the FIRST BOOK of WORLD WAR II...94 downloads 684 Views 12MB Size
FIRST BOOK of
WORLD WAR II
Harry Neil Snyder
Printed in the United States of America by the Polygraphic
SIXTH PRINTING Library of Congress Catalog Card
of America, Inc.
CONTENTS The War
What Caused World War
Conquest of Europe, 14
The Sinking of the Athenia, 17 The "Phony War," 18 Blitzkrieg in the West, 20
in the Atlantic,
The Battle of Britain, 29 The Battle of the Balkans, 33 The Traitors, 34 The War Behind the Lines, 35 Hitler,
Master of Europe, 37
of Democracy, 38
Hitler Turns on Russia, 39
"A Date Which Will Live in Infamy," 42 The Japanese in the Pacific, 48 The Home Front, 50 The War in North Africa, 5 The Beginning of the End, 56 The Invasion of Europe, 58 The General Says "Nuts!", 62 Victory on the Seas, 65 Victory in the Pacific, 68
Story of Courage, 74
Bombs on Germany, 76 Death of Three Leaders, 80
The A-Bomb, 82 The Problems of
Planning a Peaceful World, 88
Words, 93 Picture Credits, 94 II
4 1958 by Franklin Watts,
THE WAR BEGINS On
of Poland. First
crashed across the borders
the Stuka dive-bombers, with shrieking whistles
in their wings, to blast the Polish planes that
were on the ground.
and highways. They
smashed the big
After this came the motorcycle infantry, armored cars, and tanks. Finally the regular infantry
— moved •
in to finish
This was a Blitzkrieg,
German word meaning
The ground was
the best trained force in the world with
weather was good.
just right for lightning
Meanwhile, the Russians were pushing into Poland from the
Germans had made
a treaty to
conquer and divide the
country between themselves.
Poland had no chance against the mighty German army. Her
army had no time
back or even
begin to retreat before
overwhelmed. Within two weeks Warsaw, the biggest
was surrounded by the Germans. In a
six years of
history of the world.
they had con-
quered the whole country and the Russians moved in from the
So began the
the most terrible
armored cars enter a Polish Nazi motorcycle infantry and by repeated bombmgs Town after it has been devastated
WHAT CAUSED WORLD WAR There was no one simple cause were many After
which ended the war. They their
four imperial governments were swept
Most of them grew out
and Turkey. The Ger-
about the terms of the Versailles Treaty lost all their colonies
and one-eighth of
forced to return Alsace-Lorraine to
France. Their navy, second only to Great Britain's, was almost wiped
away. Their army was cut
was not much
that of Belgium.
Late in the 18th century Poland had been divided countries
World War was
ended. However, in 19 19, a
in Eastern Europe.
many was made chunk
could have an outlet to the
was no Poland when
new independent Poland Prussia.
This was a huge
and 80 miles wide. So
she was given
Polish Corridor, running right through
mans never forgave
the Allies for splitting their country into
newly re-created country, Ger-
up Posen and West
of territory, 260 miles long
ing old wounds this war actually created
end wars." Instead of
got strong again, she would almost certainly try to get vengeance.
borrowed nearly 10
the countries allied against
from the United
back over a period of 62
money from Germany by demanding
to get the
reparations, or payments, for
war damage. Starting in 1929 there all
over the world
world-wide depression, a time when
people became poor and jobless.
war and was over her head
In such times, ahead,
Such men are
allowed to run
beings are like animals of themselves as tigers,
free country they
the people follow them,
But the Germans, the
three strong dictators arose.
"dead corpse." In a
to rule the lambs.
weak lambs. They think
the country. Dictators believe that
strong tigers and
almost everything she
people are cold and hungry and see no hope
tate to the people, or tell
in debt to the victorious nations.
sometimes easy for a strong and
where he wants them
might have found
fine their promises.
and the Japanese had never known
freedom. They were used to following strong leaders instead of working out their
problems in a democratic government.
Benito Mussolini became dictator of Italy in 1922. nalist
followers were called Fascists. the loyalty of the people by
of revolutionary pamphlets. His
power he won
had made the
of his proud boasts
run on time! But he demanded
refused to obey
Mussolini's real ambition was to rule a great colonial empire.
was overcrowded and must have more land
grow and become
told the people that Italy in
that the people obey
Sea. Mussolini glorified
armies into Africa to take
a great nation.
— Mare Nostrum, which
war and conquest and
land by force.
General Hideki Tojo was the leader of the war party in Japan.
in that tiny island
by promising the people an empire in
wanted the Netherlands East
from which America got most of her
and rubber. Under
Tojo's leadership Japan attacked China in 1931. In 1932 she seized the rich province of
Manchuria and renamed
Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany Austrian politician
who had worked
a ridiculous looking
mind. But he had the power
pride, as the
Hitler promised the half-starved
do what he territories
power through the
Nazi, party. His followers were called Nazis.
and make her
with a screeching voice
to arouse people's feelings,
particularly the feeling of hate. This feeling
often strong in people
plenty to eat
promised to win back Germany's
a great nation again.
back their pride in themselves as a people. But he took away the
they might have found in the democratic government they had
one dared go against Hitler's wishes or
even disagree with him. Hitler
was driven by the idea
intelligent than all others.
were meant finally the
"race" was stronger
believed that the
conquer Europe, and
"Today, Europe," he
addresses members of the Hitler Youth Organization at a mass rally
leaders before him, he
"For the good of the German people," he a
"we must wish
preserve peace leads only to playing at soldiers."
up and imprisoned or
Hitler gained full power, he rounded
murdered millions of Jews.
downfall was largely the fault of the Jews, and his followers believed him.
Another thing he did was
the books that spoke for the
freedom and dignity of the human
be easier to lead once they got
out of their heads that they were
capable of thinking for and ruling themselves. Hitler's deeds of violence
shook the world
since the days of those other cruel
the Terrible of Russia,
had not been shaken
In 1936 Hitler and Mussolini joined forces in what was called the
Rome-Berlin Axis. states
Italy, as a
Japan joined the Axis.
three dictator nations, Italy,
Japan, planned to conquer the world and divide
around the two great powers of Ger-
wheel revolves around
the Pact of Steel.
called "Axis" because all the
plan was to take over Europe piece by piece. to cooperate
with Hitler and get what was
of Africa as could be conquered.
plan was to create a huge empire in the Far East.
the saddle to address a meeting of the Fascist Youth Organization
was impossible it.
strong and sure of themselves.
with them. They wanted war. They started later Russia
and the United
the Axis powers.
— Britain and France, and
tried to stop
II rests solely
and squarely on
CONQUEST OF EUROPE
Hitler began his conquest of Europe in 1938. year he sent his troops into Austria.
the Sudetenland. area. Hitler to seize the
included the region called
vakia. If Hitler attacked her, they
living in this
Both France and Russia had signed
This new demo-
claimed falsely that they were mistreated.
a part of the old Austro-
15 of that
to take over Czechoslovakia.
had been formed out of
occupied that country and proclaimed
Next Hitler decided
to her help.
not prepared for war.
In an effort to keep the peace, Britain's elderly Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, and the French Premier, Edouard Daladier, went to
to talk to Hitler.
the city of Munich. There,
29, 1938, all four signed the
at the last
The document gave
11,000 miles of Czech territory. This territory contained
more than 3,000,000 mercy of
Munich Pact war was stopped
at a cruel price,
They met both
a piece of paper.
Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain is greeted by crowds as he returns from his historic conference with Hitler on Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain's umbrella, which he carried rain or shine, became a symbol of "appeasement," or trying to get along with Hitler on the dictator's own terms
sured the English people that he had brought "peace in our time."
one asked the poor Czechs
trayal of Czechoslovakia did not bring peace. Before the year
England and France had reason to
to suspect that
invade Poland. After
ing to protect her
France had signed a treaty with Poland promis-
she were invaded.
