The Weathering Magazine Issue 4 - Engines - superunitedkingdom

by Mig Jimenez CREDITS Publisher AK Interactive S.L. Fernando Vallejo Chief Editor John Murphy Rick Lawler Original idea Art director Mig Jiménez Edit...

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CREDITS Publisher AK Interactive S.L. Fernando Vallejo Chief Editor John Murphy Rick Lawler Original idea Art director Mig Jiménez

by Mig Jimenez

W

elcome to the 4th issue of “The Weathering Magazine”. For us it was a big adventure as it is not easy to do a magazine specializing in weathering. However, we are experts in this area

Editorial Management Carlos Cuesta Graphic and 3D Design Enrique Royo

and during these past years we have lead the way by developing many new products and

techniques that are now popular throughout the world. With this magazine we now have a platform was we can demonstrate and archive the many techniques specific to our hobby. And, due the overwhelming response we have received from around the world we know that this kind of magazine that you were waiting for. From all AK staff, thank you very much!

And now we want to guide you into the fascinating world of the engines, fuel and oil. Actually, I see how many Layout PER Article Assistant Iain Hamilton

of you are using these types of effects on your own models; and the greater importance this effect is to giving your model a realistic appearance. We think this chapter is very important because it covers an important stage in the last steps of the weathering process. If we make some ugly fuel or oil effects, we can ruin our model. This time our special guest is David Parker, publisher of the great AFV Modeller magazine. He presents for us his

Editorial Assistant Chema Pellejero Sales Manager Jalal Benali

incredibly realistic King Tiger engine in 1/16th scale. I’m sure that you will agree that David captures the authentic appearance like no-one else can. Of course, this issue also includes contributions by many of our friends who will explain to you many of the different tips and techniques that can be used for engines, fuel and oil. One more thing: for those few of you who were not happy with Akatsiya’s roll, we have prepared a great sur-

Akatsiya Photographer José Irún

prise. Just go to the next page!

Akatsiya Leticia Crespo Collaborators Rubén González César Oliva David Parker Jamie Haggo Lincoln Wright Marc Reusser Wu Bayin Alex Uschi Van Der Rosten

March 2013

www.theweatheringmagazine.com [email protected] [email protected] Quarterly magazine

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INDEX MAYBACH HL 230 P30 ENGINE Our ver y good friend, David Parker,shares a very special look at his ultra-realistic techniques for painting and weatheringhis 1/16th scale King Tiger Engine. pag. 6

ASPHALT PAVING MACHINE On the Highway to Hell there are no clean machines. Rick Lawler takes grease and grime to the extreme on this 1/50th scale die-cast Road Warrior. pag. 11

F15 JET PIPES John Murphy takes us a ride on the wild side with a jet fueled tutorial using metallic paints and space age weathering on a set of F15 Jets Pipes. pag. 24

WEATHERING AN OVERUSED L4500R ENGINE Taking the long way home, Wu Bayin drives an overused L4500R engine to the extreme (weathering) limits. pag. 36

OIL TANK WEATHERING John Murphy rides the rails with a slick demonstration showing spilled fuel stains on a pair of 00 gauge railroad tanker cars. pag. 40

PAINTING A WWI ENGINE Looking for a realistic metal finish? Alexander Glass gives brings us an enlightened tutorial on using buffing metalliazer paints and metallic pigments. pag. 46

KRÖTE Ma.K Down to earth elements of grease, grime and oil are taken to another world as Lincoln Wright weathers his Ma.k KROTE Walker, demonstrating that fantasy and reality can share the same palette. pag. 52

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David Parker

The entire production run of the King Tiger only lasted a total of 14 months with the Serienturm versions only entering service in June 1944. This means that even a veteran vehicle surviving to the end of hostilities would perhaps be nine or ten months old and for the majority their combat life would be a matter of a few months at the most. When modelling the Maybach HL 230 P30 engine for my Trumpeter 1:16 scale King Tiger this was at the forefront of my vision for the look of my engine. Tempting as it is to model a chipped and corroded engine with leaking oil running down the sides and big greasy stains I just dont think this would be realistic for a relatively new high performance German engine. A leaky engine would be replaced and indeed the vehicle that I decided to model is shown in a series of photos having an engine changed within weeks of being delivered to Pz.Abt.505. 6 / THE WEATHERING MAGAZINE / FUEL & OIL

Trumpeter did an excellent job with their 1:16th Maybach and captured the look of the chunky V12 superbly. There are limits to what can be done with injection moulding and all the small pipework detail needed to be added and I did this using different sized brass, copper and lead solder wire. Insulating tape was used to make the sleeves on the smaller pipes and lead sheet was used for the sleeves on the bigger cooling pipes at the back of the engine. There was also considerable detail added to carburetors with the interconnected throttle linkages even though these sit under the big air filters on top of the engine. I wont go into detail here as the focus is on the painting of the engine.

Here is the carburetor assembly which is actually four carburetors which are linked together so as to run in unison.

The great thing about engines is that they are purely functional and are finished accordingly. I chose Gunze Aqueous Hobby Color RLM 66 Black Grey H416 to spray my engine block. The paint was diluted with Gunze blue label thinners although I find that water also works well. The Black Grey dries with a very appropriate slight sheen which reqires no further varnishing but is immediately ready to begin weathering. The red pipes and their connectors were painted as were the other different coloured details before the weathering started.

