by John Murphy CREDITS Publisher AK Interactive S.L. Fernando Vallejo Chief Editor John Murphy Original idea Art director Mig Jiménez Editorial manage...1182 downloads 2630 Views 66MB Size
CREDITS Publisher AK Interactive S.L. Fernando Vallejo Chief Editor John Murphy Original idea Art director Mig Jiménez
by John Murphy
irst of all I want say “welcome to our second issue of “The Weathering Magazine” and before you say it, no we haven’t picked Dust for our second issue, just because because it rhymed with the first issue Rust…Well I don’t think it was deliberate, or was it?. Realistic dust and dirt effects are a hugely important
Editorial management Carlos Cuesta Editorial Staff Rick Lawler Graphic and 3D design Enrique Royo Layout PER
part of the weathering process in many forms of modelling, as they help to convey the kind of conditions and environment that these machines are operated in. Dust and dirt get everywhere just take a look at how quickly the average car gets dirty even if it’s just sat on the driveway for a short while. Now when we compare this to military vehicles, construction machinery or even railway locomotives and rolling stock it is obvious just how much dust and dirt these items attract in their day-to-day use. I spent a long-time serving in the British, Royal Air Force and spent my fair share of time based in hot and dusty countries around the World and I’ve experienced first hand the effects of dust on all manner of vehicles, both military and civilian, this even includes aircraft that while they are on the ground still attract dust. Apart from modelling my other passion in life has been racing Motocross bikes, which are also great generators of dust and dirt, so suffice to say I have inadvertently spent a lot of time in the company of dust and somewhere in my subconscious it has been a form of weathering I have strived to perfect on my models, from the way it settles
Article assistant Iain Hamilton
on horizontal surfaces and how differently it adheres to matt or gloss finishes. The movement of a vehicle and its crew over it, all have an affect. Even water, fuel, oils and greases have an affect and help create distinctive effects and tones in dust that as modellers we can replicate in miniature, thanks to the amount of helpful pro-
Illustrations Claudio Fernández Editorial Assistant Chema Pellejero
ducts and techniques we have at our disposal nowadays. In this issue we will show how this dust and dirt in many varied forms can be applied to an equally varied range of modelling subjects, from aircraft to armour and railways to sci-fi and no, this doesn’t include a guide to replicating the other kind of dust. You know, the real kind that just loves to settle on our models when they are
Sales manager Jalal Benali Akatsiya Photographer José Irún
sitting on a shelf! You will see whilst working your way through this edition, the process for adding dust and dirt effects to a model is a lot more involved than just sprinkling on some pigments and spreading it around a little. We will in fact be using a wide range of materials and methods including oil, enamel and acrylic paints, pigments, washes and even real dirt to create the final results. Hopefully in this issue you will discover new finishes and techniques that will prove informative and even be the inspiration to try something new or even experiment with a combination of the methods we have showcased. I for one have found it fascinating whilst editing this
Akatsiya Leticia Crespo Collaborators César Oliva Martin Kovác Lincoln Wright Rubén González Chris Jerrett
issue, to see just how each of our contributors has used different products and completely different techniques to achieve their final and ultra realistic results on their models. As for the fact that Mig and the rest of the production team deciding that Akatsiya should be the pin-up for the Weathering Magazine rather than me has been very hurtful and has shattered my confidence, but thankfully the therapy is going well. I just wish I hadn’t bothered getting my bikini line waxed in preparation
October 2012 Depósito Legal: LR-203-2012
www.theweatheringmagazine.com [email protected] [email protected] Quarterly magazine
for the photo shoot!
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INDEX CHOPPER DUSTING A hyperrealistic work of a MH60 covered in dust by our chief editor John Murphy pag. 7
PANZER GREY AND DUST A classic for many modelers, a Tiger I in the Russian battlefront by Carlos Cuesta. pag. 12
SPACE DUST Our great friend from Japan, Lincoln Wright explains his techniques in one of his machines. pag. 18
MUCKING UP A MERKAVA The master of brushes, Mr Jerret explains us how to make amazing effects on pag. 30 his Merkava.
DUST BRINGS A TANKER TO LIFE This time, Cesar Oliva is our debut artist, applying dust in a figure in the desert. pag. 32
BR39 BEFORE AND AFTER Complete painting process of a steam engine wit simple techniques by Mig pag. 48 Jimenez
DUSTY GROUND The famous Rodrigo Hernandez, Panzer Aces & Euromodelismo editor will show us one of his specialties: pag. 54 Terrains.
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Dust generally isn’t a weathering technique associated with aircraft, but with so many of the recent conflicts taking place in hot and dry countries, such as Iraq and Afghanistan it is inevitable that all the military equipment deployed in these areas will get covered in dust, and that includes the aircraft! Having experienced these conditions first hand, I have been waiting for an opportunity to add these extreme dust effects to an aircraft of some kind and I felt a Special Forces helicopter would be the ideal canvas. So for this article I have chosen an Academy 1/48th MH-60L from the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) of the United States Army, known as the ‘Night Stalkers’. These were guys featured in the Black Hawk Down movie! In this article, we will be using acrylic paints and enamel washes to create a well used aircraft operating in very dusty conditions. The effect we are replicating here is where dust sticks to the matt paint finish and collects on areas that are frequently lubricated with oils and greases. This dust tends to collect mainly along panel lines and around raised details, such as rivets etc. THE WEATHERING MAGAZINE / DUST / 7
As we can see here the overall painting of the Blackhawk is just about complete. Final detail painting will be added after the dust effects have been finished.
The way we apply the dust is in a controlled manner using lots of masking tape. This is however a contradiction to real life, as dust settles everywhere and is far from controlled. If we do not control the build-up of these effects though, the whole model will just look messy.