Hitler had his eyes on Poland,
fight to protect her. This 3,
that she, too,
was the end of appeasement.
and England declared war on Germany.
Nazi infantry on the march
THE SINKING OF THE ATHENIA World War
was only nine hours old on
Montreal, were enjoying themselves. Suddenly some
"Look There's !
once there was a crashing explosion and the unarmed
ship began to sink.
passengers on board the Athenia, a
from London one
and children were rushed
But nearly a hundred people British
lost their lives.
to protect their ships at sea.
sinking of the Athenia gave the world warning that once again
Germans would do everything
control of the seas, just as they
in their tried to
THE "PHONY WAR" On
much happened for began to call World War
The French dug underground
"phony war." The
which means sit-down war.
in behind their great
awhile after war was de-
a long series
running along the border between France and
Germany. The Germans stayed behind
their Siegfried Line, or
Wall, which they had hastily built above ground. Both sides could see
each other. There was
of the Allied soldiers sang a song
Hang Out My
the Siegfried Line!"
of the reasons for this strange lack of fighting
the winter of 1939- 1940
was one of the worst in
Another reason was that Hitler ner, Russia, in the east.
thought he could get out of fighting the
French and English by defeating the Russians. Once Russia was conquered he would turn "See,
than you do. Look
to the Allies
Communists any more
don't like the Russian
soldier plays the
the "Dragon's Teeth" of the Siegfried line
ADOLF HITLER, 1940: "I am convinced that our struggle will in the future be blessed by Providence as it has been blessed up to now. look to the future with fanatical confidence." I
BLITZKRIEG IN THE WEST Before turning on Russia, Hitler wanted to be stronger in western
Europe. Suddenly, in early April, 1940, he attacked
took them in a single day. His Blitzkrieg was like a knife
cutting through butter.
later Hitler struck again.
countries. Parachutists took airfields, bridges,
The German Air
Force, or Luftwaffe,
Rotterdam, in Holland, leaving
invaded Holland and Bel-
tanks, followed by infantry, crashed across the borders
the center of
time Winston Churchill became Prime Minister of England.
hoped he would find
to offer but blood, toil, tears,
of the war.
and sweat," he
MIRACLE AT DUNKIRK By 1940 had
things looked dark for the Allies. Their combined efforts
failed to halt Hitler's
advance into Belgium.
the northeastern corner of France
ditionary force, together with French troops. the
Germans from sweeping on
Leopold of Belgium ordered
This was a serious blow to the ing one flank, or
side, of the
a British expe-
to surrender to the
Belgians had been guard-
Panzer, or tank column, racing westward to the English Channel.
enemy had not
and French troops
They were caught
north separated from
in a trap.
the coast of France, the only seaport that the
to leave the
Continent or be wiped
Between the retreating Allied armies and the Germans there was a series of flood gates,
used to protect Dunkirk from the waters of the
opened these flood gates
and hold up
much. The Allied
so that the waters
of half a million
few Dutch and the remains of the French army, were
bombed continuously They were
poured into the tiny
forced into an ever narrowing space toward the beaches,
with only the sea ahead.
For a few days British and French
aircraft controlled the air.
were helped by the weather, which was cloudy. The rear guard fought desperately
men crowding onto Many of them were
Dunkirk. But the
seemed they would
be butchered by
Meanwhile, a strange rescue
fore did such a fleet
French fishing sloops,
out from England. Never be-
There were motorboats,
navy whalers, tugboats,
— almost anything that would
These boats were manned by every kind of Englishman. There were bankers and dentists, taxicab drivers and clerks, fishermen and police-
men. There were old men whose skins looked
fiery red against their
white hair. There were bright-faced young Sea Scouts, adventure of their
They were unarmed, but waters covered with the
Some cut their
from Dunkirk. Others
they sailed bravely toward of sunken ships.
lost their lives in
crafts into two.
Others were battered and broken by
fighter planes. Still the strange fleet sailed
planes dropped forces
on the great
wet, chilled to the bone, hungry.
skippers steered by the flames
on while the
put a wall of flame between the retreating
and the Germans who were chasing them. the boats approached the beaches,
out by the thou-
sands to board them. Others dropped from the ruined piers. Packed
beyond the return for
limits of safety, the boats sailed
Troops being evacuated from the beaches of Dunkirk
of the rescue boats onto the soil of
of dirty, sleepy,
hungry men. They were
England stepped an army so tired they could hardly
reporter said that they brought with
population of Belgium and France.
of the dogs were shell-shocked.
They whimpered but
men didn't!" Dunkirk was
a turning point in
be a great defeat was turned into a great moral victory
which the defeated
fight another day. Carried out
the retreat saved a
a victory in
so splendidly that they lived to
under the eyes and
of the enemy,
retreat also inspired the greatest voice in
miracle of Dunkirk, Churchill
England. After the
We shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air. We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches. We shall fight on the landing grounds. We shall fight in the fields and in the streets. We shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender "We
"The little ships, the unforgotten, un-Homeric catalogue of Mary Jane and Peggy IV, of Folkstone Belle, Boy Billy, and Ethel Maud, of Lady Haig and Skylark the little home." ships of England brought the army (after
U-BOAT On the British
IN THE ATLANTIC Ocean other
too strong for
Germans depended most
were being fought. Since the
the surface of the seas, the
their fleet of submarines.
called U-boats or Undersea-boats.
sent out their U-boats singly.
they hunted in "wolf packs," with a
repairs at sea.
of supply ships for
the U-boats traveled at full
speed on the surface. During the day they would go under the surface
on Allied shipping.
Battle of the Atlantic
of hide-and-seek, played
over endless miles of ocean. Allied ships traveled together in convoys
guarded by small warships called destroyers. destroyers
these sleek, fast
with explosives, were thrown over-
board to destroy the submarines.
too hot for
These U-boats took a the
over the whole of the Atlantic.
one area, he went somewhere
terrible toll of ships.
to be beaten if
The 16 inch guns of an Allied battleship release their charges in a burst of flame
Nazi troops entering
FRANCE FALLS With
the British gone, the
The French They
believed that theirs
behind their Maginot Line. But Hitler went right
people trying to escape.
wagons, baby carriages, anything that would move.
came swooping out
of the sky
and poured death and
of northern France
war on France and
June 17 a
was occupied by the
hurried to a garden behind the front
where Hitler was pacing nervously up and down.
Leader," said the
"the French have given up. Marshal
Petain has just spoken on the radio.
Within a few weeks
in the world.
The huge French armies reeled back in retreat. Germans were hammering at the gates of Paris.
around the long the
'The continuation of the
struggle against an It is
with a heavy heart
jig of joy.
He jumped up and down
surrendered on June 21, 1940, in a
that he could
like a dancer
cease the fight.'
a curious thing happened. Hitler
not control the twitching in his
clearing in the
Compiegne. This was the exact spot where the Germans had
surrendered to the French after
THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN Now Britain stood alone, and the Germans sang, "We challenge the lion of England, For the
We judge and we say An Empire breaks up.
— get on the foe ringing — get on the foe
Listen to the engine singing Listen, in your ears
OH BOMBS, OH BOMBS ON ENGLAND German Stu\a
dive-bombers, Dorniers, and Hein\els
roared over the English Channel and dropped their cargoes of death.
They came mostly
trying to soften
be called Operation Sea-Lion.
Hitler," said Churchill, "has
down our famous island race." London was heavily hit. Bombs fell on
ham Palace was hit. Londoners will never forget the night the German bombs started 1,500 separate fires in the heart of the city. Old and famous buildings were wrecked. But Adolf Hitler did not
people he was trying to beat down.
this picture of Hitler
and strength of the
and calm while night
after sleepless night the
There was no panic. From king
showed an astonishing
The two young
worked out a good defense
an electronic beam that bounces
against the air raids.
off objects in space, they
planes far away. "Spotters" watched the skies night and day.
Anti-aircraft guns ringed the
Margaret Rose, stayed in England during the heavy
and some Nazi planes were caught in boys,
— the R.A.F.
girls acted as fire-watchers.
