The First Book of World War II

the FIRST BOOK of WORLD WAR II...

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the

FIRST BOOK of

WORLD WAR II


This book

is

for

Harry Neil Snyder

Printed in the United States of America by the Polygraphic

Company

SIXTH PRINTING Library of Congress Catalog Card

Number: 58-5167

of America, Inc.

FIRST

BOOK

WORLD

WAR LOUIS

L.

SNYDER

CONTENTS The War

Begins, 5

What Caused World War

7

Conquest of Europe, 14

Hitler's

**

II,

The Sinking of the Athenia, 17 The "Phony War," 18 Blitzkrieg in the West, 20

Dunkirk, 2

Miracle

at

U-Boat

War

France

Falls,

in the Atlantic,

26

27

The Battle of Britain, 29 The Battle of the Balkans, 33 The Traitors, 34 The War Behind the Lines, 35 Hitler,

Master of Europe, 37

The Arsenal

of Democracy, 38

Hitler Turns on Russia, 39

"A Date Which Will Live in Infamy," 42 The Japanese in the Pacific, 48 The Home Front, 50 The War in North Africa, 5 The Beginning of the End, 56 The Invasion of Europe, 58 The General Says "Nuts!", 62 Victory on the Seas, 65 Victory in the Pacific, 68

A

Story of Courage, 74

Bombs on Germany, 76 Death of Three Leaders, 80

The A-Bomb, 82 The Problems of

Peace,

86

Planning a Peaceful World, 88

World War

Words, 93 Picture Credits, 94 II

Index, 95

Copyright

©

4 1958 by Franklin Watts,

Inc.

THE WAR BEGINS On

September

of Poland. First

i,

1939, the

came

German Army

crashed across the borders

the Stuka dive-bombers, with shrieking whistles

in their wings, to blast the Polish planes that

were on the ground.

Then

and highways. They

German

the

smashed the big

pilots

bombed

the railroads

cities.

After this came the motorcycle infantry, armored cars, and tanks. Finally the regular infantry

up

— the

foot-soldiers

— moved •

in to finish

the job.

This was a Blitzkrieg,

mans had

new kind

which

a

is

war

of

that the

Germans

German word meaning

The ground was

and

level

It

was

lightning war.

the best trained force in the world with

weather was good.

used.

which

to

called

The Ger-

wage

The

it.

just right for lightning

war.

Meanwhile, the Russians were pushing into Poland from the

They and

the

Germans had made

a treaty to

east.

conquer and divide the

country between themselves.

Poland had no chance against the mighty German army. Her

army had no time

to fight

back or even

to

begin to retreat before

overwhelmed. Within two weeks Warsaw, the biggest

was surrounded by the Germans. In a

little

over a

city in

month

six years of

history of the world.

World War

II,

it

was

Poland,

they had con-

quered the whole country and the Russians moved in from the

So began the

little

the most terrible

war

east.

in the

armored cars enter a Polish Nazi motorcycle infantry and by repeated bombmgs Town after it has been devastated

WHAT CAUSED WORLD WAR There was no one simple cause were many After

I,

were

bitter

which ended the war. They their

European

area.

of

II.

Rather, there

World War

I.

four imperial governments were swept

Germany, Austria-Hungary,

especially,

World War

Most of them grew out

causes.

World War

those in

mans,

for

II

Russia,

away



and Turkey. The Ger-

about the terms of the Versailles Treaty lost all their colonies

They were

and one-eighth of

forced to return Alsace-Lorraine to

France. Their navy, second only to Great Britain's, was almost wiped

down

away. Their army was cut

so that

was not much

it

larger than

that of Belgium.

Late in the 18th century Poland had been divided countries

— Russia,

World War was

set

up

I

and Austria,

so there

ended. However, in 19 19, a

in Eastern Europe.

many was made chunk

Prussia,

to give

To

this

could have an outlet to the

sea,

World War

I

was no Poland when

new independent Poland Prussia.

This was a huge

and 80 miles wide. So

she was given

that

what was

German

Polish Corridor, running right through

mans never forgave

territory.

the Allies for splitting their country into

was known

as "the

three

newly re-created country, Ger-

up Posen and West

of territory, 260 miles long

among

war

to

ing old wounds this war actually created

Poland

called the

The Gertwo

parts.

end wars." Instead of

new

ones. If

Germany

heal-

ever

got strong again, she would almost certainly try to get vengeance.

During World

War

borrowed nearly 10

I

the countries allied against

billion dollars

from the United

Germany had

States,

promising

pay

to

it

back over a period of 62

They expected

years.

money from Germany by demanding

to get the

reparations, or payments, for

war damage. Starting in 1929 there all

over the world

sion hit

had

Germany

world-wide depression, a time when

a

people became poor and jobless.

especially hard.

She had

war and was over her head

in the

In such times, ahead,

many

came

it is

when

if

to go.

Such men are

them

only they

— the

After in

World War

it

hard

to

a

I

in Italy,

and Tojo

dic-

the

allowed to run

beings are like animals of themselves as tigers,

They were

Italians,

in Japan.

free country they

the people follow them,

But the Germans, the

They

They promise

— are

three strong dictators arose.

"dead corpse." In a

make

them

to drive



and

to rule the lambs.

Germany, Mussolini

democracy

human

man

to do.

dictators

weak lambs. They think

were born

evil

called dictators.

what

exactly

the country. Dictators believe that

strong tigers and

almost everything she

people are cold and hungry and see no hope

tate to the people, or tell

people everything

depres-

in debt to the victorious nations.

sometimes easy for a strong and

where he wants them

believe they

lost

The

however

These

Hitler

men

called

might have found

fine their promises.

and the Japanese had never known

real

freedom. They were used to following strong leaders instead of working out their

own

problems in a democratic government.

Benito Mussolini became dictator of Italy in 1922. nalist

who had

written a

number

followers were called Fascists. the loyalty of the people by

When

He was

a jour-

of revolutionary pamphlets. His

he

first

came

making improvements

into at

power he won

home.

He

built

8

TOJO

MUSSOLINI

The

DICTATORS

« HITLER

new

new

roads,

that he

houses,

had made the

One

of his proud boasts

was

run on time! But he demanded

Anyone who

refused to obey

was

Mussolini's real ambition was to rule a great colonial empire.

He

imprisoned or

which

to

was overcrowded and must have more land

grow and become

Mediterranean Sea

means Our

absolutely.

killed.

told the people that Italy in

factories.

Italian trains

him

that the people obey

new

to

become an

Italian lake

Sea. Mussolini glorified

armies into Africa to take

He wanted

a great nation.

new

the

whole

— Mare Nostrum, which

war and conquest and

sent his

land by force.

General Hideki Tojo was the leader of the war party in Japan.

won power

He

Asia. nesia,

in that tiny island

especially

He

by promising the people an empire in

wanted the Netherlands East

from which America got most of her

tin

Indies,

now

Indo-

and rubber. Under

Tojo's leadership Japan attacked China in 1931. In 1932 she seized the rich province of

Manchuria and renamed

it

Manchukuo.

Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany Austrian politician

National Hitler

and

who had worked

Socialist, or

was

a sick

his

way

a ridiculous looking

little

man

mind. But he had the power

from hurt

pride, as the

Hitler promised the half-starved

do what he territories

told

them

He was

an

power through the

Nazi, party. His followers were called Nazis.

to do.

and make her

He

with a screeching voice

to arouse people's feelings,

particularly the feeling of hate. This feeling

suffering

to

in 1933.

is

often strong in people

Germans were

Germans

after

World War

plenty to eat

if

I.

they would

promised to win back Germany's

lost

a great nation again.

10

Under

Hitler, the

Germans began

hope again.

to

He

gave them

back their pride in themselves as a people. But he took away the

dom set

free-

they might have found in the democratic government they had

up

after

World War

I.

No

one dared go against Hitler's wishes or

even disagree with him. Hitler

was driven by the idea

and more

intelligent than all others.

were meant finally the

to rule

mankind.

He

German

He

"race" was stronger

believed that the

wanted

to

Germans

conquer Europe, and

whole world.

"Today, Europe," he

Hitler

that the

said.

"Tomorrow,

the world

!

addresses members of the Hitler Youth Organization at a mass rally

in

Nuremberg

Like some

German

leaders before him, he

worshipped war.

"For the good of the German people," he a

war every

twenty

fifteen or

years.

"we must wish

said,

An army

whose

sole

purpose

for

is

to

preserve peace leads only to playing at soldiers."

Once

up and imprisoned or

Hitler gained full power, he rounded

He

murdered millions of Jews.

told

the

people

that

Germany's

downfall was largely the fault of the Jews, and his followers believed him.

Another thing he did was

to

burn

all

the books that spoke for the

He knew

freedom and dignity of the human

spirit.

be easier to lead once they got

out of their heads that they were

it

that people

would

capable of thinking for and ruling themselves. Hitler's deeds of violence

shook the world

since the days of those other cruel

Rome, Ivan

the Terrible of Russia,

as

it

had not been shaken

— Caligula

dictators

and Philip

of ancient

of Spain.

II

In 1936 Hitler and Mussolini joined forces in what was called the

Rome-Berlin Axis. states

were supposed

many and

On

It

Italy, as a

September

was

to revolve

The

its

axle.

Japan joined the Axis.

Italian plan

in

was

Europe and

as

Now

three dictator nations, Italy,

Japan, planned to conquer the world and divide

The German

European

around the two great powers of Ger-

wheel revolves around

27, 1940,

the Pact of Steel.

called "Axis" because all the

it

it

was

called

Germany, and

between them.

plan was to take over Europe piece by piece. to cooperate

much

with Hitler and get what was

of Africa as could be conquered.

The

left

The over

Japanese

plan was to create a huge empire in the Far East.

12

iStt /;

K

rS3

If

?

f

R

~ -

<

Mussplini stands

in

the saddle to address a meeting of the Fascist Youth Organization

Hitler, Mussolini,

was impossible it.

The

States

Allies



to reason

strong and sure of themselves.

It

with them. They wanted war. They started later Russia

and the United

them.

for starting

the Axis powers.

13

felt

— Britain and France, and

tried to stop

The blame

and Tojo

World War

II rests solely

and squarely on

HITLER'S

CONQUEST OF EUROPE

Hitler began his conquest of Europe in 1938. year he sent his troops into Austria.

when he

Nobody

cratic republic

the Sudetenland. area. Hitler to seize the

it

after

World War

There were

a great

included the region called

many Germans

vakia. If Hitler attacked her, they

Britain

living in this

He

threatened

force.

Both France and Russia had signed

war came,

Germany.

This new demo-

claimed falsely that they were mistreated.

Sudetenland by

him

a part of the old Austro-

It

I.

15 of that

to stop

part of

to take over Czechoslovakia.

had been formed out of

Hungarian Empire

hand

lifted a

occupied that country and proclaimed

Next Hitler decided

If

On March

would

treaties to

were bound

surely be

drawn

to

into

defend Czechoslo-

come

it.

And

to her help.

Britain

was

not prepared for war.

