The Official SAT Study Guide 2nd Edition

UOllegeBOard The Official Second Edition Study Guide- College Board, NewYork This publication was written and edited by the College Board, with archiv...

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UOllegeBOard

The Official

Second Edition

Study Guide-

College Board, New York

This publication was written and edited by the College Board, with archival material from Educational Testing Service. Cover Design: Beth Olh·er. Assistant Director: Arthur Sprogis. Assessment Managers: James Daubs, Ed Hardin, Joel Harris. Senior Director, Mathematics: Robin O'Caliaghan. Senior Assessment Specialists: Elizabeth Daniel, Beth Hart, Colleen McDermott. Special thanks to Jim Gwyn, Senior Project Manager, and Suel\en Leavy, Book Compositor/Desktop Publisher. The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board is composed of more than 5,600 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in college readiness, college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SA'r, the PSAT/NMSQr and the Advanced Placement Program· (Ap·). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities and concerns. Copies of this book (item # 008525) are available from your bookseller or may be ordered from Colleg.e Board Publications, P.O. Box 869010, Plano, TX 75074-0998 (teL 800-323-7155). The price is $21.95 per copy. Purchase orders above $25 are accepted. Editorial inquiries concerning this book should be addressed to the College Board, 45 Columbus Avenue, New York, NY 10023-6992. Cl 2009 The College Board and Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, CLEP, College-Level Examination Program, CSS/Financial Aid PROFILE, SAT, Student Search Service and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. inspiring minds, MyRoad, SAT Preparation Center, SAT Readiness Program, SAT Subject Tests, Score Choice, Skills InSight, The Official SAT Online Course, The Official SAT Question of the Day and The Official SAT Study Guide are trademarks owned by the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Visit the College Board on the Web; www.collegeboard.com.

ISBN-13: 978-0-87447-852-5 ISBN- 10: 0-87447-852-9 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

15141312 II 1009

Distributed by Macmillan

Dear Student: Choosing a college is likely to be one of your first major decisions in life. At the College Board, our mission is to connect students to college success. Through our various programs and services, including the SAT-, we want to help you find the best college for you - and do well when you get there. It's important to remember, however, that SAT scores are only one of many factors that colleges use in admissions decisions. The best way to get ready for the SAT, and for college, is to take challenging courses, write as often as possible and read challenging books and art icles. In addition, the PSAT/NMSQr and the SAT Readiness Program" can help you famil iarize yourself with the SAT and guide you in areas where you may need improvement. As you do the important work of preparing for college, please continue to look to us as a resource. I encourage you to visit collegeboard.com where you can access College Search, the Web's most extensive database of colleges and universities. You will also find the latest information about the SAT and our other programs, including the Advanced Placement Program-, and valuable information about financial aid and scholarships. For more than 100 years, the College Board has been working to help high school students make a successful transition to higher education. The United States has the greatest higher education system in the world, and there is a good college for everyone who wants to attend. In pursuing a college education, you have a wonderful and exciting opportunity ahead of you.

Sincerely,

Gaston Caperton President, The College Board

CONTENTS

vii

Preface

PART I

Getting Started

1

Chapter 1

Introducing the SA~

3

Chapter 2

How to Do Your Best on the SAT

9

Chapter 3

About the PSATINMSQ"!'"

21

PART II

The Critical Reading Section

27

Chapter 4

About the Critical Reading Section

29

Chapter 5

Sentence Completion

31

Chapter 6

Passage-based Reading

49

Chapter 7

Practice for the Critical Reading Section

87

,

PART III

The Writing Section

97

Chapter 8

About the Writing Section

99

Chapter g.

The Essay

103

Chapter 10

Improving Sentences

137

Chapter 11

Identifying Sentence Errors

153

Chapter 12

Improving Paragraphs

169

Chapter 13

Practice for the Writing Section

189

PART IV

The Mathematics Section

215

Chapter 14

About the Mathematics Section

217

Chapter 15

Number and Operations Review

227

Algebra and Functions Review

243

Chapter 17

Geometry and Measurement Review

263

Chapter 18

Data Analysis, Statistics and Probability Review

291

Chapter 19

Multiple-Choice Questions

303

. Chapter 16

v

Contents

vi

Chapter 20

Student-Produced Response Questions

343

Chapter 21

Practice for the Mathematics Section

365

PART V

10 Official Practice Tests with Answer Keys

377

SAT Practice Test #1

379

SAT Practice Test #2

441

SAT Practice Test #3

503

SAT Practice Test #4

565

SAT Practice Test #5

627

SAT Practice Test #6

689

SAT Practice Test #7

751

SAT Practice Test #8

813

SAT Practice Test #9

875

SAT Practice Test #10

937

PREFACE

The best way to prepare for the SAr is to take challenging high school classes, read extensively and write as often as possible. For more immediate help, you should review the concepts covered and practice problems similar to those you will see on the SAT. This guide from the College Board - the test maker - is the only place you'll fin d questions written to the SAT test specifications and actual SAT tests. As you read through and practice with The Official SAT Study Guide'": Second Edition, you will gain confidence in your abilities and will be more prepared to succeed. This gUide provides you with: • opportunities to familiarize yourself with the format of the test • practice on the different question types • hundreds of practice questions • instructional help with the concepts covered • approaches to use for answering different types of questions • experience taking official practice tests, helping you learn how to pace yourself • numerous opportunities to sharpen your skills in writing effective essays • feedback that will help you focus on areas that may need improvement

Special Features

r

This book is filled with helpful suggestions. This icon appears next to the "Keep in Mind" boxes. which are located in the margins to remind you of approaches and other points that will help you prepare for the test. Plus, for every chapter that describes specific sections of the test, you'll find a "Recap" section for review. appears next to info rmation you can find online A computer icon at www.collegeboard.com/SATstudyguide. You can even enter your test answers online and receive personalized feedback for each of this guide's 10 full -length practice tests. This feedback makes it easy for you to focus on the areas you need to study further. As a book owner, you can review explanations to the questions in this gUide's 10 official practice tests. Subscribers to The Official SAT Online Course- have access to interactive instruction. additional sets of practice quest ions. practice essay

Q

vii

Preface

questions and six additional official practice tests, and have responses to essays in this book and in The Official SAT Online Course scored automatically.

How The Official SAT Study Edition Is Organized

Guide~:

Second

The first three chapters introduce the SAT and offer helpful approaches to test taking. Chapter 3 includes a comprehensive description of the Preliminary SAT/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQr). Chapters 4-21 address the SAT's critical reading, writ ing and mathematics sections. Each chapter has in-depth descript ions of the types of questions on the test and several approaches to answering them. The solutions to sample questions will help you better understand the concepts underlying similar problems on the test. As you work through this gUide. you'll become familiar with the instructions, questions and types of answers that are on the SAT. Some questions, such as the student-produced response questions in Chapter 20, have answers that must be given in specific formats. You'll find additional practice for each type of question in Chapter 7 (Critical Reading), Chapter 13 (Writing) and Chapter 21 (Mathematics). Chapters 15-18 detail the mathematics concepts and operations that will appear on the SAT. Chapter 9 includes an example of an essay topic with sample scored essays. You will also learn about holistic scoring and the SAT Scoring Guide. To help you prepare for the essay portion of the SAT, this guide includes essay questions like the ones you'll see on test day. To help you understand how the essays are scored, each essay question is accompanied by sample essays written by students. Corresponding essay samples are actual student responses to previously administered SAT Subject Tests in Writ ing, which are no longer given. Part V provides 10 official practice tests to help you become familiar with the test and practice under timed condit ions. You don't have to practice on all of them. You may wish to review questions on the practice tests that you fi nd particularly challenging. If you'd like more practice in critical reading, for example, you could foc us on that section of the test or the critical readingsample and practice questions. It's a good idea to take at least one official practice test, under timed conditions, to get an idea of the concentration and pacing needed to complete the test. There are two types of practice tests in this gUide. The first three practice tests are recently administered SAT tests from 2006 and 2007. As for the other official practice tests, the vast majority of questions have appeared in SAT tests before March 2005. All of the questions in this book are written by ou r test development experts and comply with the College Board 's SAT specifications.

viii

Preface

,

We're Here to Help The College Board hopes that you find this guide helpful and easy to use; please visit www.collegeboard.com for the most up-to-date information on the SAT. We wish you well as you work through the admissions process.

ix

PART I

Getting Started

1

CHAPTER 1

Introducing the SAT®

About the SAT' Are you thinking about going to college? If you are, there's probably an SAr in your future. Taking the SAT is the first step in find ing the right college for you - one where you'll best succeed in d iscovering the tools necessary to pursue your passions. The SAT helps colleges get to know you better by giving them insight into how you thin k, solve problems and communicate. The SAT measures what you've learned in the classroom - basic skills such as reading, writing and mathematics - and how well you apply that knowledge. Your SAT score is just one of ma ny factors that colleges look at when they consider your application. They also look at your academic record, you r involvement in school

activities, your application essay and your letters of recommendation. The SAT is taken by more than two million students every year at thousands of testing centers (usually high schools) around the world. Many high school students take the SAT twice - once in the spring of their junior year and again in the fall of their senior year.

Who Is Responsible for the SAT? The SAT is a program of the College Board, a not-for-profit membership association to which more than 5,600 schools, colleges and universities belong. The College Board, whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportun ity, was founded more than 100 years ago. Every yea r, the College Boa rd serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in college ad missions, gu idance, assessment, fi nancial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known progra ms are the SAT, the Advanced Placement Program- (AP-) and the PSAT/NMSQT·.

3

GETTING STARTED

How Is the SAT Developed? The SAT Test Development Committees, made up of college professors and high school teachers who are experts in their fie lds, oversee all aspects of test development to ensure that the SAT is carefully designed to be a fair test for all students. All questions undergo a very thorough review process. In fact, each question is pretested before it is placed on the scored sections of the test. The goal is to make the questions dear, appropriately chal lenging and fair for all students regardless of gender or ethnicity. How do the SAT Test Development Committees know which skills should be measured? They do their homework! The College Board meets with college faculty. high school teachers and experts in different subjects from across the country and surveys educators about their reading, writi ng and mathematics curricula. The College Board also reviews research on what skills are necessary for success in college. The skills measured by the SAT align with the subjects that you're learn ing in your high school classroom. The SAT has evolved over time to keep up to date with current teaching practices and college and high school curricula. For example, in 1994, a new SAT mathematics section was introduced that allowed students to use calculators for the first time. Since writing is critical to succeeding in college. the College Board added a writ ing section to the SAT in 2005.

How Is the Test Organized? The SAT features eight types of questions in sections on critical reading, writing and mathematics. Table 1.1 provides an overview of each section. The table also shows the type of questions, the total number of questions in each section and the time allotted for each section. You have 3 hours and 45 minutes to complete the SAT. The SAT also includes a variable section in critical reading, writing multiple choice or mathematics for which 25 minutes is allotted. The variable section is used to help make sure that your scores are comparable to scores on other editions of the SAT. This variable sect ion will not count toward your final score. Still, because you won't know which section is the variable. you need to do your best on the entire test. Remember, the official practice tests in this book do not include the variable section.

4



Introducing the SAT

Table 1. 1 Number and Type of Questions with Time Allotted for Each Section of the SAT Sections o f the SAT Critic al Reading

Wri ting

Type o f Questio ns Sentence completion

'9

Passage-based reading

48

Total critical reading questions

67

Identifying sentence errors

'8

Improving sentences

25

Improving paragraphs

6

Essay writing

Multiple choice Student- p~oduced

Time All o tted

70 minutes (two 25-minute sections and one 20-minute section)

1 essay

Total writing questions

M athem atics

N o. o f Questions

49+ Essay

60 minutes (one 25-minute essay, one 25-minute multiple-choice section and one 10-minute multiple-choice section)

44 response

(grid-ins)

'0

Total mathematics questions

54

70 minutes (two 25-minute sections and one 20-minute section)

How Is the SAT Scored? Here's how SAT scores are calculated. 1.

Multiple -choice questions: You receive one point for each question answered correctly. For each question that you attempt but answer incorrectly, 1;' point is subtracted from the total number of correct answers. No points are added or subtracted for unanswered questions. If the fi nal score includes a fraction, the score is rounded to the nearest whole number.

2. Student-produced response questions in the mathematics section: Nothing is subtracted for wrong answers. 3.

The essay will receive a score of 2 to 12. However, a blank essay. essays that are not written on topic, essays written in pen or essays deemed illegible after several attempts have been made to read them will receive a score of o.

Q

Essay Practice

To practice the essay, check out The Official SAT Online Course™ at www.collegeboard. com/satonlinecourse.

A stat istical process called equating scales your scores from 200 (lowest) to 800 (highest). Scores are equated to adjust for minor differences between test forms. Equati ng assures you and colleges that a score of 500 on the mathematics section of one form of the test indicates the same abi lity level as 500 on the mathematics section of another form of the test.

5

GETTING STARTED

Score Range No test can ever measure your skills precisely. but the SAT can provide good estimates. Students who take the SAT many times within a short period of time usually find that thei r scores tend to vary - but not too far above or below their true capabilit ies. The score range is an estimate of how your scores m ight vary if you were tested many times.

Percentiles In addition to the scaled scores 0(200 to 800 on each oflhe three sections oflhe test, you also will receive corresponding SAT percentile scores. The percentile score compares your scores to the scores of other students who took the test. The comparison is given as a number between I and 99 signifying what percentage of students earned a score lower than yOUfS. For example, suppose your percentile is 53. That means you performed better than 53 out of every 100 test-takers in the comparison group. Your percentile changes depending on the group with which you are being compared. The national percentile is based on all recently graduated college-bound seniors from across the nation who took the test. The state percentile is based on all recently graduated college-bound seniors from your state who took the test.

Additional Services The following services are available to you when you register for the SAT or when you receive your scores.

SAT Online Tools: SAT in Focus The College Board has developed two new free online tools for students - SAT· Skills I nsjght~ and My SAT Online Score Report. Both a re designed to help you understand your skills, improve your SAT scores and connect to future academic success. Used together, these tools can help you get the most out of your scores and explore the academic skills you need to do better in the classroom, on the test and in college. You can learn more about these tools at www.collegeboard.com.

SAT" Skills

Insight~

SAT Skills InSight is a free online tool that shows you the skills you know and highlights those you need to know better, includ ing: • Skills tested on the SAT • Skills typical of students who score within a particular score band

6

Introducing the SAT

• Suggestions for how to sharpen those skills • Real SAT questions and answers You can use your real SAT scores and your practice test scores when using SAT Skills Insight.

My SAT Online Score Report My SAT Online Score Report is a free online tool that gives you the meaning behind your numbers and insight into your strengths and weaknesses. It offers: • Details of performance by question type and difficulty level • National, state and high school percentiles • Your essay question and scanned response • The ability to search for career and major possibilities

Score Choice™; A New Score-Reporting Feature The College Board has introduced Score Choice~, a new feature that gives you the option to choose the SAT scores you send to colleges by test date - in accordance with a college or university's score-use practice. Designed to reduce your stress and improve the test-day experience, Score Choice gives you an opportunity to show colleges the scores you feel best represent your abilities. Score Choice is optional, so if you don't actively choose to use it, all of your scores will be sent automatically. Since most colleges only consider your best scores, you should still feel comfortable reporting scores from all of your test dates. Each college. university and scholarship program has different score-use practices. Our new, easy-to-use score-reporting process displays score-use practices for each participating institution, but you should also check with colleges to ensure that you are following their score-reporting requirements. E-mail reminders will be sent to you if you have not sent SAT scores to any colleges by the typical deadlines. Remember: • Scores from an entire SAT test (critical reading. writing and mathematics sections) will be sent - scores of individual sections from different test dates cannot be selected independently.

,

• You can send any or all scores to a college on a Single report - it will not cost more to send one, multiple or all test scores. • You receive four free score reports with your registration. We continue to recommend that you take fuU advantage of these reports. • Score Choice is available via the Web or by calling Customer Service (toll free within the United States). 7

GETTING STARTED

Questiori-and-Answer Service (OAS) The Question-aod-Answer Service (QAS) provides a report that lists the question number, the correct answer, the answer you gave, the type of question and the difficulty level of that question. You will also receive the actual questions from the edition of the SAT you took. QAS is offered for specific testing dates only (usually October. January and May). For the testing dates for which the Question-andAnswer Service is available. please visit www.collegeboard.com. You can order QAS when you register for the SAT. or when you complete the order form sent with you r

score report. QAS can be ordered up to five months after the test dale.