Here we can see the first of the dust washes being airbrushed on to the tail elevator section. It is best to mask and work on just one section at a time.
Once we are sprayed the area with the washes and removed the masking tape, the next step is to wet the area with white spirit. Then using a large soft bristled brush we start to gently wipe off and blend the wash in the general direction of the airflow.
Black Hawks tend to collect a lot of dust along the tail boom. Here we have masked off the tail rotor-shaft housing to ensure the wash only settles on the horizontal surfaces.
As with the elevator section we now moisten the enamel wash with white spirit, but this time we use a selection of artist grade flat brushes to gently drag the wash down using vertical strokes. This can take a little practice, as too much white spirit and too much pressure will end up removing the wash.
7 Once the enamel dust washes have been completed to our satisfaction, the next step is to apply more dust, but this time using acrylics. We mix the chosen colours 50/50 to get a slightly darker tone. It is then heavily thinned and sprayed on as a translucent glaze and should not obliterate the underlying effects. The idea is to simulate the dust that has been stained and darkened by the many lubricants used during maintenance.
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Here we can see the results of the airbrushed and blended enamel washes and acrylic dust glaze. This may look extreme, but often helicopters operating in Iraq and Afghanistan look far worse than this.
10 9 The next step is to mask the areas from the windshield wiper arcs. Good quality masking tape such as the type Tamiya supply is essential. To get the correct shape of the wiper arcs a compass cutter is used to cut the masking tape.
Matt varnish is perfect for adding dust effects to a windshield. A very small amount of an appropriate dust colour is added, just to create a dust tone, but the majority of the effect is created due to the contrast between the gloss of the clear plastic and the flat finish of the varnish.
In this photo we can see just how subtle the dust application is on the windshield. It is best to be cautious here and do very light coats and gradually build up the effect, rather than be too heavy and become impossible to correct.
With the masking tape removed, as with the rest of the dust effects, it should be a subtle translucent glaze that does not obliterate the underlying finish
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TÍTULO TÍ T CHOPPER ÍT TU U LO LO A ARTÍCULO RT R DUSTING TÍC ÍCUL U LO
The next step is to add thin dusty watermarks using heavily thinned Matt Varnish and Light Mud. This will simulate where the washers and wipers have cleared the windshield during ‘brown-out’ landings on desert landing-sites.
Although not a dust technique, the final effect does play an important part in the overall finish and they are the hundreds of tiny grease and oil spots that have splattered onto the top of the fuselage from the rotor head following routine maintenance.
These watermarks were carried along the fuselage sides behind the pilot’s doorway.
This CH-47 Chinook is a perfect example of just how scruffy a modern battlefield helicopter can look. Not only is it ingrained with dust and dirt, but also the paintwork is patchy and it is covered in oil and grease spots from where the rotor-heads have been lubricateddoorway. This medical UH-60 is fairly clean but dust has collected on the cabin roof, along the tail boom and around the many rivets.
Here we have a couple more examples of the dust generated by both fixed-wing and rotarywinged aircraft landing on deserts.
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At first glance replicating dust on a tank can seem like an easy task to undertake, because we think real dust just deposits evenly over the entire vehicle. However, this is not true of vehicles in use. As we have to take into account that movement of the vehicle, weather conditions and the crew climbing on and off, which will all play their part in disturbing it.
Some of the most extreme conditions can be found in the vast expanses of Russia for example. Wartime photos taken of both German and Soviet armour during the WWII offer some superb reference as they show the extreme climatic conditions these armies fought in, from the Artic-like conditions of a Siberian winter, to the sea of bottomless mud during springtime and onto the choking dust of a baking hot summer on the Steppes. For this project we will be replicating a Tiger I of 502 Abteilung following a summer of fighting in the north of Russia where it has received layer upon layer of a fine powder-like dust. We will also show how to achieve that random effect, where much of this dust has been brushed and rubbed away. These effects will all help to convey the operational life of our tank and give it its personality.
1 For this article we will be using DML’s 1/35 Tiger I Initial Production, which has been pre-painted in Panzer Grey using the Colour Modulation Effect. The contrast of the modulation must be high to start with, as the successive weathering effects will tone this down considerably.
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Once we have added the basic weathering effects, such as colour washes, filters, chipping, rust and streaking effects, we can now start adding the dust! We first airbrush light layers of various AK-Interactive’s dust effects products. We try to make the patches translucent, irregular and concentrate on areas where it would accumulate in real life.
With the airbrush dusting complete, we can now stump and blend these patches with a large soft-bristled brush; This will start to create random and natural looking dust accumulation.
We now need to leave the model for a while to allow these enamel effects to dry completely, otherwise the following oil paint effects will soften the enamel washes, merging them all together to create one big mess!
5 The next step is to apply a dense filter using oil paints. Here we are using Winsor and Newton Vandyke Brown thinned with odorless thinner to a consistency between a filter and a wash. This filter will help to unify the previous effects and tones.
After leaving them for a few minutes, we can then stump and blend them to compliment the previous effects. This will increase the chromatic irregularity and add to the overall layering effect.
7 By using these techniques our model gradually starts to take on a dusty finish, but we are far from finished and still have plenty more to add.
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PANZER GREY AND DUST
We now apply dark earth and black pigments to the tops of the exhaust pipes. A single drop of white spirit is applied with a brush to naturally blend them together.
Once these pigments have dried fully, we can remove the excess pigment from the most exposed areas by scrubbing with a large brush.