The air filters were painted in an ivory colour with plenty of scuffs and chips as well as a layer of dust as these are the parts that are visible when the engine deck hatch is opened. The orange label was hand painted.

A pin wash of a mid brown oil paint mix was applied over the engine and this was also used to add runs and streaks across the rocker covers and down across other parts of the engine. As this dried I went back to enhance the effect with several stronger coats of wash in areas where dust and grime would naturally accumulate.

The magnetos were painted in Gunze Mr Metal Color Aluminium with the bolt detail picked out with Stainless

This area of the engine will be covered by a fan cover so I did not waste time on weathering effects here.

The exhaust pipes were painted with Gunze Burnt Iron before having washes of pale brown acrylics overlaid over them.

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Looking down on the Maybach you can see the muck that has collected on the upper surfaces and in the recesses.

The clutch plates were painted with Alclad Steel for a convincing polished metal effect.

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The fuel pumps were painted in Mr Metal Color Stainless and then given the same mid brown oil wash.

These dust effects were then further enhanced with similarly coloured pigments working them into all the crevices and onto all the horizontal surfaces. The key to finishing the Maybach is observation and if you have an old car just lift the bonnet and see how it looks. Dust and debris settles onto all the horizontal surfaces. In the case of the Maybach it is crammed into a very narrow engine bay with minimal space around it. Unless it is removed from the vehicle the only area that is accessable is the top. The same coloured oil wash was also used to tone down the other fittings on the engine like the cooling system pipes and their rubber connector sleeves.

Read more about the complete King Tiger in this issue of AFV modeller. And Coming soon a book about it.

An oil paint wash of a mid brown shade was applied over all the engine parts.

Vallejo Air Black was used for the sleeves with Mr Metal Color Stainless used for the metal clips.

Vallejo Cavalry Brown 70982 was used for the cooling system pipes

The whole engine was sprayed with a coat of Gunze RLM66 H416 which has an excellent satin finish

‘Rain marks’ or streaks from moisture running down the engine are created with oil washes and enhanced with pastels. I kept these effects quite restrained as the engine bay was a very hot space!

The starter motor is unpainted and was given an aluminium finish using Mr Metal Color Aluminium.

Dust and grime sitting on the horizontal surfaces is the key to bringing the big motor to life.

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The placards on the magnetos are generic rub down decals from the Archer Fine Transfers range.

Overall views of the finished engine bay which show just how little of the engine is visible. Each side of the engine are the twin radiators and fan units. The fans are powered by drive shafts running off the sides of the engine and the each side of the radiators are pairs of shutter boxes with adjustable louvres to control the airflow to the radiators. A cable connection allows the crew to regulate this from a handle mounted on the firewall.

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Squeezing the engine into the cramped engine bay of the King Tiger with plenty of connections still to be made to plumb it in.

The engine was just one small part of the massive three and a half year puzzle that building Trumpeter’s 1:16 King Tiger became. Here is the entire hull with the fully fitted interior.

Rick Lawler

It is a hot, summer’s day – you are in your car, traffic has come to a halt and your patience is at its end. Ahead you can see the hustle and bustle of the heavy equipment repairing the nation’s highways and byways – never ending. Among these specialized machines is the subject of this article; the Paver – or Asphalt Finisher. A machine whose purpose is to receive a dump truck loads of a hot, sticky, black, petroleum based product into one side of the machine and distribute it evenly out the other side in order to create the roadways for our Sunday drives. In this article I will show some of the products and techniques that can be used to create the severe staining and discoloration caused by the extreme conditions found on road construction sites. Specifically the paving machine, whose constant contact with asphalt, grease and grime make it the perfect choice for weathering.

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Die Cast models can be a good choice when looking for unique subjects to model. When the model is new the glossy paint finish the model looks more like a child’s toy.

3 It is difficult to paint directly onto the high gloss finish of the newly purchased die cast model. The first step is to give the surface a bit of “tooth” or texture by applying a light misting of a matte finish.

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10 4 A scrubbing pad and a small amount of paint is used to apply chips and scratches to the vehicle surfaces. 7 Surface chips and paint scuffs simulated using a pale yellow color applied with a fine tip brush. 8 Varying mixes of rust and grey paints are used to create a grimy, dirty color which is airbrushed onto the lower body and front bucket to form the basis for the heavier weathering that follows. 9-10 Looking at real world vehicles I can see that the tar and asphalt stains are not uniformed, but rather occur in streaks. To create this appearance I use a soft, wide brush dampened with 99 % Isopropyl Alcohol to gently remove the base grimy base color – downward strokes are used. One must be very careful when doing this procedure as the alcohol is very aggressive toward the paint finish. A second brush loaded with tap water is useful to control or stop the stripping process.

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11 These initial foundation layers of paint and weathering are protected from the subsequent weathering processes by a light layer of AK Interactive Satin Varnish. THE WEATHERING MAGAZINE / FUEL & OIL / 13

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Chromatic richness and paint fading is achieved by the use of pale yellow and cream colored artists oils carefully worked into the surface finish.

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Heavy stains of tar and grease are created on the lower body by heavy

applications dark colored of artist’s oils.

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Again using a wide brush dampened with white spirits the heavy applications of artist’s oils are blended into the finish – downward strokes reinforce the streaking effect.