Student Answer Service (SAS) The Student Answer Service (SAS) provides a report that lists the question number. the difficulty of each SAT question and whether you answered it correctly. incorrectly or did not answer. Also included are the question or content types for each test section. Actual test questions are not included. SAS is available for all test dates for which QAS is not available. SAS can be ordered when you register for the SAT. or when you complete the order form sent with your score report. SAS can be ordered up to five months after the test date.

Student Search ServiceThe Student Search Service- helps colleges find prospective students. If you take the PSAT/NMSQT, the SAT or any AP Exam, you can be included in this free service. Here's how it works: During SAT registration, indicate that you want to be part of the Student Search. Your name is put in a database along with other information such as your address. high school grade point average. date of birth, grade level, high school, e-mail address, intended college major and extracurricular activities. Colleges and scholarsh ip programs then use the Student Search to help them locate and recruit students with characteristics that might be a good match with their schools. Here are some points to keep in mind about the Student Search Service: • Being part of Student Search is voluntary. You may take the test even if you don't join Student Search. • Colleges participating in the Search do not receive your exam scores. Colleges can ask for the names of students within certain score ranges, but your exact score is not reported. • Being contacted by a college doesn't mean you have been admitted. You can be admitted only after you apply. The Student Search Service is simply a way for colleges to reach prospective students. • Student Search Service will share your contact information only with approved colleges and scholarship program s that are recruiting students like you. Your name will never be sold to a private company or mail ing list.

8

CHAPTER 2

How to Do Your Best on the SAT

This chapter offers suggestions for how to get ready for the SAT, how to pace yourself while taking the test, how to approach each type of question and how to feel more confident on test day.

There's No Substitute for Studying Preparing for t he SAT is like studying for any exam. You'll feel a lot more confident if you review the test's format and become familiar with its content. You've actually been preparing for the SAT all of your academic life. The best way to get ready fo r the SAT is to work hard in school, take challenging courses, and read and write as much as you can.

• Learning to read effectively gives you the ability to figure out what the author means as well as what the author says.

• Improving your vocabulary gives you tools to fig ure out new words from the context in wh ich they are used.

• Developing your problem-solving abilities helps you figure out what to do and how to do it and helps you deal with challenging problems even when you think you're stumped.

• Strengthening your writing helps you develop and express your ideas clea rly and convi ncingly.

How to Get Ready for the SAT Practice may not make perfect, but it defi nitely helps. 'That's why taking the PSAT/NMSQT (Prelimi nary SAT/Nat ional Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test) is one of the best ways to get familiar with the SAT. It includes questions like those

9

GETTING STARTED

on the SAT - covering critical reading, writing and mathematics - but at a level appropriate for juniors in high school. At 2 hours and 10 minutes, the PSAT/NMSQT is shorter than the SAT, which lasts 3 hours and 45 minutes. After taking the PSAT/ NMSQT, you will receive a comprehensive score report that reviews all the questions and answers, including your answers, and provides feedback on your skills. The skills section identifies skills that need improvement and provides teacher suggestions on how to improve. You'll also receive your test back so that you can revisit test questions to help improve problem areas. If you take the test as a junior, you can qualify to enter competitions for scholarships sponsored by National Merit Scholarship Corporation and other scholarship programs. For more information about the PSAT/NMSQT, see Chapter 3.

Online Resources The College Board offers a wide range of free and low-cost online tools to help you get ready for test day. Available at collegeboard.com, the leading Web site for SAT and college-planning information, these resources can help you get familiar with and practice for the SAT. THE OFFICIAL SAT QUESTION OF THE DAY ""

Practice a different question each day with the College Board's popular SAT Question of the Day. Visit our Web site or sign up to receive daily test questions via e-mail. THE OFFICIAL SAT PRACTICE TEST

Print or enter your answers online as you take an official SAT practice test. See how you score and get detailed answer explanations to help you better understand where you need to improve. THE OFFICIAL SAT ONLINE COURSe-""

The most comprehensive online tool to help you get ready for the SAT, The Offidal SAT Online Course'" features 18 interactive lessons, official practice questions and tests, sample essays, automated essay scoring, personalized score The OttJclaJ reports and more. ~AT OnHne Coul'Be™ By using The Official SAT Study Guide'"; Second Edition, and The This book entitles you to a Offidal SAT Online Course together, you'll benefit from the best of discount on The OHicial SAT both formats - print and Internet. As a book buyer, you're entitled Online Course. To learn more, to a $10 discount for The Offidal SAT Online Course. To receive the visit www.collegeboard.com/ satonHnecourse. d iscount, you will need to visit www.collegeboard.com/satonlinecourse and answer questions about your book. You may already have access to The Official SAT Online Course through your school. To learn whether your school subscribes, ask a teacher or a counselor.

CJ

10

CHAPTER 2

How to Do Your Best on the SAT

This chapter offers suggestions for how to get ready for the SAT, how to pace yourself

while taking the test, how to approach each type of question and how to feel more confident on test day.

There's No Substitute for Studying Preparing for the SAT is like studying for any exam. You'll feel a lot more confident if you review the test's format and become familiar with its content. You've actually

been preparing for the SAT aU of your academic life. The best way to get ready for the SAT is to work hard in school, take challenging courses, and read and write as much as you can.

• Learning to read effectively gives you the ability to figure out what the author means as well as wh at t he author says.

• Improving your vocabulary gives you tools to figure out new words from the context in which they are used.

• Developing your problem-solving abilities helps you figure out what to do and how to do it and helps you deal with challenging problems even when you think you're stumped. • Strengthening your writing helps you develop and express your ideas clearly and convincingly.

How to Get Ready fOT the SAT Practice may not make perfect, but it definitely helps. That's why taking the PSAT/NMSQT (Preliminary SAT/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test) is one of the best ways to get familiar with the SAT. It includes questions like those

9

How t o Do Your Best on the SAT

SAT SKILLS INSIGHT

As mentioned previously, this free online tool can help you understand what's tested on the test and what skills you need to do well and to achieve your desired score. You'll see that the skills on the test are the same skills you've been learning in the classroom! MVSAT

Online registration is easy to use and always available. Most students register for the test online. You choose your test date and test center, provide credit card in forma· tion and get immediate registration confirmation. After the test, visit My SAT to receive your scores, view your score history and see where you sent your scores. You can also view a copy of you r essay. BOOK OWNERS' AREA

Available exclusively to owners of this book, the online book owners' area pro· yides vaJllabJe feedback and can be use-d as a SJudy Jool in ne¥>ing you identify where you need to focus your efforts. After you've taken an official practice test in this book, you can enter you answers online. We'll provide a practice score report and answer explanations for each practice test. For more information, go to www.collegeboard.com/SATstudygu ide.

Col/ege PIBnning The College Board Web site (www.collegeboard.com) provides all of the information and tools you need to prepare for your move from high school to college. You'll find complete and up -to-date information on College Board tests, including the SAT, SAT Subject Tests"', CLEp· , AP and PSAT/NMSQT, as well as va luable resources for college planning. Among the most popular online college-plann ing features are:

• My Organizer. This tool shows a personalized to·do list for important college planning activities. It will help you remember test and application deadlines and build and update college lists.

• College Search. Look for a college by name or by criteria such as

~epinMind

Regist er early for the test so you have the best chance of getting the test center nearest to your home.

size or location. For all colleges that match you r search, we'll give you a College Profi le - a detailed record provid ing information on everyt hing from majors to financial aid. Save colleges to your personalized list, or search for similar ones with the LikeFinder tooL

• Pay for College. This section features articles about paying and borrowing for college, as well as College Financing Calculators to help evaluate alternatives. Here, you'll also find the Scholarship Search tool for funding options, and an application for CSS/Financiai Aid PROFILE·, which you can complete online.

11

GETTING STARTED

Before the Test Know what to expect from the test: the types of questions, the number of questions and their order on the test. Understand the directions for all eight types of quest ions. Take time to carefully read the directions for the questions. That way, you won't have to spend extra time studying the directions on the day you take the SAT. If you understand the instructions, you'll feel more confident and be less likely to make careless errors.

Arrive at the test center by 7:45 a.m ., unless your admission ticket specifies a different time. Remember to take the following items: • your admission ticket • an acceptable photo ID (see Table 2.1) • several No.2 (soft lead) pencils and soft erasers

• an acceptable calculator (see Chapter 14 for details on which types are acceptable) • a watch (wit hout an audible alarm), so you can keep track of your time • a snack that can be easily stowed under desks or chairs in the test room and can be consumed outside the test room during breaks Table 2.1 Acceptable Photo IDs

12



driver's license {with your photo}



school identification card



valid passport



student ID form that has been prepared by your school on school stationery and includes a recognizable photo and the school seal, which overl aps the photo

, How to Do Your Best on the SAT

Table 2.2 Checklist: What to Take to the SAT I Need

I Heve

appropriate photo 10 admission ticket several No.2 pencils and soft erasers

calculator with fresh batteries watch snack I know the way to the test center and have instructions for finding the entrance on Saturday or Sunday. I am leaving at _ _ a.m.This will give me plenty of time in case I run into delays. My alann is set.

"'Be On Time or You Can't Take the Test.· ..

Start your mental preparation the day before the test. • Get a good night 's sleep. • Have everything that you need for the test ready the night before. • Review Table 2.2 to make su re you have everything you'll need the next day.

~epinMlnd Make sure you use a No. 2 pencil. It is very important

that you fill in the entire circle on the answer sheet darkly and completely. If you change your response, erase it as completely as possible.

13

GETTING STARTED

During the Test Read and think carefully. Consider all the choices in each question. Don't lose points on easy questions through careless mistakes.

Use your test booklet. Your answer sheet must be kept neat and free of stray marks, but you can mark up your test booklet. You can write whatever you want, wherever you want, in the sect ion of the booklet you're working on. You will not receive credit for anything written in the booklet. though. Here are some pointers for using you r test booklet. Time and Hassle Savers Mark skipped questions in your test booklet. Cross out choices to eliminate 8S you move through the test. When skipping questions, be sure you leave the right cin:les on the answer sheet blank (to avoid mar1l:ing answers to the wrong question!!).

• Mark each question that you don't answer so that you ca n easily find it aga in. • Draw a line through each choice as you eliminate it when you work on a question. • Mark sections. sentences or word s in reading passages. • In mathemat ics, make drawings to help you figure oul word problems. Mark key information on graphs. Add information to drawings and

diagrams as you v{()rk on them. Check your answer sheet regularly to make sure you are ;11 the rigllt place. losing your place on the answer sheet will affect your test results. Check the number of the question and the number on the answer sheet every few questions. Thi s is especially important when you skip a question .

Pacing and Timing . Each question on the test takes a certai n amount of time to read and answer. That 's where pacing comes in. If you had un lim ited time, or very few questions to a nswer, pacing might not be important. But the test ends in 3 h.o urs and 45 minutes whether or not you finished answering every question. So you have to keep moving through the test. Remember that you are allotted a certa in amount of time for each section and are not allowed to move on to the next sect ion if you fin ish early. Skilled test-takers develop a sense of tim ing. They spend time on the questions they are most likely to answer correctly and leave some time for review.

Easy Does It Work at an even. steady pace. but keep moving. Don't spend so much time working through hard questions that you lose time to find and answer the easier ones. Work on less time-consuming questions before moving on to those that demand more time. Save time by marking questions as you work on them and crossing out choices you can eliminate as you move through the test.

14

r How to Do Your Best on the SAT

Most questions within a section range from easy to hard. Within a group of questions, such as Identifying Sentence Errors. the easier ones come first and the questions become more difficult as you move along. If you find that one kind of question is too difficult, qUickly read through the rest of the questions in that group. There might be others you can answer. Then go on to the nex t group of questions in that section. The questions in the passage-based reading and improving paragraph sets don't range from easy to hard. An easier passage-based reading question might follow a harder one. (See Chapters 4 through 6 for details on the critica l reading section of the SAT.) Keep track of time during the test. The SAT includes 10 sections for which you have a tota l of3 hours and 45 minutes to complete. First check to see how much time you have to complete each section. Then, while practicing for a nd taking the test, develop a habit of occasionally checking you r progress through the test. That way you know when you a re one-fou rth of the way through the time allotted for a section, when you are halfway through and when you have five minutes left. If you fin ish a section before time is called, use the remaining time to check your answers. Know which questions are best for you. After practicing the different kinds of questions on the tests in this book, you will probably know which you feel most comfortable with. Some types of questions may take you longer than others. You might want to begin with that type of question rather than at the beginning of the section. But you'll have to be careful. Be sure to ma rk in your test booklet what you skipped so that you can return to it.

Getting Started Skip questions. All questions are worth the same number of points regardless of the type or difficulty. So if you can't answer a question without spending a long time figur ing it out, go on to the next one. If you aren't sure about how to answer a question, or you don't know where to begin , stop working on that question. You may have time to come back to it. Remember to mark the question in your test booklet so that you can find it later. Answer the easy ones first. Once you know where the easy and hard quest ions are, answer the easy questions before tackling the more time-consuming questions. All questions are worth the same number of points.

Making an Educated Guess When you're not sure of an a nswer, try making an educated guess. This may be helpful for the multiple-choice questions and for the mathematics questions for which you come up with your own answer.

Multiple-choice questions. When you are not sure of an answer to a multiplechoice question, eliminate all the choices that you know are wrong and make an

15

GETTING STARTED

educated guess from the remaining ones. The more choices you can eliminate, the better your chance of choosing the right answer and earning one point. To correct for random guessing, J.A point is subtracted for each incorrect answer. Because of this, random guessing probably won't improve your score. In fact. it could lower you r score. If you can't eliminate any choice, move on. You can return to the question later if there is time.

Student-produced respoIJse questions. For the mathematics questions that are not multiple choice. fill in your best educated guess. You lose no points for incorrect answers to these problems. If you have no idea how to approach a problem, move on. Again, you can return to it later if there is time.

How to MBke Bn EducBted Guess Here are some SAT questions that show how to make an educated guess. EDUCATED GUESSING EXAMPLES

1. Sentence Completion He was ------- businessman, but in his personal life he was kind, thoughtful, and -------. (A) (8) (C) (D) (E)

a competent .. self-centered an avaricious .. menacing a scrupulous .. tactful a ruthless .. magnanimous an amiable .. compassionate

What to do Start with the second blank in the sentence: He was ------- businessman, but in his personal life he was kind, thoughtful. and The word must be positive because it is in a series with the words kind and thoughtful. The second words in (A) and (B) - self-centered and menacing - are both negative. so you can eliminate those two choices. That leaves (C). (D) or (E) as possible correct answers, giving you one chance in three of getting it right. Make an educated guess. Even though you may get this particular question wrong, it is to your advantage to make an educated guess if you can eliminate one or more of the answer choices as definitely wrong. The correct answer is (0).

16

How to Do Your Best on the SAT

2. Mathematics/Mu ltiple Choice

~

_

P

.

Q

In the figure above, PQ is a straight line. Which of the following must be true about x andy? (A) x+y-180 (B) 90+x-180-y (el 90+x-y (D) 2x -y (El 2y - x

What to do Which of the answer choices can you eliminate by estimation? • Clearly, the answer cannot be choice (A) because both 90°. Cross off choice (A).

XO

and y" are less than

• Choice (B) looks possible, but what about (C)? • It's pretty obvious that (C) is not the answer because 90 + x is greater than y. Cross off choice (C). • Choice (D) looks possible, so don't cross it off. • But choice (E) is not possible, so cross it off. Now you're left with on ly two possible answers, (8) and (D). If you were simply guessing, you are now faced with only two choices. If you notice that XO + yO must equal 90° and examine choice (8), you will see t hat 90 + x = 180 - Y simplifies to x + Y = 90. The correct answer is choice (8).