In an effort to keep the peace, Britain's elderly Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, and the French Premier, Edouard Daladier, went to

Germany

to talk to Hitler.

the city of Munich. There,

document known

By done

the

as the

Munich

and on

Hitler

and Mussolini

at

29, 1938, all four signed the

Pact.

Hitler's

at the last

own

terms.

minute. But

it

was

The document gave

11,000 miles of Czech territory. This territory contained

more than 3,000,000 mercy of

on September

Munich Pact war was stopped

at a cruel price,

Germany

They met both

people.

The broken

little

country was

left at

the

Hitler.

Chamberlain returned

to

London waving

a piece of paper.

He

as-

14

• ••*,

15

Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain is greeted by crowds as he returns from his historic conference with Hitler on Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain's umbrella, which he carried rain or shine, became a symbol of "appeasement," or trying to get along with Hitler on the dictator's own terms

sured the English people that he had brought "peace in our time."

No

one asked the poor Czechs

how

they

felt

about

it.

And

trayal of Czechoslovakia did not bring peace. Before the year

England and France had reason to

to suspect that

the be-

was

over,

Germany planned

invade Poland. After

World War

ing to protect her

if

I

France had signed a treaty with Poland promis-

she were invaded.

Hitler had his eyes on Poland,

would tember

fight to protect her. This 3,

1939, France

Now,

as

it

became

England announced

clear that

that she, too,

was the end of appeasement.

On

and England declared war on Germany.

Sep-

r'

Nazi infantry on the march

Poland

in

THE SINKING OF THE ATHENIA World War

The

day.

was only nine hours old on

to

Cunard

September

liner traveling

Montreal, were enjoying themselves. Suddenly some

cried,

"Look There's !

Almost

at

a torpedo

boats.

The The

!

once there was a crashing explosion and the unarmed

ship began to sink.

the

that beautiful

passengers on board the Athenia, a

from London one

II

Women

and children were rushed

But nearly a hundred people British

had not

yet

into the

life-

lost their lives.

done anything

to protect their ships at sea.

sinking of the Athenia gave the world warning that once again

Germans would do everything

control of the seas, just as they

had

in their tried to

power

do

in

to

break British

World War

I.

THE "PHONY WAR" On

much happened for began to call World War

land, nothing

clared. People

Germans

called

it

the Sitzkrieg,

The French dug underground

of

"phony war." The

the

II

which means sit-down war.

in behind their great

forts

awhile after war was de-

Maginot Line



a long series

running along the border between France and

Germany. The Germans stayed behind

their Siegfried Line, or

West

Wall, which they had hastily built above ground. Both sides could see

each other. There was

Some

shooting.

of the Allied soldiers sang a song

Washing on

One

little



"I'll

Hang Out My

the Siegfried Line!"

of the reasons for this strange lack of fighting

the winter of 1939- 1940

was one of the worst in

Another reason was that Hitler ner, Russia, in the east.

He

secretly

planned

was the

fact that

living

memory.

on

to turn

his part-

thought he could get out of fighting the

French and English by defeating the Russians. Once Russia was conquered he would turn "See,

we Germans

than you do. Look

to the Allies

and

say,

Communists any more

don't like the Russian

how

strong

we

are

!

Now

An American

let

us

make

peace."

soldier plays the

bagpipes

in

the "Dragon's Teeth" of the Siegfried line

18

19

ADOLF HITLER, 1940: "I am convinced that our struggle will in the future be blessed by Providence as it has been blessed up to now. look to the future with fanatical confidence." I

BLITZKRIEG IN THE WEST Before turning on Russia, Hitler wanted to be stronger in western

Europe. Suddenly, in early April, 1940, he attacked

He

Norway.

Denmark and

took them in a single day. His Blitzkrieg was like a knife

cutting through butter.

A

month

gium.

later Hitler struck again.

German

of these

countries. Parachutists took airfields, bridges,

The German Air

Force, or Luftwaffe,

Rotterdam, in Holland, leaving

At

this

invaded Holland and Bel-

tanks, followed by infantry, crashed across the borders

two small

railroads.

He

it

bombed

and

the center of

in flames.

time Winston Churchill became Prime Minister of England.

The

British people

hoped he would find

"I

have nothing

to offer but blood, toil, tears,

a quick

way out

of the war.

and sweat," he

said.

20

MIRACLE AT DUNKIRK By 1940 had

things looked dark for the Allies. Their combined efforts

failed to halt Hitler's

At

advance into Belgium.

the northeastern corner of France

was stationed

They intended

ditionary force, together with French troops. the

Germans from sweeping on

Leopold of Belgium ordered

his

This was a serious blow to the ing one flank, or

side, of the

to Paris.

army

Allies.

a British expe-

May

Then, on

to surrender to the

The

Allied front.

to

keep

King

28,

Germans.

Belgians had been guard-

Now

the

Germans

sent a

Panzer, or tank column, racing westward to the English Channel.

This the

left

the British

main French

back

to

armies.

Dunkirk on

enemy had not

and French troops

to the

They were caught

north separated from

in a trap.

They

pulled

the coast of France, the only seaport that the

captured.

They had

to leave the

Continent or be wiped

out.

Between the retreating Allied armies and the Germans there was a series of flood gates,

North

Sea.

would flow

The in

used to protect Dunkirk from the waters of the

British

opened these flood gates

and hold up

much. The Allied

Army

the

so that the waters

Germans. Actually,

of half a million

men, mostly

it

didn't help

British,

few Dutch and the remains of the French army, were

bombed continuously They were

as they

poured into the tiny

city of

with a

strafed or

Dunkirk.

forced into an ever narrowing space toward the beaches,

with only the sea ahead.

For a few days British and French

21

aircraft controlled the air.

They

were helped by the weather, which was cloudy. The rear guard fought desperately

on the

the beaches

knew

wounded, the

sick, or

outskirts of

that time

dying.

It

men crowding onto Many of them were

Dunkirk. But the

was running

out.

seemed they would

be butchered by

all

Germans.

Meanwhile, a strange rescue

go

fore did such a fleet

French fishing sloops,

boats,

fleet set

to war.

out from England. Never be-

There were motorboats,

navy whalers, tugboats,

mine-sweepers

Channel

sailboats,

— almost anything that would

lifeboats, ferries,

float.

These boats were manned by every kind of Englishman. There were bankers and dentists, taxicab drivers and clerks, fishermen and police-

men. There were old men whose skins looked

fiery red against their

white hair. There were bright-faced young Sea Scouts, adventure of their

lives.

They were

They were unarmed, but waters covered with the

Some cut their

line.

little

As

Dunkirk

into

from Dunkirk. Others

just

they sailed bravely toward of sunken ships.

lost their lives in

crafts into two.

the darkness

bombs

to

when

destroyers

Others were battered and broken by

fighter planes. Still the strange fleet sailed

planes dropped forces

Some

on the great

wet, chilled to the bone, hungry.

skippers steered by the flames

followed in

German

oil

all

off

on while the

British

put a wall of flame between the retreating

and the Germans who were chasing them. the boats approached the beaches,

men waded

out by the thou-

sands to board them. Others dropped from the ruined piers. Packed

beyond the return for

limits of safety, the boats sailed

back

to

England, only

to

more men.

22

Troops being evacuated from the beaches of Dunkirk

23

Out

of the rescue boats onto the soil of

of dirty, sleepy,

walk.

One

hungry men. They were

England stepped an army so tired they could hardly

them

reporter said that they brought with

dog

half the

population of Belgium and France.

"Some

of the dogs were shell-shocked.

They whimpered but

the

men didn't!" Dunkirk was

a turning point in

World War

II.

What seemed

be a great defeat was turned into a great moral victory

which the defeated

soldiers

performed

fight another day. Carried out

the retreat saved a

The

whole



to

a victory in

so splendidly that they lived to

under the eyes and

fire

of the enemy,

British army.

retreat also inspired the greatest voice in

miracle of Dunkirk, Churchill

made

this

England. After the

proud challenge:

We shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air. We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches. We shall fight on the landing grounds. We shall fight in the fields and in the streets. We shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender "We

shall fight

on the

seas

and oceans.

!

WINSTON

CHURCHILL:

"The little ships, the unforgotten, un-Homeric catalogue of Mary Jane and Peggy IV, of Folkstone Belle, Boy Billy, and Ethel Maud, of Lady Haig and Skylark the little home." ships of England brought the army (after

Dunkirk)

.

.

.

24

s

©

Karsh, Ottawa

4

I

U-BOAT On the British

WAR

IN THE ATLANTIC Ocean other

Atlantic

Navy was

battles

them on

too strong for

Germans depended most

of

all

were being fought. Since the

on

the surface of the seas, the

their fleet of submarines.

These were

called U-boats or Undersea-boats.

In

Now

World War

I

the

Germans had

sent out their U-boats singly.

they hunted in "wolf packs," with a

refueling

and minor

repairs at sea.

At night

fleet

of supply ships for

the U-boats traveled at full

speed on the surface. During the day they would go under the surface

and wait

The

to prey

on Allied shipping.

Battle of the Atlantic

was

like a

game

of hide-and-seek, played

over endless miles of ocean. Allied ships traveled together in convoys

guarded by small warships called destroyers. destroyers

huge "ash-cans,"

filled

From

these sleek, fast

with explosives, were thrown over-

board to destroy the submarines.

The

battle

enemy found

moved it

too hot for

These U-boats took a the

war was

to be

As soon

over the whole of the Atlantic.

him

in

as the

one area, he went somewhere

terrible toll of ships.

They had

else.

to be beaten if

won. T*

The 16 inch guns of an Allied battleship release their charges in a burst of flame

and smoke

Nazi troops entering

Paris

FRANCE FALLS With

the British gone, the

The French They

felt

The

believed that theirs

safe

was the

the Continent.

finest

army

behind their Maginot Line. But Hitler went right

line.

roads were

jammed with

people trying to escape.

wagons, baby carriages, anything that would move.

came swooping out

planes tion

on these

Nazi hordes.

On lines

of the sky

And

all

They pushed

Then

the

and poured death and

of northern France

Mussolini,

war on France and

June 17 a

Nazi

destruc-

German

knowing

was occupied by the

that France

was about

to fall,

Britain.

officer

hurried to a garden behind the front

where Hitler was pacing nervously up and down.

"My

Leader," said the

officer,

"the French have given up. Marshal

Petain has just spoken on the radio.

27

Before

helpless people.

Within a few weeks

declared

in the world.

The huge French armies reeled back in retreat. Germans were hammering at the gates of Paris.

around the long the

Germans overran

He

said,

'The continuation of the

struggle against an It is

enemy

with a heavy heart

Then

I

superior in

say

we must

jig of joy.

legs.

He jumped up and down

The French

was

so

surrendered on June 21, 1940, in a

futile.

that he could

started to

on

is

"

happy

Suddenly he

like a dancer

arms

in

cease the fight.'

a curious thing happened. Hitler

not control the twitching in his

forest of

numbers and

dance a

a stick

little

clearing in the

Compiegne. This was the exact spot where the Germans had

surrendered to the French after

World War

I.

THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN Now Britain stood alone, and the Germans sang, "We challenge the lion of England, For the

and

last

decisive cup,

We judge and we say An Empire breaks up.