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The front bucket receives the same type of artist’s oil treatment as on the vehicle sides. Notice that grey colors are also used in order to enhance the depth and visual interest of the dark colors.

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Thinner is first applied along panel lines and surface details in order to break surface tension. This is followed by a light application of Dark Brown Wash along panel lines and surface details in order enhance definition.

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A liberal mix of AK Engine Grime and AK Engine Oil are spread into the interior of the bucket. I can use the different sheens of the two effects; the glossy nature of the Engine Oil and the Matte finish of the Engine Grime, to replicate older stains and more recent stains.

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A brush loaded with AK Engine Grime and AK Engine Oil is flicked by my finger to produce random splashes and drips along the lower areas of the vehicle.

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César Oliva

Many figure painters are hesitant to add weathering to their finished works. Maybe this is true because a figure painter is only focused upon with capturing the all-important proper lighting scheme, or, maybe the artist is just fearful of ruining their work by adding elements of dust, dirt, mud or grease and to their piece. As a result, figure painters tend to keep a very restrained weathering approach to their work. While that may be suitable for a single figure setting, diorama builder’s and AFV modelers should consider a more aggressive approach to their figure painting taking into account the specific environment and setting for their figures - and weather them accordingly. In regard to this, oil and grease is probably the easiest of all these effects to apply on a figure. What is paramount here is location: WHERE do you actually put the stain? Of course you must also account for their shape and size of the stain to make it both logical and pleasant to the eye; this is especially true about grease stains on the skin areas.

1-2 We start with the almost finished figure. The dust and other weathering have been already applied. Later on, after we have finished painting the grease and oil stains, we can revisit the other weathering steps (including the highlights and shadows). Although the steps here are shown here in a linear way for presentation and learning purposes, it is normal to go back and forth until reaching the

desired results. You must tinker with them along the way as some of the effects can be lost with each subsequent step.

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I prefer to use oil and enamel colours for oil and grease. Nothing beats the real thing! Although acrylics can also be used, it´s more difficult to get a nice feathered effect using them, and the satin/glossy texture of the enamel paint is an added bonus.

A very dark brown is mixed from black and a reddish brown. You can use a couple of shades, one lighter and other darker for variety, or just keep the black and brown separated and keep mixing them all the way.

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4 We start painting small dots of the oil mix slightly thinned with mineral spirits. Try to paint them randomly and in irregular shapes, but also concentrate them in logical places, e.g. think about how we tend to clean our hands in the thigh area, or the parts of the body and clothing that are usually touched. The beauty about using oils is you can just wipe away or rectify a mistake with a little white spirit.

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5 Now, with a brush only slightly dampened with thinners (I unload the brush in the kitchen towel as if to completely dry it), I begin to feather the dots or stains. Too much thinner on the brush will create a wash, completely wiping away the stain.

For the flesh areas I prefer to first dry brush the grease (A tip: if you don´t have a dry brush at hand because you have been using them with white spirit or thinned paint, simply clean it in acetone or cellulose/lacquer thinners. These are so volatile that would dry almost immediately). As I side note I´d like to mention that I use synthetic brushes for applying grease and oil, just because I don´t like to employ my kolinsky brushes for anything but acrylics, as they are the main medium I use. But don´t fear using your expensive sable brushes for this technique if you paint with enamel or oils, or don´t mind using the same set of brushes with different mediums, as the dry brushing here isn´t nearly as aggressive as the one you´re accustomed to with AFV painting. We are using very gentle passes to build up the effect instead of the usual scrubbing of AFV techniques. Again try to paint random patterns in logical places. Some stains larger, some smaller.

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Now we can add darker spots inside some of the stains in both the flesh and cloth areas with the slightly thinned mixture. It´s not necessary to soften the edges of these spots.

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These little details are part of the final look of our model and they will help to make the model more real and attractive. These details make a difference between a regular work and a good work. These days we can find a lot of products that imitate these effects, but they require skills of painting and practice. Fuel, oil and grease generate streaks, splashes, stains, etc. The matter is how to do them in a veritable way.

Rubén González

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In this occasion I tried to represent spills over the fuel intake of a tank, using Bitume oil paint from Titan, some pigments, Wet Effects Fluid from AK and White Spirit.

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We start by applying some washes around the fuel intake and some streaks in the side. It’s better to build the effects slowly and in layers, but at this point is easy to remove any excess with thinner.

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Using a wider brush when the oil is fresh we can get some pigments and place them around the fuel intake in order to dry the area. With this we achieve a base painting with texture that doesn’t flow freely in the model.

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We dry the area again adding more pigments and little by little we get the characteristic grime that occur when the dust mixes with the liquid fuel. The most important thing is to get a well diluted paint, without lumps. As in previous step, we can remove the excess with thinner.

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To achieve several shades and shines we’ll make a mixture of oil paint, White Spirit and Wet Effects from AK. This mixture must seem a coloured varnish and we’ll thinner it while applying.

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With this mixture, a toothpick and an old brush we’ll make splashes around the fuel intake. We’ll remove not desired stains with clean thinner.

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Final view with all effects done.

Several effect s both of oil an d fuel of splash with several sh es and spills ades in the inta kes of this Sher ingredients ar man. The e pigments, oi l paints and va rnish.