3. Identifying Sentellce Errors Carefully designed programs of healthy diet and regular exercise has prOvided growing A B teenagers nOI only healthier lungs and hearts, but also improved skin, teeth, and hair. C 0 NQ error E

What to do Read the sentence through entirely to see if the error is clear to you immediately. If it is not, consider the most common errors people make in writing sentences: grammar, usage, diction and idiom. Choice (A) is an adverb (ending in -Iy) and it does

17

GETTING STARTED

indeed modify the adjective designed, so that potential error is eliminated. Likewise. the adjective improved in choice (D) correctly describes the nouns "skin, teeth, and ha ir." You can cross (0) off. You are now left with choices (B), (C) and (E), a"nd you might determine from those fewer choices which is the actual answer for this item. Even if you guess wrong, your chances of getting this question correct have been improved from one in five to one in three. The correct answer is (B) because the plura l subject programs requires a plural verb, which would be "have provided" rather than the Singular "has provided."

Get Confident How you do on the SAT depends on how well you apply your knowledge. But your results can also reflect how you feel on the day you take the test. Your scores can be affected if you are nervous and distracted, if you are concentrating poorly or if you have negative feeli ngs.

Think Positively Getting down on yourself during the test does more than make you feel bad. It can take away the confidence you need to solve problems. It can distract you. Keep up your confidence and focus on each question. The SAT shows what you know and what you know you can do. The test has no trick questions. If you have taken challenging course work in high school, you should be feeling good about yourself and your capabilities.

Stay Focus!3d Ignore distractions. Think only of the question in front of you . If you catch yourself daydreaming, bring your focus back to the test.

Concentrate on Your Own Progress Suppose you get stuck on a question. Suppose you run into a batch of questions that are particularly difficult for you. You m ight be tempted to look around to see how everyone else is dOing. Don't do it! You'll just see that others are filling in their answer sheets. Thi nk of this: • Everyone works at a different pace. Your neighbors may not be working on the same question that has puzzled you.

18

r How to Do Your Best on the SAT

• Thinking about what someone else is doing takes away time you could be using on the lest.

• Within a testing room, the sect ions of the test arc in different sequences. Students sitting ncar you may be working on different sections.

Keep the Test in Perspective The SAT is important , but how you do on one lest won't decide whether you get into college. • The test is only one factor of many in the college admissions decision.

• Nonacademic admissions criteria are important, too. These include ext racurricular activities and personal recommendations. College admissions officers at individual colleges will usually be glad to discuss their schools' admissions policies with you. • If you don't do as well as you hoped to, you can take the test again or use Score Choice to show colleges the scores that you feel best represent your abilities. Most colleges look at you r highest score on each section, so even if you opt to use Score Choice you should feel comfortable sending all of your scores.

You're in Control Making a plan for taking the SAT will keep you in control during the test: Practice each type of question. Remember that the easier questions generally come first in each section. Learn how to pace yourself. Learn how to make an educated guess. If you're in control, you'll improve your chances of doing your best.

Taking the Test Again Research shows that most students do better on the SAT if they take the test a second time. Again, as mentioned in Chapter 1, approximately one out of every two high school students taking the SAT takes it at least once. Most who repeat the test take it once in the spring of their junior year and once in the fall of their senior year. There is no evidence that taking the test more than twice is beneficial to your score. But remember, all of the work you've done in school - including your reading, writing and mathematics - is what really helps you to do your best on the test and to be better prepared for college.

19

GETTING STARTED

1.-:"

®

.(iI =I .~ -....

Recap Before the Test

• Learn the directions for all eight question types. • Get a good night's sleep.

• Have everything that you need for the test ready the night before. • Make sure you know how to get to the test center and have any special instructions for finding the entrance on Saturday or Sunday. • Leave early enough so that you will have plenty of time in case of delays while traveling to the test center.

During the Test

• First answer all the easy questions you can. • Keep moving.

• Keep in mind that most questions are arranged from easy to hard. • Remember which questions are best for you. • Remember that all questions are wort h the same point value.

• Eliminate choices. • Make an educated guess. • Watch the time you spend on anyone question.

• Use your test booklet as scratch paper, and mark questions to go back to. • Check your answer sheet regularly to make sure you're answering the right question. • Keep your answer sheet neat. Feeling Confident

• Think positively. Negative t h oughts will just distract you from doing your best. • Stay focused. Think only about the question you are trying to answer. • Concentrate on your own progress. Don't pay attention to what others in the room are doing or how quickly they may be working. • Keep the test in perspective. The SAT is not the only factor in college admissions decisions, and you can always take the t e st again. • Remember, you're in controL You can always choose t he scores you send with Score Choice .

20

.

CHAPTER 3

About the PSAT/NMSQT®

If you want practice for the SAT, then the PSATlNMSQT is for you. (PSAT/NMSQT

stands for Preliminary SAT/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test.) This test also gives you a chance to enter scholarship competitions sponsored by the National Merit Scholarship Corporation and, through the Student Search Service, a chance to hear from colleges looking for students like you. The PSAT/NMSQT measures the critical reading, mathematics and writing skills that you've been developing all your school years. The test is given by high schools in October. Your school counselor can help you sign up for the PSAT/NMSQT. Many students take the test during their sophomore and junior years - but only test scores from thei r junior year are used for scholarship competitions. Ask your school counselor for a copy of the Official Student Guide to the PSATINMSQT, which includes a complete practice test.

Why You Should Take the PSAT/NMSQT Taking the test helps you to: • practice for the SAT • assess your critical reading, mathematics and writing skills. A comprehensive score report gives helpful feedback on the skills you need to work on. • compare you rself with other college-bound students from around the country • receive projected SAT scores • qualify for entry into scholarship competit ions sponsored by the National Merit Scholarship Corporation • participate in the Student Search Service to receive information from colleges and scholarship organizations

21

GETTING STARTED

Types of Questions The PSAT/NMSQT includes critical reading, mathematics and writing skills questions. (See Table 3.1 for details.) The PSAT/ NMSQT allows 2 hours and 10 minutes and includes five sections: • Two 25-minute critical reading sections • Two 25-minute mathematics sections • One 30-minute writing skills sect ion

Score Report Your PSAT/NMSQT Score Report gives you feedback on your test performance and other valuable information:

• PSAT/NMSQT scores for critical reading. mathematics and writing skills

• Score ranges • Percentiles (for juniors or sophomores)

• Se1ection index used by the National Merit Scholarship Corporation for initialentry into their scholarship competitions (sum of your scores in all three sections)

• Comprehensive question+by+question feedback • Academic skills feedback • Online access to questions and answer explanat ions • Basic eligibility criteria and status for National Merit Scholarships • Guidance information to help in college and career planning

Preparing for the PSAT/NMSQT As in preparing for the SAT. the best way you can prepare for the PSAT/NMSQT is to take challenging academic courses. work hard in school and read extensively. To become familiar with the questions that appear on the test: • Review the SAT tesHaking reminders and approaches on these pages. • Read Chapter 2. "How to Do Your Best on the SAT." • Before the test. become familiar with question types and directions by doing practice questions. which are also covered in the Official Student Guide to the PSA TINMSQT.

22

About the PSATINMSQT

• Take the complete Practice Test included with your Official Student Guide to the PSATINMSQT Table 3.1 Nu mber a ndTy pes of Qu estions w ith Time Allotted for Each Section of the PSAT/N MSQT

Sec tion

No. of Quest io ns

Time Allotted

Critical Reading (multiple-choice questions) Sentence completion

13

Passage·based read ing

35

Total critical reading questions

48

50 minutes (two 25·minute sections)

M athematic s Multiple choice

28

Student-produced response (grid-ins)

10

Total mathematics questions

38

50 minutes (two 25-minute sections)

Writing Skills (mu ltiple-cho ice questions) Identifying sentence errors

14

Improving sentences

20

Improving paragraphs

5

Total writing questions

39

30 minutes (one section)

Pointers for the PSATINMSOT 1.

Know the directions for each type of question.

2. Expect easy questions at the start ofeach group of questions (except in passagebased reading in the critical reading section and improving paragraphs in the writing skills section). 3. Answer as many easy questions as you can because all quest ions are worth the same number of points. 4. Read all the answer choices for multiple-choice questions. 5. Make sure you understand what the question is asking. 6. Do scratchwork in the test booklet. 7. Work steadily.

23

GETTING STARTED

8. Understand the concept of educated guessing - that is, if you cannot find the correct answer, eliminate the choice or choices that you know are wrong and make an educated guess from the remaining answers. 9. Bring a calculator that you are comfortable using. lO. Practice and have a thorough understanding afhow to complete math studentproduced response questions.

I I. Relax.

Preparing for the Critical Reading and Mathemati cs

Sections The types of critical reading and mathematics questions on the PSAT/NMS QT are the same as on the SAT. Here's what you'll need to do to prepare: • Review the critical reading and mathematics chapters in th is book. • Go through the mathematics review chapters carefully (see Chapters IS to 18), If it is dose to exam time, concentrate on the mathematics sk ills and concepts that you've studied but may need to review. If you have time before the test, start lea rn ing some of the unfamiliar skills and concepts. • Practice applying the approaches and reminders on the sample tests.

Preparing for the Writing Section The writing skills sect ion of the PSAT/NMS QT includes the three types of grammar and usage multiple-choice questions that appear on the SAT writing section: • Identifying sentence errors • Improving sentences • Improving paragraphs The writ ing section includes 39 quest ions on grammar a nd usage, and it assesses your ability to use language in a clear, consistent manner and to improve writing by revising and editing. Test questions do not ask you to define or use grammatical terms and do not test spelling or capitalization. The PSAT/NMSQT does not include an essay portion. Here are some ideas on how to approach the writing skills sect ion of the test: • If you cannot find the correct answer, eliminate the choice or choices that you know are wrong and make an educated guess from the remaining answers. • Review the writing multiple-choice chapters in this book (Chapters 8 and 10 to 13).

24

About the PSAT/NMSQT

• Try to answer the sample writing questions in this book and study the explanations for each sample.

Important Review in September When the Official Student Guide to the PSATINMSQT arrives at your school in September (ask your counselor for it), review the explanation sections and then take the full-length practice test. If any questions pose problems for you, use th is book again to review those question types to improve your understa nding. And. of course, work in class and with your teachers to hone your academic skills daily.

25

PART II

The Critical Reading Section

27

CHAPTER 4

About the Critical Reading Section

When you get to the critical reading section, you'll find two types of multiple-choice questions:

• Sentence completion. There are 19 multiple-choice quest ions that test your vocabulary and your ability to understand fairly complex sentences .

• Passage-based reading. There are 48 questions that are based on passages that range from 100 to 850 words. The content of the passages is drawn from the humanities, literary fiction, social studies, and natural sciences.

Critical reading skills are fu.ndamental building blocks of academic success. The two types of critical reading questions test how well you understand the written word. Your ability to read carefully and to think about what you read is essential to your

success in college. In college. you will have to learn a great deal on your own from your aSSigned reading, even in courses that are not language arts, such as mathematics and science. BUilding your vocabu lary is a va luable life skill. Having a large and varied vocabulary can help you better express yourself. The best way to improve you r vocabulary is by reading.

Approaches to the Critical Reading Section )- Work on sentence completion questions first. About one-third of the critical reading quest ions are sentence completions. Work on these fi rst in a ny section that includes both types of ceitical reading quest ions. "!he sentence completion questions take less time to finish than the passagebased reading questions. But remember to save enough time to

read the passages.

~

Keep in Mind Answer the sentence completion questions you're comfort able with before moving on to the passage-based reading questions.

29

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

)- Mark your test booklet. As you work on one of the critical reading test sections, you may want to use the following three·step approach: I. Begin with the first set of sentence completions. Answer as many questions as you can. In your test booklet, mark each question you don't answer so that you can easily go back to it. 2. After moving through the first set, go back and take a quick glance at the questions you marked. Answer the ones you can without spending a lot of time on anyone question. 3. Then move on to the passage-based readi ng quest ions.

)- Remember that the difficulty of sentence completion questions increases as you move through a question set. When these questions become difficu lt to a nswer, give the rest of them a quick read before you skip ahead to the passage-based reading questions. All sentence complet ion quest ions a re based in part on your knowledge of vocabulary. It doesn't take long to read these questions, and you may pick up a correct answer or two. You may see a word that you know that might improve your chances of answering the question correctly.

~eplnMlnd Keep track of the questions you w ant t o go back to and read again by mar1l:ing the questions in your test booklet . When skipping questions, though, be sure to keep track of your place on the answer sheet.

)0 Use the process of elimination.

If you have time to go back to some of the difficult questions that you skipped. try eliminating choices you know are wrong. (This is a good approach for the entire test.) Sometimes you can get to the correct answer that way. If not, eliminating choices will at least allow you to make educated guesses.

)0 Consider related words,familiar sayings and phrases, roots, prefixes and suffixes. If you don't k now what a word means right away, stop

for a moment. Have you ever heard or seen a word that may be related to it? You can get help from common sayings and phrases. If you don't know a word but a re familiar with a ph rase that uses it. you might be able to figure out the word. For instance, you may not immediately remember what the words ovation and annul mean. But you probably wou ld recognize them in the phrases "a standing ovation" and "annul a marriage." If you can recall a ph rase or saying in which a word is used, you may be able to figure out what it means in another context.

30

CHAPTERS

Sentence Completion

Having a broad vocabulary always comes in handy, espedally when you're doing parts of the SAT such as the sentence completion questions. Having the ability to ~ understand the logic of complex sentences is also helpful in this section

of the SAT. In addition, several approaches can help you work through even the toughest questions. The following box provides the directions that will appear on the test. The directions include a sample question.

~ep

in Mind

Be familiar with the test directions before test day.

Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating thai something has been omitted. Beneath the sentence are five words or sets of words labeled A through E. Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. Example: Hoping to ------- the dispute, negotiators proposed a compromise that they felt would be ------- to both labor and management. (A) enforce .. useful (B) end .. divisive (C) overcome .. unattractive (D) extend .. satisfactory (E) resolve .. acceptable

@®©@ .

Types of Questions The SAT has two different types of sentence complet ion questions: vocabulary in context and logic based. FollOWing are some examples of each type of question.

Vocabulary-in-Context Questions To answer this type of question, you need to know how the words are used in the context of the sentence. If you know the definitions of the words involved, you have a better chance of selecting the correct a n s~er.

31

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

There are both one-blank and two-blank vocabulary-in-context questions. EXAMPLE 1 Ravens appear to behave -------, actively helping one another to find food. (A) mysteriously (B) warily (e) aggressively (D) cooperatively (E) defenSively

Answer: The correct answer is (D). Expiarlation: This sentence asks you to look for a word that describes how the ravens behave. The information after the comma restates and defines the meaning of the missing word. You are told that the ravens "actively help one another." Only

one word among the choices accurately describes this behavior: cooperatively. EXAMPLE 2 Both ------- and -------, Wilson seldom spoke and never spent money. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

vociferous .. generous garrulous .. stingy effusive .. frugal taciturn .. miserly reticent .. munificent

A'iswer: The correct answer is (0). Explanation: In this sentence, you are looking for two words that describe Wilson. One of the words has to mean that he "seldom spoke" and the other that he "never spent money." The correct answer is "taciturn .. miserly." Taciturn means "shy, unwilling to talk." Miserly means "like a miser, ext remely stingy."

Logic-Based Questions The follOWing questions require you to know the meanings of the words, know how the words are used in context and understand the logic of a rather complicated sentence. EXAMPLE 1 After observing several vicious territorial fights. Jane Goodall had to revise her earlier opinion that these particular primates were always •..••.. animals. (A) (6) (C) (D) (E)

ignorant inquisitive responsive cruel peaceful

Answer: The correct answer is (E).