Real pigments can now be added to the model. We add various tones to the horizontal surfaces and using a brush dampened with white spirit we wet, remove and dissolve all the pigments. The idea is to get these pigments to accumulate in all the nooks and crannies.
It’s important that we repeat this process as many times as necessary, accumulating layer upon layer. This is vital in creating a truly realistic build up of dust and dirt, as it would do on a real vehicle.
It is now time to add splashes and splatter effects to the running gear and to do this we first need to mix some plaster to the earth and dust effects products. This will thicken them, which will give them more volume. We apply this mix by loading it onto a paintbrush and then spraying air through the brush so that the mix splatters onto the model.
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With a brush dampened in white spirit we can now remove any excess splashes from the tracks and rubber tyre portions and help soften the overall effect. We can now repeat the splattering process, but this time removing the masking tape from the hull sides to allow the splashes to accumulate toward the rear portions of the hull, as it would do on the real Tiger. Once dry, these splashes will also be softened and blended.
Patiently and layer by layer our Tiger is starting to take on a realistic dusty appearance.
16 We can see in this photo how the layers are building up nicely. This effect could not be achieved by a single application of pigments or washes alone. THE WEATHERING MAGAZINE / DUST / 15
PANZER GREY AND DUST
Dry pigments are now applied with a brush and rubbed into areas and around details where the previous effects needed further enhancing. This also helps create a gradual transition between the previous effects.
Using a combination of a rubber brush and fingertip we remove the pigment from areas of the vehicle, that would be in constant use by the crew. We also do this to the edges of the hull and turret, which do not usually collect dust.
We use darker coloured pigments to create the effect of damp dust in some of the deeper recessed areas.
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To simulate exhaust soot, we apply small amounts of black pigment with a brush onto the exhaust outlets and surrounding areas.
A mixture of darker pigments, Wet Effects Fluid and white spirit are used to represent parts where the dust has absorbed liquids of some kind, such as oil, grease, fuel and water on various parts of the tank. It is important to use white spirit in the mixture to minimize the high-gloss finish of the Wet Effects Fluid.
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Sci-Fi subjects offer so much weathering potential, from pioneering films such as Star Wars to the more recent Avatar heavily weathered spaceships and robots have inspired so many modellers to practice these extreme effects on their own models. Lincoln Wright
Here we will show how dust and dirt is applied to a WAVE models 1/20th Panzer Kampf Anzug Ausf K-4 KETZER.
1 The plan with this is to keep it very simple and with a minimum of tools and fuss. Starting with AK’s Dust Effects we paint some of the magic potion straight from the freshly shaken bottle onto a detail we believe would catch dust.
2 Using the same brush, we quickly clean the brush in some odorless thinners and then move and shape the dust whilst wet to our liking. Easy!
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Moving onto more places begging for dust! This looks like a cool place to run a dust drip! We paint a little heavily here to gain some reserve for the pull down.
Another quick clean in thinners and we are ready to drag the dust. Remember, you cannot get this wrong! If you don’t like it, simply clean with thinners, add more Dust Effects and try again!
The shoulder armour is always a great spot to show off some weathering action because the AK Dust Effects dries slightly flat, which contrasts nicely with the satin base coat and other gloss effects we have in place.
Not only are physically obvious places good for dust, but also when you want to add contrast, detail and interest to certain areas. Here on the arm laser we have added dust to contrast with the red tones.
With a vertical stroke motion, we can add streaks to an area which otherwise doesn’t contain much detail. This is done using a rather quick motion to finely spread the paint.
Now the dust streaks contrast nicely with the spotted dust on the engine cover with the orange No. 8!
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9 The rear engine and exhaust cover on the Ketzer is a prime place for dust to settle. We have added some AK Africa Dust Effects to the “plain” Dust Effects to add a little warmth with the slight yellow tinge. We try to pick out 2 to 3 “weathering money shots”. The heavy looking edge around this cover is a prime example, along with the bolt heads and smaller cover. This bulge on the back is also interesting, so we will outline it with more dust.
One area that is often overlooked on Ma.K suits but is a prime area for weathering attention are the joints. Although they take a back seat compared with the colourful armour plates. We base coat with Mr. Color Black Grey, for a satin finish that will contrast nicely with the matt dust.
Being enamel based, these AK products offer plenty of time to work and re-work the effects and bring them under control and to our liking. Using 3/0 size brush and Odorless Thinners, we shape and move the dust until it looks like… Dust!
14 The bars protecting the armoured glass panels seem like a piece of equipment that would often be replaced, so these were painted a darker grey colour that also happens to show dust effects! Here on the upper face we generously applied Africa Dust effects, let dry, and then rubbed the outer edge with a finger, which creates an excellent effect! For the lower half of the suit we switch to more earthy colours such as Earth Effects and Kursk Earth. These are added by simply stippling them into the paintwork with a worn, splayed brush. After 2 or 3 layers, the legs take on a much more drier and earthy appearance. Next the brighter splashes, these can be thought of as highlights to the previous dark splashes. We re-use AK Earth Effects followed by Kursk Earth Effects. Be careful not to cover your earlier splashes too much, these just serve as highlights and focal points.
Splashes! Easily one of the most fun parts of the weathering process! Starting with darker colors first, we apply AK products, Dark Mud and Fresh mud in that order. Fresh Mud adds some nice, glossy spots that will add a great deal of realism to the model.
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A very important point that can be overlooked in weathering a Ma.K suit are the windows. We are after the effect of armoured glass being wiped down with a dirty battlefield rag or window squeegee. Rainmarks for NATO Tanks is applied with a splayed, worn brush and scrubbed around to give the exact effect we were after.