— get on the foe ringing — get on the foe

Listen to the engine singing Listen, in your ears

BOMBS, Hundreds

of

it's

to

to

OH BOMBS, OH BOMBS ON ENGLAND German Stu\a

!

dive-bombers, Dorniers, and Hein\els

roared over the English Channel and dropped their cargoes of death.

They came mostly

German

for a

at night.

invasion.

"This wicked

man

It

They were

was

to

trying to soften

up England

be called Operation Sea-Lion.

Hitler," said Churchill, "has

down our famous island race." London was heavily hit. Bombs fell on

now

resolved to

break

the slums.

Even Bucking-

ham Palace was hit. Londoners will never forget the night the German bombs started 1,500 separate fires in the heart of the city. Old and famous buildings were wrecked. But Adolf Hitler did not

know

people he was trying to beat down.

29

A German

officer

this picture of Hitler

"victory jig"

snapped doing

his

the courage

The

and strength of the

British people

remained firm

and calm while night

after sleepless night the

There was no panic. From king

cities.

showed an astonishing

to clerk

The two young

spirit.

bombs

to office

British

worked out a good defense

an electronic beam that bounces

enemy

their

boy they

and

air attacks.

against the air raids.

off objects in space, they

By

radar,

could detect

planes far away. "Spotters" watched the skies night and day.

Anti-aircraft guns ringed the

from

on

princesses, Elizabeth

Margaret Rose, stayed in England during the heavy

The

fell

balloons,

men, women,

cities.

The

British even

and some Nazi planes were caught in boys,

and

just a

Thousands

of

— the R.A.F.

It

it.

girls acted as fire-watchers.

But most important of

was made up of

hung piano wire

all

was the Royal Air Force

few hundred young

fighter-pilots.

Some were

not yet twenty years old. In speedy Hurricanes and Spitfires they rose to challenge the

Germans.

St.

Paul's

Cathedral

sur-

rounded by smoke and flame during an air raid on London

30

1

Jap/r i 1

IB f d

liiW

B



^kv i

1

^^1V ^"*

JB

-Br

1L w JB

%l. ^ K^^

1

^^ ^Hqai Er^

.^m

'

^P^^V^^d

k. •

^B

Kj k< HP

^^fl

j^

...

H

^fl^^^.- ^^^1

B^»

J^S^% ^fe l

**'

'•

•^

-a

a

]rl

F BF

A

gunner of the London Home Guard camouflaged by blackened face and old wall paper is ready to take up his post in a bombed-out house if the Germans invade England

In three months these young pilots destroyed more than 2,000 Nazi

The Germans were

planes.

forced to give

up

their plan for the im-

mediate invasion of Britain.

The first

they

Battle of Britain

German owed

fore the

defeat of

was the

World War

to the tireless

House

of

"Never in the

first air

young

II.

human

The

in history. It British people

pilots of the

Commons, Winston

field of

war

was

also the

knew what

R.A.F. In a speech be-

Churchill said,

conflict

was

so

much owed by

so

many

to so few."

**K

***»

\ Tk

^t

i:

S\

/

!*_»>

A German armored

••

**^l..^lf

car

a temporary bridge built to replace one destroyed by Greek patriots crosses

THE BATTLE OF THE BALKANS In the years following the

fall

of France, the Axis forces overran

the Balkan countries in southeastern Europe. This gave

advantage over the

Hungary was

Allies, for the area

already under

Hitler had occupied

German

Rumania with

joined the Axis powers

is

on March

1,

its

them

a kind of land bridge to Asia. influence.

By October,

great Ploesti oil fields.

1941.

1

Italians

they tried to invade her through Albania. Mussolini begged

Germany 20,

1940,

Rumania

But Greece fought back bravely. Her army hurled back the

when

a great

for help,

and

it

came

94 1, the Germans held

all

in the usual Blitzkrieg fashion.

By May

of Greece.

These conquests not only gave the Germans control of the Balkans, but also

made them

water route

to India,

by way of Gibraltar, Suez,

endangered. This route was called Britain's to her for

moving

"life line." It

supplies to her armies in the East.

33 During the four years they were besieged by the people of Dover, England, lived in caves hollowed out of the chalk cliffs

bombs and long-range guns

The and Aden, was now

a serious threat in the Mediterranean Sea.

was necessary

#|^ "J-H*^

THE TRAITORS In smashing his

way

to control of the Continent, Hitler

help of

men who

known

as "collaborationists."

Nazis

as they

betrayed their

own

They

countries.

These

had the

traitors

were

collaborated with, or helped, the

stormed into the various countries.

One

of the most

infamous of the collaborationists was Vidkun Quisling of Norway.

His name has come Quisling ruled

to

Norway

mean

a person

who

a self-seeking traitor.

is

for five years in the full glory of Hitler's ap-

proval, only to be shot by a

Norwegian

firing

squad when the Nazi

government crumbled. In France Henri Petain, hero of

World War

I,

helped the Germans.

So did the statesman Pierre Laval. Each occupied country had share of these collaborationists.

fflto

its

A

Goumier, or French colonial soldier from

Morocco

THE WAR BEHIND THE LINES "new

Millions of people were forced into the Nazi

order."

There

were Poles, Czechs, Danes, Norwegians, Netherlanders, Belgians, French, Jugoslavs, and Greeks. laborers in

Nazi

But inside stay beaten.

of

them had

to

work

as slave

factories.

their

They

own

carried

The Czechs wrecked the factories they put to spoil

Many

them. They

countries the peoples of

on a war behind the trucks

bullets

Hollanders killed Nazi

to

lines.

and blew up ammunition dumps. In

powdered

made

Europe refused

glass into oil

and

officers

shells

and

and sugar

into gasoline

which would not explode.

soldiers.

In the middle of the

night they would put iron weights on the bodies and throw them into the canals,

where they would not be found.

Norwegians wrecked telephone, telegraph, and started fires

electric lines.

They

and explosions.

The French

resisted

by blowing up bridges and derailing

35 The Free French, under General Charles de Gaulle, fought the Axis after France fell. Here Free French sailors check the engine room of the submarine Rubis, about to leave on patrol duty

trains.

They published

newspapers right under the noses of the

patriotic

enemy.

And

who

everywhere throughout Europe there were brave people

helped captured Allied prisoners to escape.

The

peoples of Europe became united in their hate for the invaders.

The German were

occupation forces reacted violently.

killed, they

body in

They would

their

men

arrest any-

including children, and put them to death in revenge.

sight,

They warned, Hundreds

took hostages, or prisoners.

one of

If

"Fifty

Frenchmen

of innocent

German

for every

killed!"

men, women, and children were executed.

One of Hitler's most savage lieutenants was Reinhard Heydrich, "the Savage Hangman." Czech patriots killed him, and the Nazis took terrible revenge. In the little

was believed

of the slayers thing.

They

Czechoslovakian village of Lidice, where one

lined

to

be hiding, the Nazis did a senseless, brutal

up every man, 190

machine-gunned them. The 195 tration

camp.

And

trace of Lidice

plowed

in

women

all,

in

on a grassy meadow and

town were

sent to a concen-

the 82 children were scattered abroad.

was destroyed, even

its

Then

every

graveyard, and the ground was

flat.

'The name Lidice has been wiped from the face of the earth ever " shouted the !

Nazi

radio.

But the Nazi radio was wrong. Today, village stood, thousands of visitors pass

has

made

by

at the spot

where the

little

to see the

monument

that

Lidice immortal.

The German

And

for-

policy of terror did not work. For terror breeds terror.

the world does not forget.

36

HITLER, By

MASTER OF EUROPE

the Spring of 1941 Hitler

was the master of

seemed unbeatable. Germany had increased her

size

all

Europe.

He

from 180,976

to

323,360 square miles, plus 290,000 more in lands which she had occupied but not

made

from 65,000,000

part of her Empire.

to 106,000,000. Hitler

Her population had jumped

had 40,000

airplanes, 180 sub-

marines, 363,171 tons of surface navy, 214 infantry divisions, and 12

Panzer

divisions.

of the British

Against

powerful force was pitted the might

Commonwealth, and

Nazi aggression. There was on

this

also

— the resources of the United

a

worldwide opinion opposed

something

else Hitler

to

had not counted

States.

The AXIS and

occupied

territory

The greatest extent of Hitler's invasion of Russia

Moscow©

UNION

OF SOVIET

SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

THE ARSENAL OF DEMOCRACY The United

had hoped

States

to stay

struggle

went on she began

fight in

some way. The growing power

Americans

Europe. Without her help

it

tinued the war after the

of France.

to join the

of Hitler threatened not only

The United

also.

which could outmatch the

fall

would have

to realize that she

the rights of Europeans but of

the only nation

out of the war. But as the

industrial

was doubtful

States

might of

was

Hitler's

Britain could have con-

if

After only a year of struggle the British had spent most of their

money buying food and war plight

from the United

was solved on March n, 1941, when the United

the Lend-Lease Bill.

President receive

materials

deemed

Under

Their

States passed

"any country whose defense the

defense of the United States" might

vital for the

war goods from

The United

this act,

States.

the United States by sale, exchange, or loan.

States told the

world her plans by means of the Atlantic

Charter. In August, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime

Minister Winston Churchill met off the coast of

draw up

this

and promised

document. In to

work

for a

it

world

in

would overthrow

which

all

nations

would be equal

Nazi tyranny."

The United States now became mocracy. From her farms poured that

to

they pledged allegiance to democracy

"after the final destruction of the

weapons

Newfoundland

the arsenal, or storehouse, of dethe food,

from her

factories the

the dictators.

When

Germans neared Leningrad, old men, women, and children went out to build a the

girdle of fortifications

around the

city

38

HITLER TURNS

ON

RUSSIA Germany turned on

Suddenly, on Sunday morning, June 22, 1941, her

ally, Russia.

On

this

same day, back in 1812, the French conqueror

Napoleon Bonaparte had attacked a second

Napoleon, thought

it

who

Russia. Hitler,

was

fancied himself

his lucky day.

Three huge German armies crossed the Russian border without meeting any great

Moscow in "Russia

resistance.

the center, is

They headed

and Stalingrad

for

Leningrad

in the South.

broken!" shouted Hitler. "She will never

r

in the north,

1

i^ali

rise

again!"

^MMIf

fiHMM*lfc1

At

many

first

of the Russian people

thought he had come

put

many

them from

to free

But Hitler proved

Stalin.

welcomed Hitler because they

to be

own

their

even worse, they

felt,

Russians to death and treated the rest as

dictator, Joseph

than Stalin.

slaves.

He

The Russian

people rose to defend their homeland.

The It

Russians astonished the whole world by their fierce resistance.

wasn't only the soldiers

the children as well.

They blew up

who

fought, but the old men, the

They burned

bridges.

their

They dynamited

own homes and their

women, factories.

huge dams. They de-

stroyed everything in the path of the Germans.

When

they were hopelessly surrounded, the Russians fought even

harder. Like the early forests,

American Indians, they disappeared

coming out only

at night to

smash the

into the

railroads or kill the

German guards. Help came

at last

from Britain and America

in the

form of war

materials.