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ts more pigmen n I employed . 85 In this occasio Su is th ct in overdone ef fe . ills to achieve an sp e th icate tumen to repl I used Judea Bi

Here you can see the difference between the fuel intakes. I used AK079 Wet Effec ts around the towe r mixed with brown oil paint and without pigments, while in the exte rior I used a base of pigments.

between the fuel Here you can see the difference around the tower ts Effec Wet 79 intakes. I used AK0 out pigments, mixed with brown oil paint and with of pigments. while in the exterior I used a base

More spills effec ts of grease and oil in the shoc k absorbers, motor block and fuel tanks combining previo us technics and products.

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An entire jet aircraft engine can be very complex part of a model to paint and weather due to the fact it has to be painted in metallic colours that can be hard to replicate. Thankfully most models of jet aircraft, especially military aircraft all that will be visible on the completed model will be the tailpipe section. Here we will show how to get a realistic metallic finish for these parts. John Murphy

1 The engine jet-pipes we are painting are cast in resin, so it is best to prime the parts prior to painting with the metallic colours.

2 We prime the pipes with an automotive Grey Primer.

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3 For the basic metallic colour we use Alclad-2’s Gun Metal.

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The Gun Metal is airbrushed on from the bottle without any need for any diluting.

We next apply Alclad-2’s Chrome Lacquer, this will give a nice bright contrast to the dark Gun Metal colour.

Remember that we want some of the Gun Metal to show through the Chrome to act as a shadow.

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A grimy wash of using Wash for Dark Yellow, this will add depth to the details and gives the nozzles that heat stained finish seen on Titanium engine parts.

As can be seen here, the wash takes the shine out of the Alclad paints. This will be rectified shortly.

9 F-15 engine tailpipes have a distinctive white patina on their inside surfaces. This is added by airbrushing an off-white colour into these pipes.

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To bring back the metallic shine, we first apply Dark Steel Pigments with a Q-tip (cotton bud).

The pigment is now buffed with an old brush that is only every used for metallic paints and buffing graphite pigments.

The finished F-15 eagle jet pipe and final stage compressor blade assembly.

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Jamie Haggo

Aero engines are working pieces of machinery and as such they can weather considerably. Second World War aircraft tended to have quite a short operational life before they were either lost of cannibalised for spare parts and as such the engines didn’t have much opportunity to get filthy, however some did survive and at the end of the war there was a vast surplus of aeroplanes waiting for scrap. Owing to the vast numbers, many aircraft were left to rot, sometimes for years, until it was their turn for the chop. In this article I will detail the weathering processes for an engine in one such unfortunate aircraft. The model is of a v fighter with an Allison engine, which has been left out in the open for many years at the Rukuhia aircraft dump and as such it has deteriorated quite a bit. This was the fate for many New Zealand aircraft after the war.

1 The engine we are using is a Quickboost resin engine insert designed for the Hasegawa 1:48 kit. It comes in one piece and is highly detailed although some scratch building will be necessary for the engine bearers and some wiring.

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2 Following a coat of Alcald Black Primer, the engine is hand painted with Vallejo Model Color acrylics. Allison engines tended to have grey rocker covers, which help to add a splash of colour.

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4 Winter Streaking Grime is a very versatile shade. We use it here as a filter and a wash to highlight the raised detail and also to impart an oily, well used feel.

6 Aircraft left out in the open for considerable periods will get filthy; to simulate this AK Interactive Dark Earth pigment is brushed on dry. It is important to do this in small steps and gradually build up the effect, take regular breaks to ensure we don’t get carried away!

In order to bring out the fine detail and impart a metallic sheen, the part was dry brushed with Vallejo Model Air steel. However, the braided hose is left out of this step for authenticity.

5 With the Winter Streaking Grime dry, note how effective the effect is, especially on the lighter coloured parts. For the ‘wash’ the product was diluted with about 25% AK Interactive white spirit and for the ‘filter’ about 80% white spirit.

7 Working the pigment in with a dry brush leaves a nice build up of dirt. When we are happy, it can be fixed in place using white spirit.

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9 The Engine Oil product dries to a glossy finish, therefore a mist coat of matt varnish is applied to tone down the shine.

8 Now for the oil and grease. Because this aircraft hasn’t run its engine for quite some years, the oil will not look fresh. Taking a small amount of AK Interactive Engine Oil on a brush, it is flicked on with a cocktail stick to simulate a splattered effect.

10 After some extra-detailing, it was time for the final stage. Leaving machinery out in the open will let moss and lichen grow, especially around organic matter such as oil. We apply a small amount of Warpigs Olive Green pigment very sparingly in places to simulate this. We find it’s best to apply it dry and then fix it with white spirit.

11 The completed engine can now be installed into the fuselage halves. Careful masking will ensure none of this painting and weathering will be spoiled whilst painting the rest of the P-40.

12 With the rest of the plane heavily weathered as well, it perfectly compliments the engine compartment. If you are interested in the chipping effects on the rest of the aircraft then issue #3 of the Weathering Magazine will guide you through this process.

