumper at night.

wear

2 Jane shouldn't have to put up with that noisy class.

save

3 We will have to put off the barbecue if the rain continues. 4 Why must you put yourself through all this stress? 5 The students were told to put away their books and clear their desks. 6 I put money aside every month, so that I would have enough for my summer holidays.

suffer postpone extinguish offer hospitality to

7 Jason put on a lot of weight over the summer break.

tolerate

8 The man I was sitting next to asked me to put out my cigarette.

gain

9 I was more than happy to put my friend up for the summer.

put sth in its usual place

10 Just a minute, sir. I'll put you through to Mr Jones.

connect by telephone

11 I have put a lot of work into this project. establish, create B LAY, SET, SETTLE 1 As soon as the new teacher introduced herself, she laid down her rules.

state, establish

2 We have laid out the garden. It should look beautiful in spring.

start living a quiet life in a place

3 The stall was set up and ready for business.

delay

4 After years of living with friends, Geoffrey decided it was time to set up a home of his own.

begin a journey

5 The group set off/out early in the morning to climb the treacherous peak.

start doing sth

6 I set out this morning to clean the garden but was interrupted by the rain.

become used to

7 Technical problems set us back two weeks. 8 It took Jill months to settle into her new home. 9 Carl was not the type to settle down, so his announcement that he was going to marry soon took everyone by surprise.

make the necessary preparations for sth to start plan and arrange how sth should appear

unit 08 Words with Prepositions A

Com plete the blanks w ith prepositions.

Adjectives

Nouns

Verbs

afraid

(give) advice

advise sb

(in)capable

a hope

choose

confident

protection

choose

prefer

a reputation

collaborate

prepare

handy

a result

communicate

prevent

polite

a specialist

connect

refer

cope

result

(be) free

sth

upset

sth two

exDlainsth

occur point

sb

listen

(= cause to happen) result

mention

(= be caused by)

B Read the follow ing sentences and com plete them w ith prepositions. 1 A compass may come in handy

our hiking trip next week.

2 Sunscreen offers protection

the sun's harmful rays.

3 We have a variety of materials to choose 4 Her aggressive behaviour resulted 5 You can choose

her being fired.

the red or the blue dress.

6 These yoghurts are free 7 The damage to their property resulted 8 Must I always explain everything 9 The local councils decided to collaborate 10 The doctor advised his patient 11 The accident was the result

artificial colouring. the fire. you twice? one another for the protection of the environment. the risks involved in smoking. his carelessness.

See G ram m ar R e v ie w page 157 | Read the text below and com plete each b lank w ith one word. The Loch Ness Monster (1)_______________________ thought to be one of the world’s most famous mysteries. Nessie, as her fans call her, is believed (2 )_______________________ be living in the Scottish loch (lake) Ness. Scientists as well as ordinary people (3)_______________________ fascinated by the mystery of the existence of a very large living creature which (4)_______________________ still unknown to science. However, it is very unlikely for an animal to (5)

:__________ living in Loch Ness, as it is deep, dark, very cold and almost lifeless. Arthur Grant is alleged

to (6 )_______________________ encountered Nessie on January 5th, 1934. Being a veterinary student himself, he gave a detailed description of the animal which matched the portrait of a plesiosaur- a prehistoric aquatic reptile which had (7)_______________________ considered extinct for more than sixty million years. Nevertheless, many sonar and photographic recordings (8 )____________________ been obtained (9)___________________ several scientific teams over the years. Unfortunately, none of them could (10)_______________________ used to provide any form of evidence that Nessie exists. Long-necked water monsters are (11)_______________________ detected every now and then in several other Scottish lochs. For this reason, Scotland has become a popular holiday destination and (12)_______________________ visited by _____ millions of tourists every year.

unit 0 8

They gave him a puppy for his birthday. 4 He was given a puppy for his birthday. / A puppy was given to him for his birthday. / A puppy was given-himfor his^birthday.. We bought Susan a new camera. 4 A new camera was bought for Susan. / (Use theprepositions to and for before the indirect object person - of passive verbs.) We heard him say that he was guilty. / We heardhim tosay that he was guilty: He was heard to say that he was guilty. / He was heardsay that-he was guilty. (see, hear+bare infinitive in Active Voice; see, hear +full infinitive in Passive Voice) Joe helped Sue carry/to carry her suitcase. 4 Sue was helped to cany her suitcase. / Sue was helped carry her suitcase. (help +full/bare infinitive in Active Voice; help +full infinitive in Passive Voice)

WhowastMsessay-written? What caused the power failure? 4 What was the power failure caused by? / Whatwas-fee^ewer-faitare'caused?

(When asking about the agent of apassive sentence, by must be included in the question.) She couldn't sleep because she was terrified by the horror film./ Terrified by the horror film, she couldn't sleep. / She couldn't sleep because she had been terrified by the horror film./ Having been terrified by the horror film, she couldn't sleep./ Been torrifiod by thehergerfihmrsh&couldrrt steep: (Past and perfectparticiples may replace clauses in the passive voice.) They accused Harry of stealing the money. 4 Harry was accused of stealing the money. (In the Passive Voice thepreposition of prepositional verbs goes immediately after the verb.)

Mary made the children wash their hands. / Mar-ymadethechildrentowashtheirhands.The children were made to wash their hands. / The children were made wash their hands:' (make+bare infinitive in Active Voice; make +full infinitive in Passive Voice)

We haven't touched anything. 4 Nothing has been touched. / Anything has not been touched.-

[ • The dangerous scenes of the film were performed by stuntmen. The forest was destroyed by fire. The photograph was taken with an expensive camera. (by+agent (person or thing), with + instrument) |S Who wrote this essay? Who(m) was this essay written by? /

By whom was this essay written? /

(any + compounds in Active Voice no+compounds in Passive Voice) They didn't let me buy a dog. 4 I was not allowed to buy a dog. / Lwa¬ let to buya-etogr

Getin Active Voice

be allowed to in Passive Voice)

Key Transformations

I & I haven't told anyone the news yet. No one has been told the news yet. Susan was amazed to find out that her book was missing. To Susan's amazement, her book was missing. We expect that the Australian athlete will win the race. It is expected that the Australian athlete will win the race. The Australian athlete is expected to win the race. ® Julie's parents allow her to go to parties. Julie's parents let her go to parties. Julie is allowed to go to parties. Julie's parents give her permission to go to parties.

Julie is permitted to go to parties. Julie has her parents' permission to go to parties. Julie's parents don't allow her to go to parties. Julie's parents don't let her go to parties. Julie is not allowed to go to parties. Julie cannot get her parents' permission to go to parties. Julie is forbidden to go to parties. One must not smuggle goods into the country. It is not allowed to smuggle goods into the country. It is illegal to smuggle goods into the country. It is against the law to smuggle goods into the country. It is forbidden to smuggle goods into the country.

unit 0 8 Examination Practice A

Read the text below and th in k of the w ord w hich best fits each space. Use o n ly one w ord in each space.

THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA The Great Wall of China (1)_______________________ known to be over 1900 kilometres long, making it by far the longest wall in the world. The building of the wall is said (2)_______________________ have begun in the third century BC (3)_______________________ the Emperor Shih Huangti.The reason it (4)_______________________ built was to keep the Huns out of Central Asia. A lot of effort was put (5)_______________________ constructing the wall. It is (6)_______________________ of earth, stone and brick and its highest section is close to nine metres. Over the centuries, the wall has often (7 )

added to, rebuilt and repaired. This was done to give China protection invaders. Despite its size, however, the wall failed to (9)______________________ a stop to

(8 )

invading armies such as the Mongols and the Manchus. The wall is still of great importance, as it divides Inner China from Outer China. What is (10)________________________ it is useful for dividing the region into cultivated land and pastureland.The Great Wall holds another impressive record which won't (11)_______________________ surpassed for quite a while; it is the only man-made structure visible from space. It is no wonder that most travel guides refer (12)_______________________ the Great Wall of China as the world's greatest tourist attraction.

B Com plete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar m eaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given unchanged. You m ust use betw een tw o and five w ords, in clu d in g the w ord given. 1 They had to postpone the match until next week, put

The match__________________________________________________ ___ until next week.

2 We haven't told anyone about the change in our plans, informed

No one_______________________________

_ the change in our plans.

3 We had to go up the stairs because someone was using the lift, so

The lift_________________________________

. we had to go up the stairs.

4 Experts believe that the landslides were caused by recent floods, resulted

The landslides are___________

__________ recent floods.

5 She doesn't let him smoke in the house, allowed

He____________________

. in the house.

6 We mustn't park on the yellow line, forbidden

It______

on the yellow line.

7 The teacher saw two students leave the school, were

Two students__________________

the school.

8 The coach let the players take the day off. permission The players_______________

.take the day off.

unit 0 8

Words easily confused Use the correct form of the w ords in the boxes to com plete the sentences in each group A-I below. You m ay use some of the w ords m ore than once. In some cases m ore than one w ord m ay be correct.

A

choose

pick

gather

collect from the trees and packed in boxes.

1 Every spring the peaches are.

coins for the last five years. I have one coin that dates back to 1935.

2 I have been________________

between getting a blue or a black car.

3 We can____________________ 4 Many people.

_____ round the injured man to see how badly he was hurt.

5 The two captains had to

_______________ the players for their team.

B

choice

collection

selection

election

1 I don't have a(n) _

variety

option

, as you didn’t give me any.

2 Every four years there is a general

and people vote for the party they prefer.

3 My stamp_______________________

consists of two thousand stamps.

4 Aspirin is the number one.

______________ for combating fever and pain.

5 The shop has ice cream in a(n).

___________________ of flavours.

6 John's______________________

consult

advise

suggest

1 Would you.

as captain of the team took us by surprise.

propose

recommend

this restaurant or not?

2 If the chest pain continues, you must________________________ a doctor. 3 I ________________________ we go to Malta for a week, unless you can____ 4 The doctor

me to take a few days off work due to a persistent illness.

5 The government.

D

tip

clue

another destination.

_____making radical changes to the health system.

advice

information

1 The FBI is still looking for______________ 2 Take m y___________________ 3 I need_____________________ 4 Our teacher gave us some useful

to help them catch the dangerous criminal.

and see your bank manager if you're having financial problems. regarding the polar bear for my project. on how to prepare for the exams.

unit 0 8 E

reliable

responsible

reasonable

respectable

1 I bought a television set, as I found the price very___________ 2 At camp, each teacher was________________________ for twenty students. 3 Judges are considered________________________ members of society. 4 She's a very________________________ person, so you can turn to her if you are having any problems.

F

mention

refer

express

comment

report

1 Most western economies are________________________ to as "free markets”. 2 My manager asked me to ________________________ back to her after the seminar. 3 The woman________________________ her dissatisfaction to the builder for not having the house ready on time. 4 The politician refused to ________________________ on the new tax laws. 5 The children didn't________________________ anything about the trip until the last minute. 6 He________________________ the theft of his briefcase to the police.

G

announce

inform

confess

introduce

reveal

publish

1 When the thief________________________ to the robbery, he was officially charged with the crime. 2 The journalist refused to ________________________ her source, saying it was highly confidential. 3 The well known author________________________ his new novel last week. 4 The finance minister________________________ that there would be no wage increases for the following year. 5 The headmaster________________________ the new teacher to the class. 6 If you lose your credit card________________________ _ the bank immediately. 7 The potato was________________________ to Europe in 1565.

H

ensure

insure

1

reassure

make sure

confirm

you lock the windows before you go.

2 I had to ring the airline to ________________________ my flight 48 hours in advance. 3 You should________________________ your car against fire and theft. 4 She________________________ me that everything would go according to the plan. 5 The role of the judge is to ________________________ proper legal proceedings.

I

agree

accept

admit

approve

1 I don't________________________ of people smoking in a doctor's waiting room. 2 I don't always________________________ with Jessica, because we don't share the same views. 3 After being questioned, the student________________________ that he had cheated in the test. 4 Children are warned not to ________________________ sweets from strangers.

B

unit 0 8

This unit deals with verbs and nouns which derive from adjectives.

Verb = Adjective + -ise

Adjective Root Describing a state or condition

Acquiring the state or condition described by the adjective generalise

general

• Some other common adjectives that form verbs in the same way are: familiar, fertile, legal, mobile, modern, neutral, special, stable and sterile. • Pay attention to the following irregularity: stable stabilise

Adjective Root in -able/-ible

Noun in -ability/-ibility

(in)capable (im)possible

(in)capabiiity (im)possibility

• Some other common adjectives that form nouns in -ability are: available, stable and suitable. • Some other common adjectives that form nouns in -ibility are: flexible, responsible, sensible and visible. • The nouns ability and stability form opposites with the addition of the prefix -in, not -un. unable 4 inability unstable 4 instability

-ous -e •al -ive -or -ar -an -ic -d

Adjective Root

Noun + -ity

generous secure original creative major similar human authentic humid

generosity security originality creativity majority similarity humanity authenticity humidity

• Some nouns which derive from adjectives do not follow the rules presented above. Some of these are: ambiguous -4 am biguity ferocious 4 ferocity anonymous anonym ity simple 4 sim plicity • Note the following irregularities: safe ^ safety various 4 variety

Nouns in-hood

unit 0 8 Com plete the sentences w ith the co rre ct fo rm o f the w ords in capitals. 1 It is of vital

that doctors

. surgical equipment

IMPORTANT, STERILE

before using it. 2 It is y o u r _____

. to switch off the lights when you leave.

RESPONSIBLE

.was down to a metre due to the thick fog, so we had to drive very

VISIBLE CAUTION

4 Supermarkets offer a

__________________ of products to consumers.

VARIOUS

5 They depended on growing tomatoes for th e ir ______________________. 6 He is v e r y ______________________and has a liv e ly _____________________

LIVELY , so he gets along

CHEER, PERSONAL

with almost everyone. 7 For their o w n _____

, passengers are advised to remain seated.

SAFE

8 The manager of the company is concerned about the decrease in

PRODUCTIVE

9 Do you know the saying " ______________________killed the cat"?

CURIOUS

10 Can you sign this document, please? Don't worry, it's just a ______

FORMAL

11 Violent, trouble-causing hooligans are a

MINOR

12 We would like to point out t h e ________ t h e _____________ 13 You have to

among football fans. between this new type of engine and

SIMILAR

one. They have nothing in common.

CONVENTION

______ _ plants if you want them to grow well.

FERTILE

Examination Practice A

Read the text b e lo w and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

ADVERTISING In this day and age, advertising is big business. It (1) (2 ) (3 )

________________________ a lot of effort into effectively

the public about a product or service. Advertisements are introduced through a of means. Companies can choose (4 )____________________________ the print media,

television, radio or even huge lit-up billboards that (5)_________________________ put up around our cities and which (6 )

that we buy this type of ice-cream or that type of trainer. Advertising companies use a

number of techniques to attract our attention, including stunning photography, eye-catching graphics, jingles or clever (7 )

. (8 )__________________________companies may employ famous people like film stars to

(9 )________ ________________their products. However, many governments have introduced rules and regulations that advertisers must follow. These codes of conduct (10)_________________________ that advertisers don't make exaggerated claims or offend certain groups of people. In some countries, advertisements can be displayed only in specific areas. (11)___________________________ , some countries do not (12)_______________________ of the advertising of certain products, like tobacco, so they don't allow such advertising at all.

unit 0 8

B

1

A sets

B puts

C lays

D does

2

A introducing

B explaining

C informing

D mentioning

3

A variety

B choice

c

collection

D selection

4

A from

B between

c

through

D throughout

5

A have been

B have

c

had been

D had

6

A mean

B approve

c

suggest

D consult

7

A descriptions

B comments

c

reports

D announcements

8

A To be more specific

B Vet

c

Not only

D What is more

9

A recommend

B suggest

c

advise

D propose

10

A reassure

B insure

c

ensure

D confirm

11

A Furthermore

B Nevertheless

c

Otherwise

D Likewise

12

A accept

B admit

c

agree

D approve

Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals.

AIR-CONDITIONERS The American inventor W.H. Carrier developed the first air-conditioning unit in 1902. Since then, the (1)______________________ of air-conditioners has increased (2)_______________________

POPULAR, RAPID

Given people's(3)_____________________ to function in the heat, air-conditioners provide them

ABLE

with a feeling of comfort. That is why the (4) ___________________ of even more people installing

LIKELY

air-conditioners for (5)_____________________

PERSON, PRIVATE

use in the (6 )_____________________ of their

own home will increase further. But what do they do? Their aim is to (7) _

the temperature in a room. This

STABLE

is accomplished by the (8 )___________

of a fan, which also removes dust and odours

PRESENT

from the air and controls the humidity. The (9).

___________________

EFFICIENT

of an air-conditioner

depends on the power of its fan. Nowadays there is a great (10)____________ ______________________ of air-conditioners on the market which are bound to cover each person’s needs.

VARIOUS

Prepositional Phrases A Com plete the blanks w ith the prepositions in, on, at, b y or under. .arrest

the radio

. return

. purpose

. reality

.one’s opinion

. force

_average

.a diet

. heart

. last

.conclusion

. a mess

. any case

. addition

_demand

.fire

. control

.first sight

. strike

. mistake

.television

. oneself

. half

. general

. particular

. detail

.the whole

.second thoughts

. the contrary

.all costs

. person

.the long run

. summary

pairs

B Read the sentences and com plete them w ith the prepositions in, into, on, at, by, for or off. 1 The statue in the square i s ________________________ memory of the soldiers who fought in the war. 2 The drowning child was rescued by the lifeguards who w e re ________________________ duty at the time. 3 Rainwater is carried away from the streets________________________ means of a drainage system. 4 The item s________________________ sale were all second hand. 5 Most people shop________________________ credit nowadays due to the convenience of credit cards. 6

all accounts, she is a great performer.

7 I accidentally dropped an expensive vase on the floor and it broke________________________ hundreds of pieces. 8 I can't believe it! I was booked by the police for driving________________________ 60km/h. 9 Please state your name and address________________________ full. 10 Try to keep calm ________________________ the sake of your children. 11 Despite the fact that the police officer w a s ________________________ duty, he chased the bank robber down the street and managed to arrest him. 12 The house next to ours is u p ________________________ sale and we’re thinking of buying it. 13

all means, you can help yourself to anything that’s in the fridge.

14 The present government cam e________________________ power two years ago. 15 The war was eventually won, b u t________________________ a great cost in human lives.

unit 09

Read the sentences on the left and m atch the ph rasal verbs w ith th eir d efin ition s on the right b y w ritin g the :orrect num ber in the box next to each definition .

A MIX, RUN, HANG

knock down with a vehicle

1 John is a very good host. He knows how to mix with the crowd.

confuse

2 My sister and I are twins and people always mix us up.

meet unexpectedly

3 Run along now, I'm busy; I'll talk to you after the break. 4 He was a restless teenager and kept running away from home.

spend time at a place not doing anything important

5 You won't believe who I ran into at the department store yesterday!

go away

6 My dog Dido was nearly run over by a car yesterday.

wait for a short time

7 Gary ran out of petrol in the middle of nowhere. leave, escape from

8 Teenagers tend to hang about/around arcades spending their pocket

socialise

money on video games.

have no more left

9 The man on the other end of the line was so rude that I hung up on him.

put down the receiver, end a phone call suddenly

10 I was told to hang on while they connected me with another department. 11 Jeff doesn't hang out in the city centre anymore.

frequent, go often

B FALL, HURRY, TRY 1 Frank fell for Susan during their final year at university. 2 The managing director replaced the sales manager after falling out with

be strongly attracted to

him over a crucial issue.

make haste, do sth quickly

3 Most students had fallen behind in their studies because of the demanding

put on clothes to see if they fit or look nice

workload. 4 The company fell apart when the managing director was arrested for fraud.

not make adequate progress

5 If you don't hurry up, we'll miss the beginning of the concert.

stop existing or functioning

6 While shopping, George has to try on at least five shirts before he makes up

test

his mind. 7 I had the opportunity to try out all the latest power tools at last week's do-it-

have an argument with

yourself exhibition.

Words with Prepositions A Com plete the blanks w ith prepositions. Adjectives anxious

Verbs sth

(dis)aoree

concerned late

a subject (dis)aaree

nervous worried

sb

an action applv

sb/an

sb sth

ask

sb sth

complain criticise sb

sth

sth

talk

sth

sb sb sth

thank sb

doing sth obiect

sb

sDeak

sth discourage sb

araue

a complaint

auarrel

comDlain sb

institution Nouns

beq

sth

wonder sb/sth

worrv

sb/sth

unit 09 6 Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions.

1 Joe looks very worried __________ his job. Why doesn't he talk ___________someone___________it? 2 The captain demanded more e ffo rt__________ his team. 3 Most workers agreed __________ the m anagement___________having a wage cut to save their jobs. 4 I applied__________ a computer com pany___________the position of sales representative on offer. 5 Jane was late __________ Susan's birthday party on Friday night. 6 I always quarrel__________ my sister___________what to watch on TV. 7 Why must you always argue __________ Donald___________football?

Grammar Revision (Pronouns-Causative Form) See G ram m ar R eview p age 158 Read the short texts below and complete each blank with on e word. a As soon as I got my driver's licence, I stopped taking the bus to work and started driving my (1)_____________________ car. It was great! However, after a few months I noticed that my

car wasn't running very well. I had never (2)______________________ the car serviced, so I decided it was time I took (3)______________________ to a garage. The problem was that I didn't have much money. So, I went to a friend of (4 )_______________________Harry, who I knew fixed (5 )______________________ car (6 )______________________ . Harry had almost become a professional over the years and had even turned (7)______________________ garage into a workshop. He had a great car too, better than (8 )______________________ . He was kind enough to have a look at my car, and after that (9 ) (10 )

ran smoothly again. I was so satisfied that I decided to get (11)_______________________ check my car in the future.

b I was feeling really nervous about (12)______________________ some medical tests done, but my mother assured (13)______________________ that I had nothing to worry about. When the day came, she couldn't accompany me because she had (14)______________________ someone to paint our house and she had to be there herself, so I went by (15 )

. First, I was seen by a physician who examined

(16 )

ears, nose and throat. I had no problem with that, but I hated

even the idea of (17)______________________ a blood test done. Just the sight of that needle makes (18)______________________ feel faint! After that ordeal, I was told that I had to (19)_______________________ my chest X-rayed, so I went to the radiography department. The test results came out a week later and showed that there was nothing wrong with (2 0 )______________________ . I was so relieved that I wouldn't be having any more tests done for a while.

unit 0 9

< Mary typed three letters yesterday. (Active Voice, she typed them herself.) Mary had/got three letters typed yesterday. (Causative Form, someone else typed them for her.) Three letters were typed yesterday. (Passive Voice, we don’t know who typed the letters; it could have been Mary.) & Mary had some letters typed yesterday. Did Mary have any letters typed yesterday? / Had Mary any lottcro typed yesterday? (Questions in the Causative Form are formed with do/does/did in the Present and Past Simple.) & She has her children tidy their bedroom every weekend. / (=She makes her children tidy their bedroom.) She has her chfldrcn to tidy their bedroom every weekendShe got her children to tidy their bedroom yesterday. / (=Shepersuaded her children to tidy their bedroom.) -She got her children tidy thoir bedroom yesterday. & They had their flat broken into last night. (Their flat was broken into last night.) (The Causative Form is often used instead of the Passive Voicefor accidents or misfortunes.)

&

concentrate.)

0

I woke up early this morning. / TwokemyGolf up oarly this mornings (Reflexivepronouns are not used after verbs such as wake up, wash, dress, shave, sleep etc.)

&

The woman was looking right in front of her. / Tk&wetaaR-was looking right-HrirenfroffterseH:— (Reflexivepronouns are not used afterprepositions of place.)

&

We enjoyed ourselves very much at the party. / We enjoyed the party very much. / We enjoyed vory much at the party. -

(Reflexivepronouns are used after verbs such as enjoy, help, teach etc. when the subject and the object of the verb are the same.) &

They were looking at each other. / They were looking at one another. / They-woro looking at one other.-

0

I'd like another glass of milk./ I'd like one more glass of milk. /

& I have my own car now, so I don't have to borrow my father's. / Not even his own mother recognised him in his disguise. / 4 wont chopping with my own mother on Friday. (Own is usedfor emphasis or to indicate that something belongs only to a particular person, thing or group.) & That woman's cat ate my pet hamster. / -The-cat of that woman ato my pot hamster.— The cat of the woman who lives next door ate my pet hamster. /

You need to take some time off and relax. / You need to take some time off and relax yoHT3clf.(Reflexivepronouns are not used after the verbs relax, rest,

We drove for another ten miles and then we stopped. / We drove for ten more miles and then we stopped. / We-drovo for ton other miles and then we stopped. &

We are meeting the other students at the train station. / We are meeting the others at the train station. / Wo are-mooting the others 9tudents at the train station.- (When other is used before a noun, it does not take an s.)

-Tho woman's who lives next door cat ate my pet hamster.— (of + noun is used for people only in longphrases.)

Key Transformations & A computer expert must update my computer. I need to/must have my computer updated. My computer needs updating. I need to have a computer expert update my computer. I need to get a computer expert to update my computer. ® A mobile phone company sponsored the young artists’ exhibition. The young artists had their exhibition sponsored by a mobile phone company.

&

&

The young artists’exhibition was sponsored by a mobile phone company. No one helped me paint my apartment. I painted my apartment on my own. I painted my apartment (all) by myself. One of my cousins is a famous basketball player. A cousin of mine is a famous basketball player.

® We made sure that the books were returned to the library. We had/got the books returned to the library.

unit 0 9 Examination Practice Read the text below and th in k of the w ord w hich best fits each space. Use o n ly one w ord in each space.

A

THE VW BEETLE The Volkswagen Beetle is one of the best known cars in the world. (1 )

all accounts, it defined a whole generation

(2 )

people.

It all began in 1935 when Ferdinand Porsche designed the car on his (3 )

and later presented it to the German public.

Although back then it was criticised (4 )________________________ its shape and its noise level, the car went on to become a legend. During World War II, the Volkswagen factory was burnt down, but this did not discourage the manufacturers (5)_________________________continuing their work. At the end of the war, Volkswagen (6 )_________________________its factory rebuilt by the Allies, among others. In 1946, Volkswagen named the car ‘Type I’ to mark a new start for the company. Within two years, the first Beetle convertible was produced. Although complaints (7)________________________ the noise persisted, the Volkswagen designers made every effort to improve (8 )________________________ model. They always believed it was only a matter of time before everyone fell (9 )________________________ the Beetle -and they were right! Over the years, sales grew dramatically and by 1972 the Beetle had made its way into history books as the most produced car ever! Its production reached twenty million cars in 1981, a high percentage (10)________________________ which were exported to the United States. In 1999, the new Beetle went (11)________________________ sale. This model is not simply a more fashionable version of the original (12)________________________ . It is a completely new, modern car which has definitely come a long way since the 1935 model. B Com plete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar m eaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given unchanged. You m ust use betw een tw o and five words, in clu din g the w ord given. 1 Someone stole Bill's briefcase yesterday, stolen

Bill____________________________________________________ yesterday.

2 Our flat needs painting before we rent it out. get

We need________________________

before we rent it out.

3 Sheila, make sure they sign the contracts by the end of the day. signed

Sheila,__________________________________________

by the end of the day.

4 My secretary has rescheduled the meeting for Tuesday, had

I _________________________________________

for Tuesday.

5 Did you know that one of our friends painted this picture? friend

painted this picture?

Did you know that___________________________

6 Have some more cheesecake, help

Please____________

some more cheesecake.

7 Jennifer finally agreed to apply for the position, got

They finally________________________

.for the position.

8 He always waxes his car on his own. anyone He never________________

his car.

9 The children were told to be well-mannered in front of the guests, behave The children were told_______________________________

.in front of the guests.

u n it0 9 10 The students were made to do some extra work for the project, had

The teacher__________________________

. some extra work for the project.

'1 No one helped the children build the treehouse, that's why they were so proud of their achievement. by

The children____________________________________________________ , that's why they were so proud of their achievement.

12 We had a very good time at the rock concert. enjoyed W e________________________________________________

at the rock concert.

Words easily confused Use the correct form of the words in the boxes to com plete the sentences in each group A-H below. You m ay use some of the w ords m ore than once. In some cases m ore than one w ord m ay be correct.

say

tell

speak

talk

discuss

debate

1 Don't interrupt the teacher while she's________________________ . 2 W e________________________ the problem at the meeting so that everybody could give their opinion. 3 It's so noisy in here that I can't hear what he's________________________ . .five languages.

4 We were amazed to find out that she 5 "Don’t ____________________

me what to do!" he

6 The panel.

B

ask

.to her in a loud voice.

. women's role in society.

demand

wonder

question

1 The customer.

apply

. a full refund because his washing machine didn't work.

2 I'll___________

my parents if I can go to the concert.

3 You must.

_______for a visa if you want to visit China.

4 Bill______

. whether he would be able to finish his report on time.

5 The police.

_______ the suspect for hours.

6 Jo h n _____

the waiter for the bill.

7 Most patients hardly ever.

require

request

their doctors’ decisions.

order

beg

1 The homeless often

inquire

command

appeal

. in the streets for money.

2 The couple weren't satisfied with the court's decision, so they decided to . 3 I would like to ________________________ a pizza and a lemonade, please. 4 The teacher expects the students to . 5 Applicants for this position are_____ 6 Jerry called the bank to ____________ 7 The army officer__________________

permission to leave the room. .to have a degree in Accounting. . about the home loans they had on offer. . the soldiers to swim across the river.

.to a higher court.

D

advice

directions

guide

instructions

manual

plan

recipe

1 Before using the computer, read carefully the________________________ which are in the_________________________ . 2 If you give me________________________ on what needs to be done, I'll make a(n)_________________________ of action. 3 A(n)________________________ to cheap restaurants throughout Europe has just been published. 4 The architect drew up______________________ for our new house and gave us some invaluable______________________ 5 Mary wanted to try out a new________________________ for chocolate cookies.

E

brochure

leaflet

handbook

catalogue

list

menu

1 There were so many delicious dishes on the______________________that I couldn’t decide which one to choose. 2 "Is my name on the______________________ of successful candidates?” asked Jo. 3 People usually look through travel______________________ to decide on their holiday destinations. 4 I bought some tools through a mail-order______________________ . 5

advertising the new pizza restaurant were distributed around the neighbourhood.

6 The university______________________ contains useful information about the courses on offer.

F

refuse

deny

regret

resist

reject

1 They______________________ not having installed an alarm system. 2 Even though Diane was on a diet, she couldn't______________________eating the cake. 3 Don’t ______________________ that you broke the window. I saw you break it. 4 They______________________ to let me into the club because I was under age. 5 My application for the position of sales representative was______________________.

G

complain

criticise

object

discourage

disapprove

protest

argue

quarrel

1 The workers were determined to ______________________ for their rights. 2 The food was so cold and tasteless that I decided to ______________________ to the manager about it. 3 Many teachers______________________ of students chewing gum in class. 4 Local residents______________________ to the opening of a new factory in the area. 5 The new budget was______________________ for being harsh on poor people. 6 Don't______________________ with your sister. Sit down and discuss your problems. 7 I tried not to feel______________________ by my low test score, but it was difficult not to. 8 John and Kate split up because they were______________________ all the time. 9 The miners closed down the mines to ______________________ against the inhuman working conditions.

H

worry

mind

bother

annoy

trouble

doubt

1 It is natural for parents to ______________________about their children. 2 He asked not to be______________________ in the afternoon, because he would be busy. 3 Do you______________________ if I come with you or will I be in your way? 4 I'm not qualified for the job, so I ______________________ whether I'll get it. 5 Jane was so tired that she couldn’t even be______________________ to cook. 6 He used to call me names just to ______________________ me. 7 Something is______________________ Janet, but I have no idea what it could be.

fight

unit 0 9

W h en you are asked to form a d erivative, first check w hat part of speech the m issing w ord is; it could be a noun, a verb, an adjective or an adverb. Then, check w hat form of the m issing w ord you should supply. • Nouns can be in the singular or plural form. The plural of most nouns is formed by adding the endings -s or -es to the singular form of the noun.

Root Word

Deriving noun-singular

Deriving noun-plural

action

actions

activity

activities

act

• Adjectives and adverbs can be in the positive, comparative or superlative degree. One-syllable adjectives and adverbs and some two-syllable adjectives form their comparative degree in -er and their superlative degree in -est.

Root Word

Derivatives

Comparative

Superlative

luck (noun)

lucky (adj) luckily (adv)

luckier more luckily

luckiest most luckily

faster

fastest

deeper more deeply

deepest most deeply

fast (adj/adv)



deep (adj/adv)

deeply

3 Adverbs in -ly and adjectives with more than two syllables form their comparative and superlative degrees with more and most +adjective/adverb respectively. You will not be asked to form the comparative/superlative degree of such adjectives and adverbs in this part of the examination. • Verbs can be either in the Present Simple, the Past Simple, the -ing form or they could be Past Participles.

Root Word

Derivatives

Form Present Simple

danger

endanger Past Simple -ing form

mistake

-s/-es in the 3rd person singular

endanger-s mistake-s

-ed irregular formation

endangered mistook

-ing

endangering mistaking

-ed irregular formation

endangered mistaken

m ict^ l/Q !1llbldKc Past Participle

Examples

• Present participles in -ing and past participles in -ed/ irregular forms are also used as adjectives. interest 4 interesting / interested grow 4 growing / grown

|

unit 0 9 Com plete the sentences w ith the correct form of the w ords in capitals. 1 I thought the colour of my room was very light, so I decided to paint i t _____

DARK

2 A ________________________ director who wants t o _______________________ . run a company

MANAGE, SUCCESS

must take on many

RESPONSIBLE

3 The doctor I'm sending you to

. in neurology.