32

Sentence Compl etion

Explanation; To answer this question, you have to follow the logical flow of the ideas in the sentence. A few key words reveal that logic. First, the introductory word "After" tells you that the information at the beginning of the sentence is going to affect what comes later. The word after also gives an order to the events in the sentence. Second, the word revise tells you that something is going to change. It is going to change after the events described at the beginni ng of the sentence. So the events at the beginning really cause the change. Finally, the end of the sentence-"her ea rlier opin ion that these particu lar primates were always ------- animals" -tells you what is changing. The word filling the blank should convey a meaning you would have to revise after seeing the animals fight. Peaceful is the only such word among the five choices. EXAMPLE 2

Although its publicity has been -------, the film itseifis intelligent, well-acted, handsomely produced, and altogether ------., (A) tasteless .. respectable (8) extensive .. moderate (e) sophisticated .. amateur (D) risque .. crude (E) perfect .. spectacu lar

Answer; The correct answer is (A). Explanation: The first thing to notice about th is sentence is that it has two parts or clauses. The first clause begins with "Although," the second clause begins with "the film." The logic of the sentence is determined by the way the two clauses relate to each other. The two parts have contrasting or conflicting meanings. Why? Because one of the clauses begins with "Although." The word although is used to introduce an idea that confl icts with something else in the sentence: Although somet hi ng is true, something else that you would expect to be true is not. The answer is "tasteless .. respectable." You wou ld not expect a film with "tasteless publicity" to be "altogether respectable." But the introductory word although tells you that you shou ld expect the unexpected.

33

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

Approaches to the Sentence Completion Questions ... Start out by reading the entire sentence, saying "blank"for the blank(s}, This gives you an overall sense of the meaning of the sentence and helps you figure out how the parts of the sentence relate to each other.

)- Always begin by trying to determine the standard dictionary definitions of the words in the sentence and the answers. To answer sentence completion questions, you usually don't have to know a nonstandard meaning of a word . . . Keep in mind that introductory and transitional words are extremely important. They can be the key to figuring out the logic of a sentence. They tell you how the parts of the sentence relate to each other. For example, look at the following common introductory and transitional words:

.

• but • although • however • yet • even though These words indicate that the two parts of the sentence will contradict or be in contrast with each other. There are many other introductory and transitional words that you should watch for when working on sentence completion questions. Always read the sentences carefully, and don't ignore any of the details.

)- Be aware that some of the most difficult sentence completion questions contain negatives, which can make following the logiC of the sentences challenging. Negatives in two clauses of a sentence can be even more of a challenge, as in this example: According to Burgess, a novelist should not preach, for sermon izing has no place in good fiction. A negative appears in each clause of this sentence. The transitional word for indicates that the second part of the sentence will explain the first.

)- Figure out what sort of word(s) should fill the blank(s) before looking at the choices; then look for a choice that is similar to the one(s) you thought of For many oneblank questions, especially the easier ones, you'll find the word you thought of among the choices. Other times, a close synonym for your word will be one of the choices.

34

Sentence Completion

For example, try answering the following sentence completion question without looking at the choices: Once Mu rphy left home for good, he wrote no letters to his worried mother; he did not, therefore, live up to her picture of him as her ------- son. The transit ional word therefore indicates that the informat ion in the second part of the sentence is a direct, logical result of the informat ion in theftrst part. What words might fit in the blank?

The second pa rt of the sentence includes a negative (" he did not ... live up to her picture ..."), so the blank must be a positive term. Words li ke perfect, sweet, respectful, devoted-all could fit in the blank. Now, look at the actual choices: (A) . misunderstood (B) elusive

(C) destructive (0) persuasive

(E) dutiful Choice (E) dutiful is the on ly choice that is even close to the ones suggested. Therefore, (E) is the correct answer. You can also try this technique with two-blank questions. You are less likely to come up with as close a word match, but it will help you get a feel for the meaning and logic of the sentence.

)- With two-blank questions, try eliminating some answers based on just one blank. If one word in an answer doesn't make sense in the sentence, then you can reject the entire choice. For example, try approaching two-blank questions like this: • Work with one of the blanks alone. Eliminate any choices in which the word doesn't make sense. • Work on the other blank alone. Eliminate any choices in which that word doesn't make sense. If only one choice is left. that is the correct answer. If more than one choice remains, go to the next step. • Work on both blanks together only for the remaining choices. • Always read the complete sentence witl! botl! words in place to make sure your choice makes sense.

35

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

Example 2 of the logic-based qu.estions shows how this approach works. Here it is again:

Although its publicity has been -------, thefilm itselfis intelligent, well-acted, handsomely produced, and allogether -------, (A) tasteless .. respectable (B) extensive .. moderate ee) sophisticated .. amateur (D) risque .. crude (E) perfect .. spectacular

As you can see, the first blank is not tightly controlled by the words immediately around it. The firs t word depends on the word in the second blank. So start with the second blank. The second blank is part of a list th at includes "intelligent, well-acted, handsomely produced, and altogether ____ _ . " The word and indicates that the last word in the list (i.e., the blank) should be a positive word, in general agreement with the others. With that in mind, examine the second words in the following answer choices: • intelligent, well-acted ... and altogether respectable • intelligent, well-acted ... and altogether moderate • intelligent, well-acted ... and altogether amateur • intelligent, well-acted ... and altogether crude • intelligent, well-acted . .. and altogether spectacular

Amateur and crude are defin itely not complimentary. No matter what the rest of the sentence says, neither of these words makes sense in the second blank. So you can eliminate the answers that contain amateur and crude. With two choices eliminated, the question becomes much easier to deal with.

)- Remember that the instructions for all the sentence completion questions ask you to choose the best answer. One choice may seem to make sense, but it still might not be the best of the five choices. Unless you read all the choices, you may select only the second best and thus answer incorrectly. )- Check your choice by reading the entire sentence with the answer you have selected in place to make sure the sentence makes sense. This step is extremely important, especially if you have eli minated choices while working through the question. For example, choice (A) in Example 2 is correct because the words respectable and tasteless contrast with each other. Such a contrast is logically consistent because of the although construction of the sentence.

36

Sentence Completion

Sample Questions Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Beneath the sentence are five words or sets of words labeled A through E. Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, httt fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. Example: Hoping to ------- the dispute, negotiators proposed a compromise that they felt would be ------- to both labor and management. (A) enforce .. useful

(B) end .. divisive (C) overcome .. unattractive (D) extend .. satisfactory (E) resolve .. acceptable

®®©@ .

1. A judgment made before all the facts are known must be called -------.

(A) harsh (B) deliberate (C) sensible

(D) premature (E) fair 2. Despite their -----.- proportions, the murals of Diego Rivera give his Mexican compatriots the sense that their history is ------- and human in scale, not remote and larger than life. (A) monumental .. accessible (8) focused .. prolonged (C) vast .. ancient (D) realistic .. extraneous (E) narrow .. overwhelming 3. The research is so ------- that it leaves no part of the issue unexamined. (A) comprehensive (B) rewarding (C) sporadic (D) economical (E) problematic 4. A dictatorship ------- its citizens to be docile and finds it expedient to make outcasts ofthose who do not -------. (A) forces .. rebel (8) expects .. disobey (C) requires .. conform (D) allows .. withdraw {El forbids .. agree S. Alice Walker's prize-winning novel exemplifies the strength of first-person narratives; the protagonist tells her own story so effectively that any additional commentary would be -------. (A) subjective (B) eloquent (e) superfluous (D) incontrovertible (E) impervious

37

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

6. The Supreme Court's reversal ofits previous ruling on the issue of states' rights .. -.--its reputation for -------. (A) sustained .. infallibility (8) compromised .. consistency (e) bolstered .. doggedness (D) aggravated .. inflexibility (E) dispelled .. vacillation

38

Sentence Completion

Answers and Explanations I.

A judgment made before all the facts are known must be called -------. (A) harsh (8) deliberate

(e) sensible (D) premature (E) fair

Answer: The correct answer is (D).

Explanation; Getting the correct answer to this question depends almost entirely on knowing the definitions of the five words you must choose from. Which of the choices describes a judgment made before "all the facts are known"? Such a judgment, by definition, is not "deliberate," and the sentence doesn't tell us whether the judgmen~ was "ha rsh:' or lenient. "sensible" or silly, "fair" or unfai r. Premature means hasty or early; therefore, it fits the blank perfectly. This is the kind of one-blank vocabula ry question for which you might be able to predict the answer based on the information given Know your vocabulary. Think in the sentence . You might have thought of other words that could carefully about the meanings have completed the sentence satisfactorily- for instance, rash, hasty of the words in the answer choices. or risky-but none of them nor any synonyms for them appear among the choices. When you see the choices, you should recognize that premature has connotations similar to the words you thought of.

~epinMlnd

2. Despite their ------- proportions, the murals of Diego Rivera give his Mexican compatriots the sense that their history is -- ----- and human in scale, not remote and larger than life. (A) monumental .. accessible (B) focused .. prolonged (e) vast .. ancient (D) realistic .. extraneous (E) narrow .. overwhelming

Answer: The correct answer is (A).

Explanation: The keys to this sentence are the word "Despite," the words "human in scale," and the words "not remote and larger than li fe." The word fi lling the first blank has to be one that would relate closely to something that seems "larger than life," as (A) monumental does, but so does (C) vast. The word filling the second blank has to fit wilh "human in scale," which (A) accessible does. If you focus on only one of the two blanks, you will be able to eliminate several choices before you even think about the other bla nk, as in this case, where it is possible to eliminate answers (B), (D) and (E) almost immediately.

0epinMind Watch for key introductory and transitional words that determine how the parts of the sentence relate. Then try answering two-blank questions one blank at a time. If you can eliminate one word in a choice, the entire choice can be ruled out.

39

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

3. The research is so ------- that it leaves no pari of the issue unexamined.

(AI comprehensive (BI reward ing (CI sporadic (DI economical (EI problematic

~epinMind

A nswer: The correct answer is (A).

Explanation: Try filling in the blank without read ing the answer choices. What kind of words would fit? Words like complete, thorough or extensive could all fit. Now look at the a nswer choices. Choice (A) comprehensive is very si m ilar to the words suggested , and none of the other choices fi t at all. If no possible answer occurs to you before you look at the choices.

Think about the logic of the sentence without looking at the choices. Then look for the choice that has 8 s imilar meaning to the words you

thought of.

try to relate each choice to the details of the sentence. In this case you are looki ng for a word that would match the detail "it leaves no part of the issue unexamined."

4. A dictatorship ------- its citizens to be docile and finds it expedient to make outcasts of those who do not -------. (A) forces .. rebel

(8) (C) (0) (E)

expects .. disobey requi res .. conform allows .. withdraw fo rbids .. agree

Answer: The correct answer is (C). (;.ep in Mind Think carefully about the standard dictionary definitions of the important words in the sentence. Small words such as not can make a big difference. When you choose your answ er, read the entire sentence with the blank(s) filled in to be sure that it makes sense.

Explanation: Answering this question depends in part on your k nowledge of vocabulary. You have to k now what the words dictatorship, docile and expedient mean. You also have to watch out for key words such as not. The fi rst word in each of the five choices is an action a d ictatorship might take, so you are more likely to find the correct answer by first examining the second word. Recognizing that the second word refers to what happens to "outcasts," and observing the cr ucial word not, you can elim inate rebel and disobey. That leaves conform, withdraw and agree as behaviors a dictatorship m ight wa nt to see

d isplayed in its people. Conformity and agreement a re certainly qualities a dictator would want in the people. The tendency to withdraw is less likely, because people who are out of sight might also be out of the dictator's control; also, it is illogica l to make outcasts of everyone who does not withdraw. So choice (D) can be eliminated. If a dictator wants the people to conform, requiring them to be docile would help, so choice (C) looks good. In choice (E), if the dic tator is going to cast out those who do not agree,

40

Sentence Completion

which is a very possible political reality, the first part of the sentence is illogical: dictatorships do not forbid people to be docile (gentle). Choice (C) is clearly the most logical and meaningful of the choices.

5. Alice Walker's prize-winning novel exemplifies the strength of first-person narra-

tives; the protagonist tells her own story so effectively that any additional commentary would be -------. subjective eloquent (C) superfluous (D) incontrovertible (E) impervious

(A) (B)

Answer: The correct answer is (C).

~epinMind

Explanation; Words like prize-winning, strength and effectively tell you Think about the meaning of the that the writer thinks Alice Walker's novel is well written. Therefore, sentence before you look at the would "add itional commentary" be necessary or unnecessary? Once choices. Get a sense of what you're looking for before you you've figured out that it is unnecessary, you can look for an answer start looking. with a similar meaning, which is choice (C) superfluous. That way, you may be able to answer the question more quickly because you won't have to plug in each choice one by one to see if it makes any sense. This is another single-blank vocabulary question that is best approached by trying to supply a satisfactory completion before you read the answer choices.

6. The Supreme Court's reversal of its previous ruling on the issue of states' rights ------- its reputation for -------. (A) sustained .. infallibility (B) compromised .. consistency (Cl bolstered .. doggedness (0) aggravated .. inflexibility (El dispelled .. vacillation

Answer: The correct answer is (8). Explanation: Getting the correct answer to this question depends mainly on your knowledge of the meanings of the word choices. You have to know the definitions of the words before you can try the choices one by one to arrive at the correct pair. You also need to think about the central idea in the sentence: the Court's "reversal" does what to its "reputation" for what? The logic is complicated, and the vocabulary in the choices is difficult. You have to think for a moment about the attitude the sentence is probably trying to communicate. Most people would agree that the Supreme Court members think long and hard before they make a ruling. Reversing one of those rulings is probably an unusual and undesirable event. In each choice, the second word suggests a "reputation" the Court might have. Which of those

41

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

Ge

p In MInd

words most probably names a reputation we most usually expect of the Supreme Court?

When you read the sentence to you rself, s ubstitute the word blank for each blank. Try to fig·

• Infallibility in choice (A) and consistency in choice (B) - perhaps.

ure out what the sentence is

• Doggedness in choice (C) is less likely: it suggests persistence more than correctness.

saying before you start plugging in the choices.

• Inflexibility in choice (D) implies an unwillingness to keep an open mind, which is not a quality we would admire at our highest levels of justice. • And vacillation. in choice (E), is something we do not want to see in the Court at all . Look more closely at (A) and (8). If we choose (A), the sentence says that the reversal of the previous ruling sustained the Court's reputation for infallibility. That is contradic tory, so it ca nnot be the right answer. If we choose (B), the sentence means that the reversal of its ruling compromised (or imperiled or jeopardized) one of its most valued qualities, its consistency. That sounds like a meaningful sentence, and it is in fact the correct answer.

42

Recap 1. Be familiar with the directions before test day.

2. Answer as many easy questions as you can before spending time on the harder ones. 3. Read the sentence, substituting the word blank for each blank, to give you an overall sense of the meaning of the sentence. 4. Always begin by trying to determine the standard dictionary definitions of the key words in the sentence and the answer

choices. 5. Know your vocabulary: think carefully about the meanings of the words in the answer choices. 6. Watch for key introductory and transitional words (e.g., but, although, however, yet, even though). These determine how the

parts of the sentence relate. Also watch carefully for negatives. 7. Think about the logic of the sentence without looking at the choices. Try figuring out words to fill in the blank or blanks without looking at the answer choices. Then look for the choice that is similar to the one you thought of.

B. Try answering two-blank questions one blank at a time. If you can eliminate one word in an answer, the ent ire choice can be eliminated. 9. Always check all the answer choices before making a final decision. A choice may seem okay, but it may still not be the best answer. Make sure that the answer you select is the best choice. 10. Check' your answer to make sure it makes sense by reading the entire sentence with your choice in place. 11. Eliminate answers that you know are wrong, and make an educated guess from those remaining.



43

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

Practice Questions Each sentence below has one or two blanks. each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Beneath the senlence are five words or sets of words labeled A through E. Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, ~ fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. Exam ple: Hoping to ------- the dispute, negotiators proposed a compromise that they fell would be ------- to both labor and management. (A) enforce .. useful (8) end .. divisive {el overcome .. unattractive (0) extend . . satisfactory (E) resolve .. acceptable

®®©@ .