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Mig Jimenez

Since the advent of the Industrial Revolution, oil and grease stains have become an everyday part of our mechanized world. Oil and grease stains are unique among weathering effects as they display a high degree of chromatic richness; from transparent to opaque, glossy to matte. Therefore, no matter what type of modelling subject that we

choose to build it is very important that we take time to study the subject using colour photographs and real world examples.Luckily there are a lot of colour pictures of Type 69 II in Iraq and Iran. I took some of those pictures to make the fuel and grease stains. It is very useful to learn where and how to paint them in your model. One of the most important aspects to bear in mind is that the spilled fuel and grease soaks the dirt and dust that is around and sometimes this gives them a reddish or orange colour. Sometimes we think that this is rust, but in the desert, these reddish stains are dust mixed with those products.

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Mudguards are the most appropriate area to make effects of oil mixed with dirt and dust.

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We’ll use reddish pigments and an old brush to apply them.

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The pigments are applied dry, over a wide area.

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These pigments are applied around the side fuel tanks.

5-6 We moisten the pigments with White Spirit, avoiding to stir them with the brush.

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Once the pigments are dry we can check the reddish tones and the irregular shapes. Remember, for best results, this step must follow the general dusting stage we performed in earlier steps.

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While the pigments are drying we can apply black smoke pigments around the exhaust.

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Now is time to create the grease and oil stains. AK Interactive Engine Oil (AK084) which is specially created to make this effect properly and accurately. This mixture makes it easy to quickly achieve consistent, realistic results.

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We start applying little drops of the fluid around the details, allowing them gather. We can thin AK084 with White Spirit to achieve transparencies.

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As seen in reference photos, small drips of motor oil can be found behind the exhaust. We can replicate this effect by applying narrow, vertical lines.

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We’ll accumulate some big drops of oil behind the fuel tanks.

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Diluting the Engine Oil with White Spirit will allow us to carefully paint small details using a fine brush.

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A transparent effect can be made thinning the oil and let it dry over the previously dusted area.

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Is very important to concentrate drops in some areas, and let others clean. This irregularity will give us more realism.

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We obtain greater intensity and shine by applying several layers.

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Final view of the stains and oil drops. Compare different intensities and sizes.

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Accumulated oil can be used effectively to show contrast on the fuel tanks.

John Murphy

We show a couple of different methods for creating realistic metal effects for rocket engine nozzles using a range of Alclad-2 metallic lacquer finishes. These finishes will be perfect for all manner of spacecraft engines, whether they are real or Sci-Fi

1 Even though the Space Shuttle nozzles are cast in light grey resin, they will still need priming before applying the metallic effects.

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After priming with a grey automotive primer, the nozzles are to be shaded using Alclad-2 Gun Metal.

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A mix of Airframe Aluminium and Gold Titanium are airbrushed on leaving some of the Gun Metal to show through around the pipe work.

4 Next a coat of acrylic matt varnish is airbrushed on, to seal and protect the Alclad lacquers.

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The pipe work is now masked off and Transparent Blue is carefully misted on either side of these pipes.

6 Here we can see the Transparent Blue in place. 7 We next add a colour wash using Streaking Grime for Dark Yellow. 8 Once the Streaking Grime has dried fully, we can see how it has toned down the blue and unified the other metallic tones.

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9 Lastly we pick out the pipe work and other raised details using Citadel miniatures Mithril Silver.

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For our second Space Shuttle rocket nozzle we will demonstrate a slightly different technique, which offers a different finish, but just as realistic as the first.

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We then repeat the stippling, but this time using the brighter Mithril Silver and use a coarser grade applicator, in this case a piece of Scotchbrite pad.

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Here we can compare Nozzle 1 (left) and Nozzle 2, both involved slightly different techniques, but both create great looking and realistic results.

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A with the first nozzle we first prime, then apply a coat of Alclad Gun Metal.

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We then lightly buff the nozzle before applying a coat of matt varnish to prevent the enamel based washes affecting this lacquer finish.

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The next step involves stippling Citadel Miniatures Boltgun Metal acrylic paint with a piece of fine sponge.

4 Before the Boltgun metal has chance to dry, we can use a flat artist’s brush to blend and soften this harsh stippling effect.

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Painting a typical WWII truck engine could be challenging and interesting, compare to most of the modern truck engines, which are better protected and in good repair, the WWII engines were always confronted with tougher situations and environment, some of them could show their age even when it was still well functioning (much more like an old farming tractor engine). So I’ll take the overused engine of L4500R for example, and bring it to life with chipping, pigments and oil paints.

Wu Bayin

1 This is the engine from the Zvezda L4500R, we have cut the exhaust pipe down, for easier handling. The engine is first primed with Mr. Surfacer 1200.

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A dark base coat mixed from Tamiya XF63 and X-4 is airbrushed over the entire engine.

Next, airbrush several thin coats of rust tones using Tamiya XF-3 and XF-79, notice that the dark grey base colour is still visible.

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We now splash three different rust tones from the Lifecolor Rust set randomly with a stiff brush, this will also add some texture to the surface. Remember not to use the lightest orange in the set, because we’re preparing an old rusty base for further chipping so no fresh rust should be seen.

Once the Lifecolor Rust paints have dried, we now apply a layer of hairspray.

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After the hairspray has dried fully we can cover the engine with a coat of light grey and for this we use a mix of XF-2, XF-25 and XF-63.

Using a short stiff-bristled brush and some water we start to create the chipping effect.

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Using a short stiff-bristled brush and some water we start to create the chipping effect.

We can now add patches and flakes of a bright blue paint with a brush.

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This step is quite important because we’ll bring the dull looking engine to life with some more bright colours and chipping.