But most important of
was made up of
hung piano wire
was the Royal Air Force
few hundred young
not yet twenty years old. In speedy Hurricanes and Spitfires they rose to challenge the
rounded by smoke and flame during an air raid on London
Jap/r i 1
IB f d
1L w JB
%l. ^ K^^
^^ ^Hqai Er^
Kj k< HP
J^S^% ^fe l
gunner of the London Home Guard camouflaged by blackened face and old wall paper is ready to take up his post in a bombed-out house if the Germans invade England
In three months these young pilots destroyed more than 2,000 Nazi
The Germans were
forced to give
their plan for the im-
mediate invasion of Britain.
Battle of Britain
to the tireless
"Never in the
in history. It British people
pilots of the
R.A.F. In a speech be-
much owed by
to so few."
A German armored
a temporary bridge built to replace one destroyed by Greek patriots crosses
THE BATTLE OF THE BALKANS In the years following the
of France, the Axis forces overran
the Balkan countries in southeastern Europe. This gave
advantage over the
Allies, for the area
Hitler had occupied
joined the Axis powers
a kind of land bridge to Asia. influence.
great Ploesti oil fields.
they tried to invade her through Albania. Mussolini begged
But Greece fought back bravely. Her army hurled back the
94 1, the Germans held
in the usual Blitzkrieg fashion.
These conquests not only gave the Germans control of the Balkans, but also
by way of Gibraltar, Suez,
endangered. This route was called Britain's to her for
"life line." It
supplies to her armies in the East.
33 During the four years they were besieged by the people of Dover, England, lived in caves hollowed out of the chalk cliffs
bombs and long-range guns
The and Aden, was now
a serious threat in the Mediterranean Sea.
THE TRAITORS In smashing his
to control of the Continent, Hitler
collaborated with, or helped, the
stormed into the various countries.
of the most
infamous of the collaborationists was Vidkun Quisling of Norway.
His name has come Quisling ruled
a self-seeking traitor.
for five years in the full glory of Hitler's ap-
proval, only to be shot by a
squad when the Nazi
government crumbled. In France Henri Petain, hero of
helped the Germans.
So did the statesman Pierre Laval. Each occupied country had share of these collaborationists.
Goumier, or French colonial soldier from
THE WAR BEHIND THE LINES "new
Millions of people were forced into the Nazi
were Poles, Czechs, Danes, Norwegians, Netherlanders, Belgians, French, Jugoslavs, and Greeks. laborers in
But inside stay beaten.
The Czechs wrecked the factories they put to spoil
countries the peoples of
on a war behind the trucks
Hollanders killed Nazi
and blew up ammunition dumps. In
glass into oil
which would not explode.
In the middle of the
night they would put iron weights on the bodies and throw them into the canals,
where they would not be found.
Norwegians wrecked telephone, telegraph, and started fires
by blowing up bridges and derailing
35 The Free French, under General Charles de Gaulle, fought the Axis after France fell. Here Free French sailors check the engine room of the submarine Rubis, about to leave on patrol duty
newspapers right under the noses of the
everywhere throughout Europe there were brave people
helped captured Allied prisoners to escape.
peoples of Europe became united in their hate for the invaders.
The German were
occupation forces reacted violently.
including children, and put them to death in revenge.
They warned, Hundreds
took hostages, or prisoners.
men, women, and children were executed.
One of Hitler's most savage lieutenants was Reinhard Heydrich, "the Savage Hangman." Czech patriots killed him, and the Nazis took terrible revenge. In the little
of the slayers thing.
Czechoslovakian village of Lidice, where one
be hiding, the Nazis did a senseless, brutal
up every man, 190
machine-gunned them. The 195 tration
trace of Lidice
on a grassy meadow and
sent to a concen-
the 82 children were scattered abroad.
was destroyed, even
graveyard, and the ground was
'The name Lidice has been wiped from the face of the earth ever " shouted the !
But the Nazi radio was wrong. Today, village stood, thousands of visitors pass
at the spot
to see the
policy of terror did not work. For terror breeds terror.
the world does not forget.
MASTER OF EUROPE
the Spring of 1941 Hitler
was the master of
seemed unbeatable. Germany had increased her
323,360 square miles, plus 290,000 more in lands which she had occupied but not
part of her Empire.
to 106,000,000. Hitler
Her population had jumped
airplanes, 180 sub-
marines, 363,171 tons of surface navy, 214 infantry divisions, and 12
of the British
powerful force was pitted the might
Nazi aggression. There was on
— the resources of the United
worldwide opinion opposed
had not counted
The AXIS and
The greatest extent of Hitler's invasion of Russia
THE ARSENAL OF DEMOCRACY The United
went on she began
some way. The growing power
Europe. Without her help
tinued the war after the
to join the
of Hitler threatened not only
which could outmatch the
to realize that she
the rights of Europeans but of
the only nation
out of the war. But as the
Britain could have con-
After only a year of struggle the British had spent most of their
money buying food and war plight
from the United
was solved on March n, 1941, when the United
the Lend-Lease Bill.
"any country whose defense the
defense of the United States" might
vital for the
war goods from
the United States by sale, exchange, or loan.
States told the
world her plans by means of the Atlantic
Charter. In August, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime
Minister Winston Churchill met off the coast of
document. In to
would be equal
The United States now became mocracy. From her farms poured that
they pledged allegiance to democracy
"after the final destruction of the
the arsenal, or storehouse, of dethe food,
Germans neared Leningrad, old men, women, and children went out to build a the
girdle of fortifications
RUSSIA Germany turned on
Suddenly, on Sunday morning, June 22, 1941, her
same day, back in 1812, the French conqueror
Napoleon Bonaparte had attacked a second
his lucky day.
Three huge German armies crossed the Russian border without meeting any great
Moscow in "Russia
the center, is
in the South.
broken!" shouted Hitler. "She will never
in the north,
of the Russian people
thought he had come
But Hitler proved
welcomed Hitler because they
even worse, they
Russians to death and treated the rest as
people rose to defend their homeland.
Russians astonished the whole world by their fierce resistance.
wasn't only the soldiers
the children as well.
They blew up
fought, but the old men, the
own homes and their
huge dams. They de-
stroyed everything in the path of the Germans.
they were hopelessly surrounded, the Russians fought even
harder. Like the early forests,
American Indians, they disappeared
coming out only
at night to
railroads or kill the
German guards. Help came
from Britain and America
form of war
so sure of his
in six weeks.
strength that he believed Russia
did not reckon with the Russian
climate, especially the severe winters. His soldiers did not even have
the Russian winter of 1941 turned out to be the
worst anyone could remember.
in the icy
huge German war machine slowed
crawl on the Russian plains. Hitler,
boasted that he
He said, We did not know how
never was wrong, had to explain to his people.
a mistake about
the Russians were."
Russian children attend classes on the steps of bombed-out school
22, 1942, the
For three months
two or three
their first direct attack
a savage battle raged for this Russian
were the opposing forces matched that the capture of
yards, or even
the rubble day after day.
one building, was big news. Shells churned
huge German army outside the
again and again. But Stalingrad held out.
Soon the Germans were dreds of miles. 18 12.
in full flight along a front of
just like that of
plains of Russia were filled with
Napoleon's army in
smashed and burned war
machines, wrecked vehicles, and the twisted figures of the dead. Stalingrad was disaster for Nazi
DATE WHICH WILL LIVE IN INFAMY"
the United States
tions with Japan
watched the struggle in Europe, her
She resented the growth of
Japanese sea and air power in the Pacific area.
of eastern Asia she
Japan became master
United States trade and
ness interests there. Japan's brutalities in China, her joining of the
Axis in 1940, had made
ruthless a conquest of the free
Japan was embarked upon as
their part, the Japanese
because of what they called
America's interference in their plan to create an Empire in eastern Asia.
she stood in their
to further conquests. Still,
they dared not risk an open break with her until Hitler's
likely that the
the Italian Fascists, the followers of
Axis would win the war. Like
Tojo were willing
to risk their
necks only on the winning side
At 7:55 on
1941, a messenger boy
pedaled his bicycle in the direction of the American naval station
Harbor, in Hawaii.