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We can use a wide range of products to obtain dust effects on our models. In this short and easy to follow guide we will see how good old Humbrol enamels can be used to create a simple, yet very effective dusty finish on a 1/48 scale T-34/85 turret. Don’t worry, if armour modelling is not your thing, as this simple and effective technique has its uses in many varied subjects and different scale’s of model.
Once the camouflage colours and markings have been applied. We apply coat of satin varnish, as this will offer the perfect surface to work on and will also protect the decals from the following weathering processes.
3 With a paintbrush moistened in white spirit we fade, soften and blend the vertical lines to create random streaks that will replicate dusty rain marks.
Airbrush on a diluted mix of Humbrol 72 and 93 in a 50/50 ratio. We must make sure we ap-
ply the paint into and around all the nooks and crannies. At this stage we also add some soft vertical lines to the sides of the turret.
4 Now we use the same moistened brush to remove and fade some of the Humbrol paint from the horizontal surfaces of the turret roof. The turret should now be left to dry for a couple of days before we apply a second coat using the same Humbrol mixture. For the very best results we repeat this process a couple of times to gradually build and layer the effect in a controlled manner.
5 Here we can see the effect once the white spirit has evaporated. We should try to concentrate the dust in areas where the crew would not frequently touch and where dust would naturally accumulate.
After fading and blending this second coat of Humbrol, we have the final result and it is clear to see how the second coat offers a superior appearance than that of just a single application.
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Modern Israeli tanks make great subjects for extreme weathering, as they are being frequently being used in operations and constantly being used for training and field exercises. These vehicles operate in a wide range of conditions, ranging from dust of the Negev desert to the mountainous and rocky terrain of the Golan Heights and even the city environments of Lebanon.
1 For the base colour of the Merkava we use a mix Tamiya XF-72 JGSDF Brown mixed with XF-60 Dark Yellow. Some modulation effects were added by mixing white into the base colour.
The dust and dirt process starts with the use of oil paints, which are applied to corners, recessed areas and panel lines. These oils are then dragged down and blended. Once dry they represent dirt that has stuck to lubricating oils and fuel spills.
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Various items are gathered for the dust, dirt and mud stage. Here we have Enamels, pigments, plaster and even real dirt. Some of these will be mixed and applied as a basic wash to create the initial dust layer.
The dirt and dust build up is continued with acrylic paints in various earth tones. The paints are mixed with 70% water. These mixes are sprayed onto areas that would accumulate the heaviest build-up of dust and dirt.
Once we have applied a basic wash of the red dust pigment mix, we can now add tonal variations and the all-important texture. This is achieved by mixing Humbrol enamel to the pigments to create a gritty wash.
The pigments and enamels from photo 6 are mixed into three separate viscosities. Dry chunks for horizontal surfaces, semi-dry mud for the vertical surfaces and thin slurry for the road wheels and lower hull.
To create mud with a greater texture we add artist’s acrylic Stucco to pigment and real dirt. The Stucco will help the mud stick to the vertical surfaces and give it volume.
First we mask off the side skirts prior to applying the slurry mud mix to the road wheels and tracks. Using a firm bristled brush, the mix is carefully flicked onto the wheels. Plaster and various coloured pigments can also be added to vary the overall texture and tone.
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MUCKING UP A MERKAVA
12 Lighter tones of mixed enamels and pigment are lightly flicked on the heavily textured areas to create contrasting damp and dried mud patches.
Here we can see on the completed lower hull, how these various tones and layers create a realistic 3-dimensional dirt effect.
Real dirt, plaster and pigments are laid on the tank and secured in place using Gravel and Sand Fixer from AK interactive. Even smaller particles of dirt and pigments straight form the bottle are added to the turret roof, especially around the Commander’s cupola.
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16 A syringe is used to apply various glossy enamels from AK Interactive; these represent everything from spilt fuel to wet mud. These gloss enamels are also flicked onto the lower hull with the stiff bristled brush.
To add yet more tones to the surfaces, dark enamels washes are dabbed onto the dry pigments using a fine tipped brush to create the effect of damp and wet mud.
A 60-ton tank moving over desert terrain generates a lot of dust. Just imagine how much dust is created when a whole unit is on the move! Of interest is the pink/orange colour of this dust.
Wet Effects fluid is applied with a fine brush. The aim is to create interesting effects, but they must remain realistic.
It is clear to see in this photo of a Merkava 2 that not all of Israel is a desert. Now this would make a great subject for our forthcoming issue on mud!
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Due to the nature of cobblestone roadways they make great subjects for painting and weathering on dioramas. Many companies make these roadway sections in both resin and plaster and this simple to follow technique will help bring out the detail and produce a pleasingly realistic finish. To demonstrate this technique we are using a section of resin roadway from Verlinden Productions, but this technique will work equally as well on plaster
2 1 Our first step is to prime the roadway using a tough and durable automotive acrylic grey primer. Once fully dry we airbrush the cobbles in a suitable dirty grey colour. For ours we have used a mix of Vallejo acrylics.
The weathering truly begins with a colour wash using either enamel or oil paints. In our case we have used Wash for DAK Vehicles, as this is a perfect dirty brown colour.
The pigments are loaded onto a large soft-bristled brush and are sprinkled onto the cobbles by repeatedly tapping the brush with a finger.
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The wash is applied and the secret with using the AK washes is to not shake the bottle and use the thick pigment from the bottom of the bottle. This will help with the overall texture of the finished effect.
The pigments are then left to soak in to the enamel wash. Repeated applications maybe required and remember to vary the colours for a random natural effect.
Once the paint has dried, we give the surface of the cobbles a buff with a soft cloth to add a satin sheen to the finish.
A combination of pigments is next to be applied. In this case a mixture of Plaster and Concrete will be used.