For small pieces, such as this pipe it is easier to hand-paint the chips, rather than trying to use the hairspray technique for example.

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More rust tones are now added to the exhaust manifold and pipe using the sponge technique.

Now we can start to blend all the elements together and bring harmony to this engine. First a dark wash is applied with a round brush, using AK’s Dark Brown and Streaking Grime.

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After the wash has dried fully, we now apply dark Earth pigment in the corners and Track Rust onto the exhaust pipe.

We follow these initial pigments, by adding a further three different tones of earth and dust.

17 16 Sprinkle several rust pigments randomly on the exhaust and then fix the pigments with white spirit.

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The final touch is to add fuel and oil stains over the pigments, using AK’s Engine Oil and Abteilung 502 Engine Grease. this is what brings the entire engine back to life. Be careful with the location and the amount of the fuel and oil runs, as too many will ruin all the previous effects. For the best results use a fine pointed brush.

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John Murphy

In this step-by-step we will demonstrate the tec hniques used to recreate the fuel and oil spills down the sides of rai lway fuel and oil tank wagons along with the distinctive ora nge/brown grime that coats almost all freigh t wagons, carriages and locomotives on modern railways.

For this article we will be using a couple of Bachmann 00 gauge 45-ton TTA Tank Wagons. Although these wagons are beautifully detailed and painted they are just too clean to look real. Some of these model companies now offer locomotives and rolling stock, that are pre-weathered, but these don’t look very realistic either, as they have simply been misted over with grainy brown paint using an airbrush! Let’s now show you how to do it properly.

1 / 1a 1/ 1a For this guide we will be using two identical Bachmann wagons. To one of them we did add some graffiti decals from Uschi van der Rosten

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2 The first step is to mix Humbrol Enamel Khaki 26 and Olive Drab 66 with enamel thinners.

3 This mix is sprayed onto the wheels, axles and lower framework.

4 4 Once the framework is painted, we can now add grime effects to the tank including the edges of the weld seams.

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5 Using white spirit and an old brush used for dry-brushing, we remove the excess paint from the framework.

6 In this close-up we can see that the aim is to leave some of the grime colour around raised details, such as rivets and along recessed edges.

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7 We can now start weathering the grime colour on the tank. We start by airbrushing white spirit onto the tank to soften the enamel grime paint.

8 Next we gently and repeatedly drag a piece of Scotchbrite along the sides of the tank. This is to simulate the distinctive scratches often seen on these wagons.

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9 9 Here we can see the effect of the enamel grime now the excess has been removed from both wagons. Note the left-hand one has been wiped over with a cloth rather than Scotchbrite.

10 10 On the cleaner wagon, we now add softer tones of the orange/brown, this time using acrylics. Here we have used a mix of Lifecolor Israeli Sandgrey 1982 and Wood (warm light shade).

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11 The paint is heavily thinned and concentrated along the top and in the form of streaks down over the sides.

12 A common feature on these wagons is that the wagon number and any warning or information labels are constantly wiped clean. We can do this with white spirit and a cotton bud Q-tip.

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13 13 The grime weathering is now complete on both wagons.

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14 The first step for adding the fuel/oil effect, is to airbrush on AK’s Engine Oil, this was thinned with a small amount of cellulose thinners.

15 As can be seen here, the Engine Oil dries to a high gloss finish, which can be toned down with some satin enamel varnish.

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16 On the second tank wagon we want to simulate thicker oil spills down the sides, so to do this, we airbrush a mix of the original AK Engine Oil mixed with Humbrol Satin Black Enamel. Again this mix was thinned with Cellulose thinners.

17 The finished wagons complete with some subtle chipping and rust staining. Some further oil stains were added around the axles to replicate lubricating grease.

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Here is a classic example of the oil staining on the side of one of these oiltanks. Notice how clean the wheel hub covers are.

This wagon shows perfectly all the scratches in the grime along the sides of the tank.

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In this example we can see how all the information and warning labels have been kept clean and free from grime.

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More scratches along the sides. The spilt oil on this wagon has run down the sides in thin lines instead of large stains.

Aircraft engines tend to get dirty rather quickly once they enter service. That’s what they have in common with almost all internal combustion engines. Especially older styles of engine such as those in World War 1 fighter aircraft. These early engines tended to shake, rattle and leak while they were in use. Of course any leaking oil would be wiped it off during servicing. But, you know if you have a cloth with a little bit of oil or grease on it, it won’t take long until the entire area you work on is coated in a film of oil or grease. Then add to this, the dust of a battlefield and field maintenance conditions, which causes the oil to act like a magnet for dust and dirt.

In the following steps, we will show you how easy it can be to achieve a complex looking finish, such as seen on this WWI Mercedes Benz engine.

Alex Uschi Van Der Rosten

1 1 After a good coat of primer we paint the entire engine in a flat black. It’s good to have a surface, which has a little bit of a grainy texture.

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Mr. Metal Iron (212) has now been applied onto the engine block, which has created a partial shine but it is still not exactly the finish we want.

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As soon as the Iron has dried, we now can use a Q-tip, a piece of cloth or even tissue paper for polishing. For the best results though, we recommend a piece of cloth from an old T-shirt, which has become a “metalizer” over repeated use. Q-tips help on one spots that should be highly polished.