4 What are th e ________________

SPECIAL

. of your team winning the final?

CHANCE

5 I didn't have a pen to write down Kevin’s phone number, so I _______

it.

MEMORY

6 Things a r e ________________________ here in summer than in winter. 7 Many Third W orld________________________ n eed _________________ be____________________

LIVE , but this can only

.with the help of

COUNTRY, MODERN ACHIEVE, DEVELOP NATION

8 My friend is

. than I am when it comes to finding

LUCK

spaces. 9 Janet

PARK

_____ anything I do. We simply can't get along.

10 The new skylight definitely 11 I a m _____________________ 12

LIKE

up the room.

LIGHT

. now than I was before I had the soft drink.

THIRST

. have been working on this project for weeks but the problem remains

SCIENCE SOLVE

13 She keeps

. her money

SPEND, THOUGHT

14 I ran the

. I could to get to the hospital.

15 We found his behaviour so

_________________ that we had to leave the room.

FAST

16 When the teacher told the children that their excursion would be

ANNOY . all

he could see was a room full o f ________________________ faces. 17 Children learn hardly anything during____________________

CANCEL DISAPPOINT

.lessons.

BORE

Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide w hich answ er A, B, C or D best fits each space.

Arthur Miller was born in New York in 1915. He was the son of a coat manufacturer who (1)______________________ control of his business through bankruptcy. This experience at an early age disturbed Miller and thereafter he was aware of society’s inadequacies. He would (2)______________________ them later in his plays by attacking the modern (3)______________________ of life. Miller's major achievement came in 1949, when he won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for his play “Death of a Salesman”, which is still regarded as one of the finest contemporary plays. It (4 )______________________ the tragic story of an average man destroyed by false values which get (5)______________________ the way of developing an honest relationship with his sons, who (6)______________________ of his beliefs and look down on him. (7)______________________ , Miller's plays (8 )_______________________ social issues and deal with matters people are anxious (9).

. They include themes such as how human relationships fall (10) _

the responsibility of the individual and their purpose in life. One way or another, Miller’s plays analyse (11) the troubles people have in their life and (12)______________________ society's values.

unit 0 9

B

1

A failed

B lost

C missed

D wasted

2

A criticise

B d is a p p ro v e

C co m p la in

D protest

3

A way

B co urse

C a p p ro a c h

D m anner

4

A debates

B says

C tells

D speaks

5

A under

B o u t of

C by

D in

6

A a rg ue

B doubt

C obje ct

D d is a p p ro v e

7

A O n a v e ra ge

B On demand

C By force

D At first sight

8

A a p p ly

B wonder

C discuss

D talk

9

A of

B about

C with

D for

10

A in

B be hin d

C out

D a part

11

A in pairs

B in pe rson

C in detail

D in half

12

A qu e stion

B inquire

C ask

D appeal

Complete the text below w ith the correct form of the w ords in capitals.

T h e N e w Zealanders D w a y n e va n der Sluis and A n d r e w Akers m u s t be the happiest people on Earth n o w that their invention and ( 1 ) ____________________________ craze, zorbing, has b e c o m e a success. Z o rb in g involves a ball-or z o rb -w h ic h

(2 ) ____________________________ in

(3 )__

.o f specially

LATE STAND CONSIST

h a rde ne d plastic. T h e z o rb is rolled d o w n a hill, speeding at abo u t 5 0 kilometres an hour.

(4 ) ____________________________ can be

PARTICIPATE

(5 ) ____________________________ a h u g e adrenaline rush. It m a y

GUARANTEE

so un d like quite a ( 6 ) ____________________________ pastime, but

RISK

the 7 0 centimetres of air be tw e e n you and the g r o u n d make it

(7 ) ____________________________ to get hurt. Tha t's w h y zorbing

POSSIBLE

didn't take long to gain in ( 8 ) ____________________________ .

POPULAR

In 2 0 0 0 , ( 9 ) _______________

( 10 ) ____________________ m a n y countries w o rldw ide .

. broke u p their , but z o rb in g remains p op u la r in

INVENT PARTNER

SECTION 1(FCE format)

For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide w hich answ er A, B, C or D best fits each space. T here is an exam ple at the beginning ( 0 ). Example: 0

(^A)ontheway

B underway

It's the end of the school year and the exam period is ( 0 ) ____

C in the way

on the zvay

D by the way

. Undoubtedly, exams

(1 )________________________ pressure on both students and parents alike. Most parents would like to see their children (2 )____________

academically, as they believe a good

education gives them an added advantage in life. They want to see their children settled in a rewarding job and be (3 ) ________________________ well off. But is that what their children have planned for themselves? Apparently not. Most students either can't think that far ahead or have no ( 4 )________________________ of doing so. They would rather aim low so as not to be disappointed if they get low marks. However, child psychologists, who have been ( 5 )______________ aim high, but at the same time have a(n) ( 6 ) ____________________ have to worry about grades and in the long (7)

on the matter, stress that students should of other options. As a result, students will not __ will have better chances of succeeding.

On the whole, there are many practical things that parents can do and which may prove invaluable to their children. ( 8 ) ________________________ being people their children can ( 9 ) _________________________ to, parents can plan a reasonable schedule that both they and their children (1 0 )________________________ on. According to psychologists' (11)________________________ , this schedule should include no more than eight hours of studying, three proper meals a day and some exercise. Finally, prior to each exam, parents need to (12)________________________ their children that everything will be fine whatever the result.

1

A force

B set

C put

D bring

2

A to succeed

B succeeding

C have succeeded

D been succeeding

3

A richly

B economically

C financially

D valuably

4

A intention

B demand

C opinion

D reaction

5

A consulted

B recommended

C suggested

D advised

6

A amount

B sum

C variety

D selection

7

A time

B run

C term

D process

8

A Nevertheless

B Apart from

C Instead of

D As far as

9

A turn

B communicate

C depend

D apply

10

A approve

B accept

C agree

D confirm

11

A clues

B instructions

C announcements

D directions

12

A ensure

B insure

C make sure

D reassure

unit J O

fTTjTPs

......



:;

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. ..,.« ~~'

:

-----

For questions 13-24, read the text below and th in k of the w ord w hich best fits each space. Use o n ly one w ord in each space. There is an exam ple at the beginning (0).

WHY

SLEEP is NECESSARY

Thomas Edison, the inventor ( 0 ) __________ _____________ the light bulb, thought that sleep was unnecessary and that a society that operated (13)________________________ sleep would be an ideal (14)_________________________ . However, he was wrong. Nowadays, we are living in a society which is sleeping less than ever and this has resulted (15)________________________ many negative effects.

According (16)________________________ police reports, more than twenty five percent of motorway accidents are directly or indirectly attributed to lack of sleep. It is true that people (17)________________________ to sleep nine hours a night, whereas today they sleep seven (18)________________________ even less. This is because our (19 )

of life has changed and we are trying to squeeze activities like

(20 )

television, shopping or going to the gym in our 24-hour day.

Lack of sleep also has a negative effect on our health. Research that has (21)________________________ carried out on animals continuously deprived of sleep has shown that they are likely to die. Of course, experiments of this kind are highly unlikely to (2 2 )________________________ carried out on humans (2 3 )________ ________________.The longest period of wakefulness which broke the record was eleven days. This experiment showed that after a few days without sleep, the mind and body were unable to function normally.

To put it in a nutshell, the vast majority of us (2 4 )________________________ an adequate amount of sleep, in every twenty-four-hour period.

unit 1 0

EEEEOFor questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the w ord given in capitals at the end of each lin e to form a w ord that fits in the space in the same lin e. There is an exam ple at the beginning (0).

SHARKS or DOLPHINS ? /

Ambitious athletes will go to great ( 0 ) ___

tm y th s

sport if there is a (25 )__________________

of them participating in the Olympic Games and

In order to succeed in their

LONG POSSIBLE

even winning a medal. This is the case with the American swimming team who are in (26)

for

TRAIN

next year’s Olympics. Their coach has (27)_____________________

himself with the way

FAMILIAR

sharks move through water in order to (2 8 )_____________________

the swimmers’stroke

STRONG

and eventually maximise their (2 9 )______________________ and speed. Swimming like sharks

EFFICIENT

could give them the advantage they require, though altering their style may seem a(n) (3 0 )______________________ experience at first.

PLEASANT

The (31)______________________ of British swimmers, however, find the dolphins’ movements

MAJOR

easier to adopt. By copying them, swimmers can cover a greater (32)_______________________

DISTANT

thus increasing their (33)______________________ of winning gold in the next Olympics.

LIKELY

Of course, only time will tell which "fish" will swim (34 )______________________ .

FAST

For questions 35-42, com plete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar m eaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given. Do not change the w ord given. You m ust use betw een tw o and five words, in clu din g the w ord given. There is an exam ple at the beginning (0). Example: 0

When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday. used

When I was younger, I __________________ used to pfay_______________

.tennis every Sunday.

35 Speeding in the city is against the law. forbidden

It__________________________________________________________ in the city.

36 There was no need for you to bring an umbrella, not

You_______________________

.an umbrella.

37 A burglar entered Mr Steinberg's office last night, into

Mr Steinberg_____________________

last night.

38 No one helped us organise the festivities this year, by

W e________________________________

_ this year.

39 He failed to deliver the parcel on time, succeed

He________

.the parcel on time.

40 People expect her to establish her own business soon, set

She____________

_ her own business soon.

41 I get the impression that Jenny is worried about something, seems

Jenny_____________________________________

.about something.

42 I believe she switched off the heater before going out. turned

She___________________________________

. the heater before going out.

unit I Q SECTION 2 (ECCE format)

Grammar Choose the correct answer. 1. The teacher got the students________

6. You should have your hair ____________ for your

the

sister's wedding.

schoolyard. a. clean c. cleaned 2. You

b. to clean

a. styling

b. style

d. cleaning

c. styles

d. styled

7. Mr. Blake's party____________ to win the elections.

to go to the supermarket. I have

a. is being expected

everything we need for the cake, a. needn't

c. is been expected

b. haven't

c. don't need

8. "Jim, don't forget _

d. had better not b. to paint

c. paint

d. be painted

4. A cousin of _________

has decided to leave her job b. ours

c. ourselves

d. us

5. Could you please go to the grocery store on your way home? W e 'v e ____________ of tomatoes. a. made out

b. turned out

c. runout

d. put out

a. picking

b. to pick

c. pick

d. to picking

9. You must____________ a great time on your vacation. You seem happy and relaxed.

as a journalist and follow a career in modelling, a. our

d. is expect _____Jason up from the

airport this afternoon.”

3. The soldiers were made___________ the whole camp a. to be painted

b. is expected

a. have

b. had

c. be had

d. have had

10. This project ____________ by the end of this month. a. will have finished

b. will have be finished

c. will be finishing

d. will finished

Vocabulary Choose the correct answer. 1.

I wasn't satisfied with th e ____________ I was getting,

her colleagues.

so I decided to quit my job. a. allowance c. salary

b. income

a. contact

b. temper

d. reward

c. chance

d. control

7. As soon as I get paid, I will pay all my__________ .

2. It was difficult t o ____________ the extent of the damage at first sight. a. predict c. assume

b. suppose d. estimate

to go somewhere close, c. ready

b. spare d. handy

c. rejected

b. refused

a. except

b. on behalf

c. regardless

d. thanks

d. budgets

th e ____________ service. a. scarce

b. insufficient

c. short

d. inadequate

a. independent

b. engaged

c. incapable

d. relevant

10. I want t o ____________ that I turned off all the lights

d. resisted

the difficult questions,

c. debts

____________ , she had a lot of free time.

although her teacher caught her in the act.

5. The third contestant managed to win _________

b. sums

9. Now that the children had grown up and were

4. The student ____________ cheating on the test a. denied

a. deposits

8. We complained to the restaurant manager about

3. We only had a few days____________ , so we decided a. available

6. Julie lost h e r____________ and started screaming at

of

in the house, so I'll go back and check. a. insure

b. reassure

c. make sure

d. inquire

Collocations/expressions A

Com plete the blanks w ith the verbs follow, have or take. _a photograph/picture

action on sth

_the blame for sth

. a seat

_a party/celebration

_ fun

_a meal

.a rest/break

.sb’s advice

. an argument/a quarrel

.sb/sth for granted

. care of

.a holiday

. turns

.a meeting

.orders

.sth into consideration

. a test

. measures

. sb by surprise

.trouble with

. a bath/shower

.time

. a headache/toothache

. a dream

. place

instructions

. directions

a look (at)

one's chance

B Read the sentences below. Com plete the boxes w ith the verbs have or take and the blanks w ith prepositions. 1 Twenty two countries will 2 Every year we

part. advantage.

3 They

no respect_______

. this year's water polo tournament. . the Bank Holiday and spend a long weekend at a seaside resort.

.their new teacher.

4 Before setting off on a fishing trip, you must 5 Do you

any id ea____

6 I

the weather conditions

account.

. how to operate this contraption?

no intention___________ going back to school next year.

7 The children couldn’t

their eyes___________the performing dolphins.

8 David had no option but to 9 I

responsibility___________the company's disastrous performance.

difficulty _ __________deciding which school to go to next year.

10

no notice __________what she says. She's always making up stories.

11 You need to 12 Now that I'm older, I 13 I am a pilot and I

more confidence___________yourself. no interest___________stamp collecting. a lot of pride

.my work.

C Read the sentences and com plete them w ith the correct form of the verbs give, pay, bring or m ind. 1 It's been weeks since I last__________ Helen a visit. 2

_ Henry a ring immediately. He said it was urgent.

3 What were you doing hiding behind the door? You__________ me a real shock. 4 The chairperson__________ the meeting to an end because the members of the board could not agree on a plan of action. 5 Gerry was kind enough to__________ me a lift to the railway station. 6 Passengers are asked to__________ the step when disembarking. 7 Who can__________ me an explanation for the rising sea waters? 8 The teacher got angry because nobody was__________ attention to him.

unit 11

=ead the sentences on the left and m atch the p h rasal verbs w ith th eir d efin ition s on the right by w ritin g the :; rrect num ber in the box next to each d efinition. A TAKE

leave the ground

1 The customers were asked to take their shoes off before entering the

fully understand

Japanese restaurant.

look like, resemble

2 Susan decided not to take on any new responsibilities.

gain control of

3 The video recorder I bought wasn't working properly, so I took it back. 4 Everybody says I take after my mother.

fill, occupy

5 The passengers had to wait over thirty minutes before the aeroplane finally

return

took off.

begin, become interested in

6 After retiring, Steven took up bowling to keep himself occupied. remove

7 My brother will take over the company now that my father has passed away.

leave suddenly without telling anyone

8 Why did you take off without saying goodbye last night? 9 The furniture takes up too much space and the kids have nowhere to play.

accept

10 He must have been tired because he didn't seem to take in anything I was saying.

B CLOSE, KNOCK

demolish

1 The police had closed off the highway in search of the escaped prisoner. cease, stop operating

2 The funfair was closed down because of its terrible safety record.

isolate, prevent from being used/accessed

3 The force of the ball hitting his head knocked him out cold. 4 They had no choice but to knock down the old warehouse.

make unconscious

5 Cycling on the footpath is prohibited due to the danger of knocking down/over

hit and cause to fall down

pedestrians.

C C LEA R , CLEAN, DROP

visit without warning

1 The misunderstanding will be cleared up as soon as he gets here.

empty and clean

2 Students are asked to clean out their lockers at the end of the school year. 3 We were detained after school in order to clean up the laboratory.

leave somewhere

4 Could you please drop me off at the railway station?

resolve, explain

5 He had a big fight with his parents because he decided to drop out of college.

clean thoroughly

6 You wouldn't believe who dropped in yesterday at my place! leave without finishing the course

Words with Prepositions A Com plete the blanks w ith prepositions. Adjectives

Nouns

Verbs

disgusted

a reason

put the blame

envious

a threat

lie

sth

sb

quiltv

aet/take the blame

patient

Verbs

popular

accuse sb

shocked

arrest sb

sth

suspicious

blame sb

sth

foraet

sb sth

dream sth

escape fiaht

sb

sth

sentence sb

sth sb

sth

unit I f B Read the fo llow in g sentences and com plete them w ith prepositions. 1

Why do I always get the blam e___________ everything that goes wrong?

2

The whole country was shocked___________ the President’s sudden death.

3

Both parties put the blam e___________ each other____________ the collapse of peace negotiations .

4

Jane’s friends were envious___________ her rise to fame and fortune.

5

Don’t blame m e___________ the misunderstanding. I tried my best.

6

The well-known businessman was sentenced___________ three years in jail for fraud.

7

People are usually suspicious___________ politicians making promises during election time.

Grammar Revision (Clauses of concession, reason, purpose and result) See G ram m ar R e v ie w p age 160 A

Read the text belo w and complete each blank with one word.

The production of items made of gold dates back to ancient Egyptian and Minoan times, when gold was panned (1)_______________________ the aim of making golden bowls and cups. Gold was usually found in river beds, (2)_______________________ , in (3)_______________________ to pan for gold, a circular dish (pan) was filled with a mixture of sand and gravel that contained gold. So (4)_______________________ to obtain the gold, this mixture was held under a stream of water and swirled (5)_______________________ that the lighter parts would slowly wash away and the gold particles would collect at the bottom of the pan. (6)_______________________ gold was a scarce metal, it was used as a form of exchange, and (7)________________________ it became the basis for international transactions. Overtime, new mining techniques developed and elaborate methods were adopted because (8)_______________________ the demand for gold. (9 ) (10 )

to its huge reserves, South Africa has always been the world’s leading supplier of gold the discovery of gold in California and Australia in the 1840s.

Gold is stored in reserve by many governments. In Fort Knox, USA, alone, there are thirty-eight billion dollars worth of gold bars secured behind a twenty-ton door. In (11)_______________________ of these resources, however, financial circles predict a decline in the demand for gold. Gold was once a powerful currency, (12)_______________________ nowadays it seems to have lost much of its glitter. B Rewrite the follow ing sentences so that the second sentence has a sim ilar m eaning to the first. Begin with the w ord(s) given.

1 They never help the poor even though they are very wealthy. Despite___________ _ _____________________________________________________________ _________________ . 2 However well he performed, he didn't win the first prize. No matter______________________________________________________________________________________ . 3 Even though I was sick, I tried not to fall behind with my homework. Sick_______________________________________________________________________________ ________________ . 4 In spite of his disability, he managed to get on with his life. Although_____________________________ __ ___________________________________________________________. 5 She is so friendly that everyone wants to hang out with her. She is such________________________________________________________ ________________________________ . 6 All flights were delayed yesterday because there was an accident on the runway. Due__________________________________________________

unit ||

p < H V C tS ' t 0

In spite of /Despite the cold weather, they went swirnrning. / In spite of /Despite the fact that the weather was cold, they went

swimming./ In spite of /Despite the weather being cold, they went swimming. / Inspite of /Despite the wmUiei was culU,tliey"wenL -

®

swimming. Dcspitoof the cold-weather, they went swimming. -

(in spite of/despite+noun /the fact that/-ingform) Although the weather was cold, they went swimming. / Though the weather was cold, they went swimming. / Even though the weather was cold, they went swimming. /

&

Ev p n a lth o u g h th p w p ath p r rn lii th p y w p n t sw im m in g Although/Though/Evpn though the cold w eather, they wen t

_swimming, (though /although/even though+clause) & The flight was cancelledbecause the air-traffic controllers were ® on strike./ The flight was cancelledbecause of the air-traffic controllers’strike. / The flight was cancelledbecause of the air-traffic controllersbeing on strike. / & The flight was Lcuieelieil because ot Uie ali-irafflc cotiffollers -

(because+clause of reason, because of+ noun/-ingform) & We can’t use the company car to go out in the evening. /

We can’t use the company car for to go out in thcevening. We can’t use the company car for going out in the evening. / W&can’t use the company ear for to going out in the evening.(to+infinitive, fo r+-ingform, expressingpurpose) He wakes up early so as not to be late for work. / He wakes up oarty so as to not-be late for work. He wakes up early in order not to be late for work / He wakes up early-inorder to notbe late for work.— He wakos up oarly-not to be late-ferwork: (so as not to and in order not to express negativepurpose.) I’m going tobuy a car so that I can get to work faster. I bought a car so that I could get to work faster. (so that+ can/m ay /w ill expresspurpose with present/ future time reference.) (sothat+could/might/wouldexpressespurposewithpast time reference.) I'm taking an umbrella in case it rains. / rm taking an umbrella, in ca3e it will rain. I took an umbrella in case it rained. / I tookaa umbrella, in case it woaM-rafe(Do not use will/w ould after in case.) The film was so boring that I nearly fell asleep. / It was so boring a film that I nearly fell asleep. / It was such a boring film that I nearly fell asleep. / The film was such boring that Ireearlyfeii-asteep. It was such boring film that I nearlyfelfasfcep^

Key Transformations Although /Even though /Though it was raining heavily, they went on a day trip. In spite of /Despite the fact that it was raining heavily, they went on a day trip. In spite of /Despite the heavy rain, they went on a day trip. & They worked hard but they didn't manage to finish the project on time. However hard they worked, they didn't manage to finish the project on time. No matter how hard they worked, they didn't manage to finish the project on time. Jane wasn't feeling well, so she didn't go out. Jane didn't goout because/as she wasn't feelingwell. Since/As Jane wasn't feeling well, she didn't go out. Not feelingwell, Jane didn’t go out. Jane didn't goout because of /due to not feeling well. Jane didn't goout because of /due to the fact that she was not feeling well. €) The child was rescuedbecause the lifeguards acted immediately. The child was rescued due to /thanks to /owing to the lifeguards' immediate action.

& Whatever he tells me, I don't believe him. I don'tbelieve him no matter what he tells me. & We arrived at the airport early because we did not want to miss the plane. We arrived at the airport early in order /so as not to miss the plane. We arrived at the airport early so that we wouldn't miss the plane. We arrived at the airport early for fear of missing the plane. We arrived at the airport early for fear (that) we might miss the plane. & We left early in order to /so as to /to get there in time. We left early so that we could/would get there in time. We left early with a view to /with the aim of getting there in time. There was so much smoke that we couldn't see anything. There was such a lot of smoke that we couldn't see anything. e His heart was so weak that he didn't survive the operation. He had such a weak heart that he didn't survive the operation. He had so weak a heart that he didn't survive the operation. His heart was too weak to survive the operation. His heart wasn’t strong enough to survive the operation.

unit I f Examination Practice A

Choose the co rrect answer. 1. The church has set up a charity with the aim

6. She was heavily dressed

catching

a cold.

funds for the refugees. a. of raise

b. raising

a. due to

b. despite

c. of raising

d. to raising

c. because of

d. for fear of

2. I took photos of the baby so as_______________ them

7. He walked in quietly___

c. I can send

b. so as to not

a. so as not to

to my friends abroad. a. to sending

________ wake up the baby.

c. so as don't

b. I could send d. to send

3. You should have more confidence_______________

d. so as to don't

8.

the weather was fine, we decided to go for a swim.

yourself if you want to succeed.

a. As

b. Because of

a. for

b. in

c. While

d. Due to

c. at

d. of

4. They are_______________ nice people that everyone likes them. a. such

b. such a

c. so

d. a so

5. “ Look at Sheila! She's so beautiful, isn't she?” “ Yeah,

9. “You know I have nothing to do with all this mess! Don't put the blame_______________ me." a. in

b. on

c. at

d .for

10. Take a jumper with you in case it_______________ colder at night.

she has taken_______________ her mother.”

a. will get

b. would get

a. after

b. over

c. gets

d. getting

c. on

d. up

B Com plete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar m eaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given unchanged. You m ust use betw een tw o and five w ords, in clu din g the w ord given. 1 Although the police suspected him, they didn't arrest him. suspicious

Despite________________________________

., the police didn't arrest him.

2 However busy she is, she always makes time for exercise, matter

.she is.

She always makes time for exercise,______

3 There was so much traffic on the road that I was an hour late, lot

There was_________________________________

_on the road that I was an hour late.

4 The operation was cancelled because it was considered risky, due

involved.

The operation was cancelled________________

5 The puzzle was not easy enough for them to do. so

The puzzle_____________________

couldn't do it.

6 He wants to buy a new computer, so he is saving up. aim

He is saving up_____________________

.a new computer.

7 He braked suddenly to avoid hitting the old man. as

He braked suddenly_____________

the old man.

8 He is proud of his work, but he is not arrogant, pride

Even________________________

. his work, he is not arrogant.

9 That accident was so frightful that I'll never forget it. such

It was____________________________

_ I'll never forget it.

10 He uses two alarm clocks in order not to wake up late, that

He uses two alarm clocks_____________

__________________ wake up late.

unitH

'7 ft Words easily confused Jse the correct form of the w ords in the boxes to com plete the sentences in each group A-I below. You m ay use some of the w ords m ore than once. In som e cases, m ore than one w ord m ay be correct.

stop

avoid

forbid

prohibit

ban

1 Smoking has been

prevent

escape

In all public places.

2 The examiner asked the students to .

________________ writing and put down their pens.

3 The government has taken strict measures to .

____________________ accidents on motorways.

4 I take these pills to ____________________

. getting seasick while travelling by boat.

5 For reasons of hygiene, animals are.

________________to enter hospitals.

6 She tried to ______________________ 7 She was lucky to .

B

blame

her husband from informing the authorities. _____a conviction for shoplifting.

accuse

arrest

1 The police.

charge

convict

sentence

Mr Jones and

2 Despite the student’s protests, the teacher___________ 3 The man was________________ ________ of murder and 4 Don’t _____________________

complaint

him with assault. her of cheating. ___________ to twenty years in prison.

us for the broken window, we weren’t playing football this morning.

annoyance

accusation

1 Much to our

disappointment

., we had to wait for over an hour to purchase the tickets.

2 Despite the media hype, the concert was a real. 3 I wish to make a(n)__________________

about the quality of the food.

4 Don’t make false____________________

D

chase

pursue

hunt

follow

1 A stray dog

me home today and I’m thinking of keeping it.

2 My brother and I used to .

____________ each other around the house when we were young.

3 Police have been_______

_the terrorists for weeks now but still haven’t found them.

4 He wanted to __________

cause

excuse

.a career in engineering.

reason

purpose

1 John has to find a good 2 The__________________ good.

. when you don't have proof.

aim .for being late, otherwise he'll get into trouble.

. of the meeting is to discuss next year's plans. If you can't attend it, you must have a __, as the________________________ is to get everybody's opinion.

3 The carelessness of the driver was the

of the fatal accident.

unit 1 1 rob

steal

burgle

hijack

deceive

cheat

1 The crim inal’s innocent looks.

lie

shoplift

blackmail

. people into trusting him.

2 “ D on't___________________

. to me. I know you weren't at school today!” shouted my mother.

3 Our house was.

_______ last night and all our valuables w ere________________

4 Two terrorists

.the plane and made the pilot change course.

5 The student tried to .

_____ during the test, but the teacher caught him and took away his paper.

6 As a teenager, Bob _

. from the local store and was even caught once.

7 Two m en_________

.the bank on Elm Street this morning.

8 K im _____________

Kj

attack

knock

.John by demanding $1000 so that she wouldn’t reveal his secret.

hit

beat

blow

strike

1 It's dangerous t o ______________________ people on the head. 2 The child w as______________________ by a vicious dog and had to be taken to hospital. 3 She never______________________ on the door before entering.

4 Some football hooligans started t o ______________________ each other after the match, so the police had to intervene. 5 He received a severe______________________ on the head, which left him unconscious. 6 The church clock in the village square began t o ______________________ ten.

H

robber

thief

burglar

kidnapper

convict

criminal

pickpocket

victim

hostage

1 The____________________ _ demanded one million dollars as ransom for the release of th e ir__________________ 2 A ______________________ snatched the old lady's handbag from her arm. 3 T he______________________ responsible for breaking into the flat next door have been caught.

4 The bank______________________ escaped through the fire exit. 5 Most of the gang’s ______________________ were old people living on their own. 6 The escaped______________________ was caught within 24 hours. 7 When you travel, always be wary o f ______________________ , who can steal your wallet without you realising it. 8 Jack the Stabber is one of the country’s most w anted______________________ . It is said that he has murdered ten people.

forget

leave

ignore

neglect

omit

1 I ______________________ to turn off the TV last night, so it was left on all night long. 2 It’s cruel t o ______________________ pets as they rely on their owners. 3 Why is J ill______________________ Bill? Aren't they talking to each other anymore?

4 I don't want people to know I was involved in this project s o ______________________ my name from the credits. 5 I've______________________ the concert tickets upstairs. Could you get them?

tlHfc

unit 11

This u nit deals w ith adjectives, adverbs and nouns that d erive from verb roots.

1 Verb Root

A djective =verb +-able

accept

acceptable

• Many adjectives in -able signify that what the verb describes can be done. believe 4 believable = that can be believed • Some adjectives in -able deriving from verb roots have a different meaning: agree consider

agreeable (=p!easant) considerable (=great in amount, substantial)

• Some other common verbs that form adjectives in the same way are: advise, bear, cure, depend, enjoy, identify, predict, prefer, recognise, remark and respect. • When the verb root ends in -ate, the -ate is replaced by -able. irritate 4 irritable

tolerate 4 tolerable

• When the verb root ends in -e, the -e is dropped before the ending -able, unless there is a vowel, a c or a g before the -e. admire 4 admirable

notice ■> noticeable

• Adjectives in -able form adverbs in -ably: prefer

change 4 changeable

preferable

preferably

Verb Root

A djective =verb +-ible

access

accessible

1 o

°

• Many adjectives in -ible signify that what the verb describes can be done. accessible = that can be accessed • Some other common verbs that form adjectives in the same way are: convert, digest, resist and sense. • When the verb root ends in -d or -de, the -d / -de changes into -s before the ending -ible: comprehend 4 comprehensible

divide 4 divisible

• When the verb root ends in -mit, the -t changes into -ss before the ending -ible. perm it 4 permissible • Adjectives in -ible form adverbs in -ibly: Verb Root

sense 4 sensible ^ sensibly 1

Noun =verb +-ery



• Some other common verbs that form nouns in the same way are: rob and trick. • When the verb ends in -e or -er, the -e/-er is replaced by -ery. discover 4 discovery Verb Root confide ignore

forge 4 forgery A djective =verb +

- -ent " -ant

confident ignorant

^ -en ce Noun =verb +cT — ance confidence ignorance

• Some other common verbs that form adjectives in -ent and nouns in -ence are: correspond, depend, differ and exist. • Another common verb that forms an adjective in -ant and a noun in -ance is: resist • When the verb root ends in -ate, the -ate is replaced by the -ant and the -ance: tolerate 4 tolerant 4 tolerance • Some verb roots form only nouns in -ance, not adjectives in -ant: assist 4 assistance

attend 4 attendance

unit I f Some adjectives and nouns which derive from verb roots do not follow the rules presented above: appear 4 apparent 4 appearance

perform -4 perform ing -4 performance

insure -4 insured

please -4 pleasant -4 pleasure

insurance

interfere 4 interfering 4 interference

signify -4 significant -4 significance

obey 4 obedient -4 obedience

Verb Root

Noun (person) =verb + -ant

assist

assistant

• Nouns in -ant referring to people signify a person that does what the verb describes. • Some other common verbs that form nouns In the same way are: account, attend, consult, contest, defend, depend, inhabit and serve. • When the verb root ends in -ate or -y, the -ate/-y are replaced by -ant. immigrate -4 im m igrant

occupy -4 occupant

• Be careful with the noun (person) deriving from the verb apply. apply -4 applicant

Com plete the sentences w ith the co rrect form of the w ords in capitals. 1 I have to buy a ________________________ book as I'm _________________________at cooking.

COOK, HOPE

2 There has been a

.change in his behaviour lately.

NOTICE

3 My friend was in for a(n)

_______surprise when he saw that his house had

PLEASE

been ______

BURGLE

4 The food at the restaurant was

but the service was awful.

TOLERATE

5 I can't stand th is ________

. heat! I have to buy an air-conditioner.

BEAR

6 This disease is stili___

__, so it i s ________________________ to be extra

CURE, ADVISE

careful. 7 Many students lack in

.when it comes to

CONFIDE, SPEAK

English. 8 He i s _______________

.clever for his age.

9 Some students are totally

REMARK . and their behaviour in general

i s ______________________ 10 Kelly’s house was not____

OBEY ACCEPT

against fire, so the.

INSURE, INSURE

company will not pay for the damage. 11 He was charged w ith ____________________

and was imprisoned for six years.

FORGE

12 My trip to Japan w a s ____________________

. I had a n ________________ _______ time.

FORGET, ENJOY

13 V isa ________________________ must have their passports with them

APPLY

14 Despite his young age, he behaved v e r y ________________________ .

SENSE

Examination Practice

A

Read the text below and decide w hich answ er A, B, C or D best fits each space.

A WILD HUNT Living in a modern society, we cannot (1)_

the acts of crime that take place every day. Criminal activity

ranges from stealing to the more serious crimes of kidnapping and murder. Just recently, a hunt was on for two men who (2)_

an off-licence in broad daylight. The shop owner tried

unit 11 • d call the police, but he received a severe blow to the back of his head, which left him unconscious. It appears that the two 3 )_____________________ had planned everything very well, since they

(4)_____________________ getting caught. They were

seen getting on their motorbike holding guns by two policemen in a patrol car, who started (5)_____________________ them. 6)_____________________ , the robbers managed to get away through the back streets. All exits from the city were closed C7)_____________________ immediately. Even the airport was put on alert and flights were delayed, as strict security measures .■.ere (8)_____________________ and all passengers were asked to give proof of their identity. Many people considered this = nuisance and were shocked (9)_____________________ these tactics. So, they put the (10)______________________ for the 5 tuation on the police and (11)____________________them of incompetence. In the end, the police (12)___________________ responsibility for the setbacks.