Hitler fall

was

so sure of his

in six weeks.

He was

own

strength that he believed Russia

wrong.

He

would

did not reckon with the Russian

climate, especially the severe winters. His soldiers did not even have

winter clothing.

And

the Russian winter of 1941 turned out to be the

worst anyone could remember.

Caught

down

to a

in the icy

mud,

the

huge German war machine slowed

crawl on the Russian plains. Hitler,

who

boasted that he

He said, We did not know how

never was wrong, had to explain to his people.

"We made

a mistake about

one thing.

strong

the Russians were."

40

Russian children attend classes on the steps of bombed-out school

their

On

August

Stalingrad. city.

So

Germans began

22, 1942, the

For three months

closely

two or three

their first direct attack

on

a savage battle raged for this Russian

were the opposing forces matched that the capture of

yards, or even

the rubble day after day.

one building, was big news. Shells churned

A

huge German army outside the

city struck

again and again. But Stalingrad held out.

Soon the Germans were dreds of miles. 18 12.

The

The

retreat

in full flight along a front of

was

just like that of

plains of Russia were filled with

many hun-

Napoleon's army in

smashed and burned war

machines, wrecked vehicles, and the twisted figures of the dead. Stalingrad was disaster for Nazi

Germany.

"A

DATE WHICH WILL LIVE IN INFAMY"

While

the United States

grew

tions with Japan

watched the struggle in Europe, her

She resented the growth of

steadily worse.

Japanese sea and air power in the Pacific area.

would

of eastern Asia she

rela-

interfere with

If

Japan became master

United States trade and

busi-

ness interests there. Japan's brutalities in China, her joining of the

Axis in 1940, had made

it

ruthless a conquest of the free

For

Japan was embarked upon as

clear that

their part, the Japanese

world were

as

Germany

bitter

was.

because of what they called

America's interference in their plan to create an Empire in eastern Asia.

They

felt that

she stood in their

way

to further conquests. Still,

they dared not risk an open break with her until Hitler's

made

in Russia

seem

it

likely that the

the Italian Fascists, the followers of

first

successes

Axis would win the war. Like

Tojo were willing

to risk their

necks only on the winning side

At 7:55 on

morning

the

of

December

7,

1941, a messenger boy

pedaled his bicycle in the direction of the American naval station

Harbor, in Hawaii.

at Pearl

He

George C. Marshall, the Chief of

manding

officer at Pearl

tion to be

on the

carried a telegram Staff in

from General

Washington,

to the

com-

Harbor. The telegram warned the naval

sta-

alert for a Japanese attack.

Suddenly there was a tremendous explosion.

"Wow He

!

" said the

messenger boy, " that's not a joke

dived into a ditch.

hours while bombs

fell all

And

!

he had to stay there for the next few

around him.

42

There had been that

morning

signs earlier that

a patrolling

American

something was wrong. At 6:45

and sunk a Japanese midget submarine submarine had the right station, spotted planes

to be.

many

in waters

Two army

miles away.

privates,

Then on

it

wave

was

a

of Japanese bombers.

of

attack.

B-i7's.

the

red

emblem

of Japan shone

to drop.

The

by a direct

after the at-

tack on Pearl Harbor

The round

The bombs began

murderous

foremast

U.S.S. Arizona

43

American

their

happened. Flying low out of the morning haze came the

pletely destroyed

Wrecked

at a radar

leave.

their wings. It

working

was Sunday morning and most of the ship and plane crews were

on holiday

first

where no Japanese

They were worried, but

lieutenant said that the planes were probably It

Ward, had found

destroyer, the

hit.

battleship

Arizona was almost com-

The Oklahoma,

struck by

many

4>

&t /

pi

'•

V

1

|

4-

''

m^^^ •*

M

y^0>

'-

.»'*WJf

Wesf water near the blazing U.S.S. boat rescues a seaman from the Pearl Harbor Virginia during the attack on nail

^aM

-•«(/

torpedoes, turned over

and sank

many

big warships and

in shallow water. In

air

power

in the

diers, sailors,

and

rise.

some fourteen

smaller ships were wrecked or damaged.

United States planes were smashed they had a chance to

all,

to bits

on

the

ground before ever

In a matter of minutes American naval and

Hawaiian Islands was paralyzed. Nearly 2,500 civilians died in the blazing inferno,

sol-

most of them

Americans. In Washington, Secretary of State Cordell Hull got news of the

he had gotten over the shock of

disaster quickly. Before

came

into his office

and

told

him

that

it,

an aide

two Japanese envoys were wait-

ing outside to see him.

"What do

they want?" the Secretary asked.

"They have

a note for you, sir."

"While bombs are Mr. Hull

let

before he

office

insults.

Then he

on Pearl Harbor

falling

the

two Japanese cool

let

them

let

the envoys have

He

in.

Mr. Hull had been born and

knew some freely

voice "I

45

and he a

is

man

said to

this

coldly told the

He

have used them

in his position

would not

said,

say that in fifty years of public service

any government in

Then he

their heels a while in the outer

raised in the hills of Tennessee.

note that was crowded with such that

to wait."

Americans, he was boiling. Finally, in a

choked with emotion, he

must

them

it

on the Japanese envoys. Usually all

Tell

read the note, which was filled with

colorful curse words,

speak this way. But, like

!

lies.

I

I

have never seen a

never imagined until today

world was capable of uttering them."

two Japanese

to leave his office.

In Japan Emperor Hirohito announced to the people,

"We, by

Emperor

the grace of Heaven,

of Japan, seated

on the

throne of a line for ages eternal, say to you, our loyal and brave subjects:

We hereby declare war on the United States of America Empire."

British

The

next day, in America, President Franklin D. Roosevelt read a

message to Congress. "Yesterday,

famy

and the

It

opened with the words,

December

1941

7,

.

.

.

a date

which

will live in in-

." .

.

With only

a single "no" vote, Congress declared

war on Japan.

Speaking for a nation united, President Roosevelt

"We

are

now

in this war.

man, woman, and child

is

We

are in

it all

a partner in the

said:

the way. Every single

most tremendous under-

taking in our national history."

Three days Steel,"

later,

on December

Germany and

10, 1941,

Italy declared

carrying out their "Pact of

war on the United

States.

Thus, by declaring war on Japan, America found herself with two wars on her hands.

FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT: (speech to the naHarbor) "We are now rn the midst

tion after Pearl

a war, not for conquest, not for vengeance, but for a world in which this nation, and all that this nation represents, will be safe for our children" of

46

*.-•-!?? *::

#

:

.

•7-Sj**V'"#?Tt:isSA-

THE JAPANESE IN THE PACIFIC Soon

after Pearl

Harbor Japan began

to spread all over the Pacific.

In four days she attacked Singapore, Manila,

landed troops

all

Wake, and Guam. She

over the Far East.

Japanese planes sank the huge British battleship Prince of Wales and the battle-cruiser Repulse.

Singapore.

The

A

weary British garrison surrendered

Japanese also captured the important

Burma Road,

in

the

supply route to China from India. In the Philippines the outnumbered, starving Americans fought heroically, but in vain.

General Douglas MacArthur, on orders from

President Roosevelt, escaped !

"I shall return " said

from Bataan

to Australia.

General MacArthur.

The Americans made

a last stand at Bataan.

Under command

of

Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright, the gallant Filipino-American defenders were artillery,

bombarded from

and attacked by infantry

units.

the

air,

At

last

pounded with heavy they surrendered.

The

Japanese captured 11,500 prisoners. These unfortunate men, with their

commander General Wainwright, were taken by horrible death march. Sick, starved,

the Japanese

on a

and miserable, prodded by Japa-

nese bayonets, they were forced to walk for scores of miles to a prisoners'

camp. Hundreds perished on the way.

Bataan became a household word in the United

would remember "Bataan"

just as they

would remember Pearl Harbor.

Soon the Japanese overran the Netherlands East

Sun

of Japan

was now dangerously

Americans

States.

close to Australia

Indies.

and

The

Rising

India.

48

Dead American beach

in

soldiers

New Guinea

on a

»

% MM

*

•*.

v

-..

THE HOME FRONT In a great war there are two fronts soldiers fight, their fighting

Within factories

battle front

where the

and the home front where the people work

to support

men.

a year after Pearl

and shipyards

long as the war

to

Harbor millions of Americans went

work. They promised not

Americans

lasted.

fulfilled the slogan

"A

girls

ship a day "

tin, brass,

and used

copper, tinfoil, again.

And and

did their share, too.

basements, yards, and vacant

They

all

to

go on

started a shipbuilding !

planes, landing craft, tanks, trucks,

Boys and

— the

strike as

program

rifles



all

They went metal.

the tools of war.

searching in

They found

war bonds

to help raise

war. Millions of boys and girls were heroes on the

money

home

attics,

old iron,

kinds of metal that could be melted

helped to win the biggest war in history.

that

out of their factories poured

lots for scrap

also sold

into

down

for the

front

and

THE WAR IN NORTH AFRICA Once Britain,

Hitler

from

had conquered Europe, he could be attacked only from

Russia, or

from North

North Africa thus became

Africa.

one of the most important battle fronts of World

When

the

war began, Mussolini had

His strategy was

from the Far

East.

there before the Africa.

to capture the

The

They planned

sent his troops to

North

Africa.

off the Allies

had troops in Egypt, some stationed

others brought there

to capture all of

North

all

Africa,

the

way round

and then use

it

an attack on Hitler's Fortress Europe.

as a base for

By 194 1

II.

Suez Canal and thus cut

British

war and

War

Italian troops

had already driven 60 miles into Egypt

toward the Suez Canal. Then British forces struck back. Their surprise attack carried

many

them eastward halfway

They captured

Italian prisoners.

Again Mussolini and

across Libya.

Italians

called

on Hitler

for help. Together, the

Germans

drove the British back into Egypt.

The first round of the Battle of North Africa ended in a draw. Round two came in 1942. Once again it was a seesaw battle swinging back and forth. Desert warfare was a story of fast-moving tanks

pushing forward through the enemy

lines

and then retreating

across

the hot sands.

General Erwin

Rommel was

master of tank warfare. as wily It

and shrewd

was

a

dark

as a

moment

able

life

for the British.

putting the finishing touches on inflatrafts for the U. S.

Navy

German

leader.

He was

a brilliant

He was called the Desert Fox because fox. He led his tanks into Egypt.

51

Women

the

But

their

he was

Eighth Army, under

IFRANCEI

The NORTH AFRICAN

CAMPAIGN

SPAIN

Sf B(

DC

o

)

|

AXIS-held countries

SICILY

^> ALLIED advances

'fc.

Algiers

Oran

|

TUNISIA

Germans escape to Sicily

t

ALGERIA

JL_

Casablanca^

MOROCCO >

+

^

F

Eisenhower lands

\

wi,h Allied ,roo P s

\

I

R

N C H

E

NORTH the

Montgomery defeats

Rommel

AFRICA command

El Alamein.

EGYPT Montgomery, beat

of General Bernard

It

was one of the

the

Germans

at

greatest victories of the war.

While Montgomery was chasing tional surprise far to the west. In

American landings were made

the Desert Fox, there

came

a sensa-

French North Africa, three Angloat

Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers.