George C. Marshall, the Chief of
officer at Pearl
tion to be
carried a telegram Staff in
Harbor. The telegram warned the naval
alert for a Japanese attack.
Suddenly there was a tremendous explosion.
" said the
messenger boy, " that's not a joke
dived into a ditch.
hours while bombs
he had to stay there for the next few
There had been that
signs earlier that
something was wrong. At 6:45
and sunk a Japanese midget submarine submarine had the right station, spotted planes
of Japanese bombers.
of Japan shone
by a direct
after the at-
tack on Pearl Harbor
The bombs began
happened. Flying low out of the morning haze came the
at a radar
their wings. It
was Sunday morning and most of the ship and plane crews were
where no Japanese
They were worried, but
lieutenant said that the planes were probably It
Ward, had found
Arizona was almost com-
Wesf water near the blazing U.S.S. boat rescues a seaman from the Pearl Harbor Virginia during the attack on nail
torpedoes, turned over
big warships and
in shallow water. In
smaller ships were wrecked or damaged.
United States planes were smashed they had a chance to
ground before ever
In a matter of minutes American naval and
Hawaiian Islands was paralyzed. Nearly 2,500 civilians died in the blazing inferno,
most of them
Americans. In Washington, Secretary of State Cordell Hull got news of the
he had gotten over the shock of
disaster quickly. Before
into his office
two Japanese envoys were wait-
ing outside to see him.
they want?" the Secretary asked.
a note for you, sir."
"While bombs are Mr. Hull
on Pearl Harbor
two Japanese cool
the envoys have
Mr. Hull had been born and
knew some freely
and he a
coldly told the
have used them
in his position
say that in fifty years of public service
any government in
their heels a while in the outer
raised in the hills of Tennessee.
note that was crowded with such that
Americans, he was boiling. Finally, in a
choked with emotion, he
on the Japanese envoys. Usually all
read the note, which was filled with
colorful curse words,
speak this way. But, like
have never seen a
never imagined until today
world was capable of uttering them."
to leave his office.
In Japan Emperor Hirohito announced to the people,
the grace of Heaven,
of Japan, seated
throne of a line for ages eternal, say to you, our loyal and brave subjects:
We hereby declare war on the United States of America Empire."
next day, in America, President Franklin D. Roosevelt read a
message to Congress. "Yesterday,
opened with the words,
will live in in-
a single "no" vote, Congress declared
war on Japan.
Speaking for a nation united, President Roosevelt
in this war.
man, woman, and child
a partner in the
the way. Every single
most tremendous under-
taking in our national history."
Three days Steel,"
carrying out their "Pact of
war on the United
Thus, by declaring war on Japan, America found herself with two wars on her hands.
FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT: (speech to the naHarbor) "We are now rn the midst
tion after Pearl
a war, not for conquest, not for vengeance, but for a world in which this nation, and all that this nation represents, will be safe for our children" of
THE JAPANESE IN THE PACIFIC Soon
Harbor Japan began
to spread all over the Pacific.
In four days she attacked Singapore, Manila,
Wake, and Guam. She
over the Far East.
Japanese planes sank the huge British battleship Prince of Wales and the battle-cruiser Repulse.
weary British garrison surrendered
Japanese also captured the important
supply route to China from India. In the Philippines the outnumbered, starving Americans fought heroically, but in vain.
General Douglas MacArthur, on orders from
President Roosevelt, escaped !
"I shall return " said
The Americans made
a last stand at Bataan.
Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright, the gallant Filipino-American defenders were artillery,
and attacked by infantry
pounded with heavy they surrendered.
Japanese captured 11,500 prisoners. These unfortunate men, with their
commander General Wainwright, were taken by horrible death march. Sick, starved,
and miserable, prodded by Japa-
nese bayonets, they were forced to walk for scores of miles to a prisoners'
camp. Hundreds perished on the way.
Bataan became a household word in the United
would remember "Bataan"
just as they
would remember Pearl Harbor.
Soon the Japanese overran the Netherlands East
was now dangerously
close to Australia
Dead American beach
THE HOME FRONT In a great war there are two fronts soldiers fight, their fighting
and the home front where the people work
a year after Pearl
long as the war
Harbor millions of Americans went
work. They promised not
fulfilled the slogan
ship a day "
copper, tinfoil, again.
did their share, too.
basements, yards, and vacant
started a shipbuilding !
planes, landing craft, tanks, trucks,
They went metal.
the tools of war.
to help raise
war. Millions of boys and girls were heroes on the
kinds of metal that could be melted
helped to win the biggest war in history.
out of their factories poured
lots for scrap
THE WAR IN NORTH AFRICA Once Britain,
had conquered Europe, he could be attacked only from
North Africa thus became
one of the most important battle fronts of World
war began, Mussolini had
His strategy was
from the Far
there before the Africa.
to capture the
sent his troops to
off the Allies
had troops in Egypt, some stationed
others brought there
to capture all of
and then use
an attack on Hitler's Fortress Europe.
as a base for
By 194 1
Suez Canal and thus cut
had already driven 60 miles into Egypt
toward the Suez Canal. Then British forces struck back. Their surprise attack carried
them eastward halfway
Again Mussolini and
for help. Together, the
drove the British back into Egypt.
The first round of the Battle of North Africa ended in a draw. Round two came in 1942. Once again it was a seesaw battle swinging back and forth. Desert warfare was a story of fast-moving tanks
pushing forward through the enemy
and then retreating
the hot sands.
master of tank warfare. as wily It
for the British.
putting the finishing touches on inflatrafts for the U. S.
He was called the Desert Fox because fox. He led his tanks into Egypt.
Eighth Army, under
The NORTH AFRICAN
^> ALLIED advances
Germans escape to Sicily
wi,h Allied ,roo P s
N C H
EGYPT Montgomery, beat
of General Bernard
was one of the
greatest victories of the war.
While Montgomery was chasing tional surprise far to the west. In
American landings were made
the Desert Fox, there
French North Africa, three Angloat
Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers.
Troops, tanks, and tons of supplies were put ashore safely from a vast fleet
a magnificent feat. It
Axis war leaders.
of this expedition
was the great General Dwight D.
The enemy was now caught
in a pincers
movement from both
and west. Hitler poured thousands of air-borne troops into the But
all in vain.
Round three came in 1943. Montgomery pursued the Desert Fox westward sand miles. British tanks
much as forty miles west. The Germans were
caught in a
The Germans, with it
came, came quickly. Cut
for their tanks, they
submerged When not in
gun half in sand. use, such
guns were camouflaged with netting
their usual skill,
fought hard. But the end,
of Hitler's African
crossed the toe of Italy.
between Tunis and
Sicily, the island off the
Italians lost their African armies
way was open
to attack Hitler
under-belly of the Axis," as Churchill called
the south, "the soft
where the defenses
as strong as in the north.
THE BEGINNING OF THE END Now
blasted, the Allies
dreams of empire
to invade Italy
North Africa had been
peninsula toward Germany.
Over July 9 and Africa to
1943, the Allied armies crossed
Italians surrendered in droves.
conquest of Sicily was complete. President Roosevel-t announced that "it
was the beginning of the end"
the Italian people
their armies destroyed, dictator, Mussolini,
for the dictators. Sicily
their colonies conquered,
their cities ruined, they
with his fake promises.
to the Allies.
The Allied armies stationed in Sicily now crossed over to Italy itself. They landed on the beaches of Salerno, September 12, 1943. Hitler sent as many troops as he could to stop them. These fought with every kind of booby trap and gunfire.