1

A ignore

B neglect

C forget

D om it

2

A stole

B robbed

C shoplifted

D hijacked

3

A criminals

B convicts

C pickpockets

D burglars

4

A escaped

B avoided

C prevented

D stopped

5

A arresting

B chasing

C hunting

D following

6

A Despite

B Therefore

C Although

D However

7

A down

B off

C up

D away

8

A taken

B followed

C put

D made

9

A with

B about

C from

D by

10

A fault

B accusation

C blame

D cause

11

A charged

B accused

C blamed

D convicted

12

A got

B recognised

C took

D r : 'yi'iv-c

B Com plete the te x t below w ith the correct fo rm o f the w ords in capitals.

ANTIBACTERIAL SOAPS Ad). soaps is the (2)_

number of people feel that washing with antibacterial _________ thing to do. Unfortunately, their

CONSIDER

SENSE

(3 )

__has led them to believe that these soaps are

IGNORE

(4 )

__to normal ones. However, research has shown that there Is

PREFER

no real (5)_

________ between washing with ordinary soap or soap

DIFFER

(6 )_______________________ antibacterial agents.lt has also been

CONTAIN

proved that being too clean actually has (7)____________________

DESIRE

effects, as our (8 )______________________ do not become

BODY

(9 )_________________

to germs. This (10) _

has come as a surprise, especially to those who believe that bacteria have to be fought with every means known to man.

RESIST, DISCOVER

Prepositional Phrases A

Read the sentences and com plete them w ith the prepositions on, at, b y or to.

1 The author is a doctor____ ____________ profession but she prefers to work on her novels. 2 I always shop____________ 3

.impulse. I never make plans.

this day, nobody knows what became of the missing aristocrat.

4 Cancelling the meeting________________ such short notice was an inconvenience for everyone. 5 Some of the artist's best works are________________ display at the gallery. 6 These elaborate rugs were all woven________________ hand. 7 My favourite football team is.

.the top of the league.

8 The school principal is______

. good terms with all the teaching staff.

B Complete the blanks with the prepositions in and out of. In some cases both prepositions can be used.

___________ fashion

____________ print

____________ work

___________ business

____________ touch

____________ date

___________ danger

____________ reach

____________ action

___________ control

____________stock

____________ debt

___________ breath

____________sight

____________ season

___________ pain

____________comfort

____________ order

___________ difficulty

____________the ordinary

____________practice

___________ place

____________use

____________the question

C Complete the sentences with the prepositional phrases in the box below.

out of season in shape

1 The wild animal was.

out of reach

out of the question

out of control out of date

out of place in touch

. and nearly broke down the cage door.

2 We looked_________

. wearing jeans in such an expensive restaurant.

3 It's difficult to find good oranges in summer, as they're___________________ 4 The two friends kept________________________ during the summer break. 5 I stay________________________ by following a strict exercise programme. 6 My parents told me that taking the car on Saturday night was____________ 7 The books on the top shelf were 8 The.

m ip s *

_for most people of average height.

. machinery was the main cause of the company's financial collapse.

unit 12

Read the sentences on the left and m atch the p h rasal verbs w ith th eir d efin ition s on the right by w ritin g the rorrect num ber in the box next to each d efinition. A BRIN G, G IV E

stop having or doing sth

' Bringing up children is a full-time job.

reveal

2 You can bring your friend along to the party on Saturday.

take with you

3 Looking through old photograph albums brings back many memories. cause

4 The greenhouse effect has brought about a change in our climate. 5 When she fainted, we all tried to bring her round.

recall, remind

6 The new airline was giving away free tickets to many lucky passengers.

return

7 My doctor told me to give up coffee for health reasons.

distribute

8 The man standing on the corner was giving out advertisement leaflets to

give free of charge

passers-by.

raise

9 When we moved to Scotland, I had to give up my job. 10 The review didn’t give away the end of the book, so I’m curious to read it.

admit being defeated

11 Have I given you back the money that I owe you?

make conscious again, revive

12 A good tennis player never gives in no matter what the score is.

quit, resign from

B HAND; BURST, BLO W

destroy by explosion

1 The students were told to hand in their assignments at the end of the lesson.

suddenly begin to laugh, cry etc.

2 Before handing out the test papers, the teacher asked us to be quiet. 3 They handed the money over to the police.

give to sb in charge

4 The secret knowledge of the profession was handed down from father to son.

deliver to sb in authority

5 The child was known to burst into tears for no apparent reason.

extinguish

6 The students burst out laughing when the teacher slipped and fell down.

distribute

7 The terrorist’s initial plan was to blow up the plane. pass on

8 We blew out the candles before leaving the room.

break into tears, laughter

Words with Prepositions A Com plete the blanks w ith prepositions. Adjectives harmful

Nouns

Verbs

tired

damage

beware

mad

sb (=angry)

weak

shame

mad

sb/sth

wrong

shelter

(=interested in)

(=regret)

lean

punish sb sb

(=sympathetic) (feel) sorry

head

protect

safe (feel) sorry

sb

recover reduce sth

sth

rescue sb save steal suffer

unit 12

B Read the follow ing sentences and com plete them w ith prepositions. 1 I feel really sorry________________ Bob. He looks so depressed. 2 If the weather is good this weekend, I'm heading________________ the beach. 3 Rodney is very w eak________________ Maths. He should consider studying something else. 4 Sham e________________ Peter! His behaviour was unacceptable. 5 Sue is very m ad________________ Geoffrey for not showing up at her party. 6 The explosion reduced the building________________ an unrecognisable tangle of metal and bricks. 7 I'm really sorry________________ your car, Sally. I promise to pay for the repair work. 8 Most teenage boys are mad _ 9 Lean the paintings________

.football and sports in general. _the wall gently, please.

Grammar Revision (Conditionals) See G ram m ar R e v ie w page 161 ^ R ew rite the fo llow in g sentences so that the second sentence has a sim ilar m eaning to the first. Begin w ith the w ord(s) given. 1 They want to travel abroad next month, so they have to renew their passports. Unless

______________________________________________________________________________________.

2 I think that you shouldn't drive so carelessly. If I ________________________________________________________________________________________________ . 3 The reason why the dog attacked them was because they hit it with a stick. If_________________________________________________________________________________________________ . 4 I might not manage to repair the leaking tap on my own, so I'll ask my brother for help. In case____________________________________________________________________________________________. 5 In order to hire a car, you need to have a driving licence. Unless____________ 6 I want to buy a big house with a garden, but I can't afford it. If_____________________________________

____

7 The burglars broke into my house because the burglar alarm didn't go off. Had____________________________________________________________________________ 8 Not having heard that his flight was boarding, he missed the plane. Provided_______________________________________________________________________ 9 The buses may be on strike, so you might have to catch a taxi to work. If______________________________________________________________________________ 10 My parents encouraged and supported me after the accident, so I recovered quickly. But for_________________________________________________________________________ 11 We feel so tired that we can't continue our journey. If______________________________________________________________________________ 12 You can borrow my bike, but you must promise to take good care of it.' As long as______________________________________________________________________ 13 She must do her homework, otherwise her parents won't let her go to the party. On condition____________________________________________________________ ,

i p

c i

Tidgpp'5 ' If" i IBb

pL

^nii,.

1 1

*!

1

"H L '

Mi

I

He will buy a car if he saves enough money. / Ho will buy a car if he will gave cnough-moneyI'll buy a car provided (that) I save enough money. / I'll hi ly a rar prmrided (that) I shall savo enough money-.He would buy a car if he saved enough money. / He would buy a car if ho would save-enough money.-(will, shall and would are not used after linking words/ phrases introducing conditional sentences.) \& I won't go to the party if they don't invite me. / I won't go to the party unless they invite me. / I won'tge to the party unless they don't invite me.-(unless=ifnot) |& I'll buy a bottle of water in case I get thirsty. (=I'llbuy it before I get thirsty; I might not use it.) I'll buy a bottle of water if I get thirsty. (=ni buy it when I get thirsty; I'll definitely use it.)

If Uiad-beenUjeftime-Mfflistei', Iwottkifravegiventots ofm©ney4©4he-poor; (We use Conditional Sentences Type 2 for unreal situations in thepresent or future.) © If I had studied harder last semester, I would have passed my exams. S Ifistadietl- teFdef iast-semester i would pass my -examsr-

(We use Conditional Sentences Type 3 for unreal situations in thepast.) & If you should need me, don’t hesitate to call me. / Should you need me, don't hesitate to call me. / If should.youJieedmerdQH't hoGitatG to call me. If she needed your help, she would call you. / Were she to need your help, she would call you. / Ifwer-e-sheto-nocd your holp.sheweuldeallyou: H she had needed your help, she would have called you. /

| & If he was taller, he could join a basketball team. If he were taller, he could join a basketball team. (were can be used instead of was in all persons in Conditional Sentences Type 2.)

Had she needed your help, she would have called you. / If hadshe-Beeded-y€Mg-kelp,-sfaew0uMhavecalledyeur-

(if is not used in conditional sentences starting with should/ were/ had+ subject.)

| & If I were the Prime Minister, I would give lots of money to the poor. /

Key Transformations Your application will be considered on condition (that) ! & If you see Harry, ask him to return the books to the you submit it on time. library. If you should see Harry, ask him to return the books to the library. & If he hadn’t helped me, I wouldn’t have finished my essay. Should you see Harry, ask him to return the books to the Had he not helped me, I wouldn't have finished my essay. library. If it hadn't been for his help, I wouldn’t have finished my essay. But for his help, I wouldn’t have finished my essay. <& If he doesn't study hard, he won't pass the exam. I wouldn't have finished my essay without his help. He won’t pass the exam unless he studies hard. He has to /must study hard, or else /otherwise he won't pass the exam.

& We might go swimming, so bring your swimsuit. Bring your swimsuit because we might go swimming. Bring your swimsuit in case we go swimming. | @ Your application will be considered only if you submit it on time. Your application will be considered provided /providing & What would you do if the lights went out? (that) you submit it on time. Suppose/ Supposing the lights went out, what would you do? Your application will be considered as long as you submit it on What would you do were the lights to go out? time.

unit 1 2 Examination Practice A

Read the text below and th in k of the w ord w hich best fits each space. Use o n ly one w ord in each space.

TAKING TO THE SKIES Every day millions of people travel (1),

plane. However, a small

percentage of passengers go weak at the knees just thinking about flying, (2)_______________________ others suffer acute physical discomfort, which is mostly brought (3)_______________________ by the change in air pressure. So what can be done to prevent problems? If you move about as often as (4 )

, that is walk up and down the aisle, you

(5 )

prevent sluggish circulation and stiff joints.

In (6)_______________________ of breathing difficulties, you will be able to ease the problem only if you increase your oxygen intake before boarding. A good thirty-minute brisk walk should help. If you intend to fly, it (7)_______________________ also be wise to follow some general advice. Firstly, if you suffer (8)_______________________ any serious health problems, ask your doctor (9)________________________ it's safe for you to travel or not. (10) _ (11) _____________

12

( ) ______________

.you have a medical condition, don't forget to bring your medicine _. It has been suggested that if you can climb a dozen stairs without getting _ of breath, it is safe for you to fly. Should you have a heavy cold or a bad cough, try to avoid

flying. As long as you follow this advice, you will have no problem during your flight.

B Com plete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar m eaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given unchanged. You m ust use betw een tw o and five words, in clu d in g the w ord given. 1 Paying in cash entitles you to a special discount, provided You are entitled to a special discount________

in cash.

2 They didn't go on a picnic because it was raining heavily, rain

But______________________________________

, they would have gone on a picnic.

3 It is possible that your flight will be delayed, so take a book to read, case

Take a book to read_________________________________

______________ delayed.

4 John had better call the police if he notices any suspicious characters, should

John had better call the police__________________________

any suspicious

characters. 5 It would be foolish of him not to consider this opportunity. if

It would be foolish of him______________________________

.this opportunity.

6 With your encouragement, the players will improve, long

The players will improve_______________

them.

7 They missed the turn because they didn't see the sign, would They_____________________________________

_the turn if they had seen the sign.

8 The doctor warned him to quit smoking so that his health wouldn't deteriorate, up

The doctor warned him that his health would deteriorate if___________ smoking.

unit 12

Words easily confused Use the correct form of the w ords in the boxes to com plete the sentences in each group A-I below. You m ay use some of the w ords m ore than once. In some cases m ore than one w ord m ay be correct.

■\

protect

rescue

save

support

secure

defend

guard

our house.

1 We bought a watchdog to _

his country.

2 In times of a war every soldier is obliged to .

the driver from the debris of the car, but they couldn’t

3 The paramedics managed to _____________

the passenger, who had been seriously injured. _____________ all items on the roof-rack so that nothing falls off.

4 Make sure you

___________________ rare species of animals from becoming extinct by

5 Wildlife organisations aim to

them from dangerous situations and_______________________ safer places for them to live in. ___________ their children during the difficult times in their life.

6 Parents must.

B

injure

wound

hurt

collapse

harm and hundreds of people were

1 During the earthquake a number of buildings.

2 My grandfather fought in World War II, but he was sent home when he was 3 Let go of my hand! You're________________________ me! 4 The dog won't________________________ you. It's friendly. as he was running.

5 The athlete had a heart attack and

C

damage

injury

wound

pain

ache when he cut his finger with a knife and had to have the

1 John was in a lot o f. stitched.

2 The hurricane caused millions of dollars worth o f. 3 After a couple of days the______________________ 4 Kelly’s ____________________

D

endanger

1 I must

risk

threaten

in my lower back had gone.

was serious, so she was taken to hospital.

warn you about my dog -it's vicious.

2 The security guards dealt with the robbers without________________________ any lives. 3 Our neighbours________________________ to call the police if we didn't turn the music down. 4 The World Wildlife Fund updates its list o f________________________ species every year. 5 She________________________ her life to save the young boy from drowning.

mm*

unit 12 E

illness

disease

infection

sickness

weakness

accident

incident

1 If you don't want to get a(n)________________________ , I suggest you clean and dress the wound. 2 Penicillin has been used to fight many infectious________________________ . 3 Some people suffer from altitude________________________ at many mountain ski resorts. 4 Young children come down with many________________________ when they first go to school. 5 Charles had a(n)________________________ at work and he was taken to hospital. 6 I must be coming down with the flu because I have a general feeling o f________________________ . 7 A serious________________________ near the border made the government take strict measures concerning immigration.

F

cure

heal

treat

recover

overcome

1 It took me months to ________________________ my grandmother's death. 2 Mavis was________________________for her wound and within days it began to ________________________ . 3 Ethel________________________ from her illness after being confined to bed for a fortnight. 4 When my father came out of hospital, he seemed to be completely________________________ : however, his condition deteriorated after a few days.

G

sensible

sensitive

sensational

emotional

1 The concert was fantastic and the laser show_____ 2 Buying a cheaper car was a(n)________________________ decision considering you had a limited budget. 3 Joel is really________________________ and cries if you raise your voice. 4 You look________________________ in that dress. You should buy it. 5 Apart from food and shelter, the refugees needed________________________ support.

H

produce

develop

increase

build up

create

progress

advance

improve

1 If we take out another loan, we'll just________________________ financial difficulties for ourselves. 2 Italy________________________ some of the most stylish cars on the market. 3 Medicine has________________________ in the last decade, with many more diseases being cured. 4 Max is a weak student and I try to ________________________ his confidence by asking him to work with more ________________________ students. 5 My French has________________________ so much that I can have a conversation with a native speaker. 6 He has hopes o f________________________ his business and_________________________ his profits. 7 The weather has________________________ quite a lot lately.

reduce 1

decrease

destroy

drop

lower

demolish

fall

your voice. The baby is asleep in the next room.

2 You should________________________ speed when you’re approaching a pedestrian crossing. 3

During the night the temperature________________________ by ten degrees.

4

The village was completely________________________ by the earthquake.

5

Don't________________________ the eggs, otherwise the whole kitchen will stink.

6

The old building w as________________________ with the use of dynamite.

7

Peak season is over, so all the hotels in the area are________________________ their rates.

unit 1 2

This unit deals with nouns and adjectives which derive from verb roots. U

f

Verb Root

Noun = verb + -ion

Adjective = Verb + -ive

impress

impression

impressive

• Some other common verbs that form nouns and adjectives in the same way are: act, attract, collect, connect, construct, direct, express, instruct, invent, object, possess, prevent, protect and select. • Some verbs form only nouns in -ion, not adjectives in -ive: complete, contribute, discuss, inspect, pollute, predict, reject, revise and suggest. • Verb roots ending in -mit change the final -t to -ss before the endings -ion and -ive: perm it 4 permission 4 permissive om it -4 omission • Verb roots ending in -d or -de, change the -d/-de to -s before the endings -ion and -ive: extend 4 extension 4 extensive explode 4 explosion 4 explosive • Pay attention to the following irregularities: attend ^ attention 4 attentive defend 4 defence 4 defensive offend 4 offence 4 offensive • The adjective (in)expensive derives from the noun expense.

Verb Root

Noun = verb + -ation

Adjective = Verb + -ative

inform

information

informative

• Some common verbs that form nouns and adjectives in the same way are: conserve, imagine and represent. • Some verbs form only nouns in -ation, not adjectives in -ative: combine, invite, oblige, observe, organise, realise, relax, starve and transform. • Pay attention to the following irregularities: prepare 4 preparation 4 preparatory, sense 4 sensation 4 sensitive, compare 4 comparison 4 comparative

Verb Root in -ate

Noun in -ation

Adjective in -ative

appreciate

appreciation

appreciative

• Some common verbs that form nouns and adjectives in the same way are: communicate, create, decorate, operate and relate. • Some verbs in -ate form only nouns in -ation, not adjectives in -ative: calculate, celebrate, dictate, fascinate, investigate and separate. • The verbs educate and hesitate form nouns in -ation, but the corresponding adjectives do not end in -ative. educate 4 education 4 educational hesitate 4 hesitation 4 hesitant • Pay attention to the following irregularities:

Verb

Noun

add compete consume describe destroy explain

addition competition consumption description destruction explanation

Adjective

1



competitive —

descriptive destructive explanatory

Verb

Noun

Adjective

introduce oppose produce receive reduce repeat

introduction opposition production reception reduction repetition

introductory —

productive receptive —

repetitive

• Certain nouns in -ion and adjectives in -ive do not derive from verbs: aggression aggressive mass massive

Verb Root

Noun =verb +-al

betray

betrayal

• Some common verbs that form nouns in the same way are: approve, arrive, deny, dismiss and rent.



unit 12 Com plete the sentences w ith the co rrect form of the w ords in capitals.

1 The student asked for 2 Steven’s ____________

.to the

J o leave the classroom.

PERMIT

________________ received everyone's

CONTRIBUTE, DISCUSS APPROVE

3 Many car

. companies have increased their rates this summer.

RENT

4 The student was given back her assignment as it was obvious no time had been spent in its ______________________and it bore n o ______________________ to the subject. 5 Worried that everyone would be bored, Sally was

_to give a highly

______________________account of her holiday. 6 Sandra chose aerobics because she doesn’t like _ 7 He's got such a n ______________________________

9 It took a lot of

sports. of fine art.

between them for years.

10 As the students were tired, they were not very

to the teacher’s

PERSUADE

RECEIVE EXPLAIN

during the daytime and hunt during the night.

12 I find it difficult to be

IMPRESS, COLLECT

COMMUNICATE

______________________of the theory. 11 Many animals are

COMPETE

ADD, CALCULATE

_to get Celia to write to her mother, as there had

been little

HESITATE DESCRIBE

is one of the simplest

8

PREPARE,RELATE

_ about matters that concern me.

ACT OBJECT

Examination Practice A

Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

A DEADLY JOB In Eastern Java one way to (1)______________________ a living is to harvest the sulphur (2)_______________________ by a local volcano. Twice a day, around thirty porters leave their huts and head (3)______________________ the 3,156 metre summit of the Welirang Volcano. Once there, they use metal bars in order to break the sulphur into blocks that will fit into their baskets. While collecting sulphur, the porters are exposed to toxic fumes which cause many incurable (4)______________________ . Most of them, however, don’t pay attention to the health risks they face daily and use only a face mask to (5)______________________ themselves. This work (6)______________________ their health and they are often in (7)_______________________ .As they get older, they become fragile and eventually (8)______________________ from throat or lung cancer, from which they never (9 ) (10 )

. What is more, they are not paid well, even though they lead a difficult life and their health is beyond repair. Yet, in spite of the unhealthy conditions, the porters have no intention of giving

(ID ______________________ their job. (12)_______________________ it provides them and their family with an income, they will continue to do it.

1

A support

B secure

C protect

D defend

2

A produced

B increased

C developed

D built up

3

A on

B for

C Into

D at

4

A sicknesses

B diseases

C injuries

D infections

5

A guard

B rescue

C support

D protect

6

A risks

B endangers

C decreases

D warns

7

A pain

B ache

C difficulty

D illness

8

A injure

B hurt

C suffer

D collapse

9

A overcome

B cure

C recover

D heal

10 A hurt

B injured

C harmed

D wounded

11

A back

B away

C in

D up

12

A As long as

B Unless

C Even if

D In case

B Com plete the text below w ith the correct form of the words in capitals.

HURRICANES

A hurricane is a (1)___________________ storm which is always accompanied by torrential rain and winds that can reach speeds of up to 300 kilometres per hour. Hurricanes form over warm expanses of water and increase in (2)___________________ as they make their way towards the mainland. (3 ) (4 )

areas are usually hit the hardest, but the of the storm decreases as it continues inland.

COAST INTENSE

Hurricanes can cause (5)_______________________ damage. They uproot trees, destroy

EXTEND

houses and (6)_______________________ sites and even lift up boats

CONSTRUCT

right out of the water. So, it is crucial that meteorologists keep constant (7 )

of any suspicious weather formations which may evolve into

hurricanes. If a hurricane is approaching inhabited areas, the authorities issue (8 )

and give people (9)________________________ as

to how to prepare for its (10)_______________________ and for their evacuation.

OBSERVE

Collocations/expressions

A

Com plete the collocations below w ith the ad jectives in the box. You m ay use some of the ad jectives m ore than once. In some cases m ore than one ad jective m ay be correct. long

secret

heavy sore

wide

weak

short

common

light

fatal

close

strong

a ___________friend

a ___________ meal

a ___________ sight

___________traffic

a ___________accident

a ___________ mistake

a ___________ relative

___________eyesight

a ___________throat

a ___________ colour

a ___________ influence

a ___________rule

a ___________ time

___________ rain

a ___________ journey

a ___________ personality

___________ sense

a ___________ agent

a ___________ schedule

___________ coffee

a ___________ argument

a ___________ relationship

___________ knowledge

B Read the sentences and com plete them w ith the co rrect form of the verbs say or tell. 1 "___________ hello to John when you see him, will you?" said Camille as she waved goodbye. 2 The last thing she does before she lies down to sleep is___________ a prayer. 3 We could never___________ the difference between our cousins because they were identical twins. 4

My father still tells me to ___________ thank you, and I’m forty years old!

5

It's so hard nowadays for people to ___________ the truth. Everyone is frightened of trusting each other.

6

Mr Grimes will begin by___________ a few words and then proceed to showing the slides.

7 "If I ___________ you a story, will you go to sleep, then?" the mother asked her child. 8

My friends trusted me because I would never___________ anyone their secrets.

9

You should have___________ something. Now the police will suspect you.

10 Can Tim___________ the time or is he still too young for that? 11 The hardest thing he's ever had to do was___________ sorry. 12 If she___________ so, then it must be the truth and we have to believe her.

C Complete the sentences with the expressions in the box below. all of a sudden

all in all

all over

after all

not at all

once and for all

all the same

1 The child spilt the milk___________________ the expensive rug. 2 I don’t care where we go on holiday. Majorca, Ibiza, they’ re___________________ to me. 3 The old train was making good progress, when___________________ a loud clank was heard and it grinded to a halt. 4 Janet expected to get a high mark on her project.___________________ , she had worked very hard. 5 This argument has been going on for far too long. Let me settle it___________________ . 6 Most members of the school committee believed that___________________ the fete was a great success. 7 "Is my request too demanding?" asked the customer. ” ___________________ ," replied the salesperson.

unit 13

Read the sentences on the left and m atch the phrasal verbs w ith th eir definitions on the right by w ritin g the correct num ber in the box next to each d efinition . \ L IE , STAND, SIT, SAVE lie on a bed to rest

1 I think I'll lie down for a while before going out tonight. 2 I hate it when you leave your shoes lying around!

be ready for action

3 Brendan was the only friend who stood by me during those difficult months.

settle comfortably in a chair

4 The workers were encouraged to stand up for their rights and demand a pay

be noticeable

rise. 5 Shawn really stands out with that strange haircut.

economise

6 Although the fire was under control, the fire brigade in the city was

support

standing by.

defend

7 What do the initials MJB stand for? leave sth somewhere untidily

8 I'll drive -you just sit back and enjoy the view.

represent

9 Neil saved up a considerable amount for his summer holidays.

give back all the money one owes

B D RESS, PAY, END, POINT, LOCK, LET 1 Everyone was told to dress up for the school dance, as it was a formal

find oneself in a situation, usually without planning to

occasion. 2 Jerry went to the party dressed up as Superman.

disappoint

3 I'll pay you back on Monday.

draw sb's attention to

4 Harry finally paid off his car loan last week. dress formally

5 Sue never expected to end up as sales manager so soon in her career. 6 The doctor pointed out all the complications involved in the treatment.

give back money one owes

7 Don't forget to lock up before leaving.

make a building safe by locking doors and windows

8 The voters felt they had been let down by the government.

disguise for fun

Words with Prepositions A Com plete the blanks w ith prepositions. Adjectives

Nouns

Verbs

careless

a delay

benefit

mistake sb/sth

faithful

an influence

boast

pray

frightened

a need

care

serious

the opposite

surprised

a relationship

sb

sb/sth

sb/sth else sb/sth

replace sth

sth else

(=be concerned)

suspectsb

sth

care

take care

sb

a relationship

(=be fond of, love)

wait

two people or things

exchange sth

warn sb

sth else hope insist

sb/sth

unit | 3

B Read the follow ing sentences and com plete them w ith prepositions. 1 If you are not satisfied with the gift, you can exchange it_____________ something else. 2 Graham still cares_____________ you, you know. 3 A further delay_____________ our schedule will create a bad impression on our clients. 4 I warned Luke_____________ the bad weather conditions but he insisted on leaving. 5 The relationship_____________ man and animal has changed significantly over the centuries. 6 My parents are going away for the weekend, so I have to take care_____________ my little sister. 7 Jane's relationship_____________ her mother is based on mutual respect. 8 I did not expect Richard to be such a bad influence_____________ Craig. 9 She wanted to replace the antique furniture______________ more contemporary pieces. . anyone else to show up.

10 It's getting rather late, so we won’t w ait_________

11 There was a great need_____________ volunteers at the refugee settlement. 12 Martha sounded more serious than ever before_____________ leaving her job. 13 I hate it when he starts boasting___

his achievements.

14 The principal always mistakes Peter _

___another student.

15 In what way is the company going to benefit__________ __________ installing this new software? 16 Mary insisted_____________ taking the train because she is afraid of flying. 17 Richard's colleagues suspected him.

. stealing the money, but they said nothing.

Grammar Revision (Unreal Past) See G ram m ar R e v ie w page 162 ^ Com plete the blanks w ith the co rrect form of the verbs in brackets.

Camping can be seen as an alternative to taking a holiday in a five-star hotel. Here are some people’s views on this form of holiday making. "When it comes to camping, I wish (1).

(make)

“I really don’t mind camping, that is, if it’s in a well-organised

something clear. I am not a fan! I’ve only been

campsite. You see, it’s a matter of safety. Supposing

camping once, and it was a horrific experience. I’d rather

I (8)_______________ (get) injured and (9)_______________ .(be

(2)_________________ (not go) at all. Last summer my friends

alone out in the mountains, what would I do? I hear some people

insisted that I go with them. I was reluctant at first, but I ended up

talking about camping as though it (10)_________________ (be ?

going. I wish I (3)_________________ (trust) my instincts. Our

chance to endure hardship. It’s a holiday, for Pete’s sake!”

first mistake was to set off without listening to the weather

Kelly Sutherland, 28

forecast. Well, two days later it started to rain so heavily that our tents somehow flooded! We had taken so many things with us

“I really enjoy camping. It gives you a chance to become one with

that it took hours to pack up and leave. It was as if we

nature and live the way you were meant to live. If only I

(4 )

(11)_________________ (get away) more often! Most people,

(take) half of Selfridges with us! It

though, would rather (12)_________________ (spend) their holidsr

was awful, and on top of that, I caught a cold. If only I (5 )

(know)

■ 11 ’ **-

r>

at a luxurious resort with swimming pools and the lot. But it’s

better! Camping is not for me.

about time they (13)________________ (realise) how important

I prefer (6)_________________

it is to experience the freedom camping has to offer. There’s one

(stay) in a cosy hotel room and relax

more thing I would like to point out. I wish people who actually gc

rather than (7)_________________

camping (14)_________________ (not leave) their rubbish behin:

(pitch) a tent.”

when they pack up their tents and go home. I mean, if we al!

Wayne King, 23

(15)_________________ (do) the same, our world would become a huge rubbish tip!” Ben Cosworth, 18

® He speaks as if he were a lawyer.CHe isn’t.) /

Iwould rather I hadn't stayed at home yesterday. -

(would rather+PastSimple refers to thepresent/future would rather* PastPerfect refers to thepast Thesubject of would rather is differentfrom the subject of the second verb.)

He speaks as if he is a lawyor.CHc isn't.)— He spoke as if he had known me for years. (He didn't.) / He spokf? as if he kaew-m&for years. (Ho didn't.) (as if +PastPerfect refers to unreal situations in thepast.)

® He acts as if he was rich.=He acts as if he were rich. She wishes she was rich.= She wishes she were rich. (were can be used instead of was in all persons in Unreal Past.) © I wish to speak to the principal. / (=1want to speak to the principal). I wish you to speak to the principal. (wish + full infinitive= want; the subject of wish must be the same as the subject of the infinitive.) ® I wish I smoked/could smoke less. S I wish you smoked /could smoke less. / I-wich you smoke tess. • (wish+ unrealpast/could + infinitive; the subject of wish &

I prefer coffee to tea. / He prefers swimming to scuba diving. / He prefers swimming from scuba diving?—

®

He prefers/would prefer to swim rather than scuba dive. / He prefers/would prefer to swim rather than to scuba diva

®

He would rather swim than scuba dive. / Ho would rathorto swim than scuba dive. Ha-wouldrather sw im toscuba dive^

®

You had better see a doctor. / Tdrather you saw a doctor. S I hadtaottor you saw a doctor:—-

®

Youhadbetterseeadoctor. / Youtaad-bettcr to see a doctor—

(prefer+noun/-ingform to noun/-ingform=generalpreference)

(prefer/wouldprefer +full infinitive rather than +bare infinitive)

{would rather+bare infinitive+than+ bare infinitive).

can be the same as or differentfrom the subject of the second verb.) I wish you would smoke less./ I wish I would smokeless. > (wish+ would + infinitive; the subject of wish must be

&

®

(The subject of had better must be the same as that of the verb.)

differentfrom the subject of would.) I would rather (not) stay at home tonight. / Lwm lid rather not to stay at hometoraight. Iwould rather not staying at home tonight. ~ I would rather (not) have stayed at home yesterday. / I would rather stay at home yesterday. Iwould rather not had stayed at homo yestetday.—

(would rather +present bare infinitive refers to thepresent/future would rather +perfect bare infinitive refers to thepast The subject of would rather is the same as the subject of the second verb.) ® I would rather we stayed/didn't stay at home tonight. / I would rathor I didn't stay at home-tonight.— I would rather we had (not) stayed at home yesterday. /

®

(had better +present bare infinitive refers to thepresent/future) You should have seen a doctor. S It would have been better if you had seen a doctor. / Youhad better have seen a doctor.—

(Itwould have been better if+PastPerfect refers to thepast) ® It's time we bought a new car. / It's-Bme-w c buy anewxar;— It'stime for us to buy a new car. / It's about/high time weboughtanew car. / It's about /high time for us to buy gmovrear.--

(It's time +unrealpast =for sb +full infinitive; it's high/about time+unrealpast)

Key Transformations ® I wish /If only you didn't/wouldn’t speak so loudly. I would rather/sooner you didn't/wouldn't speak so loudly. I would prefer it if you didn’t speak so loudly. ® Iwish/Ifonlywehadhiredacar. I would rather/sooner we had hired a car. I would have preferred it if we had hired a car. I would prefer us to have hired a car. It'sa pity we didn't hire a car. We regret not hiring/having hired a car. ® You ought to/hadbetter/should wash the dishes now. I wish /If only you washed the dishes now.

It's (about/high) time you washed the dishes. It's time for you to wash the dishes. & Shepretendedtobeworking. She acted as if /as though she were working. If you saw her, you would think that she was working. If you had seen her, you would have thought that she was working. By her behaviour, you would assume that she was working. ® He prefers going out to watching TV. . He prefers to go out rather than watch TV. He would prefer to go out rather than watch TV. He would rather/sooner go out than watch TV.