Troops, tanks, and tons of supplies were put ashore safely from a vast fleet

of ships.

to the

It

was

a magnificent feat. It

came

as a

complete surprise

Axis war leaders.

The commander

of this expedition

was the great General Dwight D.

Eisenhower.

52

The enemy was now caught

in a pincers

movement from both

and west. Hitler poured thousands of air-borne troops into the But

it

was

east

battle.

all in vain.

Round three came in 1943. Montgomery pursued the Desert Fox westward sand miles. British tanks

Eisenhower closed

in

more than

much as forty miles west. The Germans were

moved

from the

for

as

a thou-

a day.

And

caught in a

steel trap.

The Germans, with it

came, came quickly. Cut

for their tanks, they

What was

Gun

pit

desert

in

left

the African

with

submerged When not in

gun half in sand. use, such

guns were camouflaged with netting

53

their usual skill,

were

off

fought hard. But the end,

by land,

sea,

and

air,

when

without any

oil

helpless.

of Hitler's African

army escaped

to

Europe. They

Allied troops

crossed the toe of Italy.

narrow

The

advance over

straits

hilly

country

North Africa

in

between Tunis and

Sicily, the island off the

Italians lost their African armies

and

all their

African

possessions.

Now

the

way was open

to attack Hitler

from

under-belly of the Axis," as Churchill called

were not

it,

the south, "the soft

where the defenses

as strong as in the north.

54

THE BEGINNING OF THE END Now

that Mussolini's

blasted, the Allies

dreams of empire

planned

to invade Italy

in

North Africa had been

and advance

straight

up

the

peninsula toward Germany.

Over July 9 and Africa to

Sicily.

10,

The

1943, the Allied armies crossed

from North

By August

Italians surrendered in droves.

17 the

conquest of Sicily was complete. President Roosevel-t announced that "it

was the beginning of the end"

When

the Italian people

their armies destroyed, dictator, Mussolini,

the Italian

and

saw

for the dictators. Sicily

and

their colonies conquered,

their cities ruined, they

with his fake promises.

government surrendered

And on

threw out

September

3,

their

1943,

to the Allies.

The Allied armies stationed in Sicily now crossed over to Italy itself. They landed on the beaches of Salerno, September 12, 1943. Hitler sent as many troops as he could to stop them. These fought with every kind of booby trap and gunfire.

The campaign up

the peninsula

the Allies took Naples.

was slow and

costly,

Then came another landing

at

but by Ocfober

Anzio.

After months of bloody fighting the Allied forces finally came

within sight of Rome, the city of Caesar and a host of emperors and popes.

They occupied

the city

on June

4,

1944.

It

was the

first

Axis

capital to surrender to the Allies.

Now Tiber.

the Allied troops rolled

They moved

Line, where the

steadily

on through the

city

and

northward through Tuscany

Germans had

across the

to the

Gothic

established their last line of resistance.

56

(

/' J >

Patrol of

Canadian and Indian

soldiers

This was indeed a time of once. at

The

victory in Italy

crisis.

came when

Many

in

captured

And

Rome

things were happening at

the Allies were poised for a strike

Western Europe. The Russians were battering the Germans

East.

in the

in the Pacific the long tentacles of the Japanese octopus

were being chopped

57

on the lookout for enemy snipers

off

one by one.

THE INVASION OF EUROPE "No power on

He was

earth," boasted Hitler, "can drive us out!"

talking about

what he

called Fortress Europe, the great con-

quered continent which he had ringed with defenses. True, the Allies

had already broken through the defenses of

Normandy,

On to

facing England, was a

in Italy.

maze

But along the shores

of forts, tanks

and

artillery.

the other side of the English Channel, the Allies were planning

undertake one of the biggest gambles of the war. They were going

mighty Normandy defense system and

to attack the

Hitler's fortress.

was

This was the famous Second Front. The First Front

in Russia.

The coming tion Overlord.

May was had

try to invade

to

attack

And

the

on France was

the invasion day

month chosen

called by a secret

was

— Opera-

name

called D-day.

for this great venture.

But the Allies

wait for better weather. Storms arise suddenly over the English

Channel. General Eisenhower, in

command

of the attack,

grave responsibility of choosing exactly the right

moment

had the for

it

to

begin. First

came

a softening-up process.

attacked the coastal defenses. units of

commandos

to-hand combat stations.

French



They

Huge waves

of Allied

destroyed roads and bridges. Small

fighters specially trained in sabotage

— were dropped by plane resistance fighters

bombers

were

to

and hand-

wreck the German radar

secretly supplied

with weapons.

Meanwhile, war materials poured across the Atlantic from America. All England became a great military and supply base for the coming

58

!

invasion.

For months trucks and tanks rumbled along the roads. Planes

From

roared overhead.

artillery

ranges came the

boom

of practice

shooting.

Then At

it

came

2 o'clock in the

dropped

softly into

ment began. At harbors

made

calm waters

names

At

— June

of

— D-day

morning

British

Normandy. At

of concrete

and old

for the invasion.

3 o'clock the

heavy

I

ships

and Mulberry

The

boomed.

Artificial

were towed into place

to

make

II.

ships that

under cover of darkness, a huge army of beaches.

bombard-

aerial

These harbors were known by the code-

from 4,000 transport

Normandy

and American paratroopers

sunrise the big guns of the warships

Mulberry

last,

1944

6,

ships

had crossed the Channel

men began

shuttled back

to

pour onto the

and forth

across the

channel again and again. Warships and a great umbrella of planes protected them.

It

was the

greatest display of military

power

in the

history of the world.

Then suddenly tanks,

the

the weather turned rough.

Some

which could be used both on water and on land, ran afoul

German

steel traps

a series of blunders.

had thought

Though

that the weather

had canceled

of

anchored along the beaches.

But the Germans were taken completely by

made

of the amphibious

surprise.

They had

they expected the invasion, they

was not right

a routine E-boat patrol that

for

it

at that time.

They

might have given them

warning.

There was

59

terrible fighting at the

Normandy,

or

"Omaha"

beach,

60

Americans

as the

called

it.

"Utah" beach,

where other landings were made, was taken with Allies

less

difficulty.

And

once the

had gained a foothold on the beaches

they kept going forward. of nearly a million

An

Allied

men was

army

landed in

France. Later,

from the south of France, Allied

armies began to push northward. This operation '

was known by the name of Anvil

Dragoon. The Germans were caught trap. It

was the beginning

Hitler's empire.

.#*.#•

61

Masses of men and equipment being landed on the coast of France from landing craft offshore

of the

in a

end of

THE GENERAL SAYS "NUTS/" By

early

British

December, 1944,

were ready for an

Germans, watching

them back

to drive

six

American armies together with

on Hitlers Siegfried Line. The

all-out attack

closely,

decided to

the

make one

into the sea, just as they

last

had done

The German commander, Marshal von tacked in the Ardennes region of Belgium.

at

Dunkirk.

Rundstedt, suddenly

He

lines.

at-

smashed ahead with

one of the strongest tank forces in history. Soon

tremendous hole, or bulge, in the Allied

desperate attempt

his troops

This

battle

opened

was

a

called

the Battle of the Bulge.

The was

Allies fought hard.

They had no

foggy that their planes could not get

so

American unit was cut completely in the

middle of the Bulge.

British

and the Americans.

At

help from the

his headquarters the

sat silent,

wondering what

It

air.

off the

The weather

One

ground.

off at a small place called

Bastogne

looked like a bad Christmas for the

American General Anthony C. McAuliffe to

do

next.

An

aide

came

in with a message

from the Germans.

"What do they want?" asked the General. "They demand our immediate surrender, sir!"

said the officer.

"And

they want your reply at once." "Tell

them

NUTS

!

That word became

" said the General.

forever

famous

as

an American symbol of

defi-

ance.

Then,

as if

by a miracle, the

skies cleared.

More than 5,000

Allied

62

The

First

the Ninth

Ski

Patrol

Army

the winter 1944-45

63

goes

front in

into action

Germany

on

during

pounce down on the advancing Ger-

warplanes swept into the

air to

man

to a halt.

tanks and bring

Meanwhile ton,

the

them

American Generals Eisenhower, Bradley, and

and the English General Montgomery sent

squeeze both sides of the Bulge.

reserves to

Pat-

Belgium

The bewildered Germans were

to

forced

back to their original positions. This was the

German

last

called the Battle of the

At long

last

came

drive of the war.

Bulge the greatest American

the invasion into

General Patton's tanks went so

a great blunder,

American tanks sped

across

fast that

they ran out of gas.

Remagen

But here

On May

8,

it

was cut

1945,

Two South

African engineers display a Nazi flag they un-

earthed hotel

in

under

a

Cassino, Italy

bombed

By good

across the Rhine.

The

had not blown up that precious bridge.

it.

would

Hitler had boasted that his Nazi Reich years.

battle of the war.

Germany.

luck the Americans found a bridge at

Germans, by

Prime Minister Churchill

in half

Germany

and facing

its

surrendered.

end.

last for a

thousand

VICTORY ON THE SEAS While

these furious land battles

were being fought, a

important was being waged on and under the

newed Allies

their

were winning

had been working

re-

this battle of the oceans.

men

at top

American and

oceans.

The Nazis had

sea.

U-boat campaign with even greater violence. But the

For many months

Now

battle just as

These

aircraft

American and

in

British naval laboratories

speed to perfect submarine-detecting devices.

British aircraft of all types patrolled the blue

were equipped with radar

sets specially built for

detecting submarines. Regularly they kept watch over 80,000 miles of

seaways, protecting as

many as 3,000 ships at once.

Destroyers were equipped with a kind of underwater radar, called sonar, for locating submarines. Ships

and

aircraft

worked

together. If

one detected submarines nearby, the other could be called in to help destroy them.

The

tide of the sea battle

critical stage of the

turned against the Germans at the most

war. For

all

the skill of the

German submarine

crews the power of the U-boat was shattered overnight. Radar changed everything.

It

robbed the Germans of

their chief asset



invisibility in

night attack.

By

the

end of 1943 and the beginning of 1944 the Germans were

los-

ing submarines at the rate of one a day. Altogether they had some 720

U-boats at in

65

sea.

640 of them were sunk. Out of 40,000

German U-boats, 30,000 lost their lives. The Allies also defeated the Germans on

men who

served

the surface of the seas.

On

December

German a convoy

1943, for example, a British squadron

26,

battleship Scharnhorst.

on the way

to Russia

The

battleship

with supplies.

was trying

The

upon

fell

the

to destroy

British

squadron

sent her to the bottom.

The mastery fully regained

of the seas,

by the

which the Axis had

seized in 1941,

was now

Allies.

Two depth bombs plode at the as a U. S.

boat fights submarine

extime

same Navy P.C. a German

66

,______.__ M -_-__

A-Bomb ,

Aug.