I. In many cases, the formerly ------- origins of diseases have now been identified

through modern scientific techniques. (A) insightful (B) mysterious (C) cruel

(0) notable (El useful 2. Freeing embedded fossils from rock has become less .... --- for paleontologists, who now have tiny vibrating drills capable of working with great speed and delicacy. CAl exploratory (8) conclusive (C) tedious (D) respected (El demeaning 3. Many people find Stanley Jordan's music not only entertaining but also .... ---; listening to it helps them to relax and to ·······t he tensions they feel at the end of a trying day. (Al soothing .. heighten (B) therapeutic .. alleviate (el sweet .. underscore (D) exhausting .. relieve (E) interesting .. activate 4. Marine biologist Sylvia Earle makes a career of expanding the limits of deep·sea mobility, making hitherto-impossible tasks ---- ... through the new technology deSigned by her company. (A) (8) (C) (D) (E)

44

famous feasible fantastic controversial captivating

Sent ence Completion

5. 'TWo anomalies regarding her character are apparent: she is unfailingly •. ····· yet bursting with ambition, and she is truly ..... ·· but unable to evoke reciprocal warmth in those with whom she works. (A) aspiring .. generous (8) mercenary .. impartial (C) impulsive .. resolute (D) persistent .. reserved (E) humble .. compassionate 6. In many parts or East Africa at that lime, wild animals were so ......• that it was almost impossible for a photographer to approach dose enough to film them. (A) rare (B) large (C) wary (D) numerous (E) unsightly 7. The unflattering reviews that his latest recording received were ••...•. by his fans, who believe thai everything he performs is a triumph of artistic """'. (A) dismissed .. creativity (8) hailed .. responsibility (e) suppressed .. self·promotion (D) accepted .. genius (E) regretted .. pretension 8. The board members, accustomed to the luxury of being chauffeured to corporate meetings in company limousines, were predictably ...•••• when they learned thai Ihis service had been ....... . (A) satisfied .. annulled

(8) (C) (D) (E)

stymied .. extended displeased .. upheld disgruntled .. suspended concerned .. provided

9. Misrepresentative graphs and drawings ....... the real data and encourage readers to accept ....... arguments. (A) (8) (C) (D) (E)

obscure .. legitimate distort .. spurious illustrate .. controversial complement .. unresolved replace .. esteemed

10. Conservative historians who represent a traditional account as ....... because of its age may be gUilty of taking on trust what they should have ....... in a conscientious fashion. (A) ancient .. established (8) false .. reiterated (C) , mythical .. fabricated (D) accurate .. examined (E) suspicious .. challenged

45

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

II . The art of Mile! Andrejevic often presents us with an idyllic vision that is subtly ------- by more sinister elements, as if suggesting the ------- beauty of OUf

surroundi ngs. (A) enhanced .. pristine (B) invaded .. flawed (C) altered .. unmarred (D) redeemed .. hallowed (El devastated .. bland

12. State commissioner Ming Hsu expected that her Commission on international Trade would not merely ------- the future effects of foreign competition on local businesses but would also offer practical st rategies fo r successfully resisting such competition.

(Al counteract (B) intensify

(C) imagine (D) forecast

(El excuse 13. Since many teachers today draw on material from a variety of sources, disciplines, and ideologies for their lessons, their approach could best be called ........ (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

eclectic simplislic invidious impromptu dogmatic

14. Unprecedented turmoil in the usually thriving nation has made the formerly .-----investors leery of any further involvement.

(A) pessimistic (B) cautious (C) clandestine

(D) reticent (E) sanguine

15. Despite its apparent ------., much of earl y Greek philosophical thought was actually marked by a kind of unconscious dogmatism that led to ------- assertions. (A) liberality .. doctrinaire (B) independence .. autonomous (C) intransigence .. authoritative (D) fundamentalism .. arrogant (E) legitimacy .. ambiguous

46

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

Answer Key I. B

2. C

3. B 4. B

5. E

6. C 7. A

8. D 9. B IO.D II. B 12. D 13. A 14. E 15. A

Additional practice questions can be found in The Official SAT Online Course at www.collegeboard.comls&tonlinecourse.

48

CHAPTER 6

Passage-based Reading

When you answer passage-based reading questions, how carefully you read and how well you understand the information in a passage are more important than how much you know about the subject. Like much of the reading you'll be doing in college, the passages will present important issues, ideas or events to think about.

Types of Passages Here's what to expect from the passages.

• The passages range in length from about 100 to 850 words. • Some selections are from a Single source, and others consist of a pair of related passages on a shared issue or theme. For each pair, one of the passages supports, opposes or complements the other's point of view. • The passages coyer subjects in the humanities, social studies, natural sciences and literary fiction . . • The passages vary in style and tone. They include narraJive, persuasive, expository andlor literary elements. • A set of questions follows each passage or pair of related passages.

Approaches to Reading the Passages ... Mark the passages or make short notes. Be careful that' you don't mark too much. The idea of marking the passage is to help you find information quickly. Nothing will stand out if you underline or mark most of the passage. Some students scribble a short note in the margin - a few words at most - that summarizes what a paragraph or key sentence is about. But don't spend

49

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

~ePlnMlnd

more time marking the passage than you will save. The idea is to answer the q uest ions, not just mark your test booklet.

All passages have numbered

lines. When a question refers to a particular line or lines in the passage, it may be helpful to go back and read the matching !ine(s! before answering the question.

)- Use your knowledge and experience carefully. No matter what you know or what you believe. you cannot change what the writer h~s sa id or suggested. You must distinguish between what you th ink the writer should have said or what you would like t he writer to believe and what the writer's words actually say or imply.

)- Read actively.

may find that asking you rself questions about the passage will help you stay more engaged and absorb more information. Here are some YOll

questions you can ask yourself: Is the passage a factual account of an event? What is the purpose of the passage? Is the writer trying to in fo rm you, amuse you, influence you or what?

)- If you are having a hard time with a passage. read the questions before you finish the passage. This will give you a sense of what to look for. Looking at the questions first, though. might be a waste of time if you don't know what the passage is about. You may want to try both methods when working through practice questions.

Types of Questions Three types of questions may be asked about a passage: extended reasoning, vocabulary in context and literal comprehension. You will be asked questions involving single passages, paired long passages and paired paragraphs.

Extended Reasoning Questions Extended reason ing questions ask you to draw conclusions from or evaluate the information in the passage. The answers to these questions may not be directly stated in the passage but can be inferred from it. Extended reasoning questions also ask about the overall theme or meaning of the passage, the author's purpose or attitude. or the tone of the passage. Extended reasoning questions often include words or phrases like: • probably • apparently • seems • suggests • it can be inferred • the author implies

50

Passage-based Reading

For these types of questions, you need to be an especially careful reader if you want to understand the information in a passage and figure out what the writer is say ing. You should be able to follow the logic of the passage and to recogn ize points that would strengthen or weaken the writer's argument. Extended reasoning questions require you to do some or all of the follow ing: • Determine the main idea of a passage or the author's primary purpose in writing the passage. • Interpret a specific part of a passage, such as a particular word, image, phrase, example o r quotation. Infer what purpose it serves rather than what it means. • Figure out what the information presented in the passage suggests, what ca n be inferred about the author's views, or how the aut hor of one passage would be likely to react to or evaluate an idea expressed in a related passage. • Determine what the author's tone or attitude is in a specific section of the passage or in the passage as a whole. • Understand a specific idea or relationship in a passage by identifying a parallel or analogous idea. FACTS, ASSUMPTIONS AND INFERENCES

To answer extended reasoning questions correctly, it helps to know the d ifference between facts, assumptions and inferences. Facts: Statements known to be true and that can be shown to be true are called facts. Here are some examples. • There are 31 days in July. • It is against the law to drive over the speed limit.

Assumptions: These are suppositions o r propositions that writers make to reach their conclusions. Sometimes, the assumptions that writers make may not be stated within the passage. To read critically, you must be able to recognize these unstated assumptions. These assumptions may be accurate or inaccurate - at least from your point of view. For example, think about some of the underlying assumptions in the following three statements. 1. "The principal has promised a big victory dance after the championship game

next week." Two possible assumptions here are: • The principal hopes the team will win the championship game. • The principa l is looking fo r a way to reward the whole school for the team's success. 2. "Let's have a picnic tomorrow." Two possible assumptions here are: • The speaker would like to spend time with the person he or she is talking to.

51

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

• Picnics are fun. 3. "Reducing the workforce will increase the profits." Two possible assumptions here are: • Profits are more important than people. • A connection exists between the number of employees and the amount of profit each employee produces.

Inferences: These are concl usions you reach based on what has been said in a

passage. To infer is to arrive at a conclusion through reasoning. In the paragraph that follows, for example, it can be inferred that all 'the examples are taken from the author's own life. Phrases such as "I've counted ... my mailbox," "promised me prizes" and "I wrote this con artist" show that the author's opinions are based on personal experience. though this is not stated outright. The problem of junk mail has grown to epidemic proportions. I've counted no fewer than 616 pieces of junk mail in my mailbox in a given month! Not only is the sheer magnitude appalling, but the antics of these "post office pirates" are equally disturbing. For example, one enterprising sa lesman promised me prizes ranging from a car to a transistor radio if I would drive 200 miles to look at a piece of property. I wrote this con art ist and told him I'd come ifhe paid for the gas, but I never heard from him.

LOGIC, STYLE AND TONE

Many extended reasoning questions will ask you about the way the author develops and presents the ideas in the passage. Some questions will ask you to consider the tone or attitude of the author. They may also ask you to think about how a reader may react. In well-w ritten material, the writer uses both style and tone to express what he or she has to say and to try to influence the reader. Recognizing the author's purpose - whether it is to tell an exciting story, to express enjoyment or to sta rt a revolution - is an important part of reading.

Vocabulary-in-Context Questions Some passage-based reading questions ask about the meaning of a word as it is used in the passage. Even if you don't know the word, you can sometimes figure it out from the passage and the answer choices. The context - that is, the particular situation in which the word is used, including information given in neighboring sentences - helps determine its meaning. For example, you are likely to know that the word smart has several meanings. It can mean "intell igent," "stylish" and "sassy." In the sentence "We knew his smart mouth would get him into a lot of trouble some day," the context tells us that we are

52

Passage-based Reading

not talking about intelligence or fashion sense. Chances are, neither of those will get someone into a lot of trouble. The context, or the association between the words smart and trouble. tells us that the meaning intended here is "sassy." Usually you can work out the answer to a vocabulary-i n-context question just by reading th,e sentence in which it is included. But sometimes you may also have to read the sentence that comes before or after it. When a word has several meanings, a vocabulary-in-context question won't necessarily use the most common meaning. When answering vocabulary-in-context questions, keep the following in mind: • One word can have many meanings. The answer choices will often include several different meanings of the word. • Quest ions asking for the meaning of a word or phrase refer to the mean ing in the context in which the word or phrase is being used in the passage. • It helps to go back to the passage and reread the surrounding text of the word that is used. Be sure to read enough of the context to thoroughly understand the meaning of the word.

Literal Comprehension Questions For th is type of question, you need to understand information that is d irectly presented in the passage. These questions measure a skill you'll be using a lot in college: how well you read to acquire information. Here are some approaches to answering literal comprehension questions: • Find the place in the passage where the detail is discussed. Reread enough of the text to find the answer. Even if you know something about the subject of the passage, remember to answer the question based on what is actually stated in the passage. • Recognize different ways of stating the same fact or idea . Somet imes the description of the fact or idea in the question is different from the wording in the passage. • Cross out incorrect responses as you eliminate them. Remember. you may write anywhere in your test booklet. • Read questions ca refully, looking for words such as except, not and only, and for other words that describe exactly what yOll are asked to do with the info rmation. • Be sure you can support your answer by referring to words or ph rases withi n the passage that support it.

Questions Involving Paired Passages and Paragraphs At least one long and one paragraph reading selection will involve a pair of passages. The pair of passages will have a common theme or subject. One of the passages will oppose, support or in some way relate to the other.

53

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

Table 6.1 KevWords and Phrases for Understanding the Questions Understanding the following key words and phrases will help you understand what the questions are really asking.

When you see this ...

Remember that ...

Naccording to the Naccording to the

You must answer the question in terms of the statements, assumptions, or inferences that the writer is making, even jf you disagree with w hat the writer has said. The Question is meant to see if you understand what the wri t er has written.

passage

author~

H

This is an important word in test questions because it usually asks you to find the most suitable or most acceptable of the answer choices. This m eans that even though you may find a response t hat seems to fit, you still need to look at the rest of the responses in order to be sure that you have selected the best one. Sometimes you may think none of the answers are particularly good, but you must pick the one that is best. "ch iefl y~

This means "above the rest,~ ~mostly," ~mainly but not exclusively." When you see chiefly, you will probably be looking for the most central element or most important explanation of something.

"except~

A question with except usually asks you to identify words or phrases that don't belong with the other choices.

"(the author) implies" "(it can be) inferred" "(the author) suggests"

These terms ask you to come to a conclusion that is suggested by the information in the passage but not directly stated by the author. Make sure that your inference is indeed based on the material in the passage and not only on your own ideas or opinions. Opposite of most. Most important, or chiefly. Frequently used as a qualifier, as in most likely, most frequently, most reasonable. A qualifier recognizes that there are exceptions to most situations and tries to allow for those except ions.

Only means "just the one." For exam ple, "This is the only . .. for me.~ It also can indicate a restriction, as in "You can go only after you wash the car." "primarily"

54

Most important, o r chiefly.

Passage-based Reading

When a question asks you to compare two passages, don't try to remember everything from both passages. Instead. take one choice at a time. Review the relevant parts of each passage before you select your answer. Table 6.1 offers additional gUidance. Suppose a question asks you to identify something that is true in both passages. It is often easier to start by eliminating choices that are not true for one of the passages. Don't be fooled by a choice that is true for one passage but not for the other.

Approaches to Passage-based Reading Questions . . Keep in mind that the answers corne from the passage. Every single answer to these questions can be found in or directly inferred from the passage. Read the passages carefully. . . Remember, every word counts. Be aware of words describing people, events and things. If someone's face is described as "handsome" or "scarred," if an event is "surprising" or if a word is "whispered" or "spoken with a smile," pay attention. Details like these are mentioned to give you an understanding of what the author wants you to feel or think. . . Read the questions and answers carefully. With most passage-based reading questions. you have to: 1. think about what the question is asking

2. look back at the passage for information that will help you with the question 3. think again about how you can use the information to answer the question correctly . . Don't forget that an answer choice can be both true and wrong. The correct choice is the one that best answers the question, not any choice that makes a true statement. To keep from selecting a choice that is true but wrong. carefully read the passage. the questions and the answer choices . . . Make sure the reading passage supports your answer. There should always be information and details in the passage that provide support for your answer. Look for specific words, phrases and sentences that help to prove your choice is correct. Even with the inference, tone and attitude question s - the ones in which you have to read between the lines - you can find evidence in the passage to support the correct choice. . . Try eliminating choices. Compare each choice to the passage and you'll find that some choices can be eliminated as definitely wrong. Then it should be easier to choose the correct answer from the remaining choices.

55

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

)- Double-check the other choices. When you have made your choice, qUickly read the other choices again to make sure there isn't a better answer. )- Don't jump from passage to passage. You will spend a lot of time reading some of the passages before you're ready to a nswer even one question. $0 take the time to answer as many questions as you can about each passage before you move on to another. Consider these suggest ions:

• Move around within a set of questions to find the ones you can answer

qUickly. • Stay with a passage until you are sure you have answered as many questions as you can. If you return to the passage later, you'll probably have to read it again. • Go back to any questions you sk ipped. When you've gone through all the questions about a passage, review any you left out or weren't sure of. Sometimes information you picked up while thinking about one question will help you answer another.

56

Passage-based Reading

Sample Questions The passages below are followed by questions based on their content; questions following a pair of related passages may also be based on the relationship between the paired passages. Answer the questions on the basis of what is ~ or imJ;!l.itd in the passages and in any introductory material that may be provided.