1

unit 13 Examination Practice A

Read the text be lo w and think of the w ord which best fits each space. Use only one w ord in each space.

PROBLEMS CAUSED BY CARS Living in a modern world may have its advantages but it also has its disadvantages. One disadvantage of the modern way of life which stands (1)__________________ from the rest is the negative influence cars have (2)__________________ the environment. Today, all developed societies face a (3)__________________ range of problems caused by cars and (4)__________________ vehicles. These include air and noise pollution, (5)_________________ traffic and the evergrowing number of roads in our cities. Major cities around the world face considerable environmental damage (6 )__________________ of this and are in need of serious measures to reverse this trend. How did we end (7)__________________ with such a problem? There are no simple answers to this question and no serious effort has been made to find any either. It's about (8)_________

, however, that our generation got serious

(9 )__________________ this issue. People must be willing to stand (10) _

_________ environmental groups and make

any effort necessary to change the situation. Many environmentalists believe that we could help by using our (11)___

sense. Car pooling, for Instance, could

be a solution to the problem. This simple programme calls for people to share their car with fellow workers to and from work. A lot of interest has been shown in car pooling and other more ambitious programmes are planned for the future. Our society as a whole must be in touch (12)__________________ such issues, and we should all be willing to contribute and participate actively for the common interest.

B Complete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar meaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given

unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the w ord given. 1 You ought to return the money you owe. back

It is about_____

_the money you owe.

2 We regret not having installed an alarm system, wish

W e___________ ______

_____

_an alarm system.

3 If you had heard him speak, you’d think he had studied the subject extensively, if

He spoke_________________________________________________

_____ the subject extensively.

4 Dennis doesn’t feel like playing football today, rather

Dennis______________________

.football today.

5 It’s a pity we can’t visit the gallery, only

If________________

the gallery.

6 Julie doesn’t like playing the guitar as much as she likes singing, rather

Julie prefers_________________________________

_the guitar.

7 Michael didn’t want to spend his holidays in London, but in the end he did. rather

Michael___

________

his holidays in London.

8 Please don’t disappoint me this time, let

I’d rather you________

this time.

9 I can’t stand Ronnie complaining about everything, wish

i

..

I _________________________________

.about everything.

unit 13

Words easily confused Use the correct form of the w ords in the boxes to com plete the sentences in each group A-I below. You m ay use some of the w ords m ore than once. In some cases, m ore than one w ord m ay be correct. A

attention

care

notice

warning

signal

1 The scientist demanded extra____________________

caution . from the people who were moving his laboratory equipment.

2 When I give the________________________ .everyone shout “HAPPY BIRTHDAY”. 3 If we had been given a couple of days’________________________ about the meeting, we would have been more organised. 4 The two students were given a(n).

. not to fight again in the school grounds, or they would be

suspended. 5 Some people don't pay__________

. to their pets’ needs and forget that they require a lot of

.and affection. 6 This is a very expensive piece of equipment, so it must be handled with B

insist

persist

continue

last

remain

maintain

protect

keep

1 Some European cars are expensive to ________________________ , yet they_________________________ to be extremely popular. 2 The customer________________________ on seeing the manager because the staff were so unhelpful. 3 We repaired our TV set, but it only_____

. for two months before it broke down again.

4 I think it's cruel to ____________________

animals in flats.

5 If Sandra________________________ in making trouble, the headmaster will call her parents. 6 In case of an earthquake, people should________________________ calm. 7 My family bought a watchdog to

convince

persuade

our property.

urge

impress

attract

appeal

1 Bob tries to _

. people by buying them expensive gifts.

2 The teacher

_ the students to study harder after the terrible test results.

3 After a lot of discussion, I was able to .________________________ Anne to come with me even though parties don't to her. 4 The company tried to ______________

the public that they were not polluting the river.

5 Children sometimes cry just to.

D

win

beat

1 We have to. 2 France____

gain

________ attention.

earn

defeat

fail

. all our opponents, otherwise we will. . the World Cup in 1998 by.

3 Napolean was.

. at the battle of Waterloo.

4 I don't_______

. enough money. I need to find a new job.

5 After you've

_____ experience, you'll be able to get a promotion.

.to get to the finals. Brazil.

am >

unit 13 E

appeal

application

attraction

interest

1 Disneyland is a famous________________________ for children, but adults love it too. 2 You must complete this________________________ form before doing anything else. 3 Unfortunately, Larry shows no________________________ in his studies. 4 I made an ________________________ against the parking fine by writing to the council.

F

result

effect

affect

consequence

influence

1 I missed the train this morning and as a(n)________________________ I was late for school. Then, I had to face the ________________________ when my teacher saw me. 2 Smoking has a negative________________________ on our health. 3 The football players' performance was________________________ by the rain. 4 Bob's friends have had a positive________________________ on him and his_________________________ have improved.

(j

allow

let

permit

accept

make

oblige

force

1 My parents won't________________________ me go to the party because it's on a weekday. 2 I ________________________ the job offer because it was too good to refuse. 3 Many teenagers are________________________ to stay out after midnight. 4 The new law________________________ all drivers to have their licence with them at all times. 5 I can't________________________ you to do this if you don't want to. 6 Students are________________________ to enter the lab only under teacher supervision. 7 My mother_____________________ __ us tidy our rooms every Saturday morning.

H

postpone

cancel

delay

1 All trains were________________________ due to a power failure. 2 I had to ________________________ all my appointments as I was ill. 3 Joel’s busy today, so we have to ________________________ the meeting until, next Friday.

I

guest

host

visitor

client

customer

1 Car manufacturers go to great lengths to keep their________________________ satisfied. 2 The________________________ of the party looked after his_________________________ extremely well. 3 The gallery is open to ________________________ from 10 am to 5 pm. 4 Most of the lawyer’s ________________________ were rich and famous.

unit 1 3

3L This u nit deals w ith nouns w hich d erive from verb roots.

Noun = Verb + -ment

Verb Root

:• ' 7- --V•

•/:

The process or the result of doing what the verb describes development

develop

Some other common verbs that form nouns in the same way are: achieve, agree, amaze, amuse, announce, appoint, argue, arrange, employ, entertain, excite, Improve, punish, replace and require. i

Verb Root

Noun =Verb + -ure

depart

departure

Some other common verbs that form nouns in the same way are: expose, fail, please and press. The verb create forms a noun in -ure, but its meaning is different: create 4 creature Pay attention to the following irregularities: m ix 4 mixture proceed 4 procedure

sign 4 signature .....................

Noun (Person)= Verb + -e r/-or

Verb Root

The person who does what the verb describes trainer operator

train operate

• Some other common verbs that form nouns in -er are: advertise, announce, consume, employ, examine, found, hunt, insure, interview, observe, organise, own, perform, produce, report and work. • Some other common verbs that form nouns in -or are: act, collect, construct, contribute, create, decorate, direct, govern, inspect, instruct, invent, investigate and protect.

Verb Root

Noun (Thing)= Verb + -e r/-o r The thing that does what the verb describes

record calculate

recorder calculator

• Some other common verbs that form nouns in -er are: blend, compute, cook, m ix and print, • Some other common verbs that form nouns in -or are: react, refrigerate and sense.

Verb Root

Noun (Person)= Verb + -ee The person who receives the action described by the verb

employ

employee

Some other common verbs that form nouns in the same way are: examine, interview, pay, refer, train and trust.

unit 13 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the w ords in capitals. . to comply with the safety

.m ay

FAIL, REGULATE

prove

FATE

2 We already had a(n)

_and I'm not in the mood for another

AGREE

., so let's just drop the subject.

ARGUE

3 Many people’s purchases are influenced b y ______________________ .

ADVERTISE

4 The panda is a r a r e ______________________ , but unfortunately it is under threat from

CREATE

5 What

REQUIRE, EMPLOY

HUNT . must potential

have in order to get

this job? 6 Scientists have proved that too much

.to the sun is

EXPOSE HARM

7 A lot of

..film

and

______________________ had been invited to the cocktail party.

SING

8 H is ______________________ from the country guaranteed his _

DEPART, SAFE

9 It’s always a ______________________ to watch children play. 10 We had to ask the g y m ______________________ what type of _

ACT, DIRECT, PRODUCE

PLEASE he

INSTRUCT, TRAIN

recommended.

Examination Practice A

Read the text belo w and decide which answ er A, B, C or D best fits each space.

A IR P O R T D G LA Y S Although the plane is the fastest means of transport, the idea of travelling by plane does not (1)_____________________ to everyone because of the frequent delays. It is extremely frustrating when you

(2)_____________________ yourself plenty of time to get to the airport and - once there - it is brought to your (3 )_____________________ that there is a problem with your flight. The staff at the check-in are trying to ( 4 ) _____________________

you that it won't be long

before the problem is solved. Yet, hours later you feel let (5 )_____________________ , as you (6 ) ______________________ to wait patiently for your boarding call. Of course, you won't (7 )

anything by complaining.

By this stage, you realise you are going to miss your connecting flight and now you must change your bookings. You feel (8 )

you're never going to get to your destination. However, there is the slight chance that you could be

one of the lucky ones spending the night at a top class hotel at the expense of the airline that caused your problem in the first place. Admittedly, you would rather ( 9 )_____________________ heading for your original destination. Regular (10)_____________________

advise us just to accept the fact that no matter how frustrating this situation might be,

it's unavoidable and shouldn’t (11)_____________________ us that much. Nevertheless, it will always be a

(12)_____________________ sight to see people eagerly waiting, in the hope of hearing their flight announced.

unit | 3 1

A attract

B appeal

C impress

D affect

2

A let

B keep

C allow

D make

3

A care

B warning

C interest

D attention

4

A insist

B attract

C urge

D convince

5

A off

B down

C away

D out

6

A continue

B persist

C insist

D remain

7

A win

B result

C earn

D gain

8

A if only

B though

C as if

D if

9

A be

B to be

C had been

D to had been

10

A guests

B customers

C clients

D visitors

11

A effect

B influence

C appeal

D affect

12

A common

B general

C wide

D strong

B Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals.

THE MODEL T-FORD One of the most im portant (1)____________

ACHIEVE

the history of the motorcar was the ( 2 )________________

DEVELOP

of the Model-T Ford in 1913, which was the first car to be produced on a large scale. The (3)_________________

INVENT

of this m ethod of production was Henry Ford, the founder of the Ford Motor Company. The production line, as it came to be ( 4 ) _________________ .offered ( 5 ) _________________

KNOW, EMPLOY

to thousands of (6)_

WORK

. It cut costs as

well, making cars affordable to ( 7 ) ____________________ .

CONSUME

In addition, the replacem ent of old work practices made cars more ( 8 ) ____________________ .w h ile numerous

RELY

(9) ____________________ to the interior of the car made

IMPROVE

driving a pleasure. So. car (10)____________________ have

OWN

Henry Ford to thank for his enormous contribution to the car industry.

Prepositional Phrases A

Complete the blanks with the prepositions in, on, at, for, of, with or to. the expense.

contact

.re la tio n ___

the m o o d __

.a d d itio n .

.th e m idd le,

the p o in t___

_support_

.th e centre _

co nn ectio n .

.tou ch

. resp ect___

n e e d ______

.th e a g e .

. regard.

.answ er

B Read the sentences and complete them with the prepositions in, on, for, of, with, to or as.

1 Mr Kingston is d isab led ____________a result____________ a childhood illness. account

2 We lost the bid to a rival c o m p a n y _______

3 I stack all my m ag azin es___________ top.

_______ a silly mistake that Roy made.

_______ the bookcase.

4 Tom w ithdrew his o bjection s____________the sake____________ the team ’s unity. 5 Sally bought an old h o u se____________aview ____________ renovating it in the future. 6 I'm w ritin g ___________ reference____________ your newspaper’s investigation into police corruption.

C Complete the sentences with the prepositional phrases in the box below. in captivity

in haste

under repair

under strain

in aid of

in the first place

in court

1 The charity m arathon w as.

in exchange for in writing

ahead of schedule out of hand

in instalments

inflam es

in demand

behind schedule

cancer research.

2

Hats a re _________________

. this season because of the cold weather.

3

I gave my bicycle to my frie n d .

_____________________ his electric guitar.

4

The fam ous musicians le ft___

. after the concert to avoid their fans.

5 The delay at the airport has put us _ 6

If you had asked for d irectio n s____

7

Requests for inform ation made to this departm en t must b e _________________________ .

8

The businessman was k e p t_________________________ for over a month by his kidnappers.

9

, we would not be lost now.

am paying off my c a r_________________________ .

10 The country's econom y is still.

. and the economic situation will not im prove soon .

11 To the surprise of everyone, the project was co m p leted __________________ 12 My car is _________________________ at the m om ent after last w eek’s crash. 13 The man decided to settle his c laim . 14 Don't you think that inflation is g e ttin g . 15 The whole building was_

despite his lawyer's advice. 7

. by the tim e the fire brigade arrived on the scene.

unit 14

Phrasal Verbs Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the correct num ber in the box next to each definition. A

CALL

return a phone call

1 Why don't you call your mother up and surprise her?

pay a short visit

2 The bank manager said he would call back after lunch. 3 The celebrations were called off after the tragic accident.

shout loudly

4 I heard someone calling out my name from a distance.

make a phone call

5 I called at the office to pick up my laptop before coming here.

cancel

B SPEAK, TELL, COUNT

1 Speak up please! I can't hear a word you're saying.

speak loudly

2 I could never tell the two identical twins apart.

rely on

3 Joe said to count him in for this weekend's fishing expedition.

distinguish

4 I guess we will have to count Dave out of tomorrow's match if he doesn’t feel include

better by tonight.

exclude

5 Rob can always count on his brother to help him with the gardening.

Words with Prepositions A

Complete the blanks with prepositions.

Adjectives

Nouns

Verbs

anarv

sb

a comparison

combine

anarv

sth

an understanding

compare

annoved

sb

compete sth

sth bored

sb

sb/sth

describe sb/sth

certain

sb (=say what they look like)

identical

excuse sb

similar

be made

suitable

protest

sure

shout

terrible

sth

B Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. 1 M any new paper products today are m a d e ___________ recycled paper. 2 The copy of the masterpiece was id entical ___________ the one in the museum. 3 The m anager was very a n g ry ___________ the way things turned out at yesterday's presentation. 4 Dennis has a good overall understanding ____________the subject. 5 In next month's athletics m eeting I will be com peting ____________the gold m e d a l____________ my arch-rival, Gary Flash.

6 My doctor was annoyed ____________me when I told her I wasn't taking my medication regularly.

unit ] 4 7 Leone is not sure______

. her new job offer. She needs tim e to think it over.

8 I was bored ___________ all the advice the teachers felt obliged to give us on the first day back at school. 9 Erica was absolutely certain ___________ w hat she saw that night. 10 Dan and Carole are a lovely couple because they're so suitable ___________ each other. 11 For the first tim e in years, farm ers aren't protesting______

.th e decrease in their income.

12 Many students are terrible ____________Maths and English.

Grammar Revision (Reported Speech) See G ram m ar R eview page 163 Change the following sentences into R e p o rte d Speech. Use one of the reporting verbs in the box below.

suggest advise

warn promise

explain com plain

adm it ask

deny threaten

1 “You’ll sprain your ankle, Celia, if you run in those shoes,” said her mother.

2 “Stand still or I'll tie you up!” shouted the kidnapper at the man.

3 “You're late again, Fay!” said John.

4 “I won't tell you another lie, M um ,” said Ben.

5 “I didn’t steal your wallet, Betty,” he said.

6 “Take the pills for three days and visit me again next week, Mr Farrow,” said the doctor.

7 “Let's go on a boat trip,” my brother told me.

8 "Yes, I did ruin the printer,” my colleague said.

9 "Why didn’t you do your hom ew ork yesterday, Mary?” the teacher wanted to know.

10 “I need the m oney because I must fly to London tonight,” she said.

unit 14

Q “You should speak more politely” he said to me. 4

&

He told me to speak more politely. / J fe told to m etocpoak more politely. -

(tell someone something; say something to someone) © “If she phones, V11let her know,” said John. 4 John said that if she phoned, he would let her know.

(agree, claim, promise, threaten, warn +full infinitive or that-clause)

I

(Conditional Sentences Typel usually change into Conditional Sentences Type 2 in Reported Speech.) Kim said that if she had money, she would go abroad. g “If I had had money, I would have gone abroad last year,”said Kim. -4 Kim said that if she had had money, she would have gone abroad the previous year.

|® “I wish I didn't have to work late,” she said. She said she wished she didn't have to work late. / -She said she wished sho hadn't had to work late.-

(Unreal Past Tenses do not change in Reported Speech.) 6 'Please, fasten your seatbelts,” said the flight attendant. 4 The flight attendant asked us to fasten our seatbelts. / “Please, don’t smoke,”said the flight attendant. 4 The flight attendant asked us not to smoke. / -The flight attendant asked u g to not smoke. -

(tell, ask, beg order, command, advise, forbid, warn, encourage + object +full infinitive) ) ‘T il drive you to school,” said m y father. 4 M y father offered to drive me to school. / M y father nfferetLEhat hp w m llri rtriim.m o tn srhnnl

(offer, refuse +full infinitive)

‘Tm sorry I’m late,” she said. 4 She apologised for being late. S Sh&apologised that she was tato.-

(accuse of, apologise for, blame for, insist on etc. + ing form)

& “If I had money, I would go abroad,”said Kim. -4

(Conditional Sentences Types2 and 3 do not change in Reported Speech.)

“IH drive you to school," said m y father. -4 M y father promised to drive m e to school. M y father promised that he would drive me to school.

®

“M y coffee is too cold,” she said. 4 She complained about her coffee being too cold. She complained that her coffee was too cold.

(admit, complain, deny + -ingform or that -clause) “Let’s go for a walk,”said Peter. -4 Peter suggested going for a walk. / Peter suggested to go for a walk. „ Peter suggested that we go for a walk. / Peter suggested that we should go for a walk. / “Do you like your job?”he asked me. -4 He asked if/whether I liked m y job. / He ackod mo did I like m y jot*— He asked me if did I like m y jofe— -“W hat are you going to do?” she asked me. 4 She asked me what I was going to do. / She asked me what wao I going to-do.—■ When can we see the principal? -4 Could you tell us when we can see the principal? / Could you toll u g when can wo sec the principal?—

(In Reported and Indirect questions the verb is always in the affirmative form.)

Key Transformations & “You should exercise more,”the doctor said to me. -4 The doctor said that I should exercise more. The doctor told/advised/encouraged me to exercise more. The doctor suggested that I (should) exercise more. The doctor insisted on m y exercising more.

& “Don’t move the desks,”said the teacher to the students. -4 The teacher told/ordered the students not to move the desks. The teacher forbade the students to move the desks. The teacher didn't let the students move the desks. The teacher didn't allow the students to move the desks.

& “We missed the plane and you're responsible for that,” said his wife to him. -4 His wife blamed him for missing the plane.

© “I’ll do the shopping,”said Mike. -4 Mike offered to do the shopping. Mike promised to do the shopping. Mike promised that he would do the shopping. Mike agreed to do the shopping. Mike agreed that he would do the shopping.

Q ‘I f only I knew how to operate the machine,” she said. -4 She wished she knew how to operate the machine. © “Have you ever been to Japan, Julie?”asked Ben. -4 Ben asked Julie if / whether she had ever been to Japan. Ben wondered/wanted to know if/whether Julie had ever been to Japan. © Could you tell me the way to the beach? Could you tell me how I can/could get to the beach? Could you tell me how to get to the beach?

unit 1 4

Examination Practice

A

Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space.

A CAREER AT HOME

Jodie Sutter is thirty-eight. She has tw o daughters and has recently changed her lifestyle. She is part of a growing num ber of wom en (1)________________________ are abandoning their careers to becom e full-tim e homecarers. Jodie worked for ten years as a successful lawyer in a large legal firm in the city. She loved her job and was moving up the career ladder. She explained (2 )________________________ she had fascinating cases (3 )________________________ court and gave it everything she had. Twelve-hour days were not uncomm on and her weekends were always busy. When she had her first child, though, things ch an g ed ." In the ( 4 ) ________________________ place, my colleagues couldn't count (5 )________________________ me when they had a heavy workload because I'd have to rush home to Lucy," she said. Her husband also had a dem anding job and they soon realised that there was more to fam ily life than they had imagined. "We were always ( 6 ) ________________________ schedule!" she exclaimed. Jodie admits (7 )________________________ frustrated at times when the situation got ( 8 ) ________________________ of hand. That's when she was sure ( 9 ) ________________________ her decision to leave her job. Her husband suggested that they (1 0 )________________________ get a nanny. However, Jodie insisted (11)________________________ giving up her career, and did so when Lucy was three. "It's very difficult to com bine w ork (12)________________________ fam ily life and I believe the latter is more important."

B Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given

unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. 1 "He stole my money!" shouted the old lady,

accused

The old lad y_______________

. money.

2 "I think you should stop eating so many sweets," M ary’s sister said to her.

advised

M ary’s sister__________________________________________

.so many sweets.

3 "Don't cancel your trip because of us," we said to John,

off

We told John_________________________

his trip because of us.

4 "I'm sorry I didn't tell you the truth,” Peter said to us.

apologised

P eter______________________________

.th e truth.

5 Is the gallery open in the afternoon?

know

Do y o u ______________

. open in the afternoon?

6 "Why don't you try on a pair of jeans?" Peter asked Mary,

suggested

P eter__________________________________

.a pair of jeans.

7 "You really must let me cook dinner," said Anne,

insisted

A n n e __________________________

.dinner.

8 "What does he want to tell me?" Julie asked herself,

wondered

Julie_________________________

to tell her.

unit 1 4

Words easily confused Use the correct form of the words in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group A -H below. You may use some of the words more than once. In some cases, more than one word may be correct.

A

like

alike

unlike

likely

1 It’s v e ry .

as

same

similar

common

to see people asleep on the train when travelling to work. When I'm tired I do the

2 My cousin John looks ju st.

his father. They even h a v e .

3 Jonathan is very p o lite ___

his brother who is really rude.

4 Dora and M ary lo o k ______

and often I can't tell one from the other.

5 He's as w h ite ____________

a ghost. It's v e ry .

6 They a re ________________

B

suit

fit

match

that he is going to faint.

to be late, so let’s start eating dinner.

com bine

1 You must

com pare

strength with will-power to become a successful weightlifter.

2 The red tie doesn't

________ you and it d oesn't_________________________your clothes either.

3 My trainers are too small and don't. 4 You can 't____________________

punctual

habits.

accurate

1 The.

me anymore. a Ferrari to an ordinary car.

correct

exact

sharp

answer to the maths problem is 2.43 not 2.53.

2 Be here at 8 o’clock

______________ , otherwise I'll leave without you.

3 Barometers are the m ost.

___________________ way of measuring atmospheric pressure.

4 Jason is a v e ry __________ 5 T h e ____________________

rem ain

reveal

1 The journalist w ouldn't. 2 My fam ily w e re _______

person. He is never late. distance from Burwood to the city centre is 17.4 km.

review

revise

relieve

release

her source no m atter how much pressure I put on her. to hear that my grandfather’s operation went well. He then had to in hospital for four weeks before he could be _

3 We had to _ 4 My editor asked me t o . 5 The ‘New Rockers’ have

_________ all ten units for the maths test. a new play by John Astor. _ their new album and the reviews have been excellent so far.

unit | 4 E

outcom e

outdoor

o utfit

o utlet

outsider

1

Bullfighting is fought in a n ________________________ arena.

2

I bought an expensive________________________ for the awards ceremony.

3 When Beth moved to her new school, she felt like a n ________________________until she became friends with a few girls. 4 The fa c to ry ________________________sells shoes at cost price. 5 T h e ________________________ of the match was in favour of the home team.

F

perfect

ideal

fine

thorough

detailed

definite

certain

particular

special

sure

1 M y ________________________ weight is 54 kilograms. At the m om ent I'm 61 kilograms, so I'm going on a diet. 2 The doctor gave her patient a (n )________________________check-up once a year. 3 My supervisor asked for a (n )________________________report concerning the new project we were doing. 4 This mirror will b e ________________________ for our entrance hall. I'm _________________________it will fit on the wall opposite the door. 5 I need a (n )________________________answer by tom orrow because I want to know fo r _________________________how many people are coming to the restaurant. 6 The w eather tom orrow will b e ________________________with a light breeze from the North. 7 The supermarket had a ________________________offer on a (n )_________________________brand of spaghetti that was very tasty.

G

stand

resist

tolerate

suffer

1 I don't like people who lie and cheat. I will n o t________________________ such behaviour. 2 Many p e o p le________________________from allergies in spring. 3 I c a n 't________________________ chocolate cake when I see it in front of me. 4

I couldn't bear to watch my c a t________________________, so I asked the vet to put him down.

5

Kate c a n 't________________________milk and never drinks it.

H

offer

provide

supply

cater

1 P e te r________________________ to take me hom e since it was raining. 2 Does this restaurant________________________ for vegetarians? 3 The a irlin e ________________________ lunch for the passengers of the delayed flight. 4 T h e y ________________________ us hom e-m ade cookies. 5 The injured climbers w e re ________________________ with food and water until help arrived.

unit 1 4

• In the previous units we dealt with derivatives which are form ed according to certain rules. There are, however, some less predictable form ations. The most com m on of these are:

Verb

Noun

Adjective

bear behave choose complain die hate heat laugh lose m arry pride prove pursue relieve see sing solve speak succeed think —

birth behaviour choice com plaint death hatred heat laughter loss m arriage pride proof pursuit relief sight song solution speech success thought youth

behavioural choosy —

dead hateful hot —

lost m arried proud — —

relieved — —

if te



speechless successful thoughtful young

• You may be asked to form an adjective or noun which derives from the name of a country or continent, e.g. England

Europe

4 4

English European

• Finally, you may be asked to derive an adverb or a pronoun ending in -body, -one, -thing, -w here, -how, -ever or -self.

some any every else

somebody anyone everything elsewhere

any when one

anyhow whenever oneself

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in bold type. 1 Janet was at a ______________________ for words when she saw the dam age done to her car.

LOSE

2 My parents have had a long and h a p p y __________

MARRY

3 I n e e d ______________________ to help me find the I've looked

.docum ents, as

.an d can't find them. . people like to make

EVERY about London's

_ weather.

6 The father w a s ______________________ of his son's

8

BRITAIN, COMPLAIN RAIN

5 He com m itted the crim e out of ra c ia l_____________

7 I can't stand t h e __________________

SOME, MISS

of

HATE .to Cambridge. animals!

. we go, we m anage to enjoy

SEE, DIE WHERE, OUR

9 Many people can't stand e x tr e m e _________________ 10 T h e ______________________ ambassador is giving a

PRIDE, ADMIT

HOT .ton igh t.

ITALY, SPEAK

unit 1 4 11 He

m anaged to find

12 The .

. of leaving my hom e town and going to live in the city filled me

THINK

_feelings, but I had made m y ______________________ .

MIX, CHOOSE

with

_that he was innocent.

_was

13 His

.an d I'm never going to speak to him

SOME, PROVE

BEHAVE, ACCEPT

again. 14 It is com m only accepted that

. is the best m edicine for stress.

LAUGH

15 His _

.doesn't allow him to adm it his faults.

PROUD

16 The

_ crossed t h e ______________________ border.

IMMIGRATE, MEXICO

17 It was such a

. for her w hen she found her dog.

18 I believe th at it's impossible to find a _______ 19 They think very highly o f __________________

.to every problem. .and prefer not to associate

with ______________________ they consider inferior. 20 T h e ______________________ of your book will depend on how well you prom ote it.

RELIEVE SOLVE THEM ANY SUCCEED

Examination Practice

A

Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

A BIG DECISION - 9 ^*^,.-.....

When Lucy (1)_______________________that she was going to move abroad because she was bored (2 )______________________ her life, we weren't surprised. After all, she had been talking about moving to a warm er country for ages, one which would 9

wEm

| i k

® ______________________ sun, sea and opportunities for outdoor activities. A country like Spain or Portugal would ( 4 ) ______________________ her just fine. We took her even more seriously when she called (5 )_______________________an interview for a job she was sure of getting. Of course, her parents were annoyed with her decision, but I had to admit that I sympathised with her. I had done something ( 6 ) _______________________when I was her age, so I supported her all the way. I even helped her decide on a suitable destination. It was near an ancient site which, given Lucy’s academic background in archaeology, was (7 )_______________________for her. I ( 8 )______________________ her that in the beginning she would feel ( 9 ) _____________________an (1 0 )_____________________ , but people f r o r small towns are friendly and she wouldn’t feel lonely for too long. The tim e came for Lucy to depart. She wasn’t sad, (11)______________________ her parents who were crying and couldn't bear to see their daughter leaving. Seeing her

parents cry made me feel responsible for what had happened. In the end, I (12)_______________________for having encourage: Lucy to leave. To tell the truth, however, I’m glad to have influenced her decision to move abroad.

unit | 4 1

A announced

B told

C agreed

D claimed

2

A with

B for

C about

D at

3

A supply

B offer

C reveal

D cater

4

A fit

B suit

C com bine

D match

5

A out

B up

C for

D off

6

A sim ilar

B com m on

C same

D likely

7

A ideal

B special

C particular

D fine

8

A insisted

B explained

C said

D warned

9

A as

B alike

C like

D unlike

10

A outdoor

B outsider

C outcom e

D o utfit

11

A not alike

B unlikely

C not as

D unlike

12

A adm itted

B denied

C apologised

D accused

E Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals.

A

TENNIS STAR IS BORN

(1)_______________________the tennis star Richard Krajicek stepped onto the court, his opponent needed to prepare for one of the (2 )_______________________serves in the game. Krajicek was

FAST

(3 )_______________________ of his 220 km/h serve, since his (4 )_______________________on

PRIDE, SUCCEED

the court could be partly attributed to it. Without doubt, Krajicek can be described as (5 )__________________

who was in pursuit of

SOME

(6 )_______________________. At Wimbledon in 1997, bad weather conditions didn't dampen his spirits. The only (7)_

that went through his mind was that of holding the

THINK

trophy. Krajicek had a lot of (8 )________________ _______ and beat his (9 )______________________

DETERMINE, AMERICA

opponent three sets to love. Many considered Krajicek to be the next great (10) _

EUROPE

tennis champion following in the footsteps of Boris Becker.

SECTION 1(FCE format)

For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (O). Example: 0

(A )heading

B counting

C increasing

D progressing

POPULATION FACTS According to the United Nations’ population figures, the world's population will be ( 0 ) _________ heading________ for g g billion by the year 2 0 5 0 , (1)_________________________ to 6.7 billion in 2 0 0 9 . This figure (2) _________________________ into account that each wom an on the planet will give birth to tw o children. Eight billion, nine hundred million people may sound ( 3 ) _________________________ an astronomical figure, yet statistics (4 )

that, throughout the world, the num ber of children being born is dropping. In Africa

the birth rate has decreased from 6.6 to 5.1, in Asia from 5.1 to 2.6, in Latin America from 5.0 to 2.7 and with (5 )

to the European countries, the birth rate is below the replacem ent level. This means fewer

people being born for every elderly person. For instance, by 2 0 5 0 , Spain risks being the oldest country in the world. The explanation ( 6 ) _________________________ for this is the fact that wom en have becom e better educated and would rather ( 7 ) _________________________ a career than enjoy m otherhood. Therefore, they ( 8 ) __________________________ bringing up many children and being out of work for long periods of time.

( 9 ) _____________________ , the world's population will continue to increase (10)_________________________ the ageing population. This will happen because of an overall rise in life expectancy, especially in the developed countries. The main reason for this is that m any diseases which were fatal in the past, can be (11)_____________________ nowadays. In view of these facts, experts argue that 8.9 billion people is more than our planet will be able to take. Others who have a more pessimistic outlook on life ( 1 2 ) _________________________ that we are already on the point of not being able to sustain the current population. 1

A combined

B unlike

C competed

D compared

2

A brings

B has

C takes

D gives

3

A as

B alike

C likewise

D like

4

A reveal

B give away

C describe

D speak out

5

A connection

B view

C relation

D respect

6

A given

B made

C supported

D told

7

A chase

B create

C pursue

D advance

8

A prevent

B om it

C avoid

D prohibit

9

A All the same

B A fter all

C All in all

D Once and for all

10

A whereas

B although

C even though

D in spite of

11

A healed

B cured

C defeated

D beaten

12

A warn

B accuse

C threaten

D advise

unit |B

For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space.

FLOWER Flowers grow everyw here in the world but ( 0 ) _________ iv fu tl _________ people think of tulips, they think of the Netherlands. The Dutch have a saying: “Flowers love people”. (1 3 ) _________________________ this is true, then flowers really love the Dutch, as flowers have been cultivated in the Netherlands for hundreds of years. In fact, the flow er industry has been ( 1 4 ) _________________________ profitable that it has been boosting the Dutch econom y since the seventeenth century.

Recently, however, the Dutch flow er growers have been (15)

difficulties

in coping with the tough com petition from abroad. The Colombians, for instance, have ( 1 6 ) _____________________the Dutch by surprise. Their flowers are now (1 7 )___________ dem and all over the world ( 1 8 ) _________________________ to the simple fact that they are cheaper. Within a few short years, the Colombians have brought Holland's dom ination of the flow er industry to an end. ( 1 9 ) _________________________ this fact, the Netherlands is still in control of over sixty per cent of the world's flow er market.