Once the enamel wash has dried a soft cloth or piece of kitchen roll is then rubbed over the surface of the cobbles. This will do three things, remove the excess pigment, blend the pigments and finally buff the raised cobbles for a lifelike sheen.
9 In this close-up we can see how the wash has brought out the texture in the cobbles and the pigments have created the perfect dust and dirt effect around them.
The finished road section.
It would be no good featuring all these articles on how to apply dust to all manner of vehicles and machines, without actually including a small feature on creating groundwork itself, after all this is where all the dust comes from!
In this small feature we will show how combining colour washed and dry-brushed oil paints with airbrushed acrylics produces very natural and realistic dusty looking groundwork, perfect for a desert diorama.
These are the basic materials we need to create a small scene. Modelling clay and an assortment of fine sand, pebbles, fibrous hairs and dried lichen is all that is needed.
The first step involves rolling out the modelling clay to produce a thin sheet we can lay over the wooden base.
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With the clay now pressed down and shaped on the base, we can now start adding tyre marks and footprints in the soft clay before it hardens. Some of the larger pebbles can now be fixed in place using a suitable PVA type adhesive.
The groundwork is now brushed with a thinneddown mix of PVA glue and water before sprinkling on the various grades of sand, gravel.
Once the glue has been allowed to dry fully, we now airbrush the groundwork in earth and dust shades. Here we are using Tamiya acrylic paints, as the dry to a perfectly flat finish.
We add a little visual interest by picking out certain rocks and stones painting them in slightly different tones of browns and greys.
A mix of Vallejo acrylic Light Flesh and Dark Sand are dry-brushed over the groundwork to help highlight the textures and unify the various tones.
Further dry-brushing and colour washes are completed using a range of very light coloured oil paints, such as Buff, Light Flesh and White. This step is very important. Just compare difference from the previous photo.
We finish off by adding other items and debris. These items should all help unify and compliment the overall scene. Remember to use muted tones in the colours and visually tie them in by adding dust washes or pigments.
Small tuffs of desert grasses can now be added. The fibrous hair is chopped up into short lengths and glued in place using PVA adhesive. Any visible glue marks can be hidden with pigments.
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When painting historical figures especially when they are placed on a vehicle or a diorama, it is important that the figure is tied into the story being told. Adding mud or dust to a figure’s uniform and boots is one way of doing this. Remember, if the vehicle has been weathered to depict its operating environment and is covered in dust or mud for example, then the crew figures will also be covered in the very same dust or mud to some extent. For our figure we will use two different methods: enamels washes for the trousers and acrylics paints for the jacket. Both methods are very different but the results are the same.
Small dots of various dust and earth coloured A K - Interactive’s enamels are applied to the legs. As we can see, darker tones are used for the shadow areas and lighter tones on the highlighted portions of the creases.
Here we can see our chosen figure has been completely finished prior to adding any dust effects.
The spots of enamel are left to dry for a few minutes before blending with a soft bristled artist’s brush moistened with Thinner for Washes.
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Blending the enamels will take a bit of time to do properly and care must be taken not to use too much thinner, as this will remove the enamels rather than blend them.
With the blending of the trousers completed we have now created a realistic a dusty effect. We now need to leave them to dry fully for a day or so.
8 To create the dust effects on the jacket we will now use a selection of good quality acrylic paints. It is important that these colours are heavily diluted to produce subtle washes.
Finally some random spots of dust and earth coloured acrylics are added to complete the dusty effects. These can simulate dirt, oil and dust ingrained sweat.
We first add dark earth tones to the shadow areas on the lower parts of the jacket. This is followed by adding progressively lighter tones to the highlights, It is important that we do not cover the original highlights of the uniform painting though.
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Tracks are one of the key features that define a tank, but because they are often tedious and repetitive to assemble, we forget just how important they are to the overall look of the vehicle. Not only are they a very noticeable part of a tank, but are also the portion in contact with the ground and it is their movement around the road wheels that generates all the dust or mud deposits on the vehicle. In this example we will demonstrate the techniques used to create the effects of a vehicle that has travelled over hard-packed earth and dusty roads.
With the tracks assembled, the first step is to airbrush them in a suitable dusty tone. We are using a mix of Tamiya colours. Some grey is added to reduce the brightness of the overall colour.
Before the wash is allowed to dry fully the excess is removed using a piece of absorbent paper towel.
AK-083 Track Wash is now applied using a large brush to give depth to the recessed portions of the links and also help highlight raised details.
Various coloured pigments are applied and when choosing these tones, it is important we keep in mind that they must match the rest of the vehicle and also the environment where we want to place our vehicle, such as the red dust of Vietnam or dark mud of Russia etc.
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Pigment Fixer is now washed over the tracks to secure the pigments in place and to help blend the various tones together.
Once the Pigment Fixer has dried fully, the next step is to apply Metallic Pigment to the raised portions of the links. This was done by dipping a finger into the graphite pigment and rubbing over the track’s surface.
Before adding any metallic effects to the inside of the tracks, we first place the tracks back onto the vehicle and observe which portions of the tracks make contact with the road wheels. This will ensure we only apply graphite to areas of wear.
Rubbing these portions with an artist’s a graphite stick now creates these highly polished contact areas where the tyres, idlers and sprockets make contact with the tracks.
Here we can see on this photo of the finished model the tracks tie in perfectly with the rest of the dust weathering. Note also how the polished parts of the inner track surface line-up perfectly with the tyres on the road wheels.
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Airbrushing paint onto a model to replicate dust has long been a standard and favourite technique used by many modellers. Airbrushing alone can produce some pretty realistic effects, but when combined with other mediums, such as oil paints or weathering pigments, it will offer a far more realistic final effect.