4 Now we have achieved the first effects. To create more depth to the

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polished areas by using a combination of SNJ’s Aluminium and AK Interactive’s Dark Steel pigments.

5 During the polishing process some pigment has got onto the matt black cylinders. The easiest way to remedy this is to simply mask off the engine block and give the cylinders a fresh coat of flat black. 6 It is now time to apply dirt coloured pigments. We pick two earth tones and mix them individually with some white spirit.

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Our pigments now have been applied to the engine block. Thankfully white spirit does not affect the polished metal finish, which is a very good property. We can speed up the drying time with an airbrush to blow the pigments dry. A little piece of cloth can be used to wipe away all excess pigments.

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To add even more depth to the dirt and grime, some black oil paint colours were thinned with more white spirit and washed over the entire engine block. The pigments mixed with this black wash and collected in the corners to create a real dirty oily effect.

9 Another layer of dust pigments is now applied. This time we only add the pigments to the certain spots. In this photo the pigments are shown in their wet state before drying out. 10 Here is how they look once they are dry and ready to be wiped away. On this stage we do not use a cloth, but use brushes instead, making the entire process more controllable.

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The pigments are now where they should be: randomly collected in the corners. One may add a little bit more variation by giving a pin-wash with black or dark grey oil colours. It always depends on the subject and on the final look we are after and what colours to use exactly.

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To add the ultimate polished metal look, we use Kosutte-Ginsan polishing-powder. We load some onto a Q-tip and lightly burnish over the sides of the engine block.

13 The final step is to burnish the edges of the engine block using a lead pencil. This step creates some little highlights and adds even more depth to the metal effect. 14

Here we can see on the completed engine that the overlapping process of polished metal effects and pigment and oil paint washes combine to create a truly realistic finish. Once the detail painting and smaller parts are added, the engine really comes to life.

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Rick Lawler

In the prior issue of The Weathering Magazine I focused upon the exterior painting and weathering of the Diamond Reo truck. Now, it is time to turn the painting and weathering attention to the heart of the big rig, the big Cummins diesel engine. The engine in this example has had a long service life and it is certainly in need of an overhaul; tired gaskets and fittings allow engine fluids to leak over the engines surfaces.

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The engine is first painted overall with Steel Metalizer paint. Afterward, a layer of Heavy Chipping fluid is applied followed by the trucks exterior blue color. A quick pass with a damp brush produces a realistically worn finish.

Highly diluted acrylic paints are bushed over the surfaces to unify the finish and to produce a faded paint appearance.

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A variety of darker color Effects are applied to the engine to bring out the surface details and lay the foundations for grease and grime effect that follow.

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5 Engine Oil Effects are applied around fill caps and fittings. The glossy finish gives the appearance of more recent stains.

6 The trucks diesel engine installed onto the truck chassis. The grimy looking engine fits in nicely with the overall worn appearance of the trucks exterior.

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7, 8, 9, 10, 11 In real life stains are generally created over long periods of time – diesel mixing with the dust and dirt of the road. In a similar manner, the fuel stains on the trucks tanks are created by many subtle layers of Washes and Effects, which over time combine to create deep, rich stains.

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KRÖTE Lincoln Wright

Our biggest freedom with SF kits can also be a challenge, making them look real! Even with exotic designs such as this Ma.K Kröte walker, which we chose for all it’s exposed joints and hydraulics, engine and internals, we can ground them in our real world by applying some familiar and often seen effects such as grease, grime and oil and that’s what we will focus on in this article. It’s also fun to do!

1 Straight forward construction with all grab handles and tie downs replaced with brass and very heavy cast texture added with Tamiya Basic putty by finger tips. Fun!

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KOW W YOKOYAMA

Ma.k

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Base coat and primer applied via airbrush, Gaia Notes Ex-Black 02. Highly recommended, very strong and wonderful adhesion.

Base color applied with a large, flat brush - Field Grey 2 by Mr. Color.

Engine Area based with a large round brush using Mr. Color’s “Propeller Color” and Computer painted with Mr. Color’s RLM Black Grey. Some panelling with RLM Grey, also by Mr. Color.

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Winter Camouflage custom mix made by adding Gaia Notes ExWhite 01 to the base Field Grey and painted from the bottom up adding a little more white progressively and to taste.

A small selection of AK Interactive’s weathering goods are perfect for replicating oil and fuel stains, grease and grime as well as light rust and dust.

7 I decided to make one side much greasier, one side more grimy. Here I apply Engine Oil to represent grease in the knee joint.

8 8. Left side is a grimey hydraulic unit.

9 9. Dry, grimey and dirty knee hub.

10 10. The main hydraulic piston here looks good very well lubricated.

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This radiator area has a mix of Rust Streaks and Fuel Stains for an older yet still oozing spill.

Also with the engine, some drier grime and some wet, glossy oil effects for contrast.

Fuel Stains are perfect for a wider, thinner area of oily mess!

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Back to Engine Oil for the thick, rich stuff - layered over the top for depth and to look recent and fresh.

Dust Effects to age some areas of Grime.

Light Rust Wash is perfect for adding some highlight details and reality. Must have some rust on a Ma.K engine!!

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Ankle joints also benefit from some grease and oil.

As does this hinge for the heel, bringing life and motion to your machine.

Picking out one hinge can make a big improvement to the reality of your machine, contrasting others with rust, dust and grime.