6,

1945

Hiroshima

^Burma Road

ManilaPJPHILIPPINE IATAAN

~Kfrfi

/IALAYA-:

JSingupS

NEW GUINEA

NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES 'GUADALCANAL

AUSTRALIA ALLIED VICTORIES in the PACIFIC Occupied

by

Japan

VICTORY IN THE PACIFIC The

Japanese

made

rapid conquests after their attack on Pearl Har-

bor. Before long the rubber, tin, oil, quinine,

and other products of the

East Indies were in their hands. Their conquered empire contained one-quarter of the earth's surface

Then of 1942, victories

The

the

American Navy began thrashed the Japanese

it

to fight back.

fleet

Twice, in the middle

soundly. These two American

put an end to Japanese expansion.

first battle,

It lasted six days.

May.

the Battle of the Coral Sea, took place in early

The

Japanese and American surface

apart even to see each other

fleets

Airplanes did the fighting.

!

Japanese naval expedition abandoned

its

were too

The

far

defeated

plan of attacking southern

New Guinea. The

next month, on June

4, a

Japanese squadron was discovered

headed for Midway Island. Again American naval

They mauled

action.

Now

the

the Japanese squadron so badly that

American Navy was on the

instead of the attacked.

August

7,

1942,

aircraft

A

into

retreated.

was the attacker

strong American offensive took place on

when United

Solomon Islands. The American plan

offensive. It

it

went

States

Marines landed on Guadalcanal

in the

simple, but

From

it

for regaining a foothold in the Pacific

was deadly.

bases in the

It

Solomon

was

consisted of a series of island "hops."

Islands

American

task forces

would

re-

capture one after another of the tiny islands seized by Japan. Each victory

would bring them

a step closer to

Japan

herself.

68

2&

•aA

H SB

$ If

*?

#*v-

•»

Marines slogging through tropical jungles, moving up to attack the Japanese on Guadalcanal U.

S.

;

I

.>.->* l

-

i

>

w*iW *f

*

J

ft

N

I r/A,

U. S.

Army

First the

Engineers carry a section of pipe through the Burmese jungle

Americans recaptured

in the Gilbert Islands.

Next were

were the Marianas. As soon were

of? to the

By October

as

New the

Then came Tarawa Marshall Islands. Then there Guinea.

one island was invaded the Americans

next one. of 1944, the

leap to the Philippines.

A

Americans were ready

to risk the

huge Japanese naval force

daring

tried to halt the

landings on Leyte over the period October 23-27, 1944.

It lost

two 70

Giant seagoing "freight cars" unload war cargoes on Leyte Island

P

U. S.

Marines advance

in

the

Solomon

Islands, ever watchful for

enemy

snipers

A

Coast Guard Combat Photographer snapped this war dog and his master seeking shelter in a foxhole on Leyte Beach

-** ;!» battleships, four carriers, six

about nine destroyers.

General

It

Mac Arthur

was

heavy

cruisers, three light cruisers,

a great

American

and

victory.

returned to the Philippines, just as he had

promised.

Meanwhile, on the mainland of Southeast Asia, small bands of dependent

fighters, called guerilla fighters, carried

the Japanese lines.

They were under

the

in-

on war deep behind

command

of the

American

General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell and the British Brigadier General

Wingate. Slowly but surely the Allies built up their strength. They forced the Japanese out of Malaya, Thailand, Burma, and China.

With to

the capture of the island of

within only 350 miles of the southern

land. U. S.

of Japan.

73

Okinawa, the Americans advanced tip of the

Japanese main-

airmen rained tons of bombs down on the tinder-box

cities

A STORY OF COURAGE Much

of the success of the Allied

to the bravery

British

and courage of the individual

and Americans were cut

They were hungry

a

off

itched

was due

in the Pacific

soldiers.

Many

times the

from guns, ammunition, and food.

good part of the time. In the steaming jungles of

the islands they dripped with sweat.

They

campaign

Hordes

and burned with mosquito

bites.

of insects attacked them.

Their

feet

were

sore

and

swollen from the long marches and the jungle damp.

Then add fight.

To

a Japanese, his

that matters to

him

is

own

personal welfare

nese people, with the

Emperor

Japanese believe that

as the

it is

better to

accept dishonor or defeat

they can help

he

is

if

is

fice lives needlessly, the

it.

very few prisoners.

It

was

terrible

a courage that the Axis

to the

Japanese would not.

almost impossible to

Against these

commit

suicide than to dis-

the family, they will not

Every Japanese if

he

is

soldier

is

captured,

to kill himself.

While most armies would surrender

it

but the whole Japa-

about to be overcome by the enemy, or

the only honorable thing to do

found

sisters,

would disgrace

it

if

not important. All

supreme "father."

grace the "family." Because

told that

is

they had to

the honor of his family. His family includes not

only his mother and father, brothers and

The

enemy

to these hardships the nature of the

make

enemy

The

rather than sacri-

Allies in the Pacific

the Japanese surrender.

They took

a fight to the death all the way.

odds the British and the Americans fought with

had thought impossible in what they

called the

"soft" democracies.

74

*

FT1

»»

I***? U. S.

75

Marines slosh

their

way through mud

to the jungle front lines

-

^

BOMBS ON GERMANY "Not call

a single Allied plane will appear over Berlin. If

me 'Meyer'

Hermann Goering head of the German Air Force. Germans were

lot of

very bitter about

I.

to call

the

him Meyer

first to start

In the early part of

great cities as

He was

said.

the

number two Nazi,

before long.

They were

it.

The Germans were

War

does, you can

!

That's what

A

it

the

World War

bombing

II their

of cities in

World

planes devastated such

Warsaw, Rotterdam, and London. Then

the Allies

struck back.

The

first

great Allied air attack

was on Cologne,

a city in the

middle

more than

a thou-

of the Rhineland. In the short space of 90 minutes

sand planes showered the

city

with 2,000 tons of bombs.

In the weeks that followed the

During the day, American Flying try.

With

on the

the accurate

Fortresses ranged

Norden bomb-sight

all

rest.

over the coun-

they hit their targets right

nose.

At night came

the giant British Lancasters.

of "block-busters" stroy

Germans were allowed no

an entire

— bombs

so

Each

carried eight tons

powerful that one of them could de-

city block.

In between the Fortresses and the Lancasters came lighter British planes called Mosquitoes. Their buzzing was enough to keep the

Germans awake and By 1943

fearful

the Allies

through the night.

had developed a new system of

shuttle

bombing.

76

American tank hit by mortar shell in devastated Cologne. In the background is the famous Dom, one of the most beautiful churches in the World. It was damaged but not destroyed by Allied airmen

Planes would

fly

over Germany, drop their clusters of bombs, and

then head for North Africa. After resting a few days the pilots would return to England by

way

of

Germany, dropping another load

of

Germany were reduced

to

bombs.

One rubble.

after another the great cities of

Hamburg was

almost totally destroyed, and other

cities

were

badly damaged. By 1945 Berlin was a shattered ghost-city. It

was a sad and

terrible business.

by the Germans themselves. Civilians Factories were destroyed.

The Germans were

This was "total" war, invented as well as soldiers

were

Homes were smashed.

learning the hard

way

— what

you do unto

others can be done to you.

A

French and a

killed.

British soldier flee

from a machine-gunning plane

British

wire a tree a canal to hold

troops

felled across

up the enemy

Hitler tried to strike back as best he could. His scientists were

working on

secret

weapons which they believed would win the war

Germany. One of

for

V-i, or Vengeance

these

was

a flying, or "robot"

Weapon No.

i.

It

was

plane which carried a ton of explosives in flying

bombs were launched from

its

called the

actually a small pilotless nose.

the Continent.

down on London. Then the Germans began using the Much larger than the V-i, the V-2 could

bomb,

Thousands

of these

They came scream-

ing

It

was

silent

and gave no warning.

sphere and then the

came down

ground before

it

79

travel at 2,250 miles

an hour.

rose 60 miles into the strato-

at terrific speed. It buried itself deeply into

exploded.

But these weapons came to pieces

It

V-2, or flying rocket bomb.

much

too

late.

Germany was being pounded

by round-the-clock bombings. She could not

last

much

longer.

DEATH OF THREE LEADERS On

April

12, 1945,

President Franklin D. Roosevelt died at

Springs, Georgia, three

months

after

Warm

he had begun his fourth term

as

President. In his last speech, written to be delivered before Congress, his closing

words were,

"Let us move forward with strong and active faith." Roosevelt's death

was a sad blow

and children broke down and

cried

to

Americans.

when

Many men, women,

they heard the news.

Three weeks

death came to the

later

man who had wanted

to be

Caesar. Benito Mussolini's final boast, while Allied armies poured over

Northern

Italy,

was

"Between the two of tiful

would outdo Hitler

that he

us," he said, "the

man

death will be a greater

one

in defeat.

who

dies the

in the eyes of history."

There was nothing beautiful about Mussolini's death. flee Italy in disguise,

me

"Let

save

my

and

upon

spat

the

He

tried to

but he was captured by anti-Fascists.

life,"

he begged, "and

His captors shot him. They strung up the heels outside a

more beau-

Milan

will give

you an empire!"

his bullet-ridden corpse

by

Angry

Italian citizens kicked

man who had

brought them untold

filling station.

body of the

I

and misery.

trouble

Two days later the German dictator, too, was dead. Hitler

was in an underground bunker, or

of Berlin.

Above him was

shelter,

below the

streets

a trembling, shattered city, a flaming ruin.

Raving mad, he rushed from room

to

room.

He

ordered troops which

did not exist into the path of the oncoming Russians.

"The German people Even

at the last

moment

saved by some miracle. his wife of a

are not

worthy of

the

When

mad

me

!

dictator felt that he

the truth

few hours, Eva Braun. Then he put a

Thus ended

the

life

and

his lunatic

Nazis

81

Some

faces in the crowd as President Roosevelt's casket is carried through the

gates of the White House

to the

ground.

killed

bullet into his

own

in the yard.

of one of the most vicious tyrants of

took the combined might of three great

Hitler

would be

was forced on him he

mouth. The bodies were burned with gasoline

It

" he shouted in agony.

World Powers

all

time.

to bring

THE A-BOMB Japan's navy and air force had been almost destroyed by August, 1945. But, by the samurai, or military code, the Japanese were honor

bound

to fight to the end.

into flying bombs. toast,

They turned

Young

were strapped into

Japanese

the

few planes they had

pilots, after

drinking a farewell

their explosive-filled aircraft.

bombs, they aimed their planes

at

left

human

Like

American warships and died

in the

explosions.

What

could be done to bring an

enemy

clear that the Allies

would have

million Americans

would probably be

like this to

its

knees?

It

was

home islands of Japan. A killed or wounded in this last

to invade the

great battle of the war.

But there was another solution

The known

problem.

idea of nuclear fission, or splitting the atom, to physicists. If the

scientists

of

to the

could

make

World War

produce the

II

first

mans would win

a

power

bomb

of

of the

had long been

atom could be

controlled,

enormous power. Since the beginning

both the Allies and the Axis had been racing to

atomic bomb. There was real danger that the Gerthe race.

Early in the war, Albert Einstein, the great German-born

scientist

who was now an American citizen, told President Roosevelt that such a bomb could be made. The President immediately set aside two billion dollars for research to produce the bomb. Many scientists worked on the

project. There

German

scientist

were the

who had

Italian

Enrico Fermi, Lise Meitner

escaped Nazi

Germany

—a

— the Danish Nils 82

Robert Oppenheimer, and

many

Bohr, the American

J.

bomb

produced was a fearsome weapon.

these scientists

Harry a

S.