Questions 1-2 are based on the following passage. Art forgery is a peculiar curse. Reliant on camouflage and deception, on the rhetoric of the believable lie, it is an act both audacious and self-effacing. For the imitation Linll to succeed in fooling us, it must resemble one or more 5 works that we have been led to believe are undoctored originals. Without something to mimic, the fake could not exist. And the forger of old masters' drawings. like the forger of twenty-dollar bills or United States' passports, must be skilled enough to fool eyes that by now 10 are practiced at uncovering deceit. I. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) describe the motivations of art forgers (8) indicate the artistic merit of particular forgeries (C) discuss the challenges facing art forgers (0) catalogue the skills of a successful art forger (E) illustrate the public's ignorance about art forgery 2. The author refers to art forgery as an act that is Kself-effaci ng» (line 3) because it reqUires that the forger (A) (B) (C) (0) (E)

undergo an arduous apprenticeship work in the style of another artist forgo many opportunities for financial gain never take his or her work too seriously regard original artworks with reverence

Questions 3-4 are based on the following passage. A cousin of the tenacious Asian longhorned beetlewhich since its initial discovery in 1996 in New York City has caused tens of millions of dollars in damage annually Unll -the citrus longhorned beetle was discovered on a juniper 5 bush in August 2001 in Tukwila, Washington. Exotic pests such as the longhorned beetle are a growing problem-an unintended side effect of human travel and commerce that can cause large-scale mayhem to local ecosystems. To stop the citrus beetle, healthy trees were destroyed 10 even though there was no visible evidence of infestation, and normal environmental regulations were suspended so that a rapid response could be mounted.

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THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

3. Which best describes the function oflhe opening sentence ("A cousin .. Washington")?

(A) It underscores how frequently pests are lransfer~d from one geographical region to another. (B) It suggests the potential harm the citrus longhorned beetle could cause in the United States. (C) It illustrates how the Asian longhorned beetle was introduced into the United States. (D) It describes how the citrus longhorned beetle was first discovered. (E) It compares the destructiveness of the Asian longhorned beetle to that of the citrus beetle. 4. The passage suggests that the actions undertaken in lines 9-12 are best characterized as (A) tested and reliable

(B) deliberate and effective (e) costly and unpopular (D) preemptive and aggreSSive

(E) unprecedented and unfounded Questions 5-8 are based on the following passages. Passage 1 Today any accessible, fast-mOVing story written in unaffected prose is deemed to be "genre fiction n -at best an excellem "read- or a "page turner" but never literature lin. with a capital L. Everything written in self-conscious, 5 writerly prose, on the other hand. is now considered to be "literary fiction" -not necessarily good literary fiction, mind you, but always worthier of respectful attention than even the best-written thriller or romance. It is these works that receive full -page critiques, often one in the Sunday 10 book-review section and another in the same newspaper during the week. II is these works, and these works only, that make the anllual short lists of award comm ittees. Passage 2 One reason why most literary novels don't appeal to the ordinary reader looking for a "good story" is that 15 they aren't intended to. Just as nuclear physicists strive to impress other nuclear physicists and dog breeders value the admiration of fellow dog breeders over that of the uninitiated masses, so people who write serious fiction seek the high opinion of other literary novelists. of creative 20 writing teachers, and of reviewers and critics. They want very badly to be "literary," and for many of them this means avoiding techniques associated with commercial and genre fiction-specifically too much emphasis on plot. Who, after all, wants to be accused of writing "action 25 movies in book form"? 5. The author of Passage I implies that "literature with a capital L" (lines 3·4) is fiction that is (A) (B) (e) (D) (E)

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considered classic by scholars ofEngJish literature written in a mannered and pretentious style unafraid to address highbrow themes and weighty issues successful both critically and financially unfairly ignored by the book-buyi ng public

Passage-based Readin g

6. The author of Passage 2 suggests that authors who write ~self-conscious, writerly prose~ (lines 4·5, Passage 1) are (A) unlikely ever to produce great work (B) trying to improve their chances of popular success (e) more talented than writers of mainstream fiction (D) seeking the approval of like-minded writers (E) not capable of depicting a realistic fictional world 7. In the two passages, quotation marks are primarily used to (A) (B) (Cl (D)

call attention to some common ways of categoriz.ing fiction suggest that some literary terms are meaningless note labels to which writers typically object ridicule the modes of writing most popular with the public

IE) 'mph"'" th' 'mpo,,,n,, of, ,h",d ",m'no[ogy 8. Which of the following best describes the relationship between the two passages? (A) (B) (Cl (D) (E)

Passage 2 presents evidence that rebuts the argument made in Passage l. Passage 2 explicitly defines terms that Passage I assumes are well·known. Passage 2 supplies an explanation for a state of affairs described in Passage I. Passage 2 focuses on an exception to a general rule established in Passage \, Passage 2 provides a humorous view of a situation that Passage 1 finds inexplicable.

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THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

Questions 9-19 are based on the following passages.

In Passage I, the author presents his view of the early years of the silent film industry. In Passage 2. the atahor draws on her experiences QS a mime to generalize about her art. (A mime is II performer who, without speak;'lg, entertains through

gesture,facial expression, and movement.) Passage I

Talk to those people who first saw films when they were silent, and they will tell you the experience was magic. The silent film had extraordinary powers to draw

50

members of an audience into the story, and an equally 5 potent capacity to make their imaginations work. It required the audience 10 become engaged-to supply

Line

voices and sound effects. The audience was the final,

10

15

20

25

30

creative contributor \0 the process of making a film. The finest films of the silent era depended on two clements that we can seldom provide today-a large and receptive audience and a well-orchestrated score. For the audience, the fusion of picture and live music added up to more than the sum of the respective parts. The one word that sums up the attitude of the silent filmm akers is elJthusiasm, conveyed most strongly before formulas took shape and when there was more room for experimentation. This enthusiastic uncertainty often resulted in such accidental discoveries as new camera or editing techniques. Some films experimented with players; the 19l5 film Regeneration, for example, by using real gangsters and streetwalkers, provided startling local color. Other fi lms, particularly those of Thomas Ince, provided tragiC endings as often as films by other companies supplied happy ones. Unfortunately, the vast majority of silent films survive today in inferior prints that no longer reflect the care that the Original technicians put into them. The modem yersions of silent films may appea r jerky and flickery, but the vast picture palaces did not attract four to six thousand people a night by giving them eyestrain. A silent film depended on its visuals; as soon as you degrade those, you lose elements that go far beyond the image on the surface. The acting in silentswas often very subtle, very restrained, despite legends to the contrary. Passage 2

35 Mime opens up a new world to the beholder, but it does so insidiously, not by pu rposely injecting points of interest in the manner of a tour guide. Audiences are not unlike visitors to a foreign land who discover that the modes, manners, and thoughts of its inhabitants are not 40 meaningless oddities, but are sensible in context. I remember once when an audience seemed perplexed at what I was doing. At first, I tried to gain a more immediate response by using slight exaggerations. I soon realized that these actions had nothing to do with the 45 audience's understanding oflhe character. What J had believed to be a failure of the audience to respond in the

60

55

60

65

70

manner I expected was, in fact, only their concentration on what I was doing; they were enjoying a gradual awakening-a slow transference of their understanding from their own lime and place to one that appeared so unexpectedly before their eyes. This was evidenced by their growing response to succeeding numbers. Mime is an elusive art, as its expression is entirely dependent on the ability of the performer to imagine a character and to re-create that character for each performance. As a mime. Tam a physical medium, the instrument upon which the figu res of my imagination play their dance of life. The individuals in my audience also have responSibilities-they must be alert collaborators. They cannot sit back, mindlessly complacent, and wait to have their emotions titillated by mesmeric m usical sounds or yisual rhythms or acrobat ic feats, or by words that tell them what to think. Mime is an art that, paradoxically, appeals both to those who respond instinctively to entertainment and to those whose appreciation is more analytical and complex. Between these extremes lie those audiences conditioned to resist any collaboration with what is played before them, and these the mime must seduce despite themselves. There is only one way to attack those reluctant minds-take them unaware! They will be delighted at an unexpected pleasure. 9. Both passages are primarily concerned with the subject of (A) (B) (e) (D) (E)

shocking special effects varied dramatic styles visual elements in dramatic performances audience resistance to theatrical performances nostalgia for earlier fo rms of entertainment

10. The author of Passage I uses the phrase "enthusiastic uncertai nt y" in line 17to suggest that the filmmakers were (A) excited to be experimenting in a new field (B) delighted at the opportunity to study new technology (C) opti mistic in spite of the obstacles that faced them (D) eager to challenge existing conventions (E) eager to please but unsure of what the publiC wanted

Passage-based Reading

11. In tines 19-24, Regeneration and the films of Thomas Ince are presented as examples of (A) formulaic and uninspired silent films (8) profitable successes of a flourishing industry (C) suspenseful action films drawing large audiences

(D) daring applications of an artistic philosophy (E) unusual products of a readiness to experiment 12. In context, the reference to "eyestrain" (line 30) conveys a sense of (A) irony regarding the incompetence of silent film technicians . (B) regret that modern viewers are unable to see h igh quality prints of silent films (e) resentment that Ihe popularity of picture palaces has waned in recent years (D) pleasure in remembering a grandeur that has passed (E) amalement at the superior quality of modern film technology 13. In line 34, "legends" most nearly means (A) ancient folklore (B) obscure symbols (C) history lessons (D) famous people (E) common misconceptions 14. The author of Passage 2 most likely considers the

contrast of mime artist and tour guide appropriate because both (A) are concerned with conveying factual information (B) employ artistic techniques to communicate their knowledge (e) determ ine whether others enter a strange place (D) shape the way others perceive a new situation (E) explore new means of self-expression 15. The incident described in lines 41-52 shows the

author of Passage 2 to be similar to the silent filmmakers of Passage 1 in the way she

16. In lines 41-52, the author most likely describes a

specific experience in order to (A) dispel some misconceptions about what a mime

is like (B) show how challenging the career of a mime can

b, (C) portray the intensity reqUired to see the

audience's point of view (D) explain how unpredictable mime performances can be (E) indicate the adjustments an audience must make in watching mime 17. In Jines 60-63, the author's description of techniques used in the types of performances is (A) disparaging (8) astonished (C) sorrowful (D) indulgent (E) sentimental 18. What additional information would reduce the apparent Similarity between these two art forms? (Al Silent film audiences were also accustomed to vaudeville and theatrical presentations. (B) Silent films could show newsworthy events as well as dramatic entertainment. (e) Dialogue in the form of captions was integrated into silent films. (D) Theaters running silent films gave many musicians steady jobs. (El Individual characters created for silent fi lms became famous in their own right. 19. Both passages mention which of the following as being important to the artistic success of the dramatic forms they describe? (A) Effective fusion of disparate dramatic elements (B) Slightly exaggerated characterization (C) Incorporation of realistic details (D) Large audiences (El Audience involvement

(A) required very few props (8) used subtle technical skills to convey universal truths (e) learned through trial and error (D) combined narration with visual effects (E) earned a loyal audience of followers

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THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

Answers and Explanations I. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) describe the motivations of art forgers (B) indicate the artistic merit of particular forgeries

(C) discuss the challenges facing art forgers (D) catalogue the skills of a successful art fo rger (E) illustrate the public's ignorance about art forgery

~eplnMlnd

Answer: The correct answer is (C).

Don't be misled by an answer

that looks correct but is not supported by the actual text. Choice (0) is attractive. but it's

not as accurate as choice Ie).

Explanatiml: The passage primarily calls attention to the difficulties inherent in art forgery. Choice (C) is correct because the passage primarily discusses several ch allenges inherent in art forgery. Here's why each of the other choices is incorrect: • Choice (A) is incorrect because the passage does not discuss why people become art forgers.

• Choice (8) is incorrect because the passage does not discuss individual fo rgeries or their artistic merit. • Choice (0) is incorrect. Although the passage indicates that forgers need to be skilled enough to fool people who are experienced at detecting forgeries, it does not list or discuss the particular skills that make art forgers successful. • Choice (E) is incorrect. The passage does not discuss the public's lack ofknowledge about art forgery.

2. The author refers to art forgery as an act that is requires that the forger (Al (8) (C) (D) (El

~setf-effacing"

(line 3) because it

undergo an arduous apprenticeship work in the style of another artist forgo many opportunities for financial gain never take his or her work too seriously regard original artworks with reverence

Answer: The correct answer is (8). Explanation: The reference to "self-effacing" in line 3 suggests that a successful art forgery cannot ca ll attention to the forger. It must appear to be a creation of the original artist. Choice (8) is correct because forgery involves employing the style of another artist rather than working in one'S own style. It requires removing oneself from one's work.

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, Passage-based Reading

~epinMind

Here's why each of the other choices is incorrect:

• Choice (A) is incorrect because the author does not discuss apprenticeships undertaken by art forgers. Moreover. if forgers did undertake arduous apprenticeships. the experience would not necessarily be self-effacing.

A key word in the question may

be the clue you need to arrive at the best answer. Pay attention to the words that carry the meaning of the sentence.

• ChOices (C) and (D) are incorrec t because the author does not discuss the financial rewards of forging art, nor does the author suggest that the art forgers should not take their work too seriously.

• Choice (E) is incorrect because the author does not indicate that art forge rs must view original art with reverence. In fact, the author states that art forgery is an "audacious" act. A forger might not perform this audacious act if he or she viewed the original work with reverence.

3. Which best describes the fu nction of the opening sentence (~A cousin . . . . Washington )? H

(A) It underscores how frequently pests are transferred from one geographical region to another. (8) It suggests the potential harm the citrus longhorned beetle could cause in the United States. (e) It illustrates how the Asian longhorned beetle was introduced into the United States. (D) It describes how the citrus longhorned beetle was first discovered. (E) It compares the destructiveness of the Asian longhorned beetle to that of the citrus beetle.

Answer: The correct answer is (8). Explanation: The open ing sentence of the passage indicates that the citrus longhorned beetle is a relative of the Asian longhorned beetle, which has wreaked havoc on the plant life in the United States. Choice (B) is correct because the opening sentence establishes that the Asian and citrus longhorned beetles are cousins and points out the devastation that the Asian beetle has caused; the implication is that the citrus beetle might be as damaging to plant life as its "tenacious" relative. Here's why each of the other choices is not the correct answer:

~ePiDMind In some questions the syntax, or structure, of the sentence will guide vou to the right answer. In this case, the structure of the sentence emphasizes the comparison between the two beetles, suggesting that the second is much like the first.

• Choice (A) is incorrect because the opening sentence does not discuss how frequently pests are transferred from different geographical regions. • Choices (C) and (0) are incorrect because the opening sentence, while mentioning both the Asian and citrus longhorned beetles. does not indicate how the Asian beet le was introduced to New York City. nor does it describe how the citrus beet le was initially discovered.

63

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

• Choice (E) is incorrect because the opening sentence makes no direct compa rison between the damage caused by the Asian longhorned beetle and that caused by the citrus longhorned beetle; in fact, the passage does not provide information about the destructiveness of the citrus longhorned beetle.

4. The passage suggests that the actions undertaken in lines 9-12 are best characterized as

(A) tested and reliable (8) deliberate and effective (C) costly and unpopular (D) preemptive and aggressive (E) unprecedented and unfounded

~eplnMlnd

Answer: The correct answer is (0).

Careful reading is the key to finding the COrTect answer. It

may be tempting to apply a personal opinion, as in choice (e), but your answer must be found in the passage itself.

Explanation: Lines 9-12 indicate that to contain the possible spread of the citrus longhorned beetle qUickly, such actions as killing hea lthy trees and relaxing environ mental regulations and procedures were executed. Choice (0) is correct because the actions described in lines 9-12 were both preventative and bold: energetic measures undertaken to avert a potential envi ronmental disaster. Here's why each of the other choices is not the correct answer:

• Choice (A) is incorrect because the actions in lines 9-12 are not described as having been employed before, nor is there evidence that the actions have been repeated successfully. • Choice (8) is incorrect because nothing in lines 9-12 suggests that the act ions were ca reful and unhurried, nor is there any discussion of the effect iveness of these actions. • Choice (C) is incorrect because although the actions described in lines 9-12 might be expensive and unpopular, nothing in the passage directly supports this interpretation. • Choice (E) is incorrect because the passage provides no evidence that the actions in lines 9-12 had not been undertaken before; furtherm ore, the actions were not unwarranted, given the awareness of the damage that the Asian longhorned beetle had al ready caused.

64

Passage-based Reading

5. The author of Passage I implies that "literature with a capita! L" (lines 3-4) is fiction that is (A) considered classic by scholars of English literature

(8) written in a mannered and pretentious style (e) unafraid to address highbrow themes and weighty issues

(D) successful both critically and financially . (E) unfairly ignored by the book-buying public

Answer: The correct answer is (B).