In (2 0 )

to help the Dutch growers, the

European Commission has decided to prom ote the flow er industry, as (2 1 ) _________________________ as the growers themselves are willing to cut costs and becom e more com petitive. All this in the hope of making people buy more flowers than they used to. Today the average Dutchm an buys 150 stems a year, (22 )

the Germans buy 8 0 stems and

the English only 5 0 stems. These numbers are constantly declining. (23 )

this trend is reversed, m any Dutch

growers will soon be ( 2 4 ) _________________________ of business.

unit 15

For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0 ).

DESERT ANIMALS Deserts are not (0)

u n in fia S ite d

INHABIT

places as many people believe. Although the daytime air

temperature may reach a(n) (25) _____________________ 58° C and the surface temperature 77° C,

BEAR

many animals live in these conditions. Their (26) ______________________ however, is

SURVIVE

(27 )

on them being able to get the water they need.

DEPEND

(28 )

of desert animals has revealed a lot about the strategies they

OBSERVE

employ to achieve this. (29)

_______

(30)

RESEARCH

. have found that beetles, for example, get their daily

REQUIRE

_of water after waiting for the moisture from fog to condense on their bodies and

drip down into their mouth. Larger desert animals have come up with another (31)

SOLVE

__________________ to the problem of finding a

source of water. For example, (32)_______________

CREATE

like hares or rats get their supply by eating

(33) _____________________ amounts of desert vegetation, which contains the water they require.

CONSIDER

However extreme the conditions may be, desert animals (34) _____________________ manage to obtain water.

SOME

IS @ 0 L For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (O). Example: 0

When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday.

used

W hen I was younger, I __________________ used to -play

.tennis every Sunday.

35 We took the ring road because we didn't w ant to get caught in traffic in the city centre. as

We took the ring ro a d .

. caught in traffic in the city centre.

36 “W hy don't we participate in the game?” my friend said, part

M y friend su gg ested ________________________

.th e game.

37 By the look on their faces, you'd assume they had seen a ghost, though

They looked

___________________________________

.a ghost.

38 Although he smokes heavily, he refuses to go for a check-up. smoker D espite_________________________________________________ , he refuses to go for a check-up. 39 You m ight get lost and need to ring us, so take your m obile phone with you. in

Take your m obile phone with y o u ______________________________________________

and need to ring us.

40 They had better demolish that old building on Kensington Road, down

It is ____________________________________________

. that old building on Kensington Road.

41 “Do you speak Spanish fluently, Vanessa?” he asked, whether He wanted to k n o w ______________________

.fluently.

42 Fortunately, the m otorcyclist was w earing protective clothing, so he got away with minor injuries. injured

The m otorcyclist_________________________________________________ had he not been wearing protective clothii

unit15 SECTION 2 (ECCE format)

Grammar Choose the correct answer. 1. Suppose D avid____________ you to marry him, what

6.

being seriously injured in the car accident, the man managed to survive,

would you do?

a. asks

b. will ask

a. Although

b. Though

c. asked

d. would ask

c. In spite

d. Despite

2. It's time for the children____________ doing their

7. We'd b e tte r____________ the car before Dad returns home.

homework.

a. started

b. had started

a. repair

b. to repair

c. to have started

d. to start

c. have repaired

d. to have repaired

3. “Have you heard the news? Our neighbour has been

8. Jonathan____________ reveal his secret to anyone.

arrested____________ forgery.”

a. told to me not

b. told me to not

a. on

b. of

c. told me not to

d. told me to don't

c. for

d. from

4. I would rather h e ____________ to me yesterday.

9. Wayne complained about the ro o m ____________ too dark.

a. d idn't lie

b. hadn't lied

a. was

b. had been

c. hasn't lied

d. couldn't lie

c. be

d. being

5.

how boring this course was going to be,

10. The bank manager forbade the employees__________

I w ouldn't have enrolled.

in the building.

a. If had I known

b. If I knew

a. of smoking

b. of smoke

c. Had I known

d. Did I know

c. to smoke

d. smoking

Vocabulary Choose the correct answer. 1. A lexis.

of his brother's success. He

6. We delayed our departure on ____________ of the bad

always says unkind things about him.

weather.

a. envious

b. suspicious

a. relation

b. order

c. annoyed

d. disgusted

c. account

d. condition

2. T h e ____________ of this new drug is not known yet,

7. The moment the te a c h e r____________ the exam

as it's still in the trial process.

papers, I was filled with anxiety.

a. result

b. consequence

a. gave away

b. handed over

c. effect

d. affect

c. handed down

d. gave out

3. "Which dress should I buy? The blue or the red one?"

8. According to police reports, crime h a s ____________ in

"Well, I think the blue o n e ____________ you better".

our city.

a. compares

b. matches

a. advanced

b. developed

c. suits

d. combines

c. progressed

d. increased

4. We have had security locks installed on all doors and

9. The defendant tried t o ____________ the jury of his

windows t o ____________ burglars from entering.

innocence.

a. prevent

b. forbid

a. convince

b. urge

c. prohibit

d. avoid

c. appeal

d. oblige

5. I would like everyone to ____________ quiet while I'm

from his

10. It took Steve three weeks to

reading to you.

illness and return home from the hospital,

a. maintain

b. remain

a. heal

b. recover

c. tolerate

d. notice

c. cure

d. overcome

am i

For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet. Example: 0

A first

B ideal

Cspecial

B

1

D best

THE BEST STUDENTS According to most professors, m ature students are ( 0 ) __________ id e a l ______ working and becom e actively (1)

students because they are hard­

in all aspects of the learning process.

The m ajority of m ature students have a poor educational background but they ( 2 ) _____________________

to do

exceptionally well at te rtia ry level. ( 3 ) _________________________ m any of them have a m ortgage, a job and children to (4 )

, they are always present at seminars and lectures and always hand

(5 )

essays on tim e. They like studying and writing essays and they enjoy the class discussions

th at take place. Consequently, they ( 6 ) _________________________ excellent results. In fact, as they have (7 )

m any of life's pleasures, they are content with their lives and this has a positive

(8 )

on their attitude, making them ( 9 ) __________________________ to learn.

On the other hand, despite their enthusiasm and com m itm ent, m ature students ( 1 0 ) _________________________ from anxiety. The fact that they have made many sacrifices to get into university puts extra pressure on them to succeed.

(11) _______________________

, com pleting a degree gives m ature students a sense of achievem ent, boosts their

confidence and ( 1 2 ) _________________________ their job prospects.

ANSWER SHEET 1 A included

B related

C involved

D combined

1

A

B

C

D

2

A able

B succeed

C manage

D capable

2

A

B

C

D

3

A Although

B Despite

C However

D In spite of

3

A

B

C

D

4 A grow

B develop

C rise

D raise

4

A

B

C

D

5

A in

B over

C out

D up

5

A

B

C

D

6

A fulfil

B achieve

C reach

D earn

6

A

B

C

D

7

A known

B experienced

C found out

D recognised

7

A

B

C

8

A effect

B affect

C conclusion

D consequence

8

A

B

C

D

9

A eager

B anxious

C interested

D im patient

9

A

B

C

D

A tolerate

B resist

C suffer

D complain

10

A

B

C

D

11 A Likewise

B Furtherm ore

C Nevertheless

D Otherwise

B C D 11 i A i i-----1 i-----1

12

B improves

C progresses

D advances

10

A creates

12

A

B

C

D

FCE test For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Write your word on the separate answer sheet. Example: 0

0

down

0

TV RATINGS As you settle (0 )

down

in front of your television, have you (13) watched while we're

wondered how TV ratings are calculated? Don't worry, we're not (14)

in front of the TV. It’s the Audience Research Board (ARB) that works ( 1 5 )______________________ ___ the ratings for each program m e. To ( 1 6 ) _________________________ this, the board appoints researchers whose task is to choose from a sample of viewers, who receive a small paym ent for (17)

cooperation. To gather

the required inform ation, the researchers connect the view er’s TV set and video recorder to electronic meters which record when these appliances are turned on and off and w hat is being viewed. There is a difference ( 1 8 ) _________________________ counting TV program m es and those recorded on video. To count the latter, the day, tim e and channel are im printed by the electronic meter. ( 1 9 ) _________________________ , only when the video is watched does the program m e recorder on the m eter becom e activated. It sounds complicated but the ARB need to separate live recordings ( 2 0 ) _________________________ taped ones. (21 )

problem is the num ber of viewers in one household. If there is

(2 2 )

than one viewer, then the household is given a special rem ote control.

Finally, (23) ( 2 4 ) _______

ANSWER SHEET

all the figures are collected, they are compared to the TV guides and the end the national viewing figures are calculated.

DO NOT WRITE HERE

13

13

14

_ j4 _

15

15

16

_J6_

17

17

18

18_

19

19 i-----1i

20

_^0

21

21

22

22

23

23

24

=□ c=

i

n a

i

FCE test For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). W rite your word on the separate answer sheet. Example: 0

philosopher

0

PYTHAGORAS Pythagoras was a (0 )

phiCosopher

He was well known as a great (25)

born on the Aegean island of Samos.

PHILOSOPHY

__________ and his academic

MATHEMATICS

excellence has been (2 6 )______ __________________

for over 2 0 0 0 years.

RESPECT

As a young man, he travelled and was (27) _______________________ influenced by

GREAT

some (2 8 ) _______________________ideas he came across in Egypt and Babylon.

REMARK

Over time, he made (29)

EXTEND

mathematical investigations,

which included "Pythagoras’ Theorem", a great (30)

DISCOVER

stating that the square of the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares. In (31)________________________Pythagoras was one of

ADD

the earliest (32) _______________________to suggest that the earth was a sphere

SCIENCE

revolving around a (32)

CENTRE

(34)_______________

ANSWER SHEET

fire. Without doubt, his to the scientific world will always be acknowledged.

DO NOT W RITE HERE

25

25

26 11— i

26

i

27

27 i-----11— i

28

28

29

i

29 i i-----1

30

30

31

31 i— i i——i

32

32

33

33 c zn i---- 1

34

34

CONTRIBUTE

FCE test For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0). Write only the missing words on the separate answer sheet. Example: 0

When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday.

used

When I was younger, I __________________ usedtopCay

.tennis every Sunday.

used to pCay

0

0

35 Judy is as old as Helen, same

J u d y _______

Helen.

36 I would strongly advise you to apologise for your mistake, better

Y o u ______________________________________

.y o u r mistake.

37 Take a coat because it m ight get colder in the evening, case

Take a c o a t________________________________

_______ colder in the evening.

38 They had to postpone the match until Friday, off

The m a tc h _______________________

______ until Friday.

39 Although he tries hard, he never manages to win a game, matter

He never manages to win a g a m e _____________

. he tries.

4 0 " No, I won't pick you up from the airport," said Nick to James, refused

N ic k _____________________________________

.fro m the airport.

41 You won't becom e fitte r if you don't exercise more, unless

You won't becom e fitte r ________________

more.

42 You should learn how to operate the washing machine, about

It is __________________

ANSWER SHEET

. how to operate the washing machine.

DO NOT WRITE HERE

35

35 != □ I-----1

36

36 i-----1i-----1

37

37

38

38

39

39

40

40

41

41

42

42

«B rt

G2EZ233L 1.

a doctor’s appointment tomorrow?

8. If only I ________ on vacation now.

a. Have got

a. had been

b. Do you have

b. would be

c. you have

c. were

d. You have

d . have been

2. When I ________ the book, I'll return it to the library.

9. Our house looks dirty. It must definitely________ this

a. will finish

summer.

b. will have finished

a. been painted

c. finish

b. be painted

d. am finishing

c. being painted

3. She has many friends, one o f________ is a doctor.

a. which

d. have been painted 10. She has her b rother________ the dishes every morning.

b .th at

a. do

c. whom

b. to do

d. whose

c. done

4. My bike is the sam e________ yours.

a. to

d. doing 11. A friend o f________ called this afternoon.

b. with

a. you

c. like

b. your

d.as

c. yourself

5. “I want to go to Eurodisney this year.” “S o ________ my brother.”

d. yours 12. When the firefighters arrived, the fire was out of control but

a. wants

they managed to put i t ________ .

b. does

a. off

c. is

b.out

d. will

c. up

6. My husband prefers to cook rather th a n ________ the dishes.

d. through 13. They w ondered________ the letter yet.

a. to wash

a. if I had received

b. washing

b. if had I received

c. to washing

c. whether did I receive

d. wash

d. whether have I received

7. Your car is tw ic e ________ mine.

14. She did n 't g o ________ last night. She stayed at home.

a. as big as

a. somewhere

b. bigger than

b. nowhere

c. big to

c. everywhere

d. more bigger than

d. anywhere

ECCE 15 .

earlier about your coming, we would have

23. Chris would ra th e r________ to work today.

prepared something to eat.

a. to not go

a. If we had informed

b. not to go

b. If we were informed

c. not go

c. Had we informed

d. d o n 't go

d. Had we been informed 16. Sally bou g h t________ furniture that her apartm ent looks

24. It was the first time sh e________ sushi.

a. has ever tasted

great after the renovation.

b. had ever tasted

a. such a nice

c. ever tastes

b. so a nice

d. was ever tasted 25. Our teacher gave us________ homework for the weekend.

c. such nice

a. far much

d. so nice 17. H e ________ have caused the accident; he's a careful

b. too much

driver.

c. such much

a. can 't

d. a lot much 26. We objected________ on vacation alone.

b. m ustn't

c. d id n 't have to

a. to his going

d. w ouldn't

b. him going

18. S he________ this book for five months.

c. him to go d. his to go

a. is reading

27. It w asn't lo n g ________ I realised I had lost my wallet.

b. reads

c. has read

a. when

d. has been reading

b. before

19. My father suggested________ the National Museum.

c. just as d. as soon as

a. to visit

28. The new government promised to b rin g ________

b. us to visit

c. us visit

changes in the country's economy.

d. visiting

a. about

20. Susan always dresses________ her mother.

b. up

a. as

c. along

b. such as

d. back

c. the same like

29. It's about time sh e________ studying for her exams.

a. starts

d. like 21_________ .

test

the hotel was very luxurious, Alan was not

b. started

satisfied with anything.

c. has started

a. Despite

d. had started

b . Even though

30. You had b e tte r________ to Jeremy for your bad

c. Despite of

behaviour.

d. In spite of

a. apologise

22. She was so beautiful in that dress that I couldn't take my

b. to apologise

eyes________ her.

c. apologised

a. from

d. have apologised

b. out of

c. by d. off

m m $

ECCE test 31.1always shop________ credit because I d o n 't want to

34. Anne accused T im breaking her sunglasses.

carry cash on me.

a. of

a. by

b. for

b. with

c. about

c. on

d. to

d. in

35. She's clearly superior

32. Why n o t________ camping this year?

the other candidates;

should definitely get the job.

a. to go

a. of

b. to going

b.from

c. go

c. to

d. going

d.on

3 3 .1will write to you provided y o u ________ back.

a. will write b. have written c. write

d. wrote

VOCABULARY

3 6 .1________ an ironic tone in his voice when I spoke to him

4 0 . This weekend I have more homework th a n ________

about my promotion.

a. usual

a. detected

b. regular

b. found out

c. typical

c. discovered

d. ordinary

d. invented

41. Over the years we have grown rather fond of foreign

37. The demonstrators asked th e ________ to join in the demonstration.

a. expedition

a. witnesses

b. excursion

b. sightseers

c. travel

c. onlookers

d. voyage

d. viewers 38. A lot of famous artists h ave ________ themselves how to

42. Curry powder is________ to most European dishes.

a. strange

paint.

b. peculiar

a. learnt

c. foreign

b. educated

d. unaware

c. instructed d. taught 39. The zoologist was studying th e ________ of tigers in their

43. There will be a one-hundred-dollar________ for anyone who finds my Siamese cat.

a. bonus

natural habitat.

b. donation

a. attitude

c. award

b. behaviour

d. reward

c. mood d. tem per

ECCE test 44. Kim got a twenty per cent _

.w hen she bought her

51. You _

. something about a reduction in prices. What

vacuum cleaner during the sales.

did you mean by that?

a. account

a. reported

b.fee

b. mentioned

c. receipt

c. referred

d. discount

d. expressed

45. 1

Craig thirty dollars, but I c a n 't pay him back

52. He gave me detailed _

until I get paid.

machine.

a. borrow

a. directions

b. let

b. recipe

c. owe

c. advice

d. own

d. instructions

4 6 .1d o n 't usually carry ________ . I prefer to use my credit

53. The Supreme C o u rt__

card.

evidence.

a. change

a. rejected

b. currency

b. resisted

c. budget

c. denied

d . cash

d. refused

47. Famous people know that even when they wear dark

a. prevented

a. realised

b. convicted

b. recognised

c. prohibited

c. distinguished

d. sentenced

48. You sh o u ld n 't________ that your house is safe just

55. Two police officers___

a. hunted

a. guess

b. chased

b. assume

c. banned

c. estimate

d. forbade

49. H is________ as mayor was an occasion for celebration.

5 6 .1pretended to be sick so that I w ouldn't have to do my homework, but my mother knew that I was trying t o __

a. selection

her.

b. choice

a. cheat

c. election

b. blackmail

d. option

c. pursue

5 0 . “B e________ , Jack! How can I lend you my car when yo u're only fifteen.”

_the bank robbers who ran

down the alley.

because you have installed a burglar alarm.

d. appreciate

_the appeal due to lack of

54. Trespassing is _______ . and offenders will be prosecuted.

glasses, they are som etim es________ .

d. neglected

. how to operate the fax

d. deceive 57. The Titanic sank a fte r________ an iceberg.

a. responsible

a. hitting

b. reliable

b. knocking

c. relevant

c. beating

d. reasonable

d. omitting

ECCE test 58. Cyclists should always wear helmets t o ________ their

6 5 .1think that Cathy has becom e________ to chocolate. She

heads in case of an accident.

eats at least four bars a day.

a. secure

a. fond

b. defend

b. keen

c. protect

c. addicted

d. save

d. adjusted

59. Mary is v e ry ________ to criticism so be careful what you

6 6 . 1disliked the place the moment I

say.

a. put

a. sensitive

b. kept

b. sensible

c. set

c. sensational

d .g o t

d. emotional 6 0 . The police officer waved her hand as a ________ for the

67. A ndrew ________ greater responsibilities when he was promoted.

driver to stop.

a. went over

a. notice

b. put up

b. warning

c. took on

c. caution

d. got over

d. signal

68. This picture is________ to one my mother has in her living

6 1 .1have never played golf, as it" s never________ to me.

room.

a. impressed

a. identical

b. appealed

b. same

c. attracted

c. equal

d. urged

d. engaged

62 .

me to show you the way.

69. Every now and then, I ________ my grandparents a visit

a. Accept

just to keep them company.

b. Oblige

a. give

c. Allow

b. have

d. Let

c. take

63. The ex a m ________ will be out tomorrow.

a. results

d. pay 70. When we got off the bus, the tour guide told us t o ________

b. effects

of pickpockets.

c. influences

a. beware

d. consequences

b. warn

c. compete 64. D on 't throw that box away! It m a y ________ in handy.

a. come b .get

c. be d .g o

eves on it.

d. distinguish

Sit THE PRESENT SIMPLE IS USED:

THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE IS USED:

• for habits, permanent situations and general truths in the present. / usually travel alone.

• for tem porary states and actions / events happening at or around the time of speaking.

Water boils at 100° C. • for future actions related to timetables and programmes.

We're staying at my grandmother's at the moment. • for planned future actions related to personal arrangements.

I’m going to the cinema tonight.

The ship sails at 9 o 'clock. usually always often never som etim es rarely seldom hardly ever every day/w eek etc.

now

at the m om ent tonight at present nowadays this month etc.

THE PAST SIMPLE IS USED:

THE PAST PROGRESSIVE IS USED:

• for completed actions that happened at a definite tim e In the past.

• for actions that were in progress at a definite tim e in the past.

When I was five, my father gave me a bicycle. • for habits, repeated actions or permanent situations in the past.

Last summer we went swimming every day.

I was washing my hair at 9:00 o ’clock last night. • for lengthy past actions that were interrupted by short sudden ones (Past Simple).

I was driving along the street, when a rabbit jumped in front o f my car. • for actions happening at the same time in the past.

While my sister was cooking, I was reading a magazine. • for background scenes to a story. • for tem porary past states or actions. yesterday then

ago

last month/night/week etc.

while

as

etc.

THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE IS USED:

THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE IS USED:

• for actions which started in the past and are still happening or have just finished.

• to emphasise the duration of actions that started in the past and are still happening or have just finished.

I've had this car since 1995.

Ian has been watching TV all day.

• with adjectives in the superlative degree or expressions like: the only/first/second etc..

• actions the results of which are obvious in the present.

Her car is so shiny! She's been waxing it all morning!

This is the best film I've ever seen. • for past actions the results of which are connected to the present.

Mum! The dog has spilt the milk on the floor! (The floor is dirty). • to announce news, changes or events that affect the present. since for just yet already ever never etc.

how long

how long

for

since

all day/morning etc.

THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE IS USED:

THE PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE IS USED:

• for past events that were completed before other past events or by/at a definite tim e in the past.

• to emphasise the duration of actions that had been in progress up to a time in the past or before another past event.

By Monday, we had finished rehearsing the school play.

He had been driving for 20 years when he had his first car accident. • for lengthy past actions with visible results in the past.

The children were exhausted because they had been playing football all morning. by + time

after

before

when

by the time etc.

by when

for

since after

before

how long etc.

Grammar Review THE FUTURE SIMPLE IS USED:

THE FUTURE PROGRESSIVE IS USED:

• for decisions made at the mom ent of speaking.

• for already planned future actions or events that will be in progress at a specific time in the future.

1like this dress. 1think I ’l l buy it. • to make predictions based on personal opinions; promises; requests or offers.

This time next month, 1will be sending you a postcard from Hawaii.

1think Grandpa will live to be 100. next week

month/year etc.

tom orrow

in a week/m onth/year etc.

THE FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE IS USED:

THE FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE IS USED:

• for actions that will be completed by a specific time in the future or before another future action.

• to emphasise the duration of actions up to a point of time in the future.

1will have finished this project by next week.

by

by the tim e

before

By next July, they will have been living in this house for ten years. by

THE FUTURE "Going to" IS USED:

WAS/WERE "Going to" IS USED:

• for predictions based on evidence.

• for actions that had been planned in the past BUT did not eventually happen.

The acrobat is losing his balance; he's going to fall. • for plans or decisions that have already been made.

We're going to renovate our summer house during the holidays.

They were going to go to Chris'party, but they changed their mind.

Stative Verbs The following groups of verbs express states -not actions- and are not used in the progressive tenses. • verbs of the senses (feel, hear, see, smell, taste etc.) • verbs of emotions and preferences (like, dislike, love, hate, fear, mind, want, wish, need, prefer etc.) • verbs of perception, belief, knowledge and ownership (think, believe, know, understand, expect, remember, forget, hope, have, own, belong (to) etc.) • other verbs which describe permanent states (be, cost, weigh, seem, appear, consist (of) etc.)

This pizza tastes delicious. It costs £10. At the moment, I think we should keep calm.

• Some stative verbs are used in the progressive forms when they express actions rather than states.

I see you've cut your hair. I'm seeing an old friend tonight. / think her cooking is delicious. I'm thinking of moving into a new apartment. • Listen, look and watch, though verbs of the senses, are used in the progressive tenses because they describe voluntary actions.

I didn't hear the telephone ring because I was listening to music.

Unit 2 Relative Clauses - Clauses of Time RELATIVE CLAUSES Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why). Defining relative clauses Non-defining relative clauses • provide information which is essential to the meaning of the sentence. • are not put between commas.

• provide additional information which is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. • are put between commas. • the relative pronouns cannot be omitted; neither can we use 'that' instead of them.

PEOPLE

ANIMALS/THINGS

The man who/that is standing next to her is her father. (Defining) The man, who was found guilty of m any crimes, was sentenced to life imprisonment. (Non-Defining)

Her parents gave her a cat which/that had lovely grey fur. (Defining) Her cat, which had lovely grey fur, was a gift from her parents. (Non-Defining)

The man who/whom/that (*) she is expecting is her father. (Defining) Her father, who/whom we met at the party last week, is sick. (Non-Defining) (*) The pronouns may be omitted.

The cat which/that (*) she is holding has lovely grey fur. (Defining) Her cat, which was given to her six months ago, has already had kittens. (Non-Defining) (*) The pronouns may be omitted.

I met a girl whose father is a pilot. (Defining) Coco Chanel, whose original first name was Gabrielle, was the first to design simple women's clothes. (Non-Defining)

I've just finished a novel whose main character/the main character of which is an animal. (Defining) His latest book, whose main character/the main character of which is an animal, immediately became a best-seller. (NonDefining)

Grammar Review He was born on the day when/that/on which (*) his father died. (Defining)

Ul A new age in space exploration started in 1969, when Neil A rm strong walked on the moon for the first tim e. S V ) P (Non-Defining) CO D C 111 (*) may be omitted. > o U This is the house where/in which John lives. (Defining) < L Ld U This is the house which/that (*) John lives in. (Defining) > < -1 of the most famous areas in China is the Forbidden City in Beijing, where the emperors used to live. (Non-Defining) a. One H (*) may be omitted. < -1 HI z Q£ o < M J 0£ IL.

Expressions of quantity+of (some of, all of, many of, any of,

1 That is used only in defining relative clauses and can

much of, each of, a few of, most of, half of, either of, neither of, none of, a number of, one of, the majority of etc.) can be used before whom, which and whose.

replace:

• who/which/whom w hen they refer to the object of the verb.

They have three children, two o f whom have already finished school.

• when. • where ('that' must be followed by a preposition) That is never used after a comma.

Present and past participles can be used instead of relative 2 Which sometimes refers to the whole previous sentence and

clauses.

• Present participles (-ing) replace relative clauses in the active voice.

cannot be omitted.

He never tidies his desk, which really annoys me.

The man who is cleaning the garden is the gardener. The man cleaning the garden is the gardener.

3 Prepositions are used: • before or after which and whom.

4

• Past participles (-ed/irregular forms) replace relative clauses in the passive voice.

The hotel at which we stayed/which we stayed at was not very expensive.

Cars which are produced in Germany are rather expensive. 4 Cars produced in Germany are rather expensive.

• only after who and that.

The man who she came to the party with is her husband.' • never with when, where, why.

CLAUSES OF TIME Clauses of tim e are introduced by when, while, as, just as, the moment (that), till/until, as soon as, before, after, once, whenever, every time etc. • Clauses of time go before the main clause (separated by a comma) or after the main clause (no comma).



Meaning

___

Time words

_________

Examples

Use/Significance

when, as, while

for two events happening at the same time

While my brother was waxing the car, 1 was preparing dinner.

just as, the mom ent (that)

for two short actions happening at the same time

Just as 1entered the room, the phone rang.

when, as soon as, before, after, once

for events happening one after the other

They le ft as soon as they heard about the accident.

by the time

"not later than"

You should have finished by the time we return.

till, until

"up to a point of tim e”

I'll stay at the office until 1finish my work.

• Will and would are never used in clauses of time. • The present participle (-ing) can be used instead of clauses of ti me.

• Will can be used after when only if it is a question word.

Examples

Call me when you^mH get back, (clause of time). When will you get back? (question)

Significance

As she was d rivin g home, she had a te rrib le accident. 4 Driving home, she had a terrible accident.

a lengthy action interrupted by a short/sudden one.

/4s / was walking along, 1 felt that someone was follow ing me.

an action happening at the same tim e as another one.

4

Walking along, 1had the feeling that....

As 1 closed the door, 1 rem em bered where m y keys were: an action happening immediately before another one. 4 Closing the door, 1....

Grammar Review Unit 3 Adverbs-Comparisons-Articles-Uncountables ADVERBS • General order of adverbs: manner-place-time. Did you sleep well at your hotel last night? • Order of adverbs after verb of movement: place-manner-time. Did you arrive at your hotel safely last night?

Special Cases Types of adverbs

Position

Examples

Adverbs of frequency always, occasionally, often, rarely, seldom, etc.

■before the main verb ■after the (first) auxiliary ■after the verb "to be"

We often play basketball together. I've never liked yoghurt. She is always late for school.

Adverbs of degree absolutely, hardly, quite, rather, very, etc.

• usually before the word they modify • a+rather+adjective+noun • rather+a/an+adjective+noun • a+quite+adjective+noun • quite+a/an+adjective+noun • a+fairly/pretty+adjective+noun

He was partly involved in this. It was a rather difficult subject. It was rather a difficult subject. It was a quite difficult subject. It was quite a difficult subject. It was a fairly difficult subject.

Formation Degree of comparison

Types of adjectives/adverbs

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Pay attention to

.

I

one-syllable

clean long (adj / adv) shy

clean-er long-er shy-er

clean-est long-est shy-est

two-syllable ending in-y

heavy (adj) early (adj/adv)

heav-i-er earl-i-er

heav-i-est earl-i-est

more-than-one syllable

creative (adj) creatively (adv)

m ore creative m ore creatively

most creative most creatively

fat-fatter-fattest close-closer-closest dry-drier-driest

quiet-quieter-quietest or quiet-m ore quiet-most quiet But: recent-more recent-most recent

Irregular forms Positive

good/well

bad/badly

old

far

much/many

little

Comparative

better

worse

older/elder

farther/further

more

less

Superlative

best

worst

oldest/eldest

farthest/ furthest

most

least

Elder/Eldest describe close family relations. Elder is not followed by than. My elder sister is a vegetarian. My sister Ann, who is older than me, is a vegetarian.

Comparative+than

Farther / Farthest is used for distances only. Further / Furthest is used for distances or additional information. Pluto is the farthest / furthest planet from Earth. For further information please contact 9312. Jim is fatter than Peter.

'o f all/period

The+superlative + 1

„in+place/group of people

The+comparative to compare two people or things. Other forms of comparison

She's the most famous runner

o f all/the decade, in her country/her team.

Nicky is the more beautiful o f the two sisters.

Examples

• as...as, not so/as...as or not such (a)+...+noun+as • the same as • tw ice/three times as...as • less...than

She's as good a painter as her father. The weather today is the same as yesterday. An ostrich's egg is five times as big as a chicken's egg. A sports car is less economical than a city car.

• the least >the+comparative...the+comparative (cause-result)

This is the least practical machine I have ever used. The more we learn, the wiser we get.

comparative + and + comparative (continual change) ■

As I grow up, I get wiser and wiser.

Grammar Review reru n s Examples

Use

Structures like+noun/pronoun/-ing form as+subject+verb

similarity

He waved the flag like a sword. She advised her husband to do as he was told.

as+article+noun

Description of sb's job or of the function of something

She works as a nurse at the local hospital. He used his coat as a blanket.

• Like and such as are used to give examples. Many o f the earth's largest forests, such as/like the tropical rainforests, have been destroyed to a large extent.

before the positive degree before the comparative degree

very*, too*, pretty, most, rather, quite, fairly

Considering you’ve just had an operation, you look fairly well. a bit, a lot, even, far, much, rather

* very + adjective = positive meaning * too + adjective = negative meaning

Your employer is even stricter than you told me. She's a very good student. She’s too good for her class.

• Very much is not placed before adjectives and adverbs.

The indefinite article a/an is used before singular countable nouns or adjectives followed by singular nouns.

Examples

A/AN is also used: • before a noun which is mentioned for the first time and is not specific.

They own a house in the village.

• before a noun representing a group of people, animals or things.

A dolphin is faster than a shark.

• to show somebody's character, job or nationality.

Her brother is a doctor.

• with expressions of quantity and numbers.

A couple of friends came by the house yesterday.

The definite article the is used before countable and uncountable nouns both in the singular and the plural.

Examples

THE is also used before: • specific nouns or nouns that have been mentioned before.

She bought two T-shirts and a dress yesterday but she likes the dress best.

• names of seas, rivers, groups of islands, mountains (plural), ranges, countries (plural), cinemas, theatres, museums, restaurants, hotels, institutions.

the Black sea, the Netherlands, The Odeon Cinema, The Archaeological Museum, the Steak House, the Holiday Inn, the University of London, the Alps

• names of families and nationalities.

the Johnsons, the Japanese

• adjectives referring to classes of people.

the underprivileged, the deaf

• musical instruments, dances, inventions.

the piano, the mambo, the fax machine a

Examples

THE is not used before: • nouns referring to something general or not mentioned before.

1like tea.

• names of people, streets, cities, islands, countries, continents, mountains (singular), religious holidays, days of the week, months, squares, parks, lakes, stations, m agazines, sports, games, colours, school subjects, languages.

Alain Delon, Regent Street, Paris, Sicily, Germany, Africa, Mont Blanc, Easter, Monday, July, Trafalgar Square, Hyde Park, Lake Victoria, Euston station, Vogue, tennis, cards, red, Psychology, Spanish.

• meals.

1always have breakfast.

• means of transport.

She goes to work by bus.

• the words bed, court, church, home, hospital, prison, school, university, She went to bed early because she was exhausted. She always makes the bed early in the morning. work when they are used for the purpose for which they exist.

• pubs, restaurants, hotels, shops, banks whose names include the name Mandy's Bar, Giovanni’s Restaurant, Burberry's, of their founder or another proper name.

NOTE

A/an is used when we don't specify the kind. She brought me a magazine.

Harvey Nichols, Barclay's bank.

One is used when we emphasise the quantity. She brought me one magazine (only one).

m i

Grammar Review {UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Uncountable nouns cannot be counted and have no plural form. Some, any, (a) little etc. can be used with most of them, but not a/an/ one. To specify the quantity of uncountable nouns we use expressions like a piece of (advice, news), a bar of (chocolate, soap), etc. Uncountable nouns describe food (e.g. meat, cheese, etc.), liquids (e.g. milk, water, etc.), material (e.g. glass, wood, etc.), natural phenomena (e.g. weather, heat, etc.), languages (English, German, etc.), diseases (e.g. chickenpox, cancer, etc.), sciences and school subjects (e.g. Physics, Literature, etc.), games (e.g. football, cards, etc.), abstract nouns (e.g. freedom, dignity, knowledge, etc.) and some concrete nouns (e.g. money, luggage, etc.).