Truman, who became

President after Roosevelt died, had

hard decision to make. Should he use

He

decided that

Japan

fair

warning, but she refused

For months a

vast

American

of Japan. Early in the fortress

the

morning

named Enola Gay took

A-bomb

verse.

air

The

—a city

been selected

weapon

that

end the war.

to

armada had softened up the August

of

gave

had

in

it

islands

1945, a giant Super-

6,

ofT for Japan.

In her

the basic

bomb bay was

power

of the uni-

had

army

Hiroshima was located a small but im-

base.

2,000 times the blast power of the largest time. It blew almost all of

Hiroshima

collapsed like toys. Sheets of flame

bomb

TNT.

It

whipped through

Some had

Houses

the city. their

swayed. There was an electric smell in the

The

air.

hills

Tens

eyebrows

Others had skin hanging from their arms and

Terrorized birds flew off in every direction.

had

ever used until this

off the face of the earth.

of thousands of panic-stricken people fled. off.

He

to surrender.

That one bomb had more power than 20,000 tons of

burned

or not?

of Hiroshima, with a population of 344,000,

as the target. In

portant Japanese

weapon

this terrible

was the quickest way

it

The

others.

faces.

around the

city

In seconds some 150,000

people were killed or wounded.

Hiroshima was covered with a huge rolling cloud of smoke and dust. First the heavens turned black.

floated into the air. like

83

form.

Gradually

its

Then

a giant

mushroom

cloud

deadly shape changed into a flower-

This

Three days Nagasaki, a

later

city of

was a

residential street in Hiroshima

an even more powerful A-bomb was dropped on

250,000 people.

After a week of silence the Pearl

Harbor saw

that they

men who had planned

had made

a great mistake.

the attack

Human

on

courage

could not compete with the atom gone crazy.

On

September

Tokyo

2,

1945, the battleship Missouri lay at anchor in

Bay. Aboard her were the

commanders

of the Allied forces

awaiting the arrival of the beaten Japanese.

Then

a

little

launch appeared alongside the huge ship.

peace delegates stepped from Silently they filed to a table set

it

The

and came aboard the

Japanese

battleship.

on the foredeck. 84

In a clear, firm voice General render. Everyone present

now

the terms of sur-

was thinking of Pearl Harbor. General Mac-

Arthur finished reading and "I

MacArthur read

said,

invite the representatives of

Japan

to sign the

instrument of

surrender at the places indicated."

Without

a

word

the Japanese envoys wrote

"These proceedings are closed,"

The war

in the Pacific

was

said

over. It

down their names.

General MacArthur.

had

lasted only three

longer than the war in Europe.

Japanese Foreign Minister Shigemitsu signs the surrender document that ended World War II. General MacArthur (left) and Lt. General Sutherland stand watching

months

THE PROBLEMS OF PEACE World War trillion dollars

can

was the most expensive war

II

More than

in history.

how

were spent for war materials and armaments. But

we measure

a

the cost of broken lives, destroyed homes, the misery

and poverty caused by war?

Germany 200,000.

3,250,000

lost

Among

men

in battle, Japan 1,500,000,

and

Italy

the Allies, Russia led with a loss of 3,000,000 killed

in battle, the British

Empire 400,000,

and

the United States 325,000,

France 200,000.

The war was even more lives.

disastrous for civilians. 12,000,000 lost their

35,000,000 were wounded.

disease took their dreadful

When

Italy,

Not only bombs but

British,

and

toll.

Germany, and

finally

entered the defeated Axis countries.



starvation

Japan surrendered, the Allies

Germany was

split into

four zones

American, French, and Russian. Those nations which had

been occupied by the Axis were cleared of enemy troops.

For the

first

time in her history Japan learned what

occupied by a foreign people!

it

Her Emperor was allowed

throne because he was the only person

who

out.

Under General MacArthur, head

tion forces, the Japanese

When full

began

the Axis prison

to learn the

rule.

The

crimes against humanity go unpunished.

keep

his

The

military

of the occupa-

ways of democracy.

camps were opened,

measure the horrors of Axis

to

to be

could persuade the Japa-

nese people to submit peacefully to their conquerors.

crowd was wiped

meant

the

world learned in

Allies did not let these

The Nazis

war

responsible for

86 Japanese children come on the run when American Occupation troops hand out chewing gum and candy

the death of millions of people in gas ovens were put

Nuremberg. Nineteen were found

guilty

and

trial

in

either executed or sen-

Hermann Goering

tenced to long prison terms.

on

killed himself with

poison a few minutes before he was to be hanged.

The

terrible price

was now

which Europe had paid

clear. It is difficult to

understand

for submission to Hitler

how

he gained such power

over intelligent people. Most difficult to understand

mans themselves did not clear, in his speeches to.

Some

ties.

and

stop

him

in the beginning.

in his book,

is

why

the Ger-

He made

it

quite

Mein Kampj, what he was up

did try to stop him, of course, and they paid terrible penal-

But most went along with him, even though he carried out

horrible cruelties right under their eyes.

responsible before the world

and before

For

history.

this they

his

must remain

PLANNING A PEACEFUL WORLD After the

two

World War greatest

II,

the United States

powers on

could these two countries

earth.

live in

The

and the Soviet Union became

great

problem now was, how

peace?

Before the war ended, the diplomats of the Big Three States,

Great Britain, and Soviet Russia

— had made temporary plans

to insure a peaceful world.

At

February 4-1

had agreed that the

1945, they

1,

— the United

the Yalta Conference, over the period liberated, or freed,

peoples of Europe should be allowed to form democratic governments of their

own

choice.

But Russia did not

live

up

to her part of the

agreement. Before long she established "satellite"

states in

Eastern

Europe.

The word "satellite" means a small star which revolves around a larger one. The satellite states were meant to revolve around Russia and do

as she told

them. Russia seized control of such countries as

Hungary and Czechoslovakia At

in spite of her promises at Yalta.

the last wartime conference, held at Potsdam,

July 17 to

August

Germany. Then

2,

1945, the Allies fixed the peace terms for defeated

the wartime friendship between the Big

orated. Russia turned her back

on her

countries to her side. Believing she

she plunged ahead with a plan to the

Communist

The United to

do

Germany, from

allies

was not

and

tried to

safe in a

Three evap-

draw other

democratic world,

draw more and more

countries into

dictatorship.

States

and Great Britain refused

to recognize her right

this.

88

THE UNITED NATIONS World War

After

I,

the world tried to prevent

ing a League of Nations where countries could

more wars by formsettle their disagree-

ments peacefully. But the League disappointed many people. weakness was that

The the

it

was an organization

of governments, not peoples.

Charter of the United Nations, formed after

same purpose

peoples

as the

League,

starts

Its

World War

out with the words,

II for

"We

the

." .

.

The Charter

of the United Nations

was signed

San Francisco on

at

June 26, 1945, by the delegates of 50 countries.

The United Nations is a kind of town meeting of the world, where delegates of the member nations can meet and discuss their problems.

When

nations quarrel

it is

better to talk things over than to

Perhaps most important of the things that have led to

all,

war

go

to war.

the United Nations tries to prevent in the past. It has even

between nations that had already started

made

peace

to fight.

Various branches of the United Nations work hard in other ways to

The Economic and Social Council world, for we know that poverty can

prevent the things that lead to war. helps poor people

all

over the

help to breed war.

The World Health

Organization,

on public health and the control of

WHO,

disease. It

such as malaria, tuberculosis, and on leprosy, typhus, polio,

advises

less

and diphtheria, and

member

makes war on plagues

common

diseases such as

in emergencies sends planes

with doctors and drugs from one country to the other.

89

countries

*

9$

Headquarters for the United Nations in New York. At the left is the United Nations Secretariat building. The domed building to the right is the General Assembly Hall, backed by the New York skyline

90

The

International Labor Organization,

ILO, helps workers through-

own problems but also with worldall workers to know and understand

out the world, not only with their

wide labor problems.

It

teaches

each other better.

The

Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization,

UNESCO,

gives useful information to all countries.

One

of the weaknesses of the United Nations

veto clause.

What

this

means

is

— the United China — can or

Security Council tionalist it

that

is

any one of the big nations on the

States, Britain, Russia, France, or

forbid, talking about

veto,

the rule called the

Na-

any question which

does not want to discuss.

One

of the most difficult problems of the United Nations has been

that of disarmament, or reducing the

future

World War

weapons

unthinkable.

Any

all-out

war would

forces of the world.

have developed far too missiles

A

terrible

which can span

result in the destruction of

most

toward disarmament of

their

mankind. But the nations must take the

own

free wills.

Nations and

and all

We

— the hydrogen bomb, and guided

a continent.

of

is

armed

tell

They must plainly

in foreign countries.

list

first

step

their

armed

forces with the

and honestly how many there are

The United Nations

United

at

home

has been trying to have

the nations of the world permit a special committee to

make

a full

inspection of their armaments.

The way

of the United Nations has been neither easy nor happy.

But the important thing

Some

91

is

that the road to peace

is still

open.

people say that there has always been war and that there

always will

be.

Let us not be too sure of

code of the duel.

demand

that the

So

law

it is

as a

Once men

lived

man thought he had been insulted, man who had insulted him fight it out If a

This old-fashioned idea died out for the

that.

means

as people

began

to

by the

he would in a duel.

have more respect

of obtaining justice.

with the nations in the world today. As

increases, the nations will turn to the

their respect for

law

United Nations instead of going

to war.

We live in an atomic age. Not many of us could survive an atomic war. We will live in one world, abiding by laws created for the good of all people, or

We

we

must win

will not live at

a victory over

all.

war

itself.

That

is

the hope of the

civilized world.

92

WORLD WAR A-BOMB: The ALLIES: Great

II

WORDS

atomic bomb. Britain, France,

United

States, Russia,

China, and

many

smaller countries.

ATLANTIC WALL: German control of the ports of Western Europe. AXIS or AXIS POWERS: Germany, Italy, and Japan. BANZAI ATTACK: Reckless bayonet charge by Japanese soldiers with

yells of

"Banzai!" This means, "10,000

years, forever!"

BLITZKRIEG,

BLITZ: Lightning war: swift-moving

or

air

and ground attacks by German armies.

BLOCKBUSTERS:

BURMA ROAD:

Big British bombs. Supply route to China.

CASE BARBAROSSA: Hitler's plan for crushing Russia. COLLABORATORS: Traitors who helped the Axis inside conquered DER FUEHRER: The leader; used by the Germans in referring to the FASCIST: Badge F.F.I.

:

countries.

Nazi

leader,

Adolf Hitler.

name

of the party founded in Italy by Mussolini. French forces of the Interior; French fighters for freedom from the Nazis. of authority; the

FLAT-TOPS: Aircraft carriers. FLYING FORTRESS: Heavy American bombing plane. GOTHIC LINE: Final German battle line in North Italy. GREATER EAST- ASIA CO-PROSPERITY SPHERE: Japanese name of World War II.