The first step is to mask off certain areas of the turret using Humbrol Maskol. This will prevent overspray and precisely control the areas our dust effect is to be airbrushed.
Maskol is then stippled around the loader’s hatch using a small piece of Scotchbrite. This will help to simulate areas of dust that have been worn away by the crew moving around the vehicle.
Lifecolor Wood Cold Base (UA 716) is airbrushed on. This colour has been thinned to 40% paint to 60% thinner. The aim is for the colour to be built up slowly and remain translucent.
With some of the masking tape and Maskol removed, we can see the dust effect has been confined to the flat central portion of the roof.
Some dust streaking is now added around the top edges of the turret, again using the Lifecolor Wood Cold Base in the airbrush.
We can now use an artist’s fibre pencil, which has been dampened in white spirit to gently rub the acrylic dust colour away from raised areas, such as this weld seam.
More dust is removed from the flat areas of the turret this time using a brush wetted with white spirit! Yes, white spirit will remove acrylic paint before it has had time to dry fully.
We can now add the oil paint dust effects and for this we use Abteilung 502 Light Mud, as this colour is a near perfect match for the Lifecolor wood colour.
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The turret is first wetted with white spirit before applying a thin wash of Abteilung Light Mud oil colour. We aim to apply this wash around details and along edges, such as the raised weld seam.
Here we can see in the final photo of the finished turret that the combination of the airbrushed acrylic paint dust and oil paint colour-wash dust offers a superbly realistic finish.
On this Tamiya Israeli Sherman, the tones of the dust have been made lighter to replicate the desert dust of the Middle East. The secret is to make sure that the acrylic paint shade and oil paint colour are matched as closely as possible.
The same technique has also been used on this modern Israeli Merkava MBT. This time the effects have been kept subtle.
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In our first issue we showed how to add realistic rust effects to this Porsche VK4502, which has been depicted sitting abandoned at the back of the factory following extensive trials and evaluation. Now we will demonstrate how to add dust and earth effects seen on the horizontal surfaces. Without even putting this vehicle into a diorama we can already see this vehicle tells a story. The chipped and rusting paint finish, the accumulation of dust and dirt all help to convey the feeling this vehicle has served its purpose and now lays forgotten. Whatever the vehicle or machine we choose to get dirty, the process is the same. It is simply a case of varying the colours of the pigments and earth and the amount of debris we add, such as leaves or grass depending on the final look or scene we are aiming to create. The first stage of adding our dust and dried earth to the VK4502 involves applying AK Interactive’s Light Dust liberally over the horizontal surfaces using a large flat brush.
With the chosen areas now covered in dry pigment, we can now fix them in place by wetting the pigment with Odorless Thinners.
With the model completely painted and all other weathering effects added weathered, it is now time to add the dust and dirt effects.
As can be seen here, the Thinners turn the pigment into a dark muddy mess. Do not worry, as the pigment will look completely different, once the thinners evaporate.
to me!!! Check Issue RUST for the first part of this article
With the thinners now dry, we can see the pigment has returned to its original colour and thanks to the ultra-fine pigment we are left with the perfect scale dust.
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A soft sponge make-up brush is now gently rubbed over the surfaces to remove the excess pigment.
7 With the excess removed from this single engine hatch, we can see that it leaves a subtle lifelike dusty finish. 8 To further enhance the basic dust finish we use a combination of earth from the garden, scale leaves, fibrous hair and some of AK Interactive’s Gravel and Sand Fixer. 9 The end of a pair of tweezers is used to crush some of the earth for a better scale effect. It is a personal preference as to how much and how fine this earth is crushed. 10 Once we are satisfied with the earth effect, we can now add leaves and fibrous hair to complete the look.
The Gravel and Sand Fixer is now dripped onto the surface of the model using a pipette and allowed to absorb naturally into all of the dirt mix.
The Fixer is now left to dry fully. Once it has dried, it will leave a satin finish on areas where it hasn’t been fully absorbed by the earth. This is easily rectified.
Some Matt varnish is misted over these areas to return the surface to a completely matt finish, as it would be no good having glossy dust!
The completed effect.
In this photo of an abandoned Soviet T-54 in Afghanistan it’s clear to see the accumulation of dust and dirt on the fenders. Careful inspection shows that a number of small rocks and stones litter these fenders.
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Dusting is a technique that can often cause modellers some difficulties. We often see models that are simply buried under a layer of pigment, trying to imitate a heavily dusted surface, This really isn’t the best way to replicate this effect properly. In reality we need to incorporate several techniques to prevent the model from looking bland and boring as if we had just tipped a tub of pigment all over the model and liberaly spread it around. There are several methods we can use for creating dust on our model and in this feature we will show four of them – dusting using filters, airbrushing with acrylics, enamel washes and finally pigments.
An initial layer of dust is created with AK Filter for NATO Tanks. This is the perfect tone for representing the kind of dirt that gets ingrained into the paintwork and is generally impossible to clean out. It is applied in large spots with a large soft brush and then blended with a flat brush and thinner. On vertical surfaces, we use it to create fine dirt streaking created mostly by water.
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After the filter has dried completely we mix Tamiya Deck Tan and Flat Earth to create a dusty base coat. This mixture is thinned heavily with Lacquer Thinner and airbrushed carefully on the surfaces with the focus on creating visible patches and streaks in logical places where real dust would naturally collect.
The tyres are first airbrushed in Tamiya Dark Grey and are then ‘chipped’ with a soft brush dampened in Tamiya X-20A thinner. This creates some worn effects and visual interest before applying the same dust mix as used on the rest of the vehicle.