The campaign up
the Allies took Naples.
was slow and
Then came another landing
but by Ocfober
After months of bloody fighting the Allied forces finally came
within sight of Rome, the city of Caesar and a host of emperors and popes.
capital to surrender to the Allies.
the Allied troops rolled
Line, where the
on through the
northward through Tuscany
established their last line of resistance.
/' J >
Canadian and Indian
This was indeed a time of once. at
victory in Italy
things were happening at
the Allies were poised for a strike
Western Europe. The Russians were battering the Germans
in the Pacific the long tentacles of the Japanese octopus
were being chopped
on the lookout for enemy snipers
one by one.
THE INVASION OF EUROPE "No power on
earth," boasted Hitler, "can drive us out!"
called Fortress Europe, the great con-
quered continent which he had ringed with defenses. True, the Allies
had already broken through the defenses of
facing England, was a
But along the shores
of forts, tanks
the other side of the English Channel, the Allies were planning
undertake one of the biggest gambles of the war. They were going
mighty Normandy defense system and
to attack the
This was the famous Second Front. The First Front
The coming tion Overlord.
May was had
try to invade
on France was
the invasion day
called by a secret
for this great venture.
But the Allies
wait for better weather. Storms arise suddenly over the English
Channel. General Eisenhower, in
of the attack,
grave responsibility of choosing exactly the right
had the for
a softening-up process.
attacked the coastal defenses. units of
to-hand combat stations.
destroyed roads and bridges. Small
fighters specially trained in sabotage
— were dropped by plane resistance fighters
wreck the German radar
Meanwhile, war materials poured across the Atlantic from America. All England became a great military and supply base for the coming
For months trucks and tanks rumbled along the roads. Planes
ranges came the
2 o'clock in the
ment began. At harbors
for the invasion.
3 o'clock the
were towed into place
under cover of darkness, a huge army of beaches.
These harbors were known by the code-
from 4,000 transport
and American paratroopers
sunrise the big guns of the warships
had crossed the Channel
pour onto the
channel again and again. Warships and a great umbrella of planes protected them.
greatest display of military
history of the world.
Then suddenly tanks,
the weather turned rough.
which could be used both on water and on land, ran afoul
a series of blunders.
that the weather
anchored along the beaches.
But the Germans were taken completely by
of the amphibious
they expected the invasion, they
was not right
a routine E-boat patrol that
at that time.
might have given them
terrible fighting at the
where other landings were made, was taken with Allies
had gained a foothold on the beaches
they kept going forward. of nearly a million
from the south of France, Allied
armies began to push northward. This operation '
was known by the name of Anvil
Dragoon. The Germans were caught trap. It
was the beginning
Masses of men and equipment being landed on the coast of France from landing craft offshore
THE GENERAL SAYS "NUTS/" By
were ready for an
American armies together with
on Hitlers Siegfried Line. The
into the sea, just as they
The German commander, Marshal von tacked in the Ardennes region of Belgium.
smashed ahead with
one of the strongest tank forces in history. Soon
tremendous hole, or bulge, in the Allied
the Battle of the Bulge.
Allies fought hard.
They had no
foggy that their planes could not get
American unit was cut completely in the
middle of the Bulge.
and the Americans.
help from the
his headquarters the
off at a small place called
looked like a bad Christmas for the
American General Anthony C. McAuliffe to
in with a message
from the Germans.
"What do they want?" asked the General. "They demand our immediate surrender, sir!"
said the officer.
they want your reply at once." "Tell
That word became
" said the General.
an American symbol of
by a miracle, the
More than 5,000
the winter 1944-45
pounce down on the advancing Ger-
warplanes swept into the
to a halt.
tanks and bring
American Generals Eisenhower, Bradley, and
and the English General Montgomery sent
squeeze both sides of the Bulge.
The bewildered Germans were
back to their original positions. This was the
called the Battle of the
drive of the war.
Bulge the greatest American
the invasion into
General Patton's tanks went so
a great blunder,
American tanks sped
they ran out of gas.
African engineers display a Nazi flag they un-
across the Rhine.
had not blown up that precious bridge.
Hitler had boasted that his Nazi Reich years.
battle of the war.
luck the Americans found a bridge at
Prime Minister Churchill
last for a
VICTORY ON THE SEAS While
these furious land battles
were being fought, a
important was being waged on and under the
had been working
this battle of the oceans.
The Nazis had
U-boat campaign with even greater violence. But the
For many months
battle just as
British naval laboratories
speed to perfect submarine-detecting devices.
British aircraft of all types patrolled the blue
were equipped with radar
sets specially built for
detecting submarines. Regularly they kept watch over 80,000 miles of
seaways, protecting as
many as 3,000 ships at once.
Destroyers were equipped with a kind of underwater radar, called sonar, for locating submarines. Ships
one detected submarines nearby, the other could be called in to help destroy them.
tide of the sea battle
critical stage of the
turned against the Germans at the most
the skill of the
crews the power of the U-boat was shattered overnight. Radar changed everything.
robbed the Germans of
their chief asset
end of 1943 and the beginning of 1944 the Germans were
ing submarines at the rate of one a day. Altogether they had some 720
U-boats at in
640 of them were sunk. Out of 40,000
German U-boats, 30,000 lost their lives. The Allies also defeated the Germans on
the surface of the seas.
German a convoy
1943, for example, a British squadron
on the way
sent her to the bottom.
The mastery fully regained
of the seas,
which the Axis had
seized in 1941,
Two depth bombs plode at the as a U. S.
boat fights submarine
same Navy P.C. a German
,______.__ M -_-__
NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES 'GUADALCANAL
AUSTRALIA ALLIED VICTORIES in the PACIFIC Occupied
VICTORY IN THE PACIFIC The
rapid conquests after their attack on Pearl Har-
bor. Before long the rubber, tin, oil, quinine,
and other products of the
East Indies were in their hands. Their conquered empire contained one-quarter of the earth's surface
Then of 1942, victories
American Navy began thrashed the Japanese
to fight back.
Twice, in the middle
soundly. These two American
put an end to Japanese expansion.
It lasted six days.
the Battle of the Coral Sea, took place in early
Japanese and American surface
apart even to see each other
Airplanes did the fighting.
Japanese naval expedition abandoned
plan of attacking southern
New Guinea. The
next month, on June
Japanese squadron was discovered
headed for Midway Island. Again American naval
the Japanese squadron so badly that
American Navy was on the
instead of the attacked.
was the attacker
strong American offensive took place on
Solomon Islands. The American plan
Marines landed on Guadalcanal
for regaining a foothold in the Pacific
bases in the
consisted of a series of island "hops."
capture one after another of the tiny islands seized by Japan. Each victory
would bring them
a step closer to
Marines slogging through tropical jungles, moving up to attack the Japanese on Guadalcanal U.
Engineers carry a section of pipe through the Burmese jungle
in the Gilbert Islands.
were the Marianas. As soon were
of? to the
Then came Tarawa Marshall Islands. Then there Guinea.
one island was invaded the Americans
next one. of 1944, the
leap to the Philippines.
Americans were ready
to risk the
huge Japanese naval force
tried to halt the
landings on Leyte over the period October 23-27, 1944.
Giant seagoing "freight cars" unload war cargoes on Leyte Island
Islands, ever watchful for
Coast Guard Combat Photographer snapped this war dog and his master seeking shelter in a foxhole on Leyte Beach
-** ;!» battleships, four carriers, six
about nine destroyers.
cruisers, three light cruisers,
returned to the Philippines, just as he had
Meanwhile, on the mainland of Southeast Asia, small bands of dependent
fighters, called guerilla fighters, carried
the Japanese lines.
They were under
on war deep behind
General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell and the British Brigadier General
Wingate. Slowly but surely the Allies built up their strength. They forced the Japanese out of Malaya, Thailand, Burma, and China.
the capture of the island of
within only 350 miles of the southern
land. U. S.