U nit 4 Determiners - Pronouns Determiners are: articles (a/an, the), possessive adjectives (my, your, etc.), demonstratives (this, that, etc.), numbers (one, two, etc.), quantifiers (some, any, no, each, every, much, many, a lot of, plenty, a little, a few) and the words both, either, neither, most, all, none, whole. Some, any and no are used with countable and uncountable nouns. Each and every are used only with singular countable nouns. The compounds of some, any, no and every cannot be used with nouns. SOME (someone/somebody/something/somewhere) are used in:

ANY (anyone/anybody-anything-anywhere)are used in: • questions.

Did you see anyone running?

• affirmative sentences.

1need some advice.

• negative sentences with not or other negative words (hardly, never, rarely, etc.).

• polite requests and offers.

Would you like some tea? • questions (a positive answer is expected). Could 1help you with something?

You haven't done anything terrible. • affirmative sentences, meaning “no matter who/which/where”.

You can buy this magazine anywhere.

NO (no one/nobody/nothing/nowhere) are used in: • negative sentences instead of not any. No other negative words can be used (never, not, etc.).

You have nothing to do with my problems.

EVERY (everyone/everybody-everything-everywhere) are used: • for people or things considered as a group.

Every student needs books. • with nearly and not.

EACH is used:

Not everybody can do a cartwheel.

• for people or things considered separately.

Each athlete received a medal.

Every one of + plural noun. Every one o f the children came up with an excuse.

Each (one) of + plural noun/pronoun Each one o f you must go out.

many + countable nouns / much + uncountable nouns are used: • in questions and negations. • in affirmative sentences with too, how, so and as. • at the beginning of a sentence (formal English).

Are there many cars in the street today? I'll do as much as 1can. Much trouble has been caused by this war.

a few + countable nouns a little + uncountable nouns

few + countable nouns little + uncountable nouns

• show a very small amount (positive) and can be used with

• show a very small am ount (negative) and can be used with very, so, too, as and how.

only. I've only read a few pages.

There's very little cheese in the fridge.

a lot (of) - lots (of) - plenty (of) + countable nouns and uncountable nouns are used: • in affirmative sentences before nouns and pronouns.

A lot o f people like chocolate.

A lot, lots and plenty can be used without nouns. Don't buy any more cheese; we Ve got a lot. FOR TW O PEOPLE OR THINGS

FOR MORE THAN TW O PEOPLE OR THINGS

BOTH (OF):

MOST (OF)-ALL (OF):

• is used with a plural verb.

• are used with a plural verb.

They both know how to dance the tango.

EITHER (OF) • Either means “any of the two". Skiing or snow boarding? Either sport is enjoyable.

• Either of is used with a singular or plural verb. Either o f these sports is/are enjoyable.

Most teenagers like pop music. Most o f my schoolmates are noisy. All o f my children enjoy picnics.

• all + that clause + singular verb = the only thing... All 1want is a little peace.

Grammar Review FOR TW O PEOPLE OR THINGS

FOR MORE THAN TW O PEOPLE OR THINGS

NEITHER (OF) • Neither means “not one and not the other”.

NONE (OF) • None is not followed by a noun.

Neither dress fitted me well.

Which book did you like best? None.

• Neither of goes with a singular or plural verb.

• None of is used before nouns or object pronouns with

Neither o f my cousins know(s) how to swim.

a singular or plural verb.

None o f the films 1saw in the past five months was/were interesting. W HOLE (=COMPLETE)

• Whole is used between a determ iner and a singular countable noun. The whole world knows that China has the biggest population. A ll (of) the world knows that China has the biggest population.

• both...and < • either...or ' are used as linkers. • neither...nor.

Both Kate and Peter are good students. You can either go skiing or mountain climbing. Neither John nor Paul like chocolate.

• So/neither + auxiliary verb + subject ■ • 1think/hope/believe etc. so ■show agreement. • either at the end of the sentence

1love the opera! - So do 1. Jim didn't go swimming. - Neither did 1. Is Mike coming to the party? -1 think so. 1don't like fish! -1 don't either.

Unit 5 Consolidation I Unit 6 Infinitive, -ing Form Forms

Use

-ing form verb+ing taking (present form)

having+past participle (perfect form)

Exam ples

• as a noun (subject or object of a verb) • after a preposition or verb+preposition • after the verb go, indicating physical activities • after the verbs need, want, require etc., with a passive meaning • after the object of the verbs catch, find, leave • after be busy, spend/ waste+expression of

We go fishing in the summer. Your room needs cleaning. (=Your room needs to be cleaned.) I caught him listening behind the door. I used to spend hours looking at the sea.

money/time

having taken

possessive adj/case

{

object+from+-ing • after excuse, forgive, pardon, possessive prevent, understand + I adjective/case • after certain verbs and expressions listed below admit appreciate avoid consider delay deny discuss

Hitch-hiking can be dangerous. I'm thrilled about going to that party.

dislike enjoy fancy finish imagine involve keep (on)

mention mind miss postpone practise prefer quit

recall recommend resent resist risk suggest tolerate

be/get accustomed to be/get used to in addition to look forward to object to take to

His mother prevented him (John) from getting hurt. Excuse my being late, but I got stuck in traffic.

I quit smoking last year. as well as be in favour of can't stand/help feel like have difficulty (in) have a hard time have trouble

how about it's no good/use it's worth there's no chance of there's no point in what's the point of...? W hat’s the use of....?

Exam ples

to be+past participle (simple)

I went home to check if everything was alright. I would prefer to stay home than go to that prefer party. after the first/second/last/best etc. Laika was the first dog to travel to the moon. after some, any, no and their compounds She looks like she doesn't have anything to do. after it+be+adjective(+of/for+object) It was generous of her to host us for the night. after too/enough This coffee is ‘too hot for me to drink. after it+take+expression of time It takes me half an hour to walk home. after certain verbs and expressions listed She refused to come to the party.

to be taken

below

Present Infinitive Active Voice to+bare infinitive (simple)

to take to be+verb+ing (progressive)

to be taking

Present Infinitive Passive Voice

to express purpose after would like, would love, would

m

m

Grammar Review After these verbs followed by who, what, which, where, how but not why. ask decide explain forget know learn

rem ember show tell understand wonder teach, etc.

As the object of these verbs afford agree appear arrange ask beg claim decide demand

deserve expect fail forget happen hesitate hope learn manage

Forms

mean need offer plan prepare pretend promise refuse regret

remember seem swear tend threaten volunteer want, etc.

After the object of these verbs advise allow ask beg cause challenge convince encourage expect

forbid force hire instruct invite need order permit persuade

Use

Bare Infinitive

Examples

after most modal verbs after these verbs in the active voice: hear,

take

remind require teach tell urge want warn, etc.

let, listen to, make, notice, observe, see, watch etc. after why....?/why not... ? anything, . but everything evervthina + 1 ( .except ' nothing

f

Perfect Infinitive Active Voice

after modal verbs after the verbs promise, seem,

(to) have+past participle (simple)

appear, claim, expect, hope, happen, pretend

(to) have taken

after these verbs in the passive voice:

(to) have been+verb+-ing (progressive)

believe, say, think, consider, suppose, understand

I may be late tomorrow. I heard her scream. BUT She was heard to scream. Why not go for a picnic? I did everything but clean the bathroom. I would have finished by now if he hadn’t called. She claimed to have climbed Mount Everest. She seemed to have been crying all night. He is thought to have stolen the emerald. The emerald is thought to have been stolen.

(to) have been taking Perfect Infinitive Passive Voice (to) have been+past participle

(to) have been taken

ffull infinitive • help+ < My brother helped me (to) prepare lunch. [bare infinitive • Subject + seem + full infinitive = It (impersonal) + seems + that clause. He seems to be intelligent. = It seems that he is intelligent.

• Advise, allow, encourage, permit, recommend, require +

-ing

{

object + full infinitive

The doctor encouraged exercising.(=The doctor encouraged him to exercise.)

Prefer can also take a full infinitive. I prefer to drink coffee in the morning. Prefer+full infinitive+rather than+bare infinitive. I prefer to walk rather than drive. ’ full infinitive John is likely to come to the party. It is unlikely to snow tomorow. , that clause

It is likely that John will come to the party.

The infinitive or the -ing form are used with no difference in meaning after these verbs: like, love, hate, begin, start, continue, intend, prefer, can't bear etc.

He began to run as soon as he heard the shot. (=He began running as soon as he heard the shot).

The infinitive or -ing form are used with different meanings after these verbs: try + -ing: do something to see what effect it will have. If you want to get rid o f your sore throat, try drinking something hot.

try + full infinitive: make an effort. I tried to finish everything in time but that was impossible.

remember/forget/regret + -ing: We refer to something that remember/forget/regret + full infinitive: We remember has already happened.

I regret talking to my mum that way.

something before doing it. We forget something we are supposed to do. We regret something when we are sorry to do it.

I regret to tell you that you have failed your test.

Grammar Review go on + -ing: the action continues. 1went on doing my homework until midnight.

stop + -ing: the action was stopped and not repeated. After having a heart attack, he stopped smoking.

go on + full infinitive: the action changes. When 1had finished eating, 1went on to do my homework.

stop + full infinitive: to pause an action temporarily in order to do something else.

He was eating, but stopped to smoke a cigarette.

see/hear/smell/feel/notice/watch/observe/listen to + -ing: see/hear/feel/notice/watch/observe/listen to + bare for actions which are incomplete or still in progress. infinitive: for complete actions. On my way to the supermarket, 1saw him walking the dog.

1watched her feed her dog.

Unit 7 Modal Verbs Modal verbs do not form all tense forms and are followed by a bare infinitive, except for need. They have the same form in all persons, except have to and need. They express: • can/be able to: ability in the present/future • could: general ability in the past • was/were able to: ability in a particular situation in the past

• can, could/may, might + present infinitive: possibility in the present/future

•could/may/might + perfect infinitive: possibility in the past In the negative only may not/might not can be used ■could/might + perfect infinitive: for events that were possible but finally didn’t happen ■be likely to: can also express possibility (especially in questions)

• should/ought to + present infinitive:

She can sing in Spanish. Will you be able to finish this project by Friday? Mozart could play the piano at the age of three. Last weekend we stayed at home, so we were able to spend some time together. They may/could/might watch TV tonight. Don't go there! There might be a riot. Sam can be very noisy sometimes. They could/may/might have forgotten about the concert. It's strange they didn't come. Don't ever cheat in your exams again! You could have been expelled for that. Is she likely to come to the party?

Why don't you ask Tim? He should be in his office now.

probability in the present/future

• must + present infinitive: positive deduction about the

They must be out; Nobody is answering the phone.

present or the future

must + perfect infinitive: positive deduction about the past

• can't + present infinitive:

Mary must have been to the supermarket; the cupboards are all full. The 7:30 train to Bristol can’t be leaving yet; it ’s only 7:10.

negative deduction about the present or the future

can't + perfect infinitive: • can/could 1(possibly)...? May/might 1....? asking for permission . giving/ • Yes, (of course) you can/could/may I refusing No, (I'm afraid) you can't/may not J permission

It can't have been Ted I saw yesterday; Ted has got red hair.

C an/C ould/M ay / Might 1go out please? You can/could/may/can’t/may not smoke in this room.

Synonymous Expressions: 1wonder if 1could/ might , Is it all right if 1....? Would it be possible for me to....? Do you mind if 1....?

Would it be possible for me to/l wonder if 1could/Do you mind if 1open the door?

Grammar Review • can/wili....? informal request

1 I w

• could/may/would,,,,? formal request

Will you come to the doctor's with me? Can you help me with my homework, Mum? Could you show me the way to Oxford Street, please?

Synonymous Expressions:

m Would you mind....? I/we'd like....

Would you mind turning the lights on?

• will: willingness to help will (you)....? informal offers and invitations • can/could: willingness to help can/could/shall I....? formal offers |W • would you like/prefer + noun/full infinitive....? Would you rather + bare infinitive....?

1will clean the car for you. Will you come to Mexico with me? 1can help you with the washing up, if you like. Shall 1wait for you? Would you like to come to the cinema with us? Would you rather have dinner with us?

Polite or formal offers and invitations 3 • can: informal suggestions « • shall/could...? polite or formal suggestions

You can visit the Grand Canyon while you're in the USA. Could you turn down the music, please?

L : Synonymous Expressions: Let's + bare infinitive, Why don't i How about + noun/-ing ■

Why don't we go /H o w about going to the cinema?

i

?

• shall: asking for advice • should/ought to + present infinitive:

Shall we tell him the truth or not? You should pay a visit to your dentist if you have a toothache.

asking for and giving advice

should/ought to + perfect infinitive: something should have happened but it didn’t • had better: strong advice, threat or warning III l in H O I I I I H W ....................... ....





She should have told her father before she went away. You'd better stop interfering in my affairs.

---------------- ---------------------------------------------

■ used to: past habits and situations that are no longer true (NEGATIVE = didn't use to) • would (+present infinitive): past habits or a person s

She used to go fishing when she lived in the island. He didn't use to dance when he was young. They would read a book before they went to sleep.

typical behaviour in the past

■will: to describe a person’s typical behaviour in the

Every time he passes by, he will say "hello

present

- must: internal obligation felt by the speaker ■have (got) to: external obligation coming from facts ■ought to/should: we remind someone of a duty or obligation

- need + noun/ -ing form/ full/bare infinitive: necessity

I must tidy up or mum will get angry. You have (got) to take this syrup three times a day. You ought to/should inform your parents about the school trip. I'm so dirty! I need a shower! The car needs repairing.

don’t have to/ haven't got to/ needn't/ don't need to + infinitive: It is not necessary to do something needn't+ perfect infinitive: something wasn't necessary

You needn’t eat it if you don’t like it. You don’t have to pay me back today. We needn’t have cooked. There was plenty of food left over but it was done from yesterday. didn't need to + infinitive: something wasn't necessary He didn’t have to clean the car. but it isn't clear if it was done or not

>mustn't: prohibition

■can't: not being allowed to do something

NOTE

>Need as a main verb forms the negative and interrogative with do/did.

Do you need anything? I need something (a machine) to cut the grass with. I didn't need his advice.

You mustn't smoke in here. He can't enter that room; it's for staff only.

• Must is used only for the present. Past and future tenses are formed with have to. He must take the dog for a walk. He had to take the dog for a walk last night but he forgot to.

Grammar Review Unit 8 Passive Voice Passive Voice stresses the action itself, not who or what caused it.

FORMATION Active Voice:

destroyed

The fire

the factory

L _

Passive Voice:

The factory

completely.

= *■

was completely destroyed by

the fire.

VERB FORMS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE. Verb Forms

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Present Simple

Producers make horror films every year.

Horror films are made every year.

Present Progressive

We are removing the furniture right now.

The furniture is being removed right now.

Past Simple

The technician repaired my TV yesterday.

My TV was repaired yesterday.

Past Progressive

They were pursuing the thief when there was an explosion.

The thief was being pursued when there was an explosion.

Present Perfect Simple

We have finished these reports.

These reports have been finished.

Past Perfect Simple

They had made a statem ent in Parliament before the war broke out.

A statement had been made in Parliament before the war broke out.

Future "will"

Someone will make a speech on technology tomorrow.

A speech on technology will be made tomorrow.

Going to

They are going to hire a new employee.

A new employee is going to be hired.

Future Perfect Simple

1will have typed my thesis by next month.

My thesis will have been typed by next month.

Present Infinitive

We ought to finish the building before the end of the year.

The building ought to be finished before the end of the year.

Perfect Infinitive

We should have finished th e building earlier.

The building should have been finished earlier.

-ing form

We all appreciate other people helping us.

We all appreciate being helped.

Modal verbs

You must clean your room.

Your room must be cleaned.

Imperative

Please fill in this form.

This form should/must be filled in.

■The Present, Past and Future Perfect Progressive and the Future Progressive are not used in the Passive Voice. ■By+ agent is used to emphasise who does or what causes the action.

The new tax law was announced by the Prime Minister.

Note the following changes in:

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Verbs with two objects

He gave her a painting.

She was given a painting. A painting was given to her.

Question words (what, who, when, where, why, how)

Who composed this song?

Who was this song composed by? (informal) By whom was this song composed? (formal)

not...any no not....anyof none of not....anyone/anybody no one/nobody not...anything nothing

The head teacher didn't expel any of the students. They didn’t find anything in the excavations.

None of the students were expelled. Nothing was found in the excavations.

make, hear, help, see, etc.

I heard her scream.

She was heard to scream.

believe, consider, expect, find, hope, know, report, say, think, understand

People say that he is very wealthy.

It is said that he is very wealthy. He is said to be very wealthy. He is said to have been very wealthy.

People say that he was very wealthy. verbs with prepositions

They separated him from his parents when he was young.

............

1

He was separated from his parents when he was young. 1 -----*— — ---? — i—— — wwmww*

Grammar Review To:

Use the following expressions

Examples

Give permission

let sb do sth allow sb to do sth give sb permission to do sth

Her parents let her stay out late. My father allowed me to borrow his car. The Mayor gave us perm ission to use the old building for our rehearsals.

Be given permission

be allowed to do sth get sb's permission to do sth

She is allowed to stay out late. We g o t the Mayor's permission to use the old building for our rehearsals.

Deny permission

not let, not allow to, not be allowed to + infinitive subject+is prohibited/banned It is illegal/forbidden to do sth

Her parents don't allow her to stay out late. She's not allowed to stay out late. Smoking is prohibited in this section. It is forbidden to enter that room.

PARTICIPLES The Perfect participle is used for an action that happened before another one in the past.

Having been h it by an earthquake, the small town took 15 years to return to its previous condition. =After it had been hit by an earthquake, the small town took 15 years to return to its previous condition.

The past participle is used in the passive voice to replace

Examples

a relative clause

The dresses worn by film stars on the night of the Oscar awards are all designer labels. = The dresses which are worn by film stars on the night of the Oscar awards are all designer labels.

a conditional sentence

Handled with care, contact lenses can last for over 2 years. = If they are handled with care, contact lenses can last for over 2 years.

a clause of reason

Fascinated by the film, they decided to stay and watch it again. = As/Because they were fascinated by the film, they decided to stay and watch it again.

a clause of result

Carried away by the beautiful scenery, he lost concentration and had an accident = He was so carried away by the beautiful scenery that he lost concentration and had an accident.

Unit 9 Pronouns - Causative Form IPOSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES (My, Your, His, Her, Its, Our, Your, Their) Use

Examples my notebook, her car, their chairs

• before a noun

• possessive adjective + own + noun is used to emphasise that 1don't take the bus. 1have my own car. something belongs to only one person

• on + possessive adjective + own is used to emphasise that the My son always studies on his own. subject acts alone, without help

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS! (Mine, Yours, His, Hers, Ours, Yours, Theirs) Use

Examples

• to replace a possessive adjective + noun They are never followed by nouns.

1like your house better than ours hotise,

• A/an + noun + of + possessive pronoun =

A colleague of yours = one o f your colleagues.

one of + possessive adjective + noun

POSSESSIVE CASE: Form

’s

Use • • • •

singular nouns (people or animals) the compounds of some, any, no irregular plural nouns not ending in -s time expressions/idioms

Examples John's car, the horse's tail Somebody's car is in front o f my garage. Men's ties, women's dresses A hard day’s work

Grammar Review F

Use

9 1 »

of+ noun

2 2 13

(

Exam ples

• plural nouns ending in -s

My cousins' house.

• things, abstract nouns and animals (sometimes)

The roof o f the house, the price o f independence, the fur of the cat (=the cat's fur) - We can use of for people, only in long phrases.

• When two or more people own something in common, 's is added to the last noun.

The cousin of the g irl who lives next door is a student.

John and Mary's house. • When two or more people own different things, 's is added to each noun.

John's and Mary's cars.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS (Myself, Yourself, Himself, Herself, Itself, Ourselves, Yourselves, Themselves) Use

Exam ples

• with the verbs behave, cut, educate, enjoy, help, hurt, kill, like, teach etc, if the subject and the object of the verb are the same.

The little girl likes herself in that red dress. She hurt herself while trying to cut the bread. We enjoyed ourselves very much at your party.

• after certain verbs with prepositions (talk to, say to, take care of, etc.)

The young people took care o f themselves while camping.

• after the verbs look, seem, etc, to describe em otions or behaviour.

She doesn't look herself lately; something must be wrong with her family.

• for emphasis (emphatic pronouns)

The Queen herself gave the Beatles an award.

• by + reflexive pronoun = alone, without help.

1painted my room by myself.

NOTE

• One-Ones are used if we do not w ant to repeat a

■Note the difference between themselves and each other

( =one another).

countable noun.

This phone is broken; you can use the one over there.

• another = one more. It can also go with expressions

Mary and John enjoyed themselves at the zoo yesterday. Mary and John liked each other from the moment they met.

of time, distance or money.

I'd like another steak please. I'm afraid you'll have to wait for another ten minutes.

CAUSATIVE FORM The Causative Form is used when we do not do something ourselves, but we arrange for someone else (usually an expert) to do it for us.

Formation Subject

+ H a v e /G e t (in the correct form)

+ Object

+ Past Participle

We

are having

our house

painted next month.

• Questions and negations are formed as in the Active Voice with the auxiliaries do/does in the Present Simple and did in the Past Simple.

• If we want to mention who performs the action, we can add by + agent at the end of the sentence.

How often do you have your hair cut? When did you have your car serviced?

• have someone do something = make someone do

• We can use get instead of have, especially in informal style.

My dress was too long so I got it shortened.

We had the tap fixed by the plumber. something.

She had her children clean the living room.

• get someone to do something = persuade someone to do something.

She got her children to clean the living room.

Unit 10 Consolidation II

mm

Grammar Review U nit 11 Clauses of concession, reason, purpose and result CLAUSES OF CONCESSION! express contrast, opposition or unexpected results Use • although

«

even though L + subject + verb though J • despite in spite of

1 J

* ad v e rb ^ }

noun /-in g form the fact that + clause + as/ thou9 h + subject + verb

Examples Although she's studied medicine, she faints at the sight of blood. Even though he's smart, he didn't get into the course he wanted. Though we knew the way, we got lost. We managed to climb the mountain despite the rain. In spite of the fact that he was sleepy, he drove home safely. Clever though he is, he couldn't solve the problem. Cloudy though it was, we got sunburnt.

• how ever* l no m atter how } + adi/adv + subject + verb

However fast he walked, we managed to keep up with him. No matter how much she ate, she didn't get fat.

• w hatever 1 + subject+verb no m atter w h at J

She can't convince me that she's telling the truth, whatever she says. I'll go to the party, no matter what you say.

* How ever can introduce a main clause.

Sam came by yesterday; however, he forgot to bring the book 1had lent him.

CLAUSES OF REASON Examples • because * as since

r + clause J

They don't talk to each other, because they have had a fight. 1didn't know where to turn as I’d forgotten my map. Since you're a vet, you can have a look at my canary.

• because of i + noun/-ing form due to J

They wanted nothing to do with him because of his rude behaviour. Due to her allergy, she never touches daisies.

• due to the fact th at + clause

Due to the fact that they knew each other so well, they decided to share a flat.

CLAUSES OF PURPOSE positive purpose • to so as to in order to

* 1 + infinitive J

Examples They visited us to announce the good news. She told him to come along so as to introduce him to her friends. I'm learning Portuguese in order to go to Brazil next year.

r can/m ay/w ill + infinitive for present/ • so th at < future I could/m ight/w ould + infinitive for past

They're going to Africa so that they can study the gorillas. We thought o f staying home for the whole week, so that we could rest.

• w ith a view to /w ith th e aim of + -ing form

She started training hard with the aim of winning the tennis cup.

• in case + present tense for present/future in case + past tense for past

Take an anorak in case it rains. We always had an extra tyre in the car, in case we got a flat tyre.

• for -ing form

She uses that needle for sewing.

negative purpose • so as not to i in order not to

............

J in f in it iv e

Examples The thief was wearing a mask, so as not to be recognisable. She tied her key around her neck in order not to lose it.

f can/m ay/w ill + not + infinitive • so th at < for present/future I could/m ight/w ould + not + infinitive ^ for past

They reminded me 1had a class, so that 1wouldn’t forget.

• fo r fear / lest + subject + m ight/should + infinitive

She closed the door for fear it might be broken by the wind.

• for fear of + noun/-ing form

She was wearing long boots for fear o f snakes.

Grammar Review

ayAim-MJireTTTT! Examples • too + adj/adverb (+for sb) + to + infinitive not + adj/adv+enough (+for sb) + to + infinitive so + adj/adv + that + clause

That exercise was too difficult for me to do. The sea isn't warm enough for us to swim in. The weather was so cold yesterday that nobody dared to go out.

• noun + verb + so + adj/adv 1 so + much/many/little/few + noun r + that + clause so + adj + a/an + noun ^

The tunnel was so low that we had to crawl. We had so much spare time that we didn’t know what to do. It was so hot a day that we decided to go swimming.

• such (a/an) (+adj) such a lot of

It was such a scary place that 1wanted to get out as fast as possible. She’s lost such a lot of weight that 1hardly recognised her.

NOTE

• such so how what

1 | + noun + that + clause

It's such an extraordinary animal! Your baby is so cute! are used in exclamatory sentences. How interesting! What a surprise to meet you here!

.

I f •

Unit 12 Conditionals TYPE I = REAL SITUATIONS IN THE PRESENT / FUTURE If-Clause

Main Clause • future tense

If Paula learns Spanish, she'll visit Spain.

Present Simple (or Progressive) lf +

Use real/probable situations in the i present/future

• can/may/might/should + infinitive

If you have finished eating, you can/may watch TV.

Present Perfect Simple (if the action has already finished)

• present simple

general truths

If you mix red and blue, you get purple. • Imperative

instructions/commands

If you go out, turn the lights off. • If-clauses either precede or follow the main clause. When they precede, we separate them with a comma.

If you can hear me, give me a sign. Give me a sign if you can hear me. (no comma) • We can use should in the if-clause if there is a slight possibility of something happening.

If you should buy that car, take it to the mechanic to have it checked first. • Sometimes if is omitted and should comes before the subject (inversion).

Should you buy that car, take it to the mechanic to have it checked first.

TYPE 2 = UNREAL SITUATIONS IN THE PRESENT/FUTUREl If-Clause

Main Clause would/could/might + present infinitive

If + Past Simple (or Progressive)

Use

If he were a pianist, he could get a job in the Orchestra.

unreal/imaginary situations in the present

If 1became a millionaire, 1would buy a house with a swimming pool.

events that are unlikely to happen in the future

If 1were in your shoes, 1would talk to my parents.

to give advice

• Use were instead of was in type 2 conditional (formal).

If she were more polite, people would like her more.

• Sometimes if is om itted and were comes before the subject (inversion).

Were he more careful, he would avoid such awkward situations.

TYPE 3 = UNREAL SITUATIONS IN THE PAST If-Clause

Main Clause would/could/might + perfect infinitive

If + Past Perfect (Simple or Continuous)

Use for actions that didn't happen

If she had stepped on the banana peel, she would have had an accident. If 1had taken better care of my teeth, 1wouldn't have had this terrible toothache.

to express criticism/regret

Grammar Review • Sometimes if is omitted and had comes before the subject (inversion)

Had he been older, he would have been allowed to enter the disco.

We can have combinations according to the context (Mixed Conditionals) If they left early, they would have arrived by now. (types 2,3) If we hadn’t got lost, we would be there now. (types 3,2)

conditionals can be introduced with other expressions (instead of if): • unless (=if not)

1won't talk to her unless she apologises to me.

• as long as/provided/providing (=only if)

I'll go to his party provided (that)/as long as he invites me.

• in case

I'll take an umbrella in case it rains.

• on condition (that) (=provided)

On condition you've told the truth, I'll let you go without punishment.

• but for (=if it wasn't/hadn't been for)

But for her help, 1would have failed my exam.

• or else (=if not/otherwise)

Do as 1tell you, or else I'll get angry.

• suppose/supposing (=imagine if)

Supposing you won the lottery, what would you do?

• only if

I'll work with you only if you promise not to talk all the time.

• even if

She wouldn't change her mind even if you proved her wrong.

We use the future "will" only after the expression o r else.

Unit 13 Unreal Past Unreal Past = unreal situations stated with Past Tenses

iPRESENT OR FU TU R E REFERENCE! Use type 2 Conditional

If 1could go on a holiday, 1would go to Peru.

present/future imaginary situations

Supposing you were an animal, what would you choose to be?

w is h /if only + Past Tense

we wish a present situation were different (if only is stronger than wish)

1wish 1had a pet. If only 1were in Jamaica!

w is h /if only +

• to express annoyance, irritation, dissatisfaction • to make a wish concerning a present situation that is unlikely to change (The subject of would must be different from that of wish)

1wish/if only you would stop shouting.

make a wish/express regret about sth we cannot do at present

He wishes he had a motorbike.

as if/a s though + Past Tense

untrue situations in the present (were is used instead of was)

She walks as if she were a dancer.

it’s (a b o u t/h ig h ) time + Past Tense

• to indicate that time has come for sb to do sth • to express criticism/complain about sth that should have already been done (It's time + infinitive = the right time for sb to do sth) (It's about/high time are stronger expressions)

It's time we left this place. It’s time you told them the truth. It's high time you quit this job! It's time for him to ask for a raise.

If + Past Tense imagine / suppose / supposing + Past Tense

would + infinitive

w is h /if only + could + infinitive

Use If + Past Perfect

I

Examples

type 3 Conditional

1wish days would go by quicker!

Examples If she had been more careful, she wouldn't have crashed into the tree.

Grammar Review ................

Examples

Use wish / i f only + Past Perfect as if/a s though + Past Perfect im a g in e /s u p p o s e / supposing + Past Perfect

...................

express sorrow/regret about sth in the past

1wish 1had married Paul. If only 1hadn't forgotten my passport!

unreal situations in the past

She behaved as if she had not seen anything.

imaginary situations in the past

Imagine you hadn't gone to the beach, would you be brown now?

OULD RATHER (= I WOULD PREFER) If the subject of would rather is the same as the subject of the verb: Present / Future reference Past reference

would rather (not) + present bare infinitive

I'd rather have a crepe. He'd rather not take the test tomorrow.

would rather (not) + perfect bare infinitive

We'd rather have rented ajeep. I'd rather not have eaten so much at the dinner party yesterday.

If the subject of would rather is different from the subject of the verb: Present / Future reference

would rather + subject + Past Simple

I'd rather you didn't bring your dog along on our trip.

Past reference

would rather + subject + Past Perfect

He would rather she hadn't cut her hair so short.

NOTE

Would rather + bare infinitive + than + bare infinitive

Would sooner is used in the same way as would rather I'd sooner go to the East than to America.

I'd rather sleep than watch TV.

EXPESSING PREFERENCE • prefer + -ing/noun + to + -ing/noun

1prefer fishing to hunting.

• prefer + full infinitive + rather than + bare infinitive (general reference)

He prefers to play chess rather than play scrabble.

• would prefer + full infinitive + rather than + bare infinitive (preference in a particular situation)

She would prefer to have an orange juice rather than have a cup o f coffee.

HAD BETTER (= SHOULD): expresses strong advice/warning/threat. It is stronger than should/ought to. Its subject is the same as that of the verb. Present / Future reference

had better + (not) + present bare infinitive

You'd better take a torch with you.

Past reference

It would have been better if + Past Perfect

It would have been better if she had admitted her guilt.

Unit 14 Reported Speech In Reported Speech we give the meaning of what someone said with some changes and without quotation marks. We usually introduce Reported Speech with the verbs tell ( when there is a person / pronoun as an object) and say (when there is no person / pronoun as an object). That is optional. DIRECT

Present Simple She said, "1like this film. ’’

Present Progressive They said, “we are planning to throw a big party. ”

Past Simple Maria said, 7 had a great time yesterday. ”

REPORTED

Past Simple She said (that) she liked that film.

Past Progressive They said (that) they were planning to throw a big party.

Past Perfect Simple Maria said (that) she had had a great time the previous day.

Grammar Review DIRECT

REPORTED

Past Progressive

Past Perfect Progressive

7 was wandering in the woods, ” the boy said.

Present Perfect Simple

The boy said (that) he had been wandering in the woods.

Past Perfect Simple

“We have already cleaned the car, Dad, ’’said Sam.

Present Perfect Progressive

Sam told his dad (that) they had already cleaned the car.

Past Perfect Progressive

He said, “I've been trying to fix my bike all day.”

Will

He said (that) he had been trying to fix his bike all day.

Would

“I ’l l tell you where 1will be, Tina,” said Mike.

Can

Mike told Tina (that) he would tell her where he would be.

Could

James said, “lean whistle very loudly.”

May

James said (that) he could whistle very loudly.

Might

“He may be lost,” said Alice.

Alice said (that) he might be lost.

Must

Had to (obligation)

"You must brush your teeth, Bruce, ” said Mum.

Mum told Bruce (that) he had to brush his teeth.

Must (deduction) “It must be late, ” he said.

He said that it must be late.

Must not

Must not (prohibition)

“You mustn't touch this,” said Mark.

Mark said (that) 1mustn't touch that.

Need

Needed / Had to

They said, “we need to have our house painted. ”

Needn't

They said (that) they had to have their house painted.