The next stage involves toning down the dust effects and for this we use a combination of NATO Wash and OIF Wash. Extra thinners is added to the washes to ensure a very subtle effect that will prevent the dust effect from becoming too dark.
The most important part of dusting this model involves the use of AK enamel Rainmarks. This is airbrushed evenly over the model’s surfaces. Immediately after we start wiping it off using a selection of paint brushes. For the horizontal surfaces a large round brush is used to break the even finish and on vertical surfaces we use a flat brush moistened with AK Odorless Thinner and drag the brush gently down over the surfaces to make rainmarks. It is best to take your time and work on only one surface at a time.
7 With the running gear complete, we can add some additional dust effects using dry pigments. A small stiff-bristled brush is used to ‘scrub’ the pigments into the surface. This technique will also help blend and softening all the previous effects.
The heavily dusted surfaces now make a great base for the dried mud effects. We use AK a selection of pigments applied in thick layers, which are sealed with X-20A thinner. Applying the pigments this way creates a heavy build-up and also causes these cool looking and ultra-realistic cracks in the dried mud.
8 Pigments are also brushed into the areas that feature the anti-slip coating and with a finger we wipe the excess pigment away to emphasise textured surfaces and for hard to reach areas a cotton bud can be used.
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By using pigments to create the final dust effects we can take advantage of this when we come to add some Wet Effects, as the pigments will absorb some of this fluid to help create random and natural effects and turn the pigment darker as it would turn the dust darker in real life. This would be not possible with enamel-based dust effects, which would only go glossy, but not any darker.
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To create some darker stains and grease, AK’s Wet Mud makes the perfect choice. Thin this a little bit and and apply to a surface that has been dampened with thinners. This will create dark glossy stains where oils and greases have soaked into the dust.
We could easily fill this entire magazine with reference photos that capture the effects of dust on vehicles and the landscape, but unfortunately, we cannot do that, so we hope this small selection will help inspire and be useful in future projects.
1 0 Dust it gets everywhere!! 1 Armoured vehicles produce a massive amount of dust once they are moving. This beautifully resorted Churchill from the Tank Museum in England has soon gained a fine layer of dust from only traveling slowly around a display arena. 2 This Ford Focus World Rally Car traveling at speed demonstrates perfectly just how much dust is generated on a dry dirt track!
3 Dirt does not have to mean dust. On this railway oil tank wagon the dirt has gathered over a period of time. Note the scratches in the dirt caused by overhanging tree branches. 3
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4 Dried mud has accumulated on the rear of this Land Rover. Note how the fuel stains have changed the colour of the mud. 5 Here we can see how the dust has gathered around the bolt heads on the reactive armour blocks and made then stand out. Note also where the dirty water has trickled down over these blocks making an interesting effect. 6 A combination of dust and wet mud has created a great effect on this Centurion tank wheel. We will be covering how to create wet mud very soon. 7-8 In these close-ups we can see how the dust has gathered mainly around details. Of interest is how much dust has gathered around the inside of the driver’s hatch. 9 On this Modern U.S. Army Stryker it is interesting to see how water has started to wash the dust way below the bolt heads.
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DUST REFERENCE PHOTOS
10 A combination of rain and dust has created numerous dust coloured
13-14 Here we have two great examples of how muddy water can dry
rain marks below the turret bustle of this Sherman.
to create very different results on these wheels.
11 This Jeep offers a wealth of weathering reference. Of interest for this issue is how the mud and dust have accumulated on the tyres.
This has to be the perfect photo to illustrate the use of AK Interactive’s AK 074 Rain Marks For NATO Tanks!
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This Road Train graphically illustrates how much dust attaches itself to the truck and trailers as these massive trucks as they cross hundreds of kilometers of those famous red dirt roads of the Australian Outback.
COLOR PROFILES Claudio Fernández
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A steam locomotive offers so much potential for modellers who enjoy applying weathering effects. The effects of dust, dirt, oil grease and rust are present on these machines, making them the perfect modelling subject to have some fun with, but for fans of these electrically-powered model locomotives this can be a nightmare. The complex mechanical and delicate electrical components contained within them are easily damaged and don’t take kindly to paint and soluble liquids, such as paint thinners!. The general rule for painting these locomotives is to remove the bodywork from the chassis and paint the parts separately. This however may not always be easy or convenient to do and not everyone can, or wants to dismantle their beautiful new and often expensive locomotive to weather it. To avoid this problem, we are going to explain a simple and quick method to change a toy looking mass-produced model locomotive with the appearance of plastic into something individual that looks real and almost smells of burned coal and steam. With this technique we will also show how to achieve these realistic weathering effects without the need to disassemble any parts.
1 The Rivarossi BR39 is the perfect blank canvas demonstrating these techniques. The detail is very good and as it’s already painted, so all we can get straight on with the weathering.
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2 We are going to use a combination of alcohol and acrylic paints to produce the fading effects. The alcohol will not affect the original colour of the locomotive, because it is actually moulded in black plastic.
3 We begin by painting vertical stripes down the side of the tender using brown acrylic paint.
4 Next we do the same, but with a medium grey colour. Don’t worry if the acrylic dries quickly.
6 The alcohol will soften the acrylic paint, so and we can then begin to smudge and blend these stripes and blobs.
5 Now we dampen the surface with the alcohol.
7 The final appearance will at this stage be uneven. Let it dry and then repeat the process.
8 We now remoisten the side of the tender with more alcohol to blend the stains further.
Final appearance of the locomotive and tender after applying a few more colours to finish the fading effect.