Okinawa, the Americans advanced tip of the
airmen rained tons of bombs down on the tinder-box
A STORY OF COURAGE Much
of the success of the Allied
to the bravery
and courage of the individual
and Americans were cut
They were hungry
in the Pacific
from guns, ammunition, and food.
good part of the time. In the steaming jungles of
the islands they dripped with sweat.
and burned with mosquito
of insects attacked them.
swollen from the long marches and the jungle damp.
Then add fight.
a Japanese, his
that matters to
nese people, with the
Japanese believe that
accept dishonor or defeat
they can help
fice lives needlessly, the
very few prisoners.
a courage that the Axis
Japanese would not.
almost impossible to
suicide than to dis-
the family, they will not
Every Japanese if
to kill himself.
While most armies would surrender
but the whole Japa-
about to be overcome by the enemy, or
the only honorable thing to do
not important. All
grace the "family." Because
they had to
the honor of his family. His family includes not
only his mother and father, brothers and
to these hardships the nature of the
rather than sacri-
Allies in the Pacific
the Japanese surrender.
a fight to the death all the way.
odds the British and the Americans fought with
had thought impossible in what they
I***? U. S.
way through mud
to the jungle front lines
BOMBS ON GERMANY "Not call
a single Allied plane will appear over Berlin. If
Hermann Goering head of the German Air Force. Germans were
very bitter about
first to start
In the early part of
great cities as
number two Nazi,
The Germans were
does, you can
of cities in
planes devastated such
Warsaw, Rotterdam, and London. Then
great Allied air attack
was on Cologne,
a city in the
of the Rhineland. In the short space of 90 minutes
sand planes showered the
with 2,000 tons of bombs.
In the weeks that followed the
During the day, American Flying try.
over the coun-
they hit their targets right
At night came
the giant British Lancasters.
of "block-busters" stroy
Germans were allowed no
carried eight tons
powerful that one of them could de-
In between the Fortresses and the Lancasters came lighter British planes called Mosquitoes. Their buzzing was enough to keep the
Germans awake and By 1943
through the night.
had developed a new system of
American tank hit by mortar shell in devastated Cologne. In the background is the famous Dom, one of the most beautiful churches in the World. It was damaged but not destroyed by Allied airmen
over Germany, drop their clusters of bombs, and
then head for North Africa. After resting a few days the pilots would return to England by
Germany, dropping another load
Germany were reduced
after another the great cities of
almost totally destroyed, and other
badly damaged. By 1945 Berlin was a shattered ghost-city. It
was a sad and
by the Germans themselves. Civilians Factories were destroyed.
The Germans were
This was "total" war, invented as well as soldiers
Homes were smashed.
learning the hard
you do unto
others can be done to you.
French and a
British soldier flee
from a machine-gunning plane
wire a tree a canal to hold
up the enemy
Hitler tried to strike back as best he could. His scientists were
weapons which they believed would win the war
Germany. One of
V-i, or Vengeance
a flying, or "robot"
plane which carried a ton of explosives in flying
bombs were launched from
actually a small pilotless nose.
down on London. Then the Germans began using the Much larger than the V-i, the V-2 could
They came scream-
and gave no warning.
sphere and then the
travel at 2,250 miles
rose 60 miles into the strato-
at terrific speed. It buried itself deeply into
But these weapons came to pieces
V-2, or flying rocket bomb.
Germany was being pounded
by round-the-clock bombings. She could not
DEATH OF THREE LEADERS On
President Franklin D. Roosevelt died at
Springs, Georgia, three
he had begun his fourth term
President. In his last speech, written to be delivered before Congress, his closing
"Let us move forward with strong and active faith." Roosevelt's death
was a sad blow
and children broke down and
Many men, women,
they heard the news.
death came to the
man who had wanted
Caesar. Benito Mussolini's final boast, while Allied armies poured over
"Between the two of tiful
would outdo Hitler
us," he said, "the
death will be a greater
in the eyes of history."
There was nothing beautiful about Mussolini's death. flee Italy in disguise,
but he was captured by anti-Fascists.
he begged, "and
His captors shot him. They strung up the heels outside a
you an empire!"
his bullet-ridden corpse
Italian citizens kicked
man who had
brought them untold
body of the
Two days later the German dictator, too, was dead. Hitler
was in an underground bunker, or
Above him was
a trembling, shattered city, a flaming ruin.
Raving mad, he rushed from room
ordered troops which
did not exist into the path of the oncoming Russians.
"The German people Even
at the last
saved by some miracle. his wife of a
dictator felt that he
few hours, Eva Braun. Then he put a
faces in the crowd as President Roosevelt's casket is carried through the
gates of the White House
bullet into his
in the yard.
of one of the most vicious tyrants of
took the combined might of three great
was forced on him he
mouth. The bodies were burned with gasoline
" he shouted in agony.
THE A-BOMB Japan's navy and air force had been almost destroyed by August, 1945. But, by the samurai, or military code, the Japanese were honor
to fight to the end.
into flying bombs. toast,
were strapped into
few planes they had
drinking a farewell
their explosive-filled aircraft.
bombs, they aimed their planes
American warships and died
could be done to bring an
clear that the Allies
would probably be
like this to
home islands of Japan. A killed or wounded in this last
to invade the
great battle of the war.
But there was another solution
idea of nuclear fission, or splitting the atom, to physicists. If the
mans would win
had long been
atom could be
enormous power. Since the beginning
both the Allies and the Axis had been racing to
atomic bomb. There was real danger that the Gerthe race.
Early in the war, Albert Einstein, the great German-born
who was now an American citizen, told President Roosevelt that such a bomb could be made. The President immediately set aside two billion dollars for research to produce the bomb. Many scientists worked on the
Enrico Fermi, Lise Meitner
— the Danish Nils 82
Robert Oppenheimer, and
Bohr, the American
produced was a fearsome weapon.
Truman, who became
President after Roosevelt died, had
hard decision to make. Should he use
warning, but she refused
For months a
of Japan. Early in the fortress
named Enola Gay took
end the war.
armada had softened up the August
1945, a giant Super-
ofT for Japan.
bomb bay was
of the uni-
Hiroshima was located a small but im-
2,000 times the blast power of the largest time. It blew almost all of
collapsed like toys. Sheets of flame
the city. their
swayed. There was an electric smell in the
Others had skin hanging from their arms and
Terrorized birds flew off in every direction.
ever used until this
off the face of the earth.
of thousands of panic-stricken people fled. off.
That one bomb had more power than 20,000 tons of
of Hiroshima, with a population of 344,000,
as the target. In
was the quickest way
In seconds some 150,000
people were killed or wounded.
Hiroshima was covered with a huge rolling cloud of smoke and dust. First the heavens turned black.
floated into the air. like
deadly shape changed into a flower-
Three days Nagasaki, a
residential street in Hiroshima
an even more powerful A-bomb was dropped on
After a week of silence the Pearl
men who had planned
a great mistake.
could not compete with the atom gone crazy.
1945, the battleship Missouri lay at anchor in
Bay. Aboard her were the
of the Allied forces
awaiting the arrival of the beaten Japanese.
launch appeared alongside the huge ship.
peace delegates stepped from Silently they filed to a table set
and came aboard the
on the foredeck. 84
In a clear, firm voice General render. Everyone present
the terms of sur-
was thinking of Pearl Harbor. General Mac-
Arthur finished reading and "I
invite the representatives of
to sign the
surrender at the places indicated."
the Japanese envoys wrote
"These proceedings are closed,"
in the Pacific
down their names.
lasted only three
longer than the war in Europe.
Japanese Foreign Minister Shigemitsu signs the surrender document that ended World War II. General MacArthur (left) and Lt. General Sutherland stand watching
THE PROBLEMS OF PEACE World War trillion dollars
was the most expensive war
were spent for war materials and armaments. But
the cost of broken lives, destroyed homes, the misery
and poverty caused by war?
in battle, Japan 1,500,000,
the Allies, Russia led with a loss of 3,000,000 killed
in battle, the British
the United States 325,000,
The war was even more lives.
disastrous for civilians. 12,000,000 lost their
35,000,000 were wounded.
disease took their dreadful
Not only bombs but
entered the defeated Axis countries.