Explana tion: The author of Passage I uses the phrase "literature with a capital L" to describe fiction written in a particular kind of prose. Choice (8) is correct because the passage suggests that "literature wit h a capital L" is written in "self-conscious, writerly prose." Prose written this way ca n also be desc ribed as "mannered and pretentious." Here's why each of the other choices is not the correct answer: • Choice (A) is incorrect because the passage does not discuss either the opinion of scholars or the issue of what is considered "d assic." • Choice (C) is incorrect because the passage doesn't focus on the types of themes and issues addressed by literary fiction.

G.P

In MInd

Rereading the relevant part of 'the passage should lead you to the correct answer. This quest ion asks for an understanding of a remaril: in the context of its neighboring sentences.

• Choice (D) is incorrect because the passage doesn't discuss how literary fiction fares in the marketplace. • Choice (E) is incorrect. Although the passage focuses on the amount of critical attention paid to literary fiction, it doesn't suggest that such fiction is undeservedly ignored by the book-buying public.

6. The author of Passage 2 suggests that authors who write ~self-conscious, writerly prose" (lines 4-5, Passage I) are (A) unlikely ever to produce great work

(8) trying to improve their chances of popular success (e) more talented than writers of mainstream fiction

(D) seeking the approval of like-minded writers (E) not capable of depicting a realistic fi ctional world

Answer: The correct answer is (D).

Explanation: Passage I uses the phrase "self-conscious, writerly prose" to describe the style of "literary fiction ." The question asks what the author of Passage 2 suggests about writers who employ this style. Choice (D) is correct because Passage 2 argues that writers of literary fiction hope to appeal to other people well versed in literary tiction: literary novelists, creative writing teachers. book reviewers and critics. So these writers using "self-conscious. writerly prose" are "seeking the approval of like-minded writers."

G.P

In MInd

The correct answer is found by rereading the highlighted phrase in the context of the surrounding sentences.

65

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

Here's why each of the other choices is not the correct answer: • Choice (A) is incorrect because Passage 2 focuses on why literary novelists write as they do, not on whether they are likely to produce great novels.

• Choice (8) is incorrect because Passage 2 argues that literary novelists are interested in impressing a very specific audience; they are not seek ing greater , popular success. • Choice (C) is incorrect because Passage 2 does not suggest that authorsofliterary fiction are either more or less talented than writers of mainstream fiction. • Choice (E) is incorrect because Passage 2 doesn't consider the issue of realism in writ ing.

7. In the two passages, quotation marks are primarily used to (A) call attention to some common ways of categorizing fiction (8) suggest that some literary terms are meaningless (C) note labels to which writers typically object

(0) ridicule the modes of writing most popular with the public (E) emphaSize the importance of a shared terminology

~eplnMlnd

Answer: The correct answer is (A).

Consider all the infonnation before making a Judgment. This question asks you to make an inference from the writer's stylistic choices. By comparing the choices to the content and meaning of each passage in its entirety, you will be able to see the purpose of the quotation marks.

Explanation: Choice (A) is correct because the aut hors of both passages put quotation marks around these words and phrases to call attention to the terms frequently used to characterize different kinds of fiction. Here's why each of the other choices is not the correct answer: • Choice (B) is incorrect because neither passage suggests that these literary terms are without meaning. In fact, both imply that these terms are commonly used when talking about fiction. and that they refer to specific, identifiable types of writing.

• Choice (C) is incorrect. While these words and phrases can be considered labels. neither passage suggests that writers typically object to them. • Choice (D) is incorrect. Although Passage 1 offers a negative view of mannered "literary fiction," it does not criticize popular fiction. Passage 2 makes no judgment at all about the inherent quality of either literary or popular fiction. • Choice (E) is incorrect. Although the quoted words and phrases are a shared terminology. neither passage emphasizes the value of sharing these terms. In fa ct, Passage 1 implies that the use of such terms is unfortunate because only fiction considered to be "literary" is given serious attention.

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Passage-based Reading

8. Which of the following best describes the relationship between the two passages? (A) Passage 2 presents evidence that rebuts the argument made in Passage 1. (B) Passage 2 explicitly defines terms that Passage I assumes are well known. (C) Passage 2 supplies an explanation for a state of affairs described in Passage 1. (D) Passage 2 focuses on an exception to a general rule established in Passage I. (E) Passage 2 provides a humorous view of a situation that Passage I finds inexplicable.

An.swer: The correct answer is (C).

Explanation: Passage 1 argues that literary fiction is reviewed more thoroughly than genre fiction and is the only kind of fiction recognized by award committees. Passage 2 argues that writers of literary fiction write to impress other literary novelists, reviewers and critics. This would explain why such fiction receives more serious attention from reviewers and award committees, as described in Passage 1. Therefore, choice (C) is correct. Here's why each of the other choices is not the correct answer: • Choice (A) is incorrect because Passage 2 does not rebut the argument made in Passage 1. In fact, it assumes that the situation described in Passage 1 is accurate. • Choice (B) is incorrect because. although Passage 2 uses some of the same terms as Passage 1. it does not define them any more explicitly. • Choice (0) is incorrect because Passage 2 does not focus on an exception to the situation described in Passage 1. In fact, it does not discuss a specific case at all. • Choice (E) is incorrect because Passage 1 does not indicate that the situation it describes is inexplicable. In addition. Passage 2 does not proVide a pa rticularly funny view of this subject.

(1,e

p in Mind

This is the type of question you might find easiest to answer if you eliminate answers that are wrong. Each of the incorrect answers is directly contradicted by material in the passages. You are left with the correct answer by process of elimination.

9. Both passages are primarily concerned with the subject of (A) shocking special effects (B) varied dramatic styles (C) visual elements in dramatic performances (D) audience resistance to theatrical performances (E) nostalgia for earlier forms of entertainment

Answer: The correct answer is (C).

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THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

Explanation: This question asks you to think about both passages. Notice that the question asks you to look for the main subject or focus of the pair of passages, not simply to recognize that one passage is about silent film and the other about mime. ~ The discussion in Passage 1 is most concerned with the effective~ep in Mind ness of silent films for audiences of that era. The discussion in Passage 2 is most concerned with what makes a mime performance effective When comparing two reading passages, review the relevant for the audience. The main subject fo r both passages is how a silent, parts of each passage as you visual form of entertainment affects an audience. Choice (C) is correct consider the choices. because it refers to performance in a visual art form. Here's why each of the other choices is incorrect: • Choice (A) is incorrect because "shocking special effects" is not a main subject of eit her passage. • Choice (B) is incorrect because, although "varied dramatic styles" (used by film performers and in mime) is briefly touched on in both passages, it is not the main subject of the pair of passages. • Choice (D) is incorrect because. "audience resistance to theatrical performances" is too specific: both authors are making points about the overall role of audiences in the performance. Choice (D) is also incorrect because that topic is primarily addressed only in Passage 2. • Choice (E) is incorrect because a tone of nostalgia appears only in Passage 1.

10. The author of Passage I uses the phrase uenthusiastic uncertainty" in line 17 to suggest that the filmmakers were (A) excited to be experimenting in a new field (B) delighted at the opportunity 10 study new technology (C) optimistic in spite of the obstacles that faced them

(D) eager to challenge existing conventions (E) eager to please but unsure of what the public wanted

~.PInMlnd

Answer: The correct answer is (A). Explanation: Look at the beginning of the third paragraph of Passage L The fi lmmakers were "enthusiastic" about a new kind of art form in which they could experi ment. And experimentation led to "accidental discoveries" (line 18), which suggests "uncertainty," all of which is said, though in a slightly different way, in choice (A). Here's why each of the other choices is incorrect:

Read each choice carefully and compare what it says to the information in the passage.

.

• Choice (B) is incorrect because the filmmakers were delighted to use the new technology rather than to study it. • Choice (C) can be eliminated because the passage does not talk about "obstacles" faced by the filmmakers.

68

Passage-based Reading

• Choice (D) is specifically contradicted by line 16, which refers to these film- ' makers as working "before formulas took shape." The word formulas in this context means the same thing as "conventions." • Choice (E) is incorrect because the "uncertainty" of the filmmakers was related to the new technology and how to use it, not to "what the public wanted."

11. In lines 19-24, Regeneration and the films of Thomas lnce are presented as examples of (A) formulaic and uninspired silent films (B) profitable successes of a flourishing industry (e) suspenseful action films drawing large audiences (D) daring applications of an artistic philosophy (E) unusual products of a readiness to experiment

Answer: The correct answer is (E). Explanation: The author's argument in the third paragraph is that there was lots of "room for experimentation" (line 17) in the silent film industry. Both Regeneration and Inee's fi lms are specifically mentioned as examples of that "readi ness to experiment," as referred to in choice (E). H ere's why each of the other choices is incorrect:

~epinMind

• Choice (A) is directly contradicted in two ways by the information in the passage. First, line 16 says that the filmmakers worked "before formulas took shape," so their work could not be "formulaic." Second, the author refers to Regeneration as having some "startling" effects and indicates that the endings of Ince's films were different from the endings of other fi lms of the time. So it would not be correct to describe these films as "uninspired."

As you consider the choices, think of the words, phrases and sentences in the passage that relate to the question you are answering. Be aware of how the ideas in the passage are presented. What is the author's point? How does the author explain and support important points?

• Choices (B), (C) and (0) are incorrect because the author does not argue that these films were "profitable," "suspenseful " or "applications of an artistic philosophy." He argues that they are examples of a willingness to "experiment."

12. In context, the reference to "eyestrain" (line 30) conveys a sense of (A) irony regarding the incompetence of silent film technicians (B) regret that modern viewers are unable to see high-quality prints of silent films (C) resentment that the popularity of picture palaces has waned in recent years (D) pleasure in remembering a grandeur that has passed (E) amazement at the superior quality of modern film technology

Answer: The correct answer is (8). Explanation: The author draws a distinction between the way silent films look when viewed today - "jerky and flickery" (line 28) - and the way they looked

69

THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

&.ep MInd In

Try eliminating choices that you

know are incorrect. Rule out choices that don't answer the question being asked or that are contradicted by the information in the passage.

when they were originally shown. He implies that thousands of people would not have come to the movie houses if the pictures had given them "eyestrai n." The author indicates that the perception of silent films today is unfortunate. This feeling can be described as "regret," choice (8 ). Here's why each of the other choices is incorrect: • Choice (A) is incorrect because there is no indicat ion in the passage that silent film technicians were "incompetent." The author even mentions "the care" taken by "the original technicians" (lines 26-27).

• Both choices (C) and (D) are incorrect because they do not answer this question. Remember, the question refers to the statement about "eyest rain ." The remark about eyestrain concerns the technical quality of the films, not the "popularity of picture palaces" or a "grandeur that has passed." • Choice (E) is incorrect for two reasons. First, no sense of "a mazement" is conveyed in the statement about eyestrain. Second, the author does not say that modern films are "superior" to silent films , only that the "prints" of silent films are " inferior" to what they once were (lines 25-26).

13. In line 34, "legends" most nearly means (A) (8) (C) (0)

ancient folklore obscure symbols history lessons fa mous people (E) common misconceptions

&.epln~nd

Answer: The correct answer is (E).

This is a vocabulary-In·context question . Even if you don't know the meaning of the word, try to figure it out from the pas· sage and the choices. Examine the context in which the word is used. Think of some word!s) that would make sense in the sen· tence; then look at the answers to see if any choice is similar to the word!s) you thought of.

Explanatio,,: A legend is an idea or story that has come down from the past. A secondary meaning of legend is anything made up rather than based on fact. Throughout the fina l paragraph of Passage I, the author emphasizes that people today have the wrong idea about the visual quality of silent films. In the last sentence, the author states that the act ing was "often very subtle" and "very restrained," and then he adds, "despite legends to the contrary." According to the author, silent film acting is today thought of as unsubtle and unrestrained, but that is a misconcep tion, an idea not based on fact, a "legend." Choice (E) is the best of the answer choices. Here's why each of the other choices is incorrect:

• Choice (A) is incorrect because, although it is the most common meaning of legend. it doesn't make any sense here. Ther~ s no reference to or suggestion ... about "ancient folklore." • Choice (8) is incorrect because it has no support at all in the passage.

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Passage-based Reading

• Choice (C) is incorrect because the author does not refer to "history lessons" in this sentence, but to mistaken notions about the performances in silent films. • Choice (D) is incorrect because it simply doesn't make sense. In line 34, the word legends refers to acting, not to people.

14. The author of Passage 2 most likely considers the contrast of mime artist and tour guide appropriate because both (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

are concerned with conveying factual information employ artistic techniques to communicate their knowledge determine whether others enter a strange place shape the way others perceive a new situation explore new means of self-expression

Answer: The correct answer is (D). Explanation: To answer this question, you have to find a choice that desc ribes a similarity between the performances of a mime and the work of a tour guide. The author begins Passage 2 by saying that a mime "opens up a new world to the beholder," but in a "manner" (or way) different from that of a tour gUide. Thus the author assumes that contrasting the mime and the tour guide is appropriate because both of them "shape the way others perceive a new situation," choice (D). , Here's why each of the other choices is incorrect:

c;epinMind Pay close attention when authors make connections, comparisons or contrasts. These parts of passages help you identify the authors' points of view and assumptions.

• Choice (A) is incorrect because although it may correctly describe a tour guide, it doesn't fit the mime. Nowhere in the passage does the author say the mime conveys "factual information ." • Choice (B) is incorrect because although it is true for the mime, it is not true for the tour guide. • Choice (C) is incorrect because the aut hor of Passage 2 contrasts how mimes and tour gUides introduce others to "a new world," not how they determine entrance to "a strange place." • Choice (E) is incorrect because the author does not discuss "self-expression" as a tour guide's work, and because she indicates that, as a mime, she expresses a particula r character, not her own personality.

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THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

15. The incident described in lines 41-52 shows the author of Passage 2 to he similar to the silent filmmake rs of Passage I in the way she (A) (B) (e) (D) (E)

~.PInMlnd

required very few props used subtle tcchnical skills to convey universal truths learned through trial and error combined narration with visual effects earned a loyal audience of followers

Answer: The correct answer is (C).

When a question following a

pair of passages as ks you to identify something that is common to both passages or true for both passages, eliminate any answ er that is tru e for only one of the two passages.

Here's

Explanation: The question focuses on the story related in Jines 41-52 and asks you to explain how that story shows that the mime is similar to silent filmmakers. $0 the correct answer has to express a point made about the mime in lines 41-52 that is also true for the film makers described in Passage 1. Lines 41-52 show the mime cha nging her performance when she found something that d id not work. Passage 1 says that filmmakers learned through "experimentation" and "accidental discoveries." So all of these people learned through trial and error, choice (C). why each of the other choices is incorrect:

• Choices (A), (B), (D) and (E) are incorrect answers because they don't include traits both described in lines 41-52 and shared with the filmmakers.

,

• Choice (A) is incorrect because "props" aren't mentioned in eit her passage. • Choice (8) is incorrect because "conveying universal truths" is not discussed in Passage 1. • Choice (D) is incorrect because a mime performs without speaking or narration. • Choice (E) is incorrect because Passage I describes loyal aud iences but lines 41-52 do not.

16. In lines 41-52, the author most likely describes a specific experience in order to (A) (B) (C) (0 ) (E)

dispel some misconceptions about what a mime is like show how challenging the career of a mime can be portray the intensity req uired to see the audience's point of view explain how unpredictable mime performances can be ind icate the adjustments an audience must make in watching mime

A nswer: The correct answer is (E). Explanation: The correct answer must expla in why the author of Passage 2 described a particular experience in lines 41-52. The author's point is that she learned the audience was "enjoying a gradual awa kening." Only choice (E) indicates that the story shows the "adjustments" the audience had to make to appreciate her perfo rmance.

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Passage-based Reading

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Here's why each of the other choices is inc..orrect: • Choice (A) is' incorrect because the only "misconception" that is dispelled is the author's "misconception" about the audience. • Choice (B) is incorrect because, while the story might suggest that mime is a "challenging career," that is not the author's point in desc ribing the experience.

p In MInd

Every word counts. When you're asked about the author's intent in describing something, you have to pay close attention to how the author uses details to explain, support or challenge the point being made.