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Br39 Before and After
11 We can now start work on the wheels and frame with a black acrylic paint.
12 First we paint irregularly shaped black blotches on to red areas using a fine brush.
11 We now leave the black to dry before retouching any areas that do require further attention.
13 Using a flat brush soaked in alcohol we soften the spots and distribute them into all the nooks, crannies and recessed details.
12 Don’t worry if you’ve got paint on the wheel contact areas, because this can be easily cleaned off later. These three Tamiya colours are diluted with Gaianotes lacquer thinner to add some dust and dirt effects onto selected horizontal areas and the sides of the boiler.
13 The locomotive now starts to take on a nice discolouration to the paintwork, as well as toningdown the bright red chassis.
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21 Using a brown enamel wash, we will create some streaking grime and rust staining.
23 Pigments are used to create irregular dust and dirt effects on the running boards. We apply various shades, such as grey and brown with a brush.
With a brush and white spirit we wet the surfaces on which the pigments have been applied. This will help the pigment flow and accumulate into the tread plate pattern on the running boards.
25 B He we can see the effect once the white spirit has dried.
26 Pigments are now applied to the tender sides, we use a combination of brown, rust and dark brown.
27 We repeat the previous process by soaking the area with white spirit.
29 Look at the same area after applying the white spirit and then cleaning off the excess with a small piece cotton cloth.
We can also apply pigments to the upper part of the locomotive’s boiler.
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Br39 Before and After
30,31,32,33 To make the coal in the tender, we first glue gravel and small stones over the top of the moulded plastic coal with Superglue. The stones are then painted in satin black before a final dry-brushing with an enamel silver colour. 34 After we have applied so many pigments, we need to reinstate the contrast in some areas by re-applying some black and dark grey using an airbrush. Paper masks help control the areas we airbrush. 35 Here we can see how this has recovered the original black and helps to integrate all the other effects. 36 To finish off, we add some wet fluid effects using a mix of satin varnish and dark brown enamel paint.
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Dust, it’s everywhere. It’s easy for us to associate dust with dry climates such as deserts but it necessary for us to understand that dust is a feature in every climate. As modelers it is important for us to observe how dust is part of our everyday landscape – on the ground, in the street, on building ledges and on our cars. These observations are important as we can translate our everyday observations to our models, whether the setting is in the Plains of France, the Steppes of Russia or a remote Pacific Island. In this case we have chosen Tunisia as our example. The landscape here is not purely desert sand, but we can also find different types of soil, rocks and vegetation. Upon choosing our setting it is important to gather photographic references of the region in order to make our representation as true to realism as possible. In Tunisia, for example, we can find “cuts” or “channels” produced by the wash of the sudden, heavy rains that can occur in 54 / THE WEATHERING MAGAZINE / DUST
this region. One can notice in certain areas where rocks are uncovered and left exposed because the erosion. Also observe the lush vegetation and shrubs that concentrate in these rain swept areas. Now, let us create a small diorama base that captures these Tunisian features.
Rodrigo Hernández Cabos
1 To begin we build height and volume by using. 5mm thick pieces of cork cut to shape and held together with white glue.
2 Surface details such as the “cuts” are outlined and scribed into the cork using a sharpened stick or handle of a brush.
3 Next, apply small pieces of modeling clay roughly 3-5 mm thick held in place using white glue. The surface of the clay is given some texture by using a piece of scrap cork as a stamp.
4 The small dry steams are partially filled by the addition of small gravel held in place by glue.
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6 5 As first step during paint process all surface is painted in an earth tone.
Using the previous range of colors we can create realistic ground colors and visual interest.
9 Finally, using a small brush the highlights are added to the scene using Vallejo White Stone.
In this close view it can be observe how darker colors were use in tracks and nooks, while with Vallejo 871 and 301 we clear the most exposed parts of the stones.
Further highlights are added to the exposed areas of stones using a mixture of Brown Earth and White Stone.
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The surface come alive as we begin the painting process. In this case we can achieve an arid landscape by using Vallejo Dark Sand (217), Dark Earth (218), Brown Earth (219), and White Stone (211) mixed with Sandy Paste (26.125).
Here we have a clear view of the work accomplished thus far using our paints.
Recessed areas and shadows are emphasized using washes of Vallejo 312.
13 It’s important that we collect a nice selection of materials that we can use for vegetation. In this example we are using a range of items from natural plants to synthetic fibers.
14 Now the scene really comes to life as we add the vegetation to the groundwork. Carefully place the selected plants in their locations, held in place by using white glue. If required, a little matte varnish can be applied to eliminate any glossy effects created by the glue.
15 As in real life, small shrubs and plants are placed alongside the road.
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POSTCARDS FROM THE WORLD
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Sergio Villén Mo Moro oro
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IN THE NEXT ISSUE... by the Devil of Modelling
There are three types of modellers.: (1) One who has seen too many wildlife documentaries and paints their chips as if they were ants gathering around the hatches and various details swarming around food, as if they are the only areas affected.
(2) This second type of modeller is the type who paints the chips as if they are clouds. Maybe these modellers spent an excessively sweet and tender childhood lying on their backs on warm summer days watching clouds float by spotting the ones that are shaped like animals. As a consequence, their chipping effects look like pretty little clouds all over a model and bare very little resemblance to real life, but they look nice. (3) Finally we have the modeller who actually studies real paint chips and scratches and puts real thought into why they are there, how they are created and products and colours used. We know that painting and creating chips is not easy, but if you want to be part of the latter group, do not miss in next issue of The Weathering Magazine, as this one focused exclusively on chips and scratches... the real ones that is!
g Those of you htowpin ! ! y r r o n’ o d , d u m e e to s J ust wait until