Japan surrendered, the Allies
American, French, and Russian. Those nations which had
been occupied by the Axis were cleared of enemy troops.
time in her history Japan learned what
occupied by a foreign people!
Her Emperor was allowed
throne because he was the only person
Under General MacArthur, head
tion forces, the Japanese
the Axis prison
to learn the
crimes against humanity go unpunished.
of the occupa-
ways of democracy.
camps were opened,
measure the horrors of Axis
could persuade the Japa-
nese people to submit peacefully to their conquerors.
crowd was wiped
world learned in
Allies did not let these
86 Japanese children come on the run when American Occupation troops hand out chewing gum and candy
the death of millions of people in gas ovens were put
Nuremberg. Nineteen were found
either executed or sen-
tenced to long prison terms.
killed himself with
poison a few minutes before he was to be hanged.
which Europe had paid
clear. It is difficult to
for submission to Hitler
he gained such power
over intelligent people. Most difficult to understand
mans themselves did not clear, in his speeches to.
in the beginning.
in his book,
Mein Kampj, what he was up
did try to stop him, of course, and they paid terrible penal-
But most went along with him, even though he carried out
horrible cruelties right under their eyes.
responsible before the world
PLANNING A PEACEFUL WORLD After the
World War greatest
the United States
could these two countries
and the Soviet Union became
problem now was, how
Before the war ended, the diplomats of the Big Three States,
Great Britain, and Soviet Russia
— had made temporary plans
to insure a peaceful world.
had agreed that the
— the United
the Yalta Conference, over the period liberated, or freed,
peoples of Europe should be allowed to form democratic governments of their
But Russia did not
to her part of the
agreement. Before long she established "satellite"
The word "satellite" means a small star which revolves around a larger one. The satellite states were meant to revolve around Russia and do
as she told
them. Russia seized control of such countries as
Hungary and Czechoslovakia At
in spite of her promises at Yalta.
the last wartime conference, held at Potsdam,
July 17 to
1945, the Allies fixed the peace terms for defeated
the wartime friendship between the Big
orated. Russia turned her back
countries to her side. Believing she
she plunged ahead with a plan to the
The United to
safe in a
draw more and more
and Great Britain refused
to recognize her right
THE UNITED NATIONS World War
the world tried to prevent
ing a League of Nations where countries could
more wars by formsettle their disagree-
ments peacefully. But the League disappointed many people. weakness was that
was an organization
of governments, not peoples.
Charter of the United Nations, formed after
out with the words,
of the United Nations
San Francisco on
June 26, 1945, by the delegates of 50 countries.
The United Nations is a kind of town meeting of the world, where delegates of the member nations can meet and discuss their problems.
better to talk things over than to
Perhaps most important of the things that have led to
the United Nations tries to prevent in the past. It has even
between nations that had already started
Various branches of the United Nations work hard in other ways to
The Economic and Social Council world, for we know that poverty can
prevent the things that lead to war. helps poor people
help to breed war.
The World Health
on public health and the control of
such as malaria, tuberculosis, and on leprosy, typhus, polio,
and diphtheria, and
makes war on plagues
diseases such as
in emergencies sends planes
with doctors and drugs from one country to the other.
Headquarters for the United Nations in New York. At the left is the United Nations Secretariat building. The domed building to the right is the General Assembly Hall, backed by the New York skyline
International Labor Organization,
ILO, helps workers through-
own problems but also with worldall workers to know and understand
out the world, not only with their
wide labor problems.
each other better.
Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization,
gives useful information to all countries.
of the weaknesses of the United Nations
— the United China — can or
Security Council tionalist it
any one of the big nations on the
States, Britain, Russia, France, or
forbid, talking about
the rule called the
any question which
does not want to discuss.
of the most difficult problems of the United Nations has been
that of disarmament, or reducing the
forces of the world.
have developed far too missiles
which can span
result in the destruction of
toward disarmament of
mankind. But the nations must take the
— the hydrogen bomb, and guided
They must plainly
in foreign countries.
forces with the
and honestly how many there are
The United Nations
has been trying to have
the nations of the world permit a special committee to
inspection of their armaments.
of the United Nations has been neither easy nor happy.
But the important thing
that the road to peace
people say that there has always been war and that there
Let us not be too sure of
code of the duel.
man thought he had been insulted, man who had insulted him fight it out If a
This old-fashioned idea died out for the
he would in a duel.
have more respect
of obtaining justice.
with the nations in the world today. As
increases, the nations will turn to the
their respect for
United Nations instead of going
We live in an atomic age. Not many of us could survive an atomic war. We will live in one world, abiding by laws created for the good of all people, or
will not live at
a victory over
the hope of the
WORLD WAR A-BOMB: The ALLIES: Great
atomic bomb. Britain, France,
ATLANTIC WALL: German control of the ports of Western Europe. AXIS or AXIS POWERS: Germany, Italy, and Japan. BANZAI ATTACK: Reckless bayonet charge by Japanese soldiers with
"Banzai!" This means, "10,000
BLITZ: Lightning war: swift-moving
and ground attacks by German armies.
Big British bombs. Supply route to China.
CASE BARBAROSSA: Hitler's plan for crushing Russia. COLLABORATORS: Traitors who helped the Axis inside conquered DER FUEHRER: The leader; used by the Germans in referring to the FASCIST: Badge F.F.I.
of the party founded in Italy by Mussolini. French forces of the Interior; French fighters for freedom from the Nazis. of authority; the
FLAT-TOPS: Aircraft carriers. FLYING FORTRESS: Heavy American bombing plane. GOTHIC LINE: Final German battle line in North Italy. GREATER EAST- ASIA CO-PROSPERITY SPHERE: Japanese name of World War II.
conquered empire in early years
British fighter plane.
DUCE: The leader; the Italian Fascists' name for their leader, Mussolini. ISLAND HOPPING: The U. S. plan to hop, skip, and jump from one island KAMIKAZES: Japanese suicide pilots. LANCASTER: Heavy British bombing plane. LEND-LEASE ACT: U. S. help for Britain, March 11, 1941. LUFTWAFFE: The German Air Force.
LINE: French underground
MAQUIS: French resistance fighters. MESSERSCHMITT: German fighter
MURMANSK RUN: NAZIS: O.P.A.:
line of forts along the
to another to the heart of Japan.
harbors made especially for the sea lane for help to Russia.
Followers of Hitler. Office of Price Administration; U.
agency to nx wages and prices, January, 1942.
OPERATION OVERLORD: Code name for the Allied invasion of Normandy. OPERATION SEA LION: Code name for Hitler's plan to invade England, which was OPERATION TORCH Code name for the invasion of North Africa. PEARL HARBOR: U. S. naval base in Hawaii; attacked by the Japanese on December RADAR: The electronic "eye" which sees through fog and darkness.
never carried out.
R.A.F.: Royal Air Force of Great Britain.
RED DEVILS: 1st British Airborne Division. SECOND FRONT: The Allied line against Germany SIEGFRIED LINE: German Defense SITZKRIEG: "Sit-down" or "phony" SPITFIRE:
ROSE: Japanese U-BOATS: Submarines.
war, on the Western Front, 1939 to early 1940.
British Fighter plane.
STORMOVIK: Russian ground-strafing THIRD REICH: Hitler's Nazi state.
line facing France.
Vengeance weapon; Nazi
sent out radio appeals in English for the Allied troops to surrender.
PICTURE CREDITS Jacket, F.P.G. Half-title page,
Page 43, F.P.G. Page 44, United Press
Title page, United Press
Page 47, United Press
Contents page, United Press
Page 49, United Press
Pages 60-61, upper
Page 61, lower
Page 63, F.P.G.
Page 64, F.P.G. Page 66, F.P.G.
Page 69, United Press Page 70, F.P.G. Page 71, F.P.G.