Needn't / didn't have to (present)

She said, “you needn't eat all that food.”

She said (that) 1didn't have to eat all that food.

Wouldn't Have to (future) He said, “You needn’t phone us tonight.”

He said (that) 1wouldn't have to phone them that night.

W ould, could, m ig h t, should, o u g h t to do n o t change. now today/tonight yesterday tomorrow last week (month, year, etc.) next week (month, year, etc.) ago

then that day/that night the day before/the previous day the next/following day the previous week (month, year etc.)/the week (month, year etc.) before the following week (month, year etc.) before

this/these here

that/those there

NO CHANGES ARE MADE IN THE FOLLOWING CASES • When the reporting verb is in the Present, Future or Present Perfect. Steven says, 7 have been looking for a good book all day. ” 4 Steven says (that) he's been looking for a good book all day. • When a general truth or sth unlikely to change is reported. The teacher said, “The Statue o f Liberty is in New York. ” 4 The teacher said (that) the Statue o f Liberty is in New York. • The Past Perfect does not change. Mary said, “I had prepared everything by midnight. ” 4 Mary said (that) she had prepared everything by midnight. • The Past Progressive does not usually change; Past tenses in time clauses do not change. 7 was speaking on the phone when the doorbell rang,"she said She said (that) she was speaking on the phone when

the doorbell rang. • When sth is reported immediately after it is said. “John is a spoilt kid, ” said Paul. 4 Paul said that John is a spoilt kid • When something, although said earlier, will take place in the future. John said, “I’m flying to Rome tomorrow.’’ 4 John said (that) he is flying to Rome tomorrow. (It is still today.) • When there is a Conditional (type 2,3) or a sentence with wish/if only. Ben said, “if I had a Cadillac,it would be a pink one. ” 4 Ben said (that) if he had a Cadillac, it would be a pink one.

Grammar Review UESTIONS Questions are reported with the verbs ask, inquire, wonder, w ant to know, etc. and the word order is the same as in statements. Type

Form

YES-NO questions

Wh- questions

Exam ples

If/whether+subject+verb

“Can you come over on Saturday?” 4 He wanted to know if 1could come over on Saturday.

W h-question word+subject+verb

“Why are you still here?” 4 She asked me why 1was still there.

S

• Whether is used instead of if when there is a choice between two alternatives. “Well, are you coming or not?" 4 She wondered whether I was going (with them ) or not. CO M M AN DS - REQUESTS - ADVICE They are reported with the verbs tell, ask, beg, order, command, advise, forbid, warn, encourage, etc. _____________________________________________ +object+full infinitive____________________________________ “You’re not going to the concert,” said Mum. + Mum forbade me to go to the concert. “Please, Dad, let me go to the football match,” said Gerry. ^ Gerry begged his dad to let him go to the football match.

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1 I

OTHER REPORTING VERBS

refuse/offer/promise (+object) / threaten (+object)/claim/agree etc. + full infinitive

accuse sb of/complain to sb about/ insist on/admit (to)/deny/apologise for + -ing form

7 won't lend you my green dress,” said Y m sorry 1called you names, ” said the my sister. 4 My sister refused to lend boy. 4 The boy apologised for calling him me her green dress. names.

NOTE

“Let’s play a game of tennis,” Lucy said.

Lucy suggested

complain/explain/agree/claim/deny/ promise/threaten/warn (+ object) + that clause “Sorry I'm late but 1had a flat tyre, ” said Bill. 4 Bill explained that he was late because he had a flat tyre.

playing a game of tennis. that they play a game of tennis. that they should play a game of tennis.

Words easily confused U N IT l LA job (n) = the work sb does to earn money, employment occupation (n) [job, profession, employment (referred to generally)]= a person’s regular work or profession work (at/out of)* (n) = occupation or profession / particular tasks sb has to do in their job / the place where sb does their job employment (n) = work, esp. in return for regular payment profession (n) = job requiring advanced education or training *at work = at one’s job or place of employment / in action * out of work = jobless, unemployed

LB task (n) = activity sb has to do, usually as a part of a larger project course (n) = series of lessons or lectures on a particular subject duty (n) = what sb has to do for their job

1.C

employer (n) = person, firm that

hires workers

to do

LH

employee (n) = a person who is

challenge (n) = a difficult task

paid to work for an organisation or for another person colleague (n) = a person you work with (at a professional job) assistant (n) = person who helps sb in their job clerk (n) = person who works in an office or shop and keeps records, files, accounts etc. (army) officer (n) = person appointed to command others in the armed forces attendant (n) = person whose job is to provide a service in a public place 1.D party (n) = a group of people working or travelling together crew (n) = people who work on a ship or aircraft staff (n) = people who work for a company or organisation, employees LE aim (n) = a purpose, an intention goal (n) = sth that you hope to achieve esp. when much time and effort is needed intention (n) = sth which sb plans

that tests sb’s ability success (n) = achievement of a desired aim ambition (n) = a strong desire for success or distinction 1.F achieve (v) = to succeed in doing sth, accomplish, especially after a lot of effort fulfil (v) = bring about the completion or achievement of a desired promise etc. cope (with) (v) = to deal successfully with sth difficult deal with (phr.v.) = act in order to solve a problem or make a decision about a situation face (v) = confront, have to deal with a difficult situation succeed (in) (v) = to manage to do sth, achieve your goals 1.G manage (v) = to be in charge of run (v) = be in charge of a shop or business operate (v) = function or cause to functipn undertake (v) = to make oneself responsible for sth

skills (n) = the ability to do sth very well qualities (n) = usually good characteristics qualifications (n) = a quality or skill that makes sb suitable for a particular job experience (n) = 1) sth that happens to you or sth that you do 2) the knowledge you have acquired U N IT 2 2A

look (through) (v) = to read, examine

look (at) (v) = to turn your eyes to a particular direction

see (v) = notice, observe, take a look at sb/sth

watch (v) = to look at sb/sth for a period of time and pay attention to what is happening notice (v) = to become aware of sb/sth regard (v) = look at sth stare (at) (v) = look at sb/sth for a long time (often rudely or impolitely)

Words Easily Confused glance (at) (v) = to take a quick look at sth observe (v) = to see or notice something 2.B find out (v) = to learn sth you didn't know, especially through deliberate effort invent (v) = create or make up sth for the first time discover (v) = become aware of sth you didn’t know before detect (v) = notice, recognise that sth is present 2.C explore (v) = investigate sth (a place or scientific field) systematically, in order to find out more facts about it investigate (v) = to discover and examine all the facts about sth look for (v) = to search for or try to find sb/sth look up (v) = find out by looking in a reference book (do) research (v) = careful study or investigation, esp. to discover new information 2.D attempt (n) = an act of trying to do sth, esp. when this is unsuccessful effort (n) = the use of much physical or mental energy to do sth trial (n) = 1) a formal examination of evidence in a law court 2) a test of quality experiment (n) = a scientific test done to discover what happens to sth in particular conditions

2£ audience (n) = a group of people watching or listening to a play, concert, film etc. spectators (n) = people who watch sth, especially a sporting event viewers (n) = people who watch television sightseers (n)= people who visit places of interest as tourists onlookers (n) = people who watch sth happening without getting involved witness (n) = a person who sees an event and is able to tell other people what happened 2.F memorise (v) = learn sth well enough to remember it exactly remind (sbofsth)(v) = tomake sb remember sth recall (v) = to bring sth back to mind, remember recognise (v) = be able to identify sb/sth 2.G view (n) =1) opinion 2) a scene, esp. of a fine tract of countryside sight (n) =a thing that one sees or can see / places of interest in a town or city, that are often visited

by tourists image (n) = a mental picture vision (n) the ability to see scene (n) = the place where an action or event occurs U NIT 3 3A rise (v) = move upwards, stand up raise (v) = (money) support by collecting money arise (v) = begin to exist or become known to people (for a situation or problem) lift (v) = raise sb / sth to a higher position or level 3.B grow (v)= increase in size or quantity grow up (v) = reach the stage of full development bring up (v) =to care for and raise (a child) (be) born (v) = to come into the world by birth (out of your mother‘s body) become (v) = develop into / grow to be 3.C educate (v) = teach sb over a period of time at school, university etc. learn (v) =gain knowledge or a skill by study teach (v) = give lessons in (sb) / show sb how to do sth study (v) to give one’s time and attention to learning about a subject read (v) = to look at and understand the written or printed word instruct (v) = to give orders or directions tosb 3.D behaviour (n) = social conduct, the way a person or an animal behaves attitude (n) = the opinions and feelings that you usually have about sth temper (n) = state of mind regarding being angry or being calm mood (n) = the way sb feels at a particular time manner (n) = the way sb behaves, their social conduct manners (n) = ways of behaving in social situations 3.E familiar with / to (adj) = knowing sth well and understanding it accustomed to (adj) = to be used to sth aware of (adj) = knowing sth 3JF custom (n) = sth that is done by people in a particular society because it is traditional habit (n) = sth you do often or regularly

fashion (n) = popular style of clothes, hair etc. at a particular time or place trend (n) =a general tendency or direction routine (n) = the usual series of things sb does regularly at a particular time

3.G common (adj) = ordinary, frequently encountered or often happening ordinary (adj) = average, not different or special usual (adj) = happening most often in a particular situation normal (adj) = regular, ordinary, in accordance with what people expect regular (adj) = done or happening often, frequent 3.H eager (adj) = full of interest or desire keen (on / to) (adj) =eager, enthusiastic, very much wanting to do sth enthusiastic (about) (adj) = showing great interest in sth interested (in) (adj) = showing curiosity, concern or desire to learn more about sth because you think it is important willing (to) (adj) = ready and wanting to help or do sth U N IT 4 4A travel (v) = to go from one place to another transfer (to) (v) = to cause sb or sth to move from one place to another transport (v) = take goods, people etc. from one place to another in a vehicle transmit (v) = to send out electric signals etc. by radio

4.B arrive (in /at) (v) = get to a place at the end of a journey get (to) (v) = arrive at a place reach (v) = to get, to arrive at come (v) = to move to, towards or into a place (where the speaker is) approach (v) = to get closer to sb or sth (in place or time) appear (v) = to start to be seen or suddenly be seen

4.C carry (v) =to take sth somewhere in your hands or arms, on your back etc. fetch (v) = to go and bring sth from the place where it is deliver (to) (v) = to convey, carry sth to a destination 4.D voyage (n) = a long journey by ship or spacecraft journey (n) = when you travel from one place to another

trip (n) = a short journey to a place and back again

tour (n) = an organised trip during which you visit different places excursion (n) = a short journey made for a particular purpose travel (n) = the act of taking a journey expedition (n) = a long journey, esp. one made by a group of people with a particular aim flight (n) = a journey in a plane or space vehicle cruise (n) = a holiday on a large ship 4.E guide (v) = to show sb around a place that you know well direct (v) = to tell or show sb the way to a place lead (v) = 1) go to a particular place 2) to show sb the way by going in front (first) ride (v) = to travel in or on a vehicle or animal 4J1 address (n) = the number of the building and the name of the street and town etc. where someone lives or works road (n) = a specially prepared hard surface for cars, buses etc. to travel on street (n) = a public road in a city or town that usually has buildings on itsside(s) way (n) = a route / road etc. taken in order to reach a place direction (n) = the way sth or sb moves, faces or is aimed / information or instructions about what to do or where to go route (n) = the way from one place to another path (n) = a track that people walk along over an area or ground 4 .G site (n) = a place where a building, town etc. was, is or will be situated position (n) = where sb or sth is in relation to other things location (n) = the place where sth happens or is situated point (n) = a particular place or position where sth takes place place (n) = a point, building or area room (n) = empty space for people or things to be fitted in space (n) = an area of any size that is empty or available for use 4JI foreign (adj) = not from your ov.r country or the country you are talking about strange (adj) = unusual, not familiar different (from / to) (adj) = not the same

Words Easily Confused peculiar (adj) = odd or strange, esp. in an unpleasant way curious (adj) = eager to know or learn UNIT 6 6.A

borrow (v) = take sth from sb with their permission, intending to return it in the future lend (v) = allow sb to use sth that you own for a period of time let (v) = allow the use of your property in exchange for money hire (v) = pay money to the owner of sth in order to use it for a period of time / employ sb to do a particular job for you rent (v) = to have and use sth which does not belong to you in exchange for a sum of money that you pay regularly 6J3 spend (v) = 1)to use your money to buy or pay for things 2) to pass or use time waste (v) = using too much of something (money, time etc.) unnecessarily save (v) = gradually collect money by spending less than you get, usually to buy sth you want afford (n) = to have enough money, time etc. for a particular purpose 6.C bill (n) = a written statement of money that you owe for goods / services fare (n) = the price you pay to travel by bus, train, plane etc. fee (n) = an amount of money that you pay to a professional person or organisation for their work fine (n) = punishment in which sb has to pay a sum of money because they have done sth wrong or broken a rule ticket (n) = 1) a printed piece of paper showing that a person has paid to travel on a bus, plane, etc. or to enter a cinema, concert hall etc. 2) an official note given for a traffic offence receipt (n) = a piece of paper that you get from sb as confirmation that they have received money or goods from you account (n) = a written statement of money paid or owed for goods and services discount (n) = a reduction in the cost of goods that you are buying tax (n) = money that you pay to the government according to your income 6.D salary (n) = fixed regular payment, usually made every month to employees

wage(s) (n) = regular payment,

deposit (n) = 1) to pay part of a

calculate (v) = to estimate sth

on hourly, daily, weekly basis payment (n) = a sum of money paid income (n) = money one earns or receives bonus (n) = a payment added to what is usual or expected allowance (n) = money given to sb on a regular basis (e.g. as pocket money) award (n) = prize /gift / trophy reward (n) = a thing that is given or received in return for doing sth good donation (n) = contribution to a charity or other organisation 6.E owe (v) = to have an obligation to pay sb a certain amount own (v) = to have as one’s possession possess (v) = to have (an ability) keep (v) = continue to have or hold sth belong to (v) = to be the property of 6JF price (n) = the amount of money which sth is bought or sold for prize (n) = an award given to the winner of a competition, race etc. charge (n) = amount of money sb has to pay for a service or to buy sth value (n) = how much sth is worth bargain (n) = sth bought cheaply or for less than its usual price worth (adj.) = having a certain value /(n) = the value, usefulness or importance of sth tip (n) = extra money given to sb (eg a waiter, porter etc.) in order to thank them for their service 6.G precious (adj.) = of great value or importance because of being very beautiful, rare or expensive valuable (adj.) = worth a lot of money / very useful or important priceless (adj.) = too valuable to be priced or extremely expensive worthless (adj.) = having no value, importance or use economic (adj.) = connected with trade, industry and the management of money economical (adj.) =using money, time, goods etc. carefully and without wasting any financial (adj.) = connected with money or the management of money 6H loan (n) = money that you borrow (usually from a bank) debt (n) = amount of money that you owe to a person / bank sum (n) = a quantity, esp. of money amount (n)= a quantity of money, time or a substance

larger sum the rest of which is to be paid later 2) to put money into a bank instalment (n) = a small sum of money paid at regular intervals over a period of time, rather than paying the whole amount at once budget (n) = a plan of how a person or organisation will spend the money that is available in a particular period of time

by using numbers or one’s judgement predict (v) = to say in advance that sth will happen 7D idea (n) = 1) knowledge or understanding of something without being certain (n) = 2) a suggestion, thought or plan for doing something view (n) = opinion thought (n) = idea point (n) = single fact, idea or opinion aspect (n) = a distinct feature or element in a problem, situation etc. respect (n) = politeness and honour shown towards sb or sth matter (of fact) (phrase) = actually, in fact 7.E queue (n) = a line of people or vehicles waiting for sth line (n) = a number of people /things one behind the other or standing side by side aisle (n) = a long narrow gap between rows of seats (in a church, classroom etc.) or between supermarket shelves corridor (n) = a passage in a building or train, usually with rooms on either side hall (n) = a room serving as an entry area row (n) = a number of people/ things standing or arranged in a line 7.F available (adj.) = that can be found or obtained spare (adj.) = extra, additional, available for use when needed free (adj.) = not being used / occupied by sb or not reserved for somebody to use (e.g. table, seat)/costing nothing convenient (adj.) = easy, useful or suitable for a particular situation handy (adj.) = useful for a particular purpose usable (adj.) = that can be used 7.G absence (n) = the state of not being somewhere lack (n) = when something is insufficient or does not exist at all shortage (n) = deficiency, when there is not enough of sth loss (n) = the fact of no longer having sth or having less of it 7.H short (of sth) (adj.) = not have enough of sth, nearly run out of scarce (adj.) = not easy to find or obtain rare (adj.) = not common inadequate (adj.) = too low in quality, or too small in amount; not good enough

6J cheque (n) = a printed form that you can sign and use instead of money cash (n) = money in the form of coins or notes coins (n) = money made of metal currency (n) = the money used in a particular country (bank) notes (n) = paper money change (n) = coins / money that you receive when you pay for sth with more money than it costs because you do not have the exact amount of money UNIT 7

7A think (of/about) (v) = have an opinion / impression about sth consider (v) = think carefully about sth / have an opinion about sth regard (v) = believe that sb or sth has a particular quality believe (v) = to be sure that sth is true or that sb is telling the truth mean (v) = 1) explain what you wish to say 2) intend 7JB realise (v) = to become aware that sth is true, understand it understand (v) = to know the meaning of what sb is telling you, or the language that they speak recognise (v) = to know who a person or what a thing is meet (v) = to become familiar with sb for the first time introduce (v) = to present (sb) by name (to another person) present (v) = to appear in and introduce a programme on radio or television appreciate (v) = to recognise and enjoy the good qualities of sth / to be grateful for sth

7£ assume (v) = to take for granted (to believe sth to be true without proof) guess (v) = to make an estimate or conclusion you are not sure of, without knowledge suppose (v) = 1) to think that sth is true or probable 2) to be expected or required to do sth estimate (v) = to form a rough or general idea of sth

a m

i

Words Easily Confused insufficient (adj.) = inadequate,

comment (on) (v) = express your apply (for) (v) = to request

not enough for a particular purpose

opinion about sth or give an explanation for it report (v) = inform some authority about sth that has happened

U NIT 8

8A choose (v)= to select from a number of alternatives pick (v) = to gather / to make a selection from a number of things gather (v) = come together in a group collect (v) = to accumulate sth as a hobby or for study

8.G announce (v) = to state or make

known publicly inform (v) = to tell, give information confess (v) = admit that you have done sth wrong or shameful introduce (v) = to present (sb) by name (to another person) 8J3 reveal (v) = uncover or expose choice (n) = an act of choosing sth hidden, make it known to between two or more people possibilities publish (v) = print numerous collection (n) = a group of copies of a book or magazine objects that have been gathered 8 H together ensure (v) = to make sth certain selection (n) = the state of being to happen, guarantee chosen insure (v) = pay money to an election (n) = voting in order insurance company to choose a person or group of reassure (v) = to comfort sb and people for an official position stop them from worrying variety (n) = different types of make sure (v) = to make sth sth certain, ensure option (n) = alternative / one confirm (v) = to make an thing which can be chosen from arrangement or meeting certain, a set of possibilities often by telephone or writing 8.C 81 consult (v) = ask for specialised agree (v) = (on sth): have the advice same opinion on sth advise (v) = to give an opinion on accept (v) = to receive with what sb should do approval / to receive, take suggest (v) = to mention (an idea, admit (v) = to confess or plan etc.) for consideration acknowledge (a crime, mistake, propose (v) = to put forward (a etc.) plan etc.) for consideration approve of (v) = like, admire sb recommend (v) = advise, or sth suggest sth as the best choice 8D U N IT 9 tip (n) = a helpful piece of advice 9A clue (n) = a sign or information say (sth to sb) (v) = speak words that helps you to solve a problem to sb advice (n) = an opinion which tell (sb sth) (v) = let sb know sth, sb offers you about what give information you should do in a particular speak (v) = use your voice in situation order to say sth information (n) = knowledge talk (v) (1) = express thoughts, about sth, esp. news or facts feelings or desires by using 8.E words reliable (adj) = sb or sth that (2) = to have a conversation with can be trusted to work well or sb behave in a desirable way discuss (v) = to consider a responsible (adj) = having subject by talking about it with control or authority over sth or others. sb debate (n) = (formal) discussion reasonable (adj) = quite good, about a subject on which fair, sensible people have different and often respectable (adj) = harving or opposing opinions 9.B deserving the respect of other people ask (v) = to put a question to sb, 8.F inquire. demand (v) = ask for sth urgently mention (v) = refer to or speak about sth briefly or incidentally or in a forceful way refer to (v) = 1) to send sb or sth wonder (v) = to ask yourself to another place for advice 2) to questions or express a desire to know about something mention, describe or involve express (v) = show what you question (v) = 1) to ask someone think or feel by saying or doing about sth 2) express doubt about sth sth

something in writing or by sending in a form 9.C require (v) = need, demand inquire (v) = to ask for information request (v) = an act of asking; a polite demand for something command (v) = order order (v) =to ask for goods or services appeal (v )= to take a legal case to a higher court where it can be judged again beg (v) = to ask for food, money, especially in the street or to request strongly and without pride 9.D advice (n) = recommendation or opinion instructions (n) = the (written) information that tells you how to use a piece of equipment etc. directions (n) = instructions about how to get from one place to another or about what to do manual (n) = a book which gives you instructions on how to do sth or how to use sth, such as a machine guide (n) = a book for travellers or tourists giving information about a place plan (n) = 1) a drawing from which sth is made or built 2) a decision made in advance recipe (n) = a set of instructions for cooking 9.E brochure (n) = a thin book giving information or advertising sth leaflet (n) = a printed piece of paper for distribution, esp. advertising handbook (n) = a small reference book giving useful facts catalogue (n) = a complete list of items, usually in alphabetical order list (n) = a set of words, numbers, etc. written one below the other menu (n) = a list of all the kinds of food that are available in a restaurant 9.F refuse (v) = say no to a proposal or invitation; turn down, deliberately not do sth deny (v) = state that sth is untrue, not accept an accusation/not allowed regret (v) = feel sad or disappointed because of sth that happened resist (v) = to stop yourself having sth that you like very much or doing sth that you want to do reject (v) = turn down, refuse to accept 9.G complain (about) (v) = say that

you are not satisfied with a situation criticise (v) = express disapproval of sth, say what is wrong with it object to (v) = to feel or express opposition to or dislike of sth or sb discourage (v) = to take away sb’s confidence or sb’s hope of doing sth disapprove (of) (v) = not like, not agree with or approve of sth protest (n) (v) = say or show publicly that you object to sth argue (v) = to express an opposite opinion, to exchange angry words quarrel (v) = to disagree, argue fight (v) = to oppose or struggle against sb or sth 9.H worry (v) = to be anxious and troubled about sb or sth mind (v) = to be upset, annoyed or disturbed by sth or sb (used in questions or negative sentences) bother (v) = to make the effort to do sth / to annoy, worry or cause problems to sb annoy (v) = to irritate or make sb angry trouble (v) = to cause sb to be worried or anxious doubt (v) = to have a feeling of uncertainty about sth U N IT 11 HA stop (v) = to put an end to sth happening / prevent avoid (v) = not to allow sth to happen / to keep away from sb or sth forbid (v) = to order sb not to do sth, not allow sb to do sth prohibit (v) = forbid or make sth illegal, ban ban (v) = state officially that sth must not be done, shown or used prevent (v) = to stop sth from happening / to stop sb from doing sth escape (v) = to avoid sth 11.B blame (v) = believe or say that sb or sth is responsible for sth bad accuse (v) = to say that you believe sb has done sth wrong arrest (v) = to take and keep sb prisoner with the authority of the law charge(v) = to accuse sb of having done sth illegal convict (v) = to decide in a court of law that sb is guilty of a crime sentence (v) = to state that sb will be punished in a certain way (by a law court) 1LC complaint (n) = expressing your dissatisfaction with a particular situation annoyance (n) = irritation, feeling angry and impatient

Words Easily Confused accusation (n) = criticising sb

from a bank, shop or vehicle using force or threats thief (n) = person who steals from sb else burglar (n) = person who enters a building illegally, with the UD intention of stealing chase (v) = to run after sb in kidnapper (n) = criminal who order to catch them kidnaps another person pursue (v) = follow or chase sb hostage (take / hold sb) (n) = or sth especially in order to catch a person captured and held them prisoner by one or more people hunt(v) = to chase esp. birds and victim (n) = sb who has been hurt animals in order to catch and kill or killed them pickpocket (n) = sb who steals follow (v) = to go behind things from people’s pockets HE 111 cause (n) = what makes an event forget (v) = to fail to remember happen leave (v) = to not take sth with you when you go excuse (n) = a reason sb gives, in order to explain why sth has ignore (v) = pay no attention to sb/sth been done or in order to avoid doing sth neglect (v) = fail to look after sth reason (n) = fact or situation properly explaining why sth happens or omit (v) = leave sth out deliberately or by accident what causes it to happen; cause purpose (n) = the reason for which sth is made or done, UNIT 12 12.A intention aim (n) = what you are hoping to protect (from) (v) = to prevent sb achieve by an action, plan etc. or sth from being harmed ILF rescue (v) = get sb out of an burgle (v) = to enter by force and unpleasant or dangerous situation steal rob (v) = steal money or property save (v) = help sb out to avoid from sb harm or to escape a dangerous steal (v) = take sth away without situation permission or intention of giving support (v) = 1) help, encourage it back 2) provide sb with money or the things they need hijack (v) = to force someone defend (v) = take action in order to give you control of a vehicle, aircraft or ship that is in the to protect or support sb or sth middle of a journey guard (v) = watch over in order deceive (v) = make sb believe to protect or not allow to escape that sth is not true in order to secure (v) = to make sth safe from being harmed gain sth yourself 12.B cheat (v) = to behave in a dishonest way in order to get injure (v) = cause physical harm what you want to lie (v) = to say sth which is not wound (v) = to cause an injury to true a part of the body usually with a shoplift (v) = to take sth from a weapon hurt (v) = to cause physical or shop without paying for it mental injury; to cause a painful blackmail (v) = to demand money or favours from sb, by sensation threatening them collapse (v) = fall down suddenly harm (v) = to cause physical 1LG attack (v) = try to hurt or damage injury to sb, usually on purpose sb or sth using violence 12.C damage (n) = physical harm knock (v) = a sound made with the hand on the door caused to an object hit (v) = to strike with the hand or injury (n) = damage to a person’s or animal’s body with an object beat (v) = to hit repeatedly with a wound (n) = an injury to part of hand, stick or other object the body, usually caused by a blow (n) = a hard hit with a hand weapon or a weapon pain (n) = the physical suffering caused by injury or illness strike (v) = to hit or attack forcefully or violently ache (n) = physical pain or UJH discomfort caused by injury or illness convict (n) = sb who is in prison criminal (n) = sb who commits 12D crimes endanger (v) = to put sb or sth in danger of being harmed, robber (n) = person who steals and expressing the belief that they have done sth wrong disappointment (n) = feeling let down, because of sth not meeting your expectations

damaged or destroyed risk (v) = the possibility of meeting danger or of suffering harm or loss threaten (v) = say that you will do sth to sb in order to make them do sth you want warn (v) = to make sb aware of a possible danger or problem

quantity or size destroy (v) = to cause damage in a violent way, to cause to exist drop (v) = to fall or let sth fall (by accident) lower (v) = to reduce sth or become less in amount, level, quality etc. demolish (v) = destroy a building 12JS completely illness (n) = the state of not being fall (v) = move downwards in good health UNIT13 disease (n) = illness of people, animals plants etc. caused by 13A infection attention (n) = notice, thought or infection (n) = a disease caused consideration by germs and bacteria care (n) = the responsibility of sickness (n)= a particular type protecting sb or sth of illness or disease, nausea notice (n) = attention, weakness (n) = not feeling observation healthy and strong warning (n) = advice to beware accident (n) = sth unpleasant of sth that might happen which happens unexpectedly, signal (n) = sign, gesture or causing damage or injury sign intended as a message or incident (n) = an event which is command either unpleasant or unusual caution (n) = great care and 12JF attention cure (v) = to make sb healthy 13.B again insist on (v) = say firmly that sth heal (v) = to make or become must be done persist in (v) = go on doing sth well again, esp. after a cut or despite having difficulties injury continue (v) = go on doing sth, treat (v) = to give medical care or attention to a person or a not stop doing sth condition last (v) = to continue for a period recover (v) = regain health after of time being ill remain (v) = to stay in the same place or condition overcome (v) = to successfully deal with a feeling or a problem maintain (v) = to keep in good condition 12.G sensible (adj) = based on reason, protect (v) = to keep sth or sb not on emotions safe from injury, damage or sensitive (adj) = 1) easily affected loss or harmed by sth 2) aware of and keep (v) = have, look after 13.C understanding other people’s needs and problems convince (v) = to make sb agree, sensational (adj) = very good, understand or realise sth persuade (v) = to convince sb wonderful, exciting emotional (adj) = causing strong that sth is true or make them do feelings sth urge (v) = to try hard to persuade 12H produce (v) = to make or sb to do sth manufacture sth, esp. in large impress (sb) (v) = to make sb quantities admire you develop (v) = to grow or change attract (v) = to cause a particular into a more advanced form reaction increase (v) = become greater in appeal to (sb) (v) = to attract, number, level or amount charm, fascinate or interest sb 13D build up (v) = to increase or become larger or stronger win (v) = achieve first place and create (v) = invent, design or gain a prize in a competition make sth new beat (v) = defeat sb in a progress (n) = advance, competition or election development for the better gain (v) = acquire sth(gradually) advance (v) = 1) to progress, earn (v) = receive money as payment for your work develop 2) doing more difficult work defeat (v) = to win a victory over improve (v) = to (cause sth to) sb get better fail (v) = not to succeed in something 13.E reduce (v) = make sth smaller in amount (quantity) or degree appeal (n) = a formal request to the authorities asking for a (size) decrease (v) = become smaller in decision to be changed

12J

Words Easily Confused application (n) = formal request for sth

attraction (n) = a person or thing that attracts sb or sth interest (n) = a state of wanting to learn or know about sth 13J result (n) = 1) answers that are produced by a scientific study or test 2)sth that happens or exists because of sth else effect (n) = a change produced by a particular influence affect (v) = to have an influence on sb or sth consequence (n) = an often bad or inconvenient result of a particular action or situation influence (n) = an effect of one person or thing on another 13.G allow (v) = to let sb do sth or let sth happen; permit let (v) = to give sb permission to do sth permit (v) = to allow sth or make sth possible accept (v) = say “yes” to sth or agree to take sth make (sb do sth) (v) = to force sb (or sth) do sth oblige (v) = to require sb to do sth by legal, moral or physical means force (v) = to make sb do sth against their will 13.H postpone (v) = to arrange for an event etc. to happen at a later time cancel (v) = to say that sth which has already been arranged will not be done or take place / to order sth to be stopped delay (v) = to be slow or late or make sb slow or late 131 guest (n) = sb who is visiting you or is a customer at a hotel host (n) = sb who receives or entertains guests visitor (n) = sb who is visiting a person or a place client (n) = a person or organisation that receives a service from a professional person or another organisation in return for money customer (n) = a person who buys goods or services, especially from a shop UNIT 14 14.A like (prep.) =such as, similar to alike (adj) = when two or more people/things are similar unlike (adj) = different from sth likely (adj) = probable, sth that may happen as (prep.) = like, with the identity of same (adj) = having two or more people or things exactly like

each other similar (adj) = resembling sb/sth, almost the same common (adj) = usual,familiar

14.B suit (v) = 1)be convenient for sb or the best choice in a particular situation 2) make sb look attractive fit (v) = be the correct size or shape match (v) = 1)be in harmony with sth 2)have a pleasing appearance when used together combine (v) = join together, blend, mix compare (v) = to examine and look for the difference between two or more things

14.C punctual (adj) = arriving, doing sth or happening at the expected, correct time accurate (adj) = precise, correct to a very detailed level correct (adj) = right, accurate and without mistakes exact (adj) = in great detail, correct, precise sharp (adv) = exactly at the stated time 14JD remain (v) = to stay in the same place or condition reveal (v) = uncover/expose sth hidden, make it known to people review (v) = 1) to write an opinion of a book, film, play etc. 2) to examine or consider sth again revise (v) = to study again (sth already learned) in preparation for an exam relieve (v) = make sth less unpleasant, cause sth unpleasant to disappear release (v) = to allow sb or sth to come out of a place/to make sth available to the public 14.E outcome (n) = something that follows an action or situation outdoor (adj) = existing, happening or done outside rather than inside a building outfit (n) = clothes worn together as a set outlet (n) = 1) a place that sells goods made by a particular company 2) a hole or pipe through which liquid can flow away outsider (n) = a person who is not accepted as a member of a society, group etc. 14JF perfect (adj) = excellent, suitable, without fault ideal (adj) = the best possible person or thing for sth fine (adj) = sunny and dry(for weather) thorough (adj) = detailed, careful detailed (adj) = having many details, thorough

definite (adj) = fixed, certain, clear, that cannot be doubted certain (adj) = sure, beyond doubt particular (adj) = specific, special special (adj) = not ordinary or usual sure (adj) = certain, confident that one is right

14.G stand (v) = tolerate, endure sth/sb

resist (v) = refuse to accept sth/ stop yourself from doing sth, although you would like to do it tolerate (v) = to put up with suffer (v) = to feel pain, discomfort, sorrow etc. 14.H offer (v) = ask sb if they would like to have or use sth provide (v) = supply sth that sb needs or wants supply (v) = give sb sth that they need cater (v) = to provide what is required or desired

Part I: Multiple Choice Cloze ® Skim-read the text to get an idea of what it is about. @ Read the text again, one sentence at a time. Read the

® Decide which of the four choices is best in this context.

whole sentence, not just the words before and after the gap, as there may be clues that could help you. @ Try to guess what part of speech is missing and what the meaning of the missing word is. ® Do not look at the four choices or guess the answer until you've tried to understand what the sentence means. & Do not always think of words as single isolated items, but as parts of a context. & Read the options carefully.