HURRICANE:

for their

conquered empire in early years

British fighter plane.

DUCE: The leader; the Italian Fascists' name for their leader, Mussolini. ISLAND HOPPING: The U. S. plan to hop, skip, and jump from one island KAMIKAZES: Japanese suicide pilots. LANCASTER: Heavy British bombing plane. LEND-LEASE ACT: U. S. help for Britain, March 11, 1941. LUFTWAFFE: The German Air Force.

IL

MAGINOT

LINE: French underground

MAQUIS: French resistance fighters. MESSERSCHMITT: German fighter

MULBERRY HARBORS

MURMANSK RUN: NAZIS: O.P.A.:

:

Artificial

line of forts along the

to another to the heart of Japan.

Franco-German border.

plane.

harbors made especially for the sea lane for help to Russia.

Normandy

invasion.

North Atlantic

Followers of Hitler. Office of Price Administration; U.

S.

agency to nx wages and prices, January, 1942.

OPERATION OVERLORD: Code name for the Allied invasion of Normandy. OPERATION SEA LION: Code name for Hitler's plan to invade England, which was OPERATION TORCH Code name for the invasion of North Africa. PEARL HARBOR: U. S. naval base in Hawaii; attacked by the Japanese on December RADAR: The electronic "eye" which sees through fog and darkness.

never carried out.

:

7,

1941.

R.A.F.: Royal Air Force of Great Britain.

RED DEVILS: 1st British Airborne Division. SECOND FRONT: The Allied line against Germany SIEGFRIED LINE: German Defense SITZKRIEG: "Sit-down" or "phony" SPITFIRE:

ROSE: Japanese U-BOATS: Submarines.

V-l

:

93

Western Europe.

war, on the Western Front, 1939 to early 1940.

British Fighter plane.

STORMOVIK: Russian ground-strafing THIRD REICH: Hitler's Nazi state.

TOKYO

in

line facing France.

girl

Vengeance weapon; Nazi

who flying

plane.

sent out radio appeals in English for the Allied troops to surrender.

bomb.

PICTURE CREDITS Jacket, F.P.G. Half-title page,

Page 43, F.P.G. Page 44, United Press

United Press

Title page, United Press

Page 47, United Press

Contents page, United Press

Page 49, United Press

Page

Page

50,

Page

53, F.P.G.

Page

6,

United Press

9,

upper

left,

World; lower

F.P.G.

right,

;

upper

United Press

right,

Wide

United Press

Pages 60-61, upper

Page

11, F.P.G.

Page 61, lower

Page

13, F.P.G.

Page 63, F.P.G.

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15,

United Press

Page

17,

United Press

Page

19, F.P.G.

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20,

United Press

left,

United Press

right, F.P.G.

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Page 69, United Press Page 70, F.P.G. Page 71, F.P.G.

Page 23, F.P.G. Page 72, United Press

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25,

Page

26, United Press

Youssuf Karsh

Page 73,

Official

Coast Guard, F.P.G.

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31, F.P.G.

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33,

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94

INDEX Aden, Arabia, 33 Airplanes: Enola Gay, 83; Dorniers, 29; Flying FortHeinkels, 29; Hurricanes, 30; Mosquitoes, 16; Spitfires, 30; Stukas, 5, 29; Superfortresses, 83 Air warfare, 5, 20, 21, 22, 27, 29-32, 42-45, 48, 58, resses, 76;

59,65,68,73,76-78,82-84 Albania, 33 Algiers, 52 Allied powers: France, 7, 13, 14, 16, 18, 21, 27, 28; Great Britain, 7, 13, 14, 16, 21-24, 26, 29-32, 40,

51-56, 58-66, 73-79, 86; United States, 7, 13, 38, 40, 42-50, 52-78, 80, 82-86, 88, 89; Russia, 5, 7, 13, 14, 18,39-42, 57, 58,88 Alsace-Lorraine, 7 Amphibious operations, 52, 56, 58-61, 68-73

Anzio, 56

Compiegne, France, 28 Congress, 46 Convoys, 26 Czechoslovakia, 14, 16, 36, 88 Daladier, Prime Minister Edouard, 14

D-day, 58-61 Death march, 48

Denmark, 20 Depression, 8 Desert Fox, (see Rommel, Gen. Erwin) Desert warfare, 51 Destroyers, 22, 2 6, 65, 73

Disarmament, 91 Dunkirk, 21-24, 62 East Indies, Netherlands, 10, 48,

Egypt, 51 Eisenhower, General

Appeasement, 16 Ardennes, 61, 62 Arizona, 43

Far East, 12, 48

42 58 Flying bombs, 79, 82 Fortress Europe, 51, 58 First Front,

Atomic bomb, 82-84 Atomic war, 92 Australia, 48

Gilbert Islands, 70 Gibraltar, 33

Austro-Hungarian Empire, Axis powers: Germany, 5,

7,

14

7, 8, 10-12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 26-37, 39-41, 51-66, 76-79, 81, 86, 87; Italy, 8, 10, 51, 57, 81, 86, 88; Japan, 8, 10, 42-48, 57, 68-74, 82-86

Bastogne, Belgium, 62 Bataan, 48 Battle of the Bulge, 62, 64 Battle of the Coral Seas, 68 Belgium, 20, 62 Berlin, Germany, 81 Big Three, 88 Blitzkrieg, 5, 20, 33 Book-burning, 12 Bradley, General Omar, 64 Braun, Eva, 81

Burma, 73

Goering, Hermann, 76, 87 Gothic Line, 56 Greece, 33 Guadalcanal, 68 Guerilla fighters, 73

Guided missiles, 91 Hamburg, Germany, 78 Hawaii, 42-45 Hiroshima, Japan, 83 Hirohito, Emperor, 46 Hirohito, Emperor, 46 Hitler, Adolf, 8, 10-14, 16, 27-29, 34, 39, 40, 42, 51 54, 56, 58, 61, 64, 79, 81, 87

Holland, 20

Home

front,

50

Hull, Secretary of State Cordell, 45 Hungary, 33, 88

Hydrogen bomb, 91

Caesar, Julius, 56 Caligula, 12

India, 33, 48 Island "hops," 68-73

Ivan the Terrible, 12

War

7-13 Chamberlain, Prime Minister Neville, 14, 15 China, 10, 42, 48, 73 Churchill, Prime Minister Winston, 20, 24, 29, 32,

54 '

Collaborationists, 34

Cologne, Germany, 76 Colonies, 7, 10

Commandos, 58 Communists,

18,

,

Guam, 48

Burma Road, 48



64

Fascists, 8,

Atlantic Charter, 38 Atomic age, 92

38

D., 52, 58,

England, (see Allies; Great Britain)

"Arsenal of democracy," 38 Asia, 10, 33 Athenia, 17

Casablanca, 52 Causes of World

Dwight

68

88

II,

Japanese characteristics, 74 Jews, 12

King Leopold of Belgium, 21 Land bridge to Asia, 33 Land warfare, 21, 27, 33, 39-41, 51-53, Laval, Pierre, 34 League of Nations, 89 Leningrad, Russia, 39 Leyte Island, 70

56, 61-64

INDEX Libya, 51 Lidice, Czechoslovakia, 36 London, England, 17, 29, 76, 79 Luftwaffe, (see Air warfare)

Radar, 30, 43, 58, 65 Reich, German, 64 Reparations, 8 Repulse, 48 Resistance fighters, 35, 36, 58

MacArthur, General Douglas, 48, 73, 85, 86 Maginot Line, 18, 27 Malaya, 73 M^re Nostrum, 10 Manchukuo, 10 Manchuria (see Manchukuo) Marianas, 70 Marshall, General George C, 42 Marshall Islands, 70 McAuliff, General Anthony C, 62 Mediterranean Sea, 10, 33 Mein Kampf, 87 Midway Island, 68 Milan,

Italy,

Rhineland, 76

Robot bomb, 79 Rome, Italy, 56

Rommel, General Erwin, 51-53 Roosevelt, President Franklin D., 38, 46, 48, 56, 80, 82 Rotterdam, Holland, 20, 76 Royal Air Force, 30, 32

Rumania, 33 Samurai, 82 San Francisco, U.S.A., 89 Satellites,

Scientists:

Enrico,

81 52, 53,

Bohr, Nils, 83; Einstein, Albert, 82; Fermi, 82; Meitner, Lise, 82; Oppenheimer, J.

Robert, 83 Sea warfare, 17, 26, 65, 66, 68-73

Missouri, 84

Montgomery, General Bernard,

88

64

56

Montreal, Canada, 17

Sicily, 54,

Moscow, Russia, 39 Munich, Germany, 14

Siegfried Line, 18, 62

Mussolini, Benito,

Singapore, Malaya, 48

8, 10, 12, 14, 33, 51, 56,

81

Slave laborers, 35 Sonar, 65 Stalin, Joseph, 40 Stalingrad, Russia, 39, 41 Stilwell, General Joseph, 73 Submarine warfare, 26, 65 Sudetenland, 14 Suez, 33 Suez Canal, 51 Surrender: French, 27; Italian, 56; Japanese, 84, 85

Nagasaki, Japan, 84 Naples, Italy, 56 Napoleon Bonaparte, 39 Nazis, 10, 65, 81, 86 New Guinea, 68, 70

Norden bomb-sight, 76 Normandy, France, 58-61 North Africa, 10, 12, 51-54, North Sea, 21 Nuclear

fission,

56, 78

82

Tank

Okinawa, 73 Oklahoma, 43

Omaha Beach, 59 Operations, military: Anvil Dragon, 61; Overlord, 58; Sea-Lion, 29 Pact of Steel, 12, 46 Panzer, (see Tank warfare) Parachutists, 20 Paris, France, 21, 27 Pas de Calais, France, 59 Patton, General George, 64 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 42-45, 48, 68, Petain, Marshal Henri, 27, 34 Philippine Islands, 48, 70-73

Sitzkrieg, 18

warfare,

5,

20, 21, 51-53, 59, 62-64

Tarawa, 70 Thailand, 73 Tiber River, 56 Tojo, General Hideki, Tokyo Bay, 84 Tunis, 54 Turkey, 7 Tuscany, 56

42

Nations: Charter, 89; Economic and Social Council, 89; Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 91; International Labor Organization, 91; Veto clause, 91; World Health Organization, 89 Utah Beach, 61

United

84

Vengeance Weapons, 79

"Phony war," 18

Versailles Treaty, 7

Ploesti oil fields, 33

Von

Poland, 5, 7, 16 Polish Corridor, 7 Posen, Poland, 7 Potsdam, Germany, 88 Prince of Wales, 48 Prison camps, 48, 86 Prisoners, 48, 51, 74

9, 10,

Rundstedt, Marshal, 62

Wainwright,

Wake

Lt.

Island,

General Jonathan, 48

48

Ward, 43 Warsaw, Poland,

5,

76

Weather, 58, 59, 62

West Wall

(see Siegfried Line)

Wingate, Brig. General, 73

Prussia, 7

World War

Quisling, Vidkun, 34

Yalta Conference, 88

I,

7, 8, 10, 11, 16,

26, 89

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