Page 23, F.P.G. Page 72, United Press
26, United Press
Coast Guard, F.P.G.
Page 75, United Press Page 27, F.P.G. Page
Page 32, United Press
Page 77, F.P.G. Page 78, F.P.G. Page 79, F.P.G.
Page 84, United Press
Page 85, Wide World
Page 87, United Press
Page 41, Sovfoto
Page 90, United Press
Page 80, United Press
INDEX Aden, Arabia, 33 Airplanes: Enola Gay, 83; Dorniers, 29; Flying FortHeinkels, 29; Hurricanes, 30; Mosquitoes, 16; Spitfires, 30; Stukas, 5, 29; Superfortresses, 83 Air warfare, 5, 20, 21, 22, 27, 29-32, 42-45, 48, 58, resses, 76;
59,65,68,73,76-78,82-84 Albania, 33 Algiers, 52 Allied powers: France, 7, 13, 14, 16, 18, 21, 27, 28; Great Britain, 7, 13, 14, 16, 21-24, 26, 29-32, 40,
51-56, 58-66, 73-79, 86; United States, 7, 13, 38, 40, 42-50, 52-78, 80, 82-86, 88, 89; Russia, 5, 7, 13, 14, 18,39-42, 57, 58,88 Alsace-Lorraine, 7 Amphibious operations, 52, 56, 58-61, 68-73
Compiegne, France, 28 Congress, 46 Convoys, 26 Czechoslovakia, 14, 16, 36, 88 Daladier, Prime Minister Edouard, 14
D-day, 58-61 Death march, 48
Denmark, 20 Depression, 8 Desert Fox, (see Rommel, Gen. Erwin) Desert warfare, 51 Destroyers, 22, 2 6, 65, 73
Disarmament, 91 Dunkirk, 21-24, 62 East Indies, Netherlands, 10, 48,
Egypt, 51 Eisenhower, General
Appeasement, 16 Ardennes, 61, 62 Arizona, 43
Far East, 12, 48
42 58 Flying bombs, 79, 82 Fortress Europe, 51, 58 First Front,
Atomic bomb, 82-84 Atomic war, 92 Australia, 48
Gilbert Islands, 70 Gibraltar, 33
Austro-Hungarian Empire, Axis powers: Germany, 5,
7, 8, 10-12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 26-37, 39-41, 51-66, 76-79, 81, 86, 87; Italy, 8, 10, 51, 57, 81, 86, 88; Japan, 8, 10, 42-48, 57, 68-74, 82-86
Bastogne, Belgium, 62 Bataan, 48 Battle of the Bulge, 62, 64 Battle of the Coral Seas, 68 Belgium, 20, 62 Berlin, Germany, 81 Big Three, 88 Blitzkrieg, 5, 20, 33 Book-burning, 12 Bradley, General Omar, 64 Braun, Eva, 81
Goering, Hermann, 76, 87 Gothic Line, 56 Greece, 33 Guadalcanal, 68 Guerilla fighters, 73
Guided missiles, 91 Hamburg, Germany, 78 Hawaii, 42-45 Hiroshima, Japan, 83 Hirohito, Emperor, 46 Hirohito, Emperor, 46 Hitler, Adolf, 8, 10-14, 16, 27-29, 34, 39, 40, 42, 51 54, 56, 58, 61, 64, 79, 81, 87
Hull, Secretary of State Cordell, 45 Hungary, 33, 88
Hydrogen bomb, 91
Caesar, Julius, 56 Caligula, 12
India, 33, 48 Island "hops," 68-73
Ivan the Terrible, 12
7-13 Chamberlain, Prime Minister Neville, 14, 15 China, 10, 42, 48, 73 Churchill, Prime Minister Winston, 20, 24, 29, 32,
Cologne, Germany, 76 Colonies, 7, 10
Commandos, 58 Communists,
Burma Road, 48
Atlantic Charter, 38 Atomic age, 92
D., 52, 58,
England, (see Allies; Great Britain)
"Arsenal of democracy," 38 Asia, 10, 33 Athenia, 17
Casablanca, 52 Causes of World
Japanese characteristics, 74 Jews, 12
King Leopold of Belgium, 21 Land bridge to Asia, 33 Land warfare, 21, 27, 33, 39-41, 51-53, Laval, Pierre, 34 League of Nations, 89 Leningrad, Russia, 39 Leyte Island, 70
INDEX Libya, 51 Lidice, Czechoslovakia, 36 London, England, 17, 29, 76, 79 Luftwaffe, (see Air warfare)
Radar, 30, 43, 58, 65 Reich, German, 64 Reparations, 8 Repulse, 48 Resistance fighters, 35, 36, 58
MacArthur, General Douglas, 48, 73, 85, 86 Maginot Line, 18, 27 Malaya, 73 M^re Nostrum, 10 Manchukuo, 10 Manchuria (see Manchukuo) Marianas, 70 Marshall, General George C, 42 Marshall Islands, 70 McAuliff, General Anthony C, 62 Mediterranean Sea, 10, 33 Mein Kampf, 87 Midway Island, 68 Milan,
Robot bomb, 79 Rome, Italy, 56
Rommel, General Erwin, 51-53 Roosevelt, President Franklin D., 38, 46, 48, 56, 80, 82 Rotterdam, Holland, 20, 76 Royal Air Force, 30, 32
Rumania, 33 Samurai, 82 San Francisco, U.S.A., 89 Satellites,
81 52, 53,
Bohr, Nils, 83; Einstein, Albert, 82; Fermi, 82; Meitner, Lise, 82; Oppenheimer, J.
Robert, 83 Sea warfare, 17, 26, 65, 66, 68-73
Montgomery, General Bernard,
Montreal, Canada, 17
Moscow, Russia, 39 Munich, Germany, 14
Siegfried Line, 18, 62
Singapore, Malaya, 48
8, 10, 12, 14, 33, 51, 56,
Slave laborers, 35 Sonar, 65 Stalin, Joseph, 40 Stalingrad, Russia, 39, 41 Stilwell, General Joseph, 73 Submarine warfare, 26, 65 Sudetenland, 14 Suez, 33 Suez Canal, 51 Surrender: French, 27; Italian, 56; Japanese, 84, 85
Nagasaki, Japan, 84 Naples, Italy, 56 Napoleon Bonaparte, 39 Nazis, 10, 65, 81, 86 New Guinea, 68, 70
Norden bomb-sight, 76 Normandy, France, 58-61 North Africa, 10, 12, 51-54, North Sea, 21 Nuclear
Okinawa, 73 Oklahoma, 43
Omaha Beach, 59 Operations, military: Anvil Dragon, 61; Overlord, 58; Sea-Lion, 29 Pact of Steel, 12, 46 Panzer, (see Tank warfare) Parachutists, 20 Paris, France, 21, 27 Pas de Calais, France, 59 Patton, General George, 64 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 42-45, 48, 68, Petain, Marshal Henri, 27, 34 Philippine Islands, 48, 70-73
20, 21, 51-53, 59, 62-64
Tarawa, 70 Thailand, 73 Tiber River, 56 Tojo, General Hideki, Tokyo Bay, 84 Tunis, 54 Turkey, 7 Tuscany, 56
Nations: Charter, 89; Economic and Social Council, 89; Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 91; International Labor Organization, 91; Veto clause, 91; World Health Organization, 89 Utah Beach, 61
Vengeance Weapons, 79
"Phony war," 18
Versailles Treaty, 7
Ploesti oil fields, 33
Poland, 5, 7, 16 Polish Corridor, 7 Posen, Poland, 7 Potsdam, Germany, 88 Prince of Wales, 48 Prison camps, 48, 86 Prisoners, 48, 51, 74
Rundstedt, Marshal, 62
General Jonathan, 48
Ward, 43 Warsaw, Poland,
Weather, 58, 59, 62
(see Siegfried Line)
Wingate, Brig. General, 73
Quisling, Vidkun, 34
Yalta Conference, 88
7, 8, 10, 11, 16,