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Fuel cap spills, first layer a nice, logical dropline area beneath to represent old spills. One or two layers is fine.

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Overlay the thicker Engine Oil for a recent spill, again for depth and realism!

I wanted to create the appearance of a motor that had seen years of use, and was quite past its, prime. One that had seen plenty of repairs, Marc Reusser gasket leaks, spilt oil, and accumulated grime. The kind that the owner would regularly have to tinker with to get, or keep, running; yet was still used on a daily basis.

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Color Modulation was used on the engine block to add some depth and contrast, for when the motor is placed in the engine bay.

Additional highlighting on the top of the engine block was done with Red artists oil paint. The black pieces were given a brush applied coat of thinned black artists oil paint, which when dry was buffed to a soft sheen, so as to create the feel of the plastic finish that these items have on a real vehicle.

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A mix of pigments was placed in areas on the block where heavier grime and dirt would accumulate. The pigments were then manipulated, and set, with a diluted wash mix of AK-Interactive “Pigment Fixer” and “Rain Marks for Nato Tanks”.

Small parts and components were weathered individually and with a variety of materials, before being attached to the engine block or placed in the engine bay. Doing the parts separately helps maintain some of the finish diversity/ variation on the finished model, that would be apparent on the real motor.

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Once all the engine components were assembled, everything was unified with a light dusting of varied pigments, and a thinned pin wash mix of AK-Interactive “Engine Grime” and Abt-502 “Engine Grease” oil paint.

The completed right side of the motor. Note how much the initial bright color of the engine block has toned down after all the weathering, yet has enough contrast, and creates a scale appearance.

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The completed Left side of the motor. Burnished metallic areas on small details such as the oil filler cap, and the dipstick handle, add some visual diversity and realism, especially if one is modeling a motor that is still in use.

8 Years of accumulated dirt, grease and oil deposits in the engine bay and on the frame were created by applying wetting the area with AK- , then sprinkling/placing a mix of black and brown pigments mixed with extremely finely sifted dirt, then applying a thinned mix of AK-Interactive “Engine Grime” and Abt-502 “Engine Grease” oil color over the area. This was layered, and repeated, till the desired effect was achieved. [Right side is before application of grease left side is after.]

ENGINES

OIL & FUEL REFERENCE

PHOTOS

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1 -2 -3 Leaking lubrication points on the wheel hubs create dark stains of grease mixing with dirt produce an interesting contrast of colors. 4 The effect of heat on the metal parts of these helicopter exhausts can be quite colorful. 5 Even a clean an engine on display at a museumdisplays the glossy sheen of leaking oil. 6 A perfect reference showing a fuel spill covered with a layer of dust. Notice how the fluids have washed over the hul and the rich variety of earthen colors as a result of the staining. 5

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6 7 A well maintained jet engine displays only limited areas of light fuel stains. However, the different reflective sheens and the variety of metallic colors are of interest.

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8 This vehicle provides us with many useful references. First notice that an exhaust pipe “in service” is a dark (not rusty) nearly black color as it is covered with soot and grime. Then, notice the staining of the paint below the exhaust outlet – a combination of the greasy smoke and dirt.

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14 11 & 13 Recent fuel spills present only slight discoloration and are nearly transparent. 12

A small oil leak on an aircraft can result in large, directional stains

due to the constant flow of wind over the surfaces.

14 Perhaps the only engine without a trace of oil, grease and dirt is this Maybach on display at the museum. 15 Examples of well-used engines that modelers often try to replicate. Notice the variety of stains, colors and texturesvisited on the different areas.

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16 An interesting contrast of the darker oil stain on these dirty tracks. Perhaps this is a good idea for an upcoming model? 17 Of course a fuel cell would certainly be a place to find stains. This example on an older vehicle demonstrates how the fuel has permanently discolored the paint. 17

18 - 22 Amazing pictures of real tanks with spilling oil and grease, Special thanks to J.J. Vicente from the Comunication Office in the “El Goloso” Military Base, RIAC 61, Madrid. SPAIN.

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POSTCARDS FROM THE WORLD

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POLAND POLSKA BYTOM MODEL SHOW

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Here ends time although she ’s iya Akats us. Now get will always be with CHICK ne r ready for ou w !! ue iss xt ne coming

IN THE NEXT ISSUE... by the Devil of Modelling I think that it’s about time that we take mud seriously – don’t you? Of course you do. This is why in the next issue of The Weathering Issue we are going to wrestle with the topic of mud. Settle down boys, the mud wrestling that we are going to cover has nothing to do with scantily clad women wrestling in a pool of mud, but rather we are going to take a look at mud in all of its guises; from playful splashes and spatters to the seriously thick gooey paste that can bring armies to a standstill. Before I go any further we must first dispel the notion that models are best presented with a clean finish - or worse yet - the idea that if a modeler does decide to add mud it must be to hide some mistake in construction.Really? Don’t get me started! Like you, I spend my life in the real world where dirt and water combine to make mud. And this mud gets everywhere; splashed onto my car, caked onto my shoes and tracked into my home.In The Mud Issue we will examine mud, it’s appearances and characteristics, and then describe through articles and photographs some of the techniques and materials that can be used to create mud effects on all types of models. So pull up your boots and get ready to enjoy all of the gooey, sloppy, sticky, filth that will be the Mud Issue.

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Enrique Royo

Chema Pellejero

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