• Choice (C) is incorrect because there is no reference to "intensity" on the part of the mime. • Choice (D) is incorrect because the emphasis of lines 41-52 is not on how "u npredictable" mime performance is but on what the author learned from her failure to understand the audience's init ial react ion.

17. In lines 60-63, the author's description of techniques used in the types of performances is (A) disparaging (B) astonished (C) sorrowful (0) indulgent (E) sentimental

Answer: The cor~ect answer is (A). Explanation: The sentence beginning in line 60 says that when viewing m ime, the audience "cannot sit back, mindlessly complacent." The author then says that other types of performances "titillate" audience emot ions by "mesmeric musical sounds" or "acrobatic feats." The author uses these kinds of words to belittle other techniques - her tone is disparaging, which is the answer in choice ~A). Here's why each of the other choices is incorrect:

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~ePinMind

To figure out the author's attitude or tone or how the author feels about something, think about how the author uses tanguage in the passage.

• Choices (B), (C) and (E) are incorrect because no "astonishment," "sorrow" or "sentimentalism" is suggested in lines 60-63. • Choice (D) is incorrect because it is almost the opposite of what the author means. She is not at all "indulgent" toward these other types of performance.

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THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

18. What additional information would reduce the apparent similarity between these two art forms? (A) Silent film audiences were also accustomed to vaudeville and theatrical presentations. (B) Si lent films could show newsworthy events as well as dramatic entertainment. (C) Dialogue in the fo rm of captions 'was integrated into silent films. (0) Theaters running si lent films gave many musicians steady jobs. (E) Individual characters created for silent films became famous in their own righl.

Answer: The correct answer is (C).

~ePlnMind

Explanation: This question asks you to do two things: first , figure out a similarity bet ween silent films and mime; second, choose an answer This question asks you to think wit h informat ion that isn't found in either passage but would make about the two reading passages together. Remember that you mime performance and silent films seem less similar. should also consider the inforIf you think about the art forms 4iscussed in the two passages, you mation in the introduction when you compare passages. should realize that neither uses speech. This is an important similarity. Silent films include music but not spoken words. As stated in the introduction to the two passages, a mime entertai ns "without speak ing." Choice (C) adds the informat ion that "d ialogue" between characters was part of silent films. Characters "spoke" to each other even though audiences read captions instead of hearing spoken words. So silent film indirectly used speech and thus was different from mime, which relies on gesture,jacial expression and movement. Here's why the other choices are incorrect:

• Choices (A), (B), (D) and (E) are incorrect because they don't deal with the fundamental similarity between the two a rt forms - the absence of words. These may all be interesting things to know about silent film, but "vaudeville" performances (choice A), "newswort hy events" (choice B), "steady jobs" for musicians (choice D) and fame of "individual characters".{choice E) have nothing to do with m ime. None of these things is related to an apparent similarity between mime and silent fi lms.

19. Both passages ment ion which of the following as being important to the artistic success of the dra matic forms they describe? (A) (B) (C) (0) (E)

Effective fusion of disparate dramatic elements Slightly exaggerated characterization Incorporation of realistic details Large audiences Audience involvement

Answer: The correct answer is (E). Explanation: Passage I very clearly states in lines 5-8 that audience involvement was important to the success of silent films. In lines 58-60 of Passage 2, the author

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PassageMbased Reading

makes a similarly strong statement about how important it is for the audierlce to be involved in mime performance; thus choice (E) is correct. Here's why each of the other choices is incorrect: • Choices (A)-(D) are incorrect because they don't refer to ideas mentioned in both passages as "important to the artistic success of the dramatic forms."

~epinMind When comparing two passages, focus on the specific subject of the question. Don't try to remember everything from both passages. Refer to the passages as you work your way through the five choices.

• Choice (A) is incorrect because Passage 1 talks about the "fusion" of pictures and music, but Passage 2 is not concerned at all wit h "dispa rate dramatic elements." • Choice (8) is incorrect because although it refers to something mentioned in Passage 2 (l ine 43), it is not something important to the success of a mime performance. And Passage 1 says that the "acti ng in silents was often very subtle, very restra ined" (lines 33-34), which is the opposite of "exaggerated." • Choice (C) is incorrect because it is mentioned only in Passage 1 (lines 20-22), and not as an element "important to the artistic success" of silent films in general. • Choice (D) is incorrect because the author of Passage 1 says that silent films did enjoy "la rge audiences," but he doesn't say that "large audiences" were critica l to the "artistic success" of the films. Passage 2 doesn't mention the size of the audiences at all.

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Recap 1. Be familiar with the directions before test day. 2. Keep in mind that, in this section of the test (unlike other sections of the SAT), questions do not increase in difficulty from easy to hard.

3. Don't forget that all passages have numbered lines, so when a question refers to a particular line or lines in the passage, go back and read the matching line(s) before answering the question.

4. Think of all possible meanings of a word. One word can have many meanings; the answer choices of vocabulary-in-context questions will often include several different meanings of the word. 5. Remember that the information you need to answer each question is always in the passage(s) - specific words, phrases and! or sentences that help to prove your choice is correct. All questions ask you to base your answer on what you read in the passages, introductions and (sometimes) footnotes. Keep in mind that there should always be information in the passage(s) that supports your choice. 6. Bear in mind that every word counts. Details that explain, support or challenge a point in a passage can help you understand how the author wants you to feel or think. 7. Try marking up the passages or making short notes in the sample test and practice questions in this book. S. If you are having a hard time with a passage, read the questions before you finish the passage. 9. When comparing two reading passages, review the relevant parts of each passage as you consider the choices. 10. Read the questions and answers carefully - this is as important as reading the passage carefully. Read actively to absorb as much information as possible. 11. Remember that an answer can be true and still be the WTong answer to a particular question. 12. Don't be misled by an answer that looks correct but is not supported by the actual text. 13. Look for a key word in the question stem, which may be the clue you need to arrive at the best answer.

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14. Pay attention to the syntax, or structure, of the sentence in some questions , which will guide you to the right answer. 15. Don't apply your personal opinion: instead, read carefully, bec ause you must find your answer in the text passage itself.

16. To figure out the author's attitude or tone or how the aut hor feels about something, think about how the author uses language in the passage . 17. Reread the relevant part of the passage to find the correct answer. Examine the context in which words are used. Also, don't try to remember everything from the passage(s): instead, refer back to the passage(s) as you work your way through the possible answers.

18. Pay close attention when authors make connections, comparisons or contrasts. These parts of the passages can help you identify the authors' points of view and assumptions. 19. Do not be too quick to make a judgment without considering all the information.

20. If you' re not sure of the correct answer, tty eliminating choices and make an educated guess. If a question following a pair of reading passages asks you to identify something that is common to both passages or true for both passages , eliminate any answer that is true for only one of the two passages.

21 . When you have made your choice, double-check the other choices to make sure there isn't a better one.

22. Don't get bogged down on difficult questions. You might want to skim a set of questions and start by answering those you feel sure of. Then concentrate on the harder questions. But don't skip between sets of reading q uestions, because when you return to a passage you'll probably have to read it again. 23 . When you have gone through all the questions associated with a passage , go back and review any you left out or weren't sure about.

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THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

Practice Questions The passages below are followed by questions based on their content; questions following a pair of related passages may also be based on the relationship between the paired passages. Answer the questions on the basis of what is ~ or ~ in the passages and in any introductory material that may be provided.

Questions 1-2 are based on the following passage. The Internet is rapidly becoming another means of disseminating information traditionally made available through radio and television stations. Indeed, it is now Line possible for journalists and the public to access new 5 releases of audio- and videotapes, satellite media tours, and on-line news conferences via.their computers. The number of news sites on the Internet grows each day. As one media company executive notes, "With many of these Web sites generating new content every hour 10 and exponentially larger audiences, on-line news sites represent a dynamic and vital outlet for news," 1. In the passage, the author emphaSizes which aspect of the Internet? (A) Its speed (B) Its cost (C) Its growth (D) Its design (El Its accuracy 2. Which of the following best captures the attitude of the (line 8) toward the Internet? (A) (B) {Cl (D) (E)

~company

Anxiety Distrust Ambivalence Excitement Curiosity

Questions 3-6 are based on the following passages. Passage I A recent study comparing the DNA of Native Americans and central Siberians has established that the two populations share common ancestors, Many anthropolLine ogists see this as proof of the Bering Strait migration 5 theory, which holds that between 11,000 and 6,000 years ago, ancestors of Native Americans migrated southward from Asia to North America across a land bridge that had joined the two continents. Apache scholar Ramon Riley sees it differently, Noting that tribal legends locate Apache 10 origins squarely in the American Southwest, he offers an alternative explanation of the newfound genetic link, ~The migration was just the other way around," he says, "They spread north from here_" In ,support of this view, Riley argues that the Athabaskan languages spoken by the northern 15 tribes~in the Pacific Northwest, Canada, and Alaska-are "much more diluted" than that spoken by the Apache.

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executive"

Passage-based Reading

Passage 2 Stanford University linguist Merritt Ruhlen has discovered st riking sim ilarities between Ket, a nearly extinct language spoken in central Siberia. and various languages 20 of the Athabaskan group, traditionally spoken by Native Americans living along the western edge of North America. including the Apache in the southwestern United States. Citing 36 separate instances of correspondences between Ket and Athabaskan words, Ruhlen concludes that both linguistic 25 traditions ultimately derive from a single language, one presumably spoken by a prehistoric population from which both the Siberians and Native Americans are descended. 3. The two passages are similar in that each one (A) (8) (C) (D) (E)

traces the origins ofKet to a Native American language uses genetic evidence to support its position discusses research linking Native Americans to a population in Siberia attempts to reconcile traditional myth and historical fact hypothesizes that a land mass once connected Asia am' North America

4. The anthropologists mentioned in Passage I, lines 3-4, wou ld most likely claim that Merritt Ruhlen's conclusion (Passage 2, lines 24-27) is (A) inconsistent with the DNA evidence (B) further confirmation of the Bering Strait migration theory (C) a validation of some Native American legends (D) based on a misunderstanding of Siberian culture (E) evidence that Ket is no longer spoken in central Siberia 5. Ramon Riley (Passage I, li ne 8) would most likely argue that the "prehistoric population" (Passage 2, line 26) was origi nally located in (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

central Siberia the southwestern United States the Pacific Northwest Canada Alaska

6. Passage I differs from Passage 2 in that on ly Passage 1 (A) provides evidence of linguistic similarities between two languages (8) contends that d ifferent groups descended from the same population (e) questions the feasibility of a population migration between continents (D) discusses the multiple languages spoken in central Siberia (E) offers conflicting interpretations of a recent scientific discovery

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THE CRITICAL READING SECTION

Questions 7· 12 are based on tbe following passage.

The followin.g passage is an excerpt from a book written by two female Iristori(H1s about professional women who begml their careers in science in the lale nineteel1th and early twentieth cellturies.

The strong efforts to gain equality for women in the scientific workplace began to show results in the last quarter of the twentieth century; women have secured Line poSitions as research scientists and won recognition and 5 promotion within their fields. Though the modern struggle

for equality in scientific fields is the same in many ways as it was in the early pari of the century, it is also different.

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The women who first began undertaking careers in science had litlle support from any part of the society in wh ich they lived. This vanguard had to struggle alone against the social conditioning they had received as women members ofthat society and against the male-dominated scientific community. Women scientific researchers made a seemingly auspicious beginning. In the first quarter of the twentieth century, some women scientists who engaged in research worked at the most prestigious institutes of the period and enjoyed more career mobility than women researchers would experience again for several decades. Florence Sabin, an anatomist at the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research noted for her research on the lymphatic system, is one important example. This encouraging beginning, however, was not to be followed by other successes for many decades. To have maintained an active role in research institutions, women would have had to share some of the decision-making power: they needed to be part of hiring, promotion, and funding decisions. Unfort unately, these early ~'omen scientists were excluded from the power structure of scienti fic research. As a resuit, they found it almost impossible to provide opportunities for a younge r set of female colleagues seeking employment in a research setting, to foster their productivity and facilitate their career mobility, and eventually to allow them access to the top ranks. Even those with very high profeSSional aspirations accepted subordinate status as assistants if doing so seemed necessary to gain access to research positions-and too often these were the only positions offered them in their chosen careers. Time and again they pulled back from offering any real resistance or chaltenge to the organizational structure that barred their advancement. But we must remember that these women scientists were few in number, their participation in dedsion-makingpositions was Virtually nil, and their political clout was minimal. Thus they could easily become highly visible targets for elimination from the staff, especially if their behavior was judged in the least imprudent. Women's awareness that they were unequal colleagues. included in professional settings only on the sufferance of male colleagues, who held the pOSitions of power, conOicted with their belief in meritocracy. They wanted to believe that achieving persons would be welcomed for their abilities and contributions. Yet they were surrounded hy evidence to the contrary. An assista nt professor of zoology observed that the men who were

heads of departments were insistent on having other men in the department; they told her that women ought to be satisfied teaching high school. She relates that, during her ten years in the department. men were given at least six 60 positions that she was qualified for and wanted desperately, but for which she was not even considered because she was a woman. 7. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) (8) (C) (D) (E)

explain a situation refute an argument propose a change predict an outcome honor an achievement

8. The passage as a whole suggests that "career mobilityQ (lines 18 and 32-33) means the (A) freedom to work on projects that one is most interested in (8) freedom to publish research findings no matter how controversial they are (e) ability to obtain funding to travel to important professional meetings (D) ability to find ajob in any part of the country (E) ability to advance in one's chosen field 9. The statement that women could be eliminated from their jobs if their behavior was "the least imprudent" (line 47) suggests primarily that they (A) we re more likely than their m~le colleagues to be rebellious (8) participated in the creation of the standards by which the performance of researchers was judged (C) could gain advancement if they avoided political con frontations about their rights as wo men (D) were judged by a standard different ftom the one used to judge their male colleagues (E) were as critical of their colleagues as their colleagues were of them 10. The last paragraph of the passage suggests that for the majority of women scientists, the "belief in me ritocracy" (line 51) was (A) justified, conSidering the opportunities available to them (8) fortunate, because it provided them with attainable goals (C) inconsistent with the fact thaI they were discriminated against on the job (D) understandable, in that the concept had worked for the previous generation of women scientists (E) trend-setting. in that their views soon received universal acceptance

Passage-based Reading

I I. The example of the assistant professor of zoology (lines 54-62) serves primarily to indicate the (A) extent of male bias against women in scientific fields at a particular time (B) results of a woman's challenging male dominance in the early part of this centu ry (C) reasons for women's right to equal treatment (D) inability of men and women to work together in an academic setting (E) early attempts of women 10 achieve a share of scientific awards 12. All of the following questions can be explicitly answered 011 the basis of the passage EXCEPT: (A) What condit ions did women scientists find it necessary to struggle against in the first quarter of the twentieth century? (B) What specific steps were taken in the early part oflhe twentieth century to help women gain equality in the scientific workplace? (C) What changes in the organization of the scientific commun ity would have enhanced the position of women scientists as the twentieth century advanced? (D) What were the views of some women scientific researchers on the subject of meritocracy? (E) What degree of success was attained by the generation of women scientists who followed those who came into prominence earlier in the twentieth century?

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Q uestions 13-25 are based on the following passage. 71ze following excerpt i5 the beginning of a memoir, published ill 1989, by a woman who emigrated with her family from Poland to Canada when she was a teenager.

It is April 1959. I'm standing at the railing of the Salory's upper deck, and I feel that my li fe is ending. I'm looking out at the crowd that has gathLins ered on the shore to see the ship's departure from 5 Gdynia-a crowd that, all of a sudden, is irrevocably on the other side-and I want to break out, run back, run toward the familiar excitement, the waving hands, the exclamations. We can't be leaving all this behind-but we are. I am thirteen 10 years old, and we are emigrating. It's a notion of such crushing, definitive finality that to me it might as well mean the end of the world. My sister, four years younger than I, is clutching my hand wordlessly; she hardly understands 15 where we are, or what is happening to us. My parents are highly agitated; they had just been put through a body search by the customs police. St ill, the officials .....eren't clever enough, or suspicious enough, to check my sister and me-lucky for us, 20 since .....e are both carrying some silverware .....e were not allo .....ed to take out of Poland in large

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