& Find which of the choices may have the same meaning

Consider syntax and style. and decide which one should be left out.

@ If you aren't sure about the right answer, try to eliminate three of the four alternatives starting with the words that don't make sense. & Check if the word you have selected forms an acceptable expression with the word before and/or after it. @ Read the text again including the words you used to fill in the gaps to see if it makes sense. ~~—

© Skim-read the text to get an idea of what it is about. & Read the text again, one sentence at a time. Read the whole sentence, not just the words before and after the gap, as there may be clues that could help you. Note that sometimes you may find clues in other sentences, too. @ Try to guess what part of speech is missing and what the meaning of the missing word is. © Remember most of the missing words will be grammatical words, prepositions, pronouns, auxiliary verbs, articles, linking words etc. and not vocabulary items.

g) Remember: there is only one missing word. If you think that two or more words are suitable, you will have to choose and write only one. 0 Check for accuracy of grammar and spelling. & Read the text again including the words you used to fill in the gaps to see if it makes sense.

Part 3: Word Formation @ Skim-read the text to get an idea of what it is about. & Read the text again, one sentence at a time. @ Decide what part of speech is needed to fill in the gap. The words to be formed will usually be nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. & Decide if the word to be formed has the same or the opposite meaning of the given word according to the meaning of the sentence. & Remember that you will need to add a prefix and/or a

suffix to the given word to form a derivative. Sometimes you might also add an ending to the derivative (e.g. -s after a noun, -s, -ed, -ing after a verb, -er, -est after an adjective). Note, however, that you never need to make more than two changes to the given word. © Make sure the new word and given word have a common root and that you have spelt the new word correctly. Read the text again including the words you used to fill in the gaps to see if it makes sense.

Part 4: "Key" Word Transformation & Read the given sentence, the incomplete sentence and the 'key' word. @ Consider what kind of transformation is required, e.g. passive voice, reported speech, conditional sentences etc. Look for clues in both the given and the incomplete sentences.

g) Remember that your answer must be between two and five words. Keep in mind that you must definitely use the ‘key' word and not change it in any way at all. & Write your answer, making sure that the completed sentence means the same as the given sentence. @ Check for accuracy of grammar and spelling.

Exam Tips for All Parts of the Paper 0 When dealing with each of the four parts, start with the questions that seem easy to you. Leave the ones you aren't sure about until later. & Do not spend too much time on any one question. Go back and try to answer it later. & Answer all the questions, even those you are not

completely sure of. Make a sensible guess rather than leave a question unanswered. q Do not write more than one answer for each question. 0 Write your answers on the answer sheet clearly and correctly.

ECCE

In this part of the test there are 35 multiple-choice items which test basic knowledge of grammar. Candidates are required to choose a word or phrase which will complete the given sentence in a grammatically correct way. Remember:

& Read the sentence or short exchange carefully and consider what kind of structure is required. & Look at the position of the gap in the sentence and consider what part of speech is required. ® Look out for words (e.g. linking words) or expressions (e.g. time expressions) that can help you decide on the correct answer.
There are 35 multiple-choice items in this section which test basic knowledge of vocabulary. Candidates are required to choose the word or phrase which is appropriate in the context of the sentence. Remember:

& You should always learn new words in context. You can even try to use these new words in your own example sentences. This helps you remember new vocabulary instead of simply memorising their definitions in your mother tongue. & You should learn verbs, nouns and adjectives with their dependent prepositions (e.g. laugh at somebody, talent for something, be good at something). & Try to remember collocations (e.g. make a mistake, do one’s homework) and fixed expressions (e.g. at the beginning of, in the beginning) that are considered problematic because they are quite similar. Learn how to break down words in order to find the root, prefix and suffix. This will not only help you learn more words but also help you understand how they are formed. This will automatically increase your awareness of the language. & You can greatly improve your vocabulary by reading as many authentic English texts (e.g. books, magazines) as possible.

Appendix 1

Prepositional Phrases A T at + address at a glance at a loss at all costs at ease at first at first sight

at heart a t ... km/miles per hour at last at least at night at noon at once

at random at school at short notice at the age of at the back of at the beginning (of) at the corner

as far as

as long as

AS as a result of

at the at the at the at the at the at the at the

crossroads door end (of) expense of front hospital latest

at the moment at the sight of at the top/bottom of at the weekend at university at work

A H EA D ahead/behind schedule

BY by accident by all accounts by all means by bus/car/plane

by chance by cheque/credit card by day/night by far

by force by hand by heart by means of

by by by by

for for for for

for instance for life for one's sake for the sake of

for sale

in/out of control in/out of danger in/out of demand in/out of fashion in/out of hand in/out of order in/out of place in/out of print in/out of season in/out of shape in/out of sight in/out of stock in/out of touch in/out of use in one's opinion in other words in pain in pairs in particular in person in practice

in prison in private in progress in public in reality in/with reference to in relation to in reply to in return in secret in shock in short in sight of in summary in support of in the beginning in the centre (of) in the city/country in the corner of in the end in the first place

in the future in the long/short run in the meantime in the middle (of) in the mood for in the morning/ afternoon/evening in the mountains in the North/South in the streets in the suburbs in this respect in touch with in town in trouble (with) in vain in writing

on + road/avenue

on a diet

on a farm

mistake now oneself one's side

by phone/post/airmail by profession (take) by surprise

FOR for for for for

a change a while ages certain/sure

example fear of granted hire/rent

FR O M from experience

from now/then on

IN in + month/season in + year/century all in all in a bad/good mood in a mess in a queue in a row/rows in a state in a while in addition (to) in aid of in advance in answer to in any case in captivity in case of in cash in charge of in comfort in common in conclusion

in connection with in contact with in court in debt in detail in difficulty in exchange for in fact in favour of in flames in full in general in half in haste in honour of in hospital in instalments in memory in need of in/out of action in/out of business

IN T O into pieces

(come) into power

O N on (a) + day

on + date

Appendix 1 & 2 on on on on on on on on on

a journey/trip/tour an excursion an island account of approval arrival average behalf of board

on business on credit on demand on display on/off duty on fire on good/bad terms on holiday on impulse

on on on on on on on on on

out of the ordinary out of practice

out of the question out of reach

out of work

to one's astonishment

to one's surprise

to some extent

to this day

under control under the impression

under pressure under repair

under strain under the circumstances

under the weather

with respect to

with a view to

with the exception of

without delay

without fail

without warning

one's birthday one's mind one's own page purpose sale schedule second thought(s) strike

on television on time on top of on the back of on the contrary on the corner on the floor on the left/right on the market

on the move on the one/other hand on the outskirts on the phone on the point of on the radio on/off the road on the whole on weekdays

O U T out of breath out of date

TO to one's amazement

UNDER under age under arrest

W IT H with regard to

W IT H O U T without (a) doubt

A

(un)aware of

Verbs

Nouns w ith Prepositions

accuse sb of advise sb on/about sth (dis)agree with sb about/on sth aim at apologise to sb for sth apply to sb/sth for sth (dis)approve of argue with/sb about/for sth arrest sb for sth arrive at a building arrive in a city/town/country ask for associate with A d jectives accustomed to addicted to afraid of amazed at/by amused at/with angry at sth angry with sb annoyed about sth annoyed with sb anxious about ashamed of astonished at/by

(dis) advantage of (give) advice on an answer to

B Verbs beg for believe in belong to benefit from beware of blame sb for sth blame sth on sb boast about/of borrow from

Adjectives bad at sth bored with sth bound to busy with

c Verbs

^

care about sb/sth care for sb/sth choose from/between

collaborate with combine with comment on communicate with compare with/to compete with sb for sth complain to sb about/of sth concentrate on sth confess sth to sb congratulate sb on sth connect to/with consist of contrast with contribute to cooperate with sb cope with cover sb in/with sth criticise for

Adjectives (in)capable of careful of careless about/of certain about/of close to concerned about/for confident of/about conscious of crazy about

Appendix 2 crowded with cruel to curious about Nouns with Prepositions a comparison between a complaint about a connection between/with

D Verbs deal with decide on dedicate sth to sb depart from depend on describe sth to sb differ from discourage from distinguish between divide sth between/among divide sth into divide by (Maths) dream about/of Adjectives delighted with dependent on different from/to disgusted by/at Nouns with Prepositions damage to a decrease in a delay in a demand for a description of a difference between/in/of

E Verbs escape from exchange sth for sth else excuse sb for/from experiment on sb/sth with sth explain sth to sb Adjectives engaged to sb enthusiastic about envious of equal to excellent at excited about experienced in Nouns with Prepositions an example of an exception to an expert at/in/on sth

F Verbs fight with fill sth with sth else forget about Adjectives faithful to familiar to sb familiar with sb/sth famous for

fed up with fond of free from/of sth friendly with/to frightened of full of Nouns a failure in

G Verbs glance at A d je c tiv e s generous to sb good at sth good for sb/sth good to sb grateful to sb for sth guilty of/about

H Verbs head for/towards hear about/of sb/sth hear from sb hope for A d je c tiv e s handy for happy about/with sth/sb happy for sb harmful to Nouns with Prepositions hope for I Verbs include in insist on introduce sb to sb/sth invest in invite to involve in A d je c tiv e s identical to impressed by/with independent of inferior to interested in Nouns with Prepositions an increase in influence on an intention of (doing sth)

J Verbs join in A d je c tiv e s jealous of

K Verbs know about sth A d je c tiv e s keen on (doing) sth known as

Nouns with Prepositions knowledge of

L Verbs lean on/against lie to sb about sth listen to Adjectives late for Nouns a lack of

M Verbs (be) made of/from mean by mention to mistake sb/sth for sb/sth else Adjectives mad about/on sb/sth mad at/with sb married to mean to sb

N Adjectives nervous about Nouns a need for o Verbs object to sb/sth occur to Nouns with Prepositions an opinion of/about/in an opportunity for the opposite of

P Verbs pay for point at/to praise sb for sth pray for sb/sth prefer to prepare for prevent from protect sb from/against sth protest about/against/at provide sb with sth provide sth forsb punish sb for put the blame for sth on sb Adjectives patient with pleased with polite to popular with proud of Nouns with Prepositions protection from (take) pride in

Appendix

2& 3

Q

s

Verbs quarrel with sb about sth Nouns with Prepositions a question about

Verbs save sb from sentence sb to shout at smile at/to speak to/with sb specialise in spend money on sth stare at steal sth from sb succeed in suffer from supply sb with sth suspect sb of Adjectives safe from (dis)satisfied with separate from serious about shocked by/at short of similarto sorry for sb sorry for/about sth suitable for superior to sure of/about sth surprised at/by suspicious of Nouns with Prepositions a search for shame on sb (take) shelter from a solution to a specialist in (feel) sympathy for

R Verbs receive sth from sb recover from reduce sth to refer to regard sb/sth as relate to rely on remind sb about sth remind sb of sb/sth replace sth with sth else rescue sb from result from result in retire from A d jectives ready for relevant to reluctant to respected for responsible for rude to Nouns with Prepositions a reaction to a reason for a reduction in a relationship between a relationship with sb a reply to a report on a reputation for the result of a rise in

thank for think of/about translate from Adjectives terrible at terrified of tired of typical of Nouns with Prepositions a talent for a taste of a taste for a threat to

U Adjectives upset about useful for sth useful to sb Nouns with Prepositions an understanding of

V Verbs vote for/against

W Verbs wait for warn sb about/against/of waste money on sth wonder about worry about Adjectives weak at sth worried about wrong about

T Verbs take care of sb/sth talk to/with sb about sth

Wftuh. »

GENERAL SPELLING RULES 1 When the root word ends in consonant +e, the final -e is dropped when adding a suffix th at starts with a vowel e.g. combine 4 combination fame famous wide 4 widen 2 When the root word ends in one consonant and before it there is one stressed vowel, the last consonant is doubled when adding a suffix that starts with a vowel. e.g. w it 4 w itty fat 4 fatten occur 4 occurrence 3 W hen the root word ends in -y and before it there is a consonant, the -y changes into -i w hen adding a suffix. e.g. carry 4 carriage happy 4 happiness glory glorious

mm

«jji

Appendix 3 VERB

NOUN

accept achieve act, activate

acceptance, acceptability achievement (in)action, act, activity, acting addiction addition, additive (in)adequacy admiration admittance, admission adventure advertisement, advertising (dis)advantage advice, advisability

-

add -

admire admit advertise -

advise afford -

(dis)agree amaze -

amuse anger announce annoy -

apologise (dis)appear apply (dis)appoint (dis)approve argue arrange arrive -

assist astonish attend attract automate avoid bear beautify (mis)behave believe benefit blacken bleed bore breathe broaden brighten build burgle (mis)calculate care -

celebrate -

characterise cheer -

choose -

collect (dis)colour combine -

comfort communicate compete

NOUN (person) achiever actor, actress, activist addict -

admirer —

adventurer advertiser —

adviser

ADJECTIVE (+opposite) accepted, (un)acceptable achievable (in)active, actual addicted, addictive additional (in)adequate admirable, admiring (in)admissible, admissive adventurous advertising (dis)advantageous, (dis)advantaged (in)advisable, advisory(*adv:advisedly) affordable

-

-

agency (dis)agreement, (dis)agreeableness amazement ambition amusement anger announcement annoyance anxiety apology (dis)appearance application, applicator (dis)appointment (dis)approval argument, argumentation arrangement arrival art, artefact, artistry, artifice assistance astonishment attendance, attention attraction, attractiveness automation, automatic avoidance bearing beauty (mis)behaviour belief benefit blackness blood, bleeding boredom breath, breathing, breather breadth brightness building, build burglary (mis)calculation, calculator care, carelessness caution, cautiousness celebration championship character,characteristic, characterisation cheerfulness, cheerlessness, cheerness childhood choice city, citizenship coast collection colour, colouring, discoloration combination comedy, comic (dis)comfort communication competition, competitiveness

agent



-

(dis)agreeable amazed, amazing ambitious amusing, amused angry (un)announced annoyed, annoying anxious apologetic apparent (in)appiicable, applied (dis)appointed, (dis)appointing (dis)approving (un)arguable, argumentative arrangeable



announcer — — — —

applicant, applier — —

arranger -



artist assistant

artistic, artful, artless, arty, artificial assistant astonished, astonishing (in)attentive, unattended (un)attractive automatic, automated (un)avoidable (un)bearable beautiful behavioural (un)believable beneficial black bloody, bloodless, bleeding bored, boring breathless broad bright



attendant — —

bearer beautician —

believer beneficiary,benefactor — —

bore —

builder burglar

-

-

calculated, calculating, (in)calculable careful, careless, carefree cautious, cautionary celebrated

-

celebrity champion character -

child —





(un)characteristic, characterless cheerful, cheerless, cheery childish, childless choosy

citizen





coastal collective, collected colourful, colourless, coloured combined comical, comic (un)comfortable, comforting, comfortless (un)communicative, communicable competitive

collector -

comedian, comic comforter communicator competitor

Appendix 3 VERB

NOUN

NOUN (person)

complain complete conclude confide (dis)connect consider construct consume contain contribute

complaint completion conclusion confidence, confidentiality (dis)connection consideration (de)construction consumption containment, container contribution (in)convenience convention cooker, cookery, cooking co-operation correction, correctness correspondence creation, creativity, creativeness crime, criminality criticism, critique cure, curability curiosity darkness day, daily deafness decision, decisiveness decoration defence delight, delightfulness demonstration denial departure depth (in)dependence, dependency description, descriptiveness design, designing desire, desirability destruction, destructiveness determination development device death difference difficulty diplomacy direction, directive, directory, directness disaster discouragement discovery discussion distance distribution disturbance dominance, domination doubt, doubtfulness, doubtlessness

complainant





constructor consumer

(in)complete (in)conclusive confident, confidential, confiding (dis)connected, connective considerable, considerate, considered constructive consuming





-

convene cook co-operate correct correspond create -

criticise cure -

darken -

deafen decide decorate defend delight demonstrate deny depart deepen depend describe design desire destroy determine develop devise die, deaden differ, differentiate -

direct -

discourage discover discuss distance distribute disturb dominate doubt dramatise drive economise educate effect -

elect embarrass -

emphasise employ enable encourage

drama, dramatisation drive, driving economics, economy education effect, (in)effectiveness (in)efficiency election, electorate embarrassment emotion, emotionalism emphasis (un)employment (in)ability, disability courage, encouragement, courageousness



confidant connection —

ADJECTIVE (+opposite)

contributor

contributory (in)convenient convener (un)conventional cook (un)cooked co-operator (un)co-operative — (in)correct, corrective, correspondent correspondent, corresponding creator, creature creative criminal criminal critic (un)critical curer (in)curable, cureless — curious — dark — daily — deaf, deafening, deafened — (in)decisive, (un)decided decorator decorative defendant, defender defensive, (in)defensible — delightful, delighted demonstrator demonstrative — (un)deniable — departed — deep dependant (in)dependent, dependable — descriptive designer designing — (un)desirable, desired destroyer destructive, indestructible determiner determined developer (un)developed, developing —







dead, deathly, deadly, undying different difficult diplomatic direct, directive, directional disastrous discouraging

— —

diplomat director — —

discoverer



discursive distant distributor distributive, distributional — disturbing, disturbed — dominant doubter doubtful, (un)doubtable, undoubted (adv: doubtless) dramatist dramatic driver driving economist economic, economical educator educational, educated, educative — (in)effective — (in)efficient elector elected, elective, electoral, electable — embarrassing, embarrassed — emotional — emphatic employer, employee (un)employed (un)able, disabled courageous, encouraging — —

Appendix 3 VERB

NOUN

end endanger energise engineer enjoy entertain enthuse equip

expect expend experiment explain explode expose express

end, ending danger energy engine, engineering enjoyment entertainment enthusiasm equipment essence, essentials evidence examination excess excellence excitement, excitability exhaustion exhibition, exhibit existence expansion, expansibility, expansiveness, expanse expectation, expectancy expense(s), expensiveness experiment, experimentation explanation explosion, explosiveness exposure expression, expressionism, expressiveness

extend fail familiarise fascinate favour fear fertilise fight .._... finance fool

extension, extensibility, extent failure, failing faith fairness, fair familiarity, familiarisation fame, infamy fascination fashion fate, fatality favour, favourite fear, fearfulness, fearlessness fertilisation, fertiliser fight, fighting finance fluency foolishness

-

evidence examine exceed excel excite exhaust exhibit exist expand

-

-

forge forget formalise found free freeze freshen frighten

forgery forgetfulness formality, formalisation (mis)fortune foundation freedom freezer, freeze, freezing freshness friendship, friendliness fright fun generalisation, generality generosity, generousness government grace, graciousness growth guarantee guide, guidance guilt, guiltiness happiness hardness, hardship harm hatred, hatefulness health, (un)tiealthiness

-

generalise -

govern grace grow guarantee guide -

harden harm hate -

NOUN (person)

ADJECTIVE (+opposite)

-

endless dangerous, endangered energetic



engineer

-

-

enjoyable entertaining (un)enthusiastic equipped (in)essential evident

entertainer enthusiast -

examiner, examinee

-



excessive, exceeding excellent exciting, excited, excitable exhausting, exhausted, (in)exhaustible — existent, existential expansive, expandable, expandible



— — exhibitor — — — experimenter -

expressionist —

— — familiar — fatalist — fighter financier —

fool foreigner forger -

formalist -

expectant (in)expensive, expendable experimental explanatory, (in)explicable explosive exposed expressive, expressional, expressionless, expressionistic extensive, extensible, extended unfailing (un)faithful, faithless (un)fair (un)familiar (in)famous, famed fascinating (un)fashionable fatal, fateful, fated (un)favourable, favourite, favoured fearful, fearless, fearsome (in)fertile fighting financial fluent foolish foreign forged forgetful, (un)forgettable (in)formal, formalistic (un)fortunate

founder



-

free frozen, freezing fresh (un)friendly, friendless frightened, frightening, frightful funny general, generalised (un)generous governing, (un)governable graceful, graceless, gracious growing, grown

-

fresher friend — -

general governor, governess —

grown-up guarantor guide — — — —

-



guiding, guided guilty, guiltless happy hard, hardened, hardy harmful, harmless hateful (un)healthy

Appendix 3 VERB heat heighten help hesitate

NOUN heat, heater, heating height help, helping, helplessness heroism hesitation history home (dis)honesty hope hope horizon host, hospitalise hospital, hospitality humanise (in)humanity, humanism

humour hunger hunt ice idealise ignore immigrate imagine imitate impress imprison improve include individualise influence inform infuriate inhabit injure inspect instruct insure intend intensify interest interfere interpret interview introduce invent investigate invite irritate -

(mis)judge -

know -

laugh -

lead learn -

lengthen live lighten light

humour, humorlessness hunger hunting, hunt hygiene ice, icing idea, idealism, idealisation ignorance illness immigration imagination, image imitation importance impression, impressiveness prison, imprisonment improvement inclusion, inclusiveness individualism, individuality influence information fury injury inspection instruction insurance, insurability intelligence, intelligibility intention intensity interest interference interpretation interview introduction invention, inventiveness, inventory investigation invitation irritation, irritant irony jealousy jewel, jewellery journal, journalism (mis)judgement kingdom knowledge language, linguistics lateness laughter law leadership, leader learning (il)legibility length life, living, livelihood, liveliness light, lightness lighter, lighting, lightning

NOUN (person) -

helper hero, heroine —

historian — — — -

host, hostess humanist, human humorist —

hunter hygienist

ADJECTIVE (+opposite) heated, hot high (un)helpful, helpless heroic hesitant historic, historical homeless, homely (dis)honest hopeful, hopeless horizontal hospitable (in)human, (in)humane, humanitarian, humanistic humorous, humourless hungry —

(un)hygienic icy, iced idealist ideal, idealistic — ignorant — ill — immigrant — imaginary, (un)imaginable, (un)imaginative imitator imitative, imitational — (un)important impressionist (un)impressive, impressionable prisoner imprisoned — improving, improved — inclusive, included individual, individualist individual, individualistic — influential informer, informant informative, (un)informed — furious, infuriated, infuriating inhabitant (un)inhabitable, (un)inhabited — injured — inspector instructor instructive, instructional insurer insured, insurable (un)intelligent, (un)intelligible (un)intentional, intended — intensive, intense — (un)interesting, (dis/un)interested — interfering interpreter interpretive interviewer, interviewee— introductory inventor inventive investigator investigative — inviting, (un)invited — irritated, irritating, irritable ironic, ironical — jealous jeweller jewelled journalist journalistic judge judicious, judgemental — king knowledgeable,(un)knowing,(un)known linguist linguistic — late — laughable lawyer (un)lawful, lawless, (il)legal leader leading learner (un)learned — (il)legible — long, lengthy — lively, alive, living, live — light lit —

VERB (dis)like -

(un)lock -

loosen lose love -

luxuriate mechanise maintain major manage manufacture marry

_

mature measure medicate -

memorise -

miss mix modernise -

mother -

mount move murder -

mystify nationalise naturalise necessitate — -

normalise notice numerate -

(dis)obey object oblige observe occupy offend operate -

oppose optimise (dis)organise originate own —

paint —

participate — —

pay -

NOUN likelihood liking, (dis)like (il)literacy, literature lock, locker, locket logic, logistics looseness loss love, loveliness luck luxury, luxuriousness machine, mechanics, mechanism, mechanisation, machinery maintenance majority management, manageability manufacturing marriage mathematics (im)maturity, maturation measurement, measure medicine, medication, medicament membership memory, memorial, memorisation minority misery, miserableness miss mixer, mixture modernity, modernism, modernisation month motherhood motor mountain, mountaineering movement murder music, musical mystery nation, nationalisation, nationality nature, naturalisation, naturalness necessity, necessaries neighbourhood, neighbourliness nerve, nervousness noise norm, normality, normalisation notice number, numeration, numerator nutrition, nutrient, nutriment (dis)obedience object, objection, objective, objectivity obligation observation, observatory occupation offence, offensiveness operation opportunity, opportunism opposition optimism (dis)organisation, organiser origin, originality, origination ownership pain painting, paint parenthood, parentage participation partnership (im)patience payment peace, peacefulness

NOUN (person) — -

logician -

loser lover —

mechanic

ADJECTIVE (+opposite) (un)likely likeable (il)literate, literal, literary (un)locked (il)logical loose lost lovable, (un)lovely, loving, unloved (un)lucky, luckless luxurious, luxuriant mechanical, mechanistic

-

-

major manager(-ess) manufacturer

major managing, manageable manufacturing married mathematical (im)mature (im)measurable medical, medicinal, medicated

-

mathematician -

medic member -

minor — -

modernist -

mother motorist mountaineer -

murderer musician —

nationalist naturalist -

neighbour —



objector -

observer occupant, occupier offender operator opportunist -

optimist organiser originator owner —

painter parent participant partner -

payer, payee -



memorable, memorial minor miserable missing mixed modern, modernistic monthly motherly, motherless motor mountainous (im)movable, moving murderous musical mysterious, mystic, mystical national, nationalistic (un)natural, naturalistic (un)necessary neighbouring, neighbourly nervous noisy, noiseless (ab)normal noticeable, unnoticed numberless, numerous, numerical, numeral, (in)numerate, innumerable nutritious, nutritional, nutritive (dis)obedient objective, objectionable obliging, obligatory, obligated, obliged observant occupational, (un)occupied (in)offensive operational, (in)operative, (in)operable (in)opportune, opportunistic opposite, opposable, opposing optimistic organisational, (dis/un)organised original -

painful, painless painted parental —

(im)patient paying, payable peaceful

Appendix 3 VERB

NOUN

NOUN (person)

ADJECTIVE (+opposite)

perfect perform permit persist impersonate, personalise, personify persuade

perfectionism, (im)perfection performance permission, permissiveness persistence person, personality, personnel, personification, impersonation persuasion, persuasiveness pessimism photograph, photography physics play (dis)pleasure poetry, poem poison politics, policy pollution, pollutant popularity population possession (im)possibility power, powerfulness practice, practising, practicality prediction, predictability preference, preferment preparation presentation prevention price pride privacy, privatisation procedure, proceeds product, production, produce, productivity profession, professionalism, professorship promotion protection (dis)proof psyche, psychology publishing, publication punishment pursuit (dis)qualification quiet, quietness rain rapidity reaction, reactor reality, realisation, realism reason, reasoning rebellion reception, receiver, receptiveness recognition reduction reference reflection, reflector, reflex refreshment regulation rejection, reject relation, relationship relaxation (un)reliability, reliance relief religion, religiousness remark rental repetition replacement report, reportage

perfectionist performer

(im)perfect, perfectible performing (im)permissible, permissive persistent (im)personal, personable, personified



photograph -

Play.....- ...................... (dis)please -

poison politicise pollute popularise populate possess -

power, empower practise predict prefer prepare present prevent price pride privatise proceed produce profess promote protect (dis)prove -

publish punish pursue (dis)qualify quieten rain -

react realise reason rebel receive recognise reduce refer reflect refresh regulate reject relate relax rely relieve -

remark rent repeat replace report

— -

— —

pessimist photographer physicist, physician player —

poet -

politician — —

people possessor -

practitioner —

presenter — — —

private —

producer professor, professional promoter protector —

psychologist publisher punisher pursuer

persuasive pessimistic photographic physical playful, playable (dis)pleased, (un)pleasant, pleasurable poetic, poetical poisonous (im)politic, political polluted, polluting (un)popular populated possessive, possessed (im)possible powerful, powerless, powered (im)practical, (im)practicable, practised (un)predictable, predictive preferable, preferential (un)prepared, preparatory presentable, presentational preventive, preventable precious, priceless, pricey proud private procedural (un)productive professional, professorial promotional protective provable, proven psychological —

punishment, punishable —

(dis/un)qualified quiet — rainy — rapid — reactionary, reactive realist (un)real, (un)realistic (un)reasonable, reasoned rebel rebellious receptionist, recipient receptive — (un)recognisable — reducible, reductive referee referential, referable reflective, reflexive refreshing regulator regulatory reject rejected relative related, relative, (ir)relevant relaxing, relaxed (un)reliable, reliant relieved religious (un)remarkable — —

-



-

repetitive, repeated, repeatable, repetitious (ir)replaceable reported

replacement reporter

Appendix 3 VERB

NOUN

NOUN (person)

ADJECTIVE (+opposite)

represent reproduce require research reside resist respect respond retire revise risk rob sadden save, safeguard (dis)satisfy

representation reproduction requirement research residence, residency resistance, resistor respect, respectability response, responsibility retirement revision risk robbery sadness safety, safe, safeguard, saving(s) (dis)satisfaction scene, scenery scholarship science secret, secrecy security sight sense, sensitivity, sensibility, serving, service settlement shame shop, shopping shortness, shortage sickness, sickliness signature significance (dis)simiiarity song, singing skill sleep society, socialism, socialisation

representative

(un)representative, representational reproductive required

— — —

secure see sense serve settle shame shop shorten sicken sign signify sing sleep socialise

solve speak specialise spectate spend sponsor stabilise starve sterilise store straighten

solitude, solitariness solution, solubility, solvent speech, speaking spec ia Iity, spec ialty, specialisat ion spectacle, spectacles sponsorship (in)stability, stabilisation, stabiliser starvation sterilisation, sterility store(s), storage straightness

-

researcher resident

-

residential resistant, resisting, (ir)resistible respectable, respectful, respective (ir)responsible, responsive retiring, retired revised, revisory risky

robber

-

-

sad (un)safe, savable (dis)satisfied, (un)satisfactory, satisfying scenic scholastic scientific secret, secretive (in)secure sighted, sightless (in)sensible, senseless, (in)sensitive

-

respecter -

revisionist

saver, saviour -

scholar scientist -

sensualist server, servant settler -

shopper -

singer sleeper socialite, socialist, sociologist

speaker specialist spectator spender sponsor

stranger strengthen____________ succeed suffice suggest suit sum, summarise survive suspect symbolise sympathise talk taste

tend terrorise, terrify thank__ thicken

strength success, succession (in)sufficiency suggestion suit, suitabiljty sum, summary sun survival suspicion sym bol, symbol ism sympathy talk taste technique, technicality technology tendency terror thanks, thanklessness thickness

-

successor

survivor suspect sympathiser talker taster technician technologist terroriser

-

unsettling, (un)settled shameful, shameless, ashamed shopping short sick, sickly, sickening signed (in)significant (dis)similar singing (un)skilful, (un)skilied sleepy, sleepless (un)social, (un)sociable solitary (in)soluble, (in)solvent (un)spoken, speechless, unspeakable special, specialised spectacular sponsored (un)stable sta rved, starving sterile straight strange strong (un)successful, successive, succeeding (in)sufficient suggested, suggestive (un)suitable summary sunny surviving suspicious symbolic, symbolical (un)sympathetic talkative technical technological terrifying, terrified, terrific thankful, thankless thick, thickeni ng

M Lm

Appendix 3 VERB

NOUN

thirst think

thirst thought, thinking

threaten thrill tire tolerate toughen

threat thrill, thriller tiredness (in)tolerance, toleration toughness tradition, traditionalism train training transform transform ation, transform er (mis)treat (m is)treatment, treatise, treaty (dis)trust (dis)trust, trustw orthiness truth, truthfulness typing type (mis)understand (mis)understanding unite unity, union, unit universe, universality use usage, usability value value, valuation, valuables vary variety, variation, variant, variance, variable victimise victim , victim isation violate violence, violation vision, visibility visit visit warm warmth, warmness warn warning weaken weakness wealth week weigh weight widen w idth will will, (un)willingness wise wisdom wonder w onder work work, works w orth, worthlessness, worthiness year youth

NOUN (person) —

thinker — — — -

traditionalist trainer, trainee -

trustee —

typist — —

user valuer —

victim violator visionary visitor -

ADJECTIVE (+opposite) thirsty thoughtful, thoughtless, thinking, unthinkable threatening, threatened thrilling, thrilled tired, tiring, tireless, tiresome (in)tolerant, (in)tolerable tough traditional trained, trainable transform ing (un)treatable (dis)trustful, trustw orthy (un)true, (un)truthful typed understandable, understanding united universal useful, useless, (un)usable, (mis)used (in)valuable, valueless, valued various, variable, varied —

violent visionary, (in)visible visiting warm

-



weakling

weak wealthy weekly weighty, weightless wide (un)willing, wilful wise wonderful working, workable worthy, worthless, w orthw hile yearly young

— — — — — — -

worker -

youngster

E. MOUTSOU

Use of English |

1

Use of English

This book systematically teaches grammar and vocabulary and helps students develop all the skills necessary to succeed in all exams at B2 level.

for all exams Use of English B2 includes: Presentation of lexical items and

• Consolidation Units and Practice Tests • A reference section including an

gram m atical structures in context

ove rvie w of English gram m ar,

(including collocations, expressions,

vo cabulary notes, exam tips and

phrasal verbs, words with prepositions,

com prehensive appendices

prepositional phrases, key transform ations, words easily confused and derivatives) Clear explanations and useful exam tips Exercises providing thorough practice in Use of English (including multiple choice, m atching, gap filling, open and m ultiple choice cloze tests, key w ord transform ation and w ord form ation)

QQQQ m m publications

• A Glossary

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