The Business Pre-Intermediate Student's book

Student's Book OFFICEUSE ONLY AMACMILLN ń MACMILLN ,:" " .. i" o :,:: ;':," .'.Łf's*.'i; '';" tl ).'..1J, ..lti i - 1 ,1.,.'.' :,, ,- ,.,i., . Thefirs...

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Student's Book

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To the student The objective of Tłe Business is to help you leam two things: how to do business in English and the languageyou need to do it. The new language and structures arc presented in the student's Book whilst the DVD-RoM provides language practice and eńension. Here is a summary of what you will find in each.

Student's Book The modules The Student's Book contains 48 modules in eight units. Each unit deals with a key sector of activity in the business world. There are six different types of module:

Thesemodulescontaininformationand languagefor the topicareaof eachunit.The focusis on understanding the topicand the generalsenseof the texts- don'tworrytoo muchaboutdetailssuchas new vocabularv.

ThesemoduIesbuiIdon the impońantWordsand phrasesintroducedin the previous moduleand providethoroughpractice. ; .. -

The first part of thesemodu|es- Testyourse|f- testsyour knowl€ d ge of important grammatical structures. Do this beforeand/ or afterthe practiceactivitiesin the second part.|f necessary, referto the Grammarand practicesdćtióhat the backof the bookfor nerp.

Thesemodulesdevelopunderstanding and speakingskillsin typicalbusiness situations. cood and bad examplesare givenfor comparison, and the speakingactivities allowyou to practisekey phrasesand skillsin realisticsituationswith otherpeople.

These modules provide practicefor the most important types of document you will need to write at work. Model texts are examined and used as a basis to write vour own.

The casestudiesprovidean opportunityto applyall the language,skillsand ideasyou haveworkedon in the unit.Theypresentauthenticproblem-solving situationssimilarto thosevou will meetin business.

Every module includes an Intemet research task. The Internet provides almost unlimited resources for improving your English and learning more about business. These tasks direct you to intercsting background and details on topics related to each module. The tasks can be done beforę or after workins on the module'

other features In additionto the eightmain units,the Student'sBook containsthe following: Reviews Theseunits can be usedin threeways:to consolidateyour work on the units,to catchup quickly if you havemisseda lesson,and to revisebeforetestsor exams. Additional mateńal This sectioncontainsall the extramateńalsyou needto do pair or groupwork activities. Grammar and practice The section gives a very useful summaryof rules with clear examples,but also provides further practiceofthe essentialgrammarpointsin this level ofthe course. Recordings Full scriptsof all the audio recordingsaregiven,allowingyou to studythe audio dialoguesin detail.However,try not to rely on readingthemto understandthe listenings- veryoften,you don't needto understandeveryword,;'ustthe main ideas. Wordlist In the modules,wordswhich you may not know are in grey;you will find definitionsin the wordlist,oftenwith examples.Wordsin red are high-frequency items,which you shouldtry to leam and use.The others,in black, arewordsyou iust needto unde$tand.

The DVD.ROM The DVD-ROM is designedto help you continueimprovingyour Englishon your own, away from lhe classroom.It includesan interactiveworkbookwhich, like the Reviewunits in the studeńt,sBook, can be usedin threeways:to improveyour listening,gramma1vocabularyand pronunciation;to catchup on lessonsyou havemissed;to revisefor testsand exams. Interactive workbook This includeseverythingyou would normallyfind in a workbook,and more;activitiesfor vocabulary,pmmaĘ pronunciation,wTitingand listeningpractice. Video Each unit includesan episodeof a mini-dramaillustratingthe communicationand peopleskills practised in each unit, with exercisesto practise the functional languageused in the video. Businessdilemmas gamesto allow you to reviewand practisefunctionallanguage Therearefour problem-solving from the student,sBook. Tly doingthesewith a pańnerto practisediscussingproblemsand solutions. lests Four tests,one for everytwo units,allow you to checkyour progressthroughthe DVD-ROM. If you do well on a test,you get'promoted';if you do well on all four tests,you becomeCEO! BuŚiness docum€ n ts Thereis a model documentfor eachunit, includingletters,invoices,CVs, etc.Each document includesannotationsexplainingthe structureand key phrases,and a follow-upactivitytests understanding of this. Grammar reference You can referto this sectionany time for helpfulgrammarrulesand examples. Class audio This sectionof the DVD-ROM containsall the audio recordingsfromthe Student'sBook, together with scrollable scripts. Downloadables The DVD-ROM includes a set of downloadable files for use outside the DVD-ROM or away from your computer.Thereis a downloadableand pńntablePDF of the answersto the Student'sBook exercises;a Word file containingthe text of each Businessdocument;scriptsfor all the videosand MP3 files ofall the Student'sBook audio that vou can transferto vour MP3 nlaveror iPod for listeningon the move. We sincerelyhope you will enjoyworkingwith Tłe Business. Good luck! lohn Allison Paul Emmerson

Made Kavanagh I(arenRichardson

John Sydes

?t.Business

uontents -{

1 Living abroad

1 .1 Working abroad

1.2 Livingabroad

1.3 Presentsimpleand prepositions of time

2.1 The shoppingexperience

2.2 Telephoning and customercare

2.3 Countable& uncountablenouns, requestsand offers

3.1 Leanmanufacturing

3.2 Trendsand planning

3.3 Presentcontinuous, adverbt present simplepassive

4.1 Business leadersand success stories

4.2 Describingyourselfand being successful

4.3 Pastsimple,past continuousand usedto

Advertising

5-2 Buyingandselling

5.3 Comparatives, superlatives and askingquestions

6.1 Entrepreneurs

6.2 Typesof companies

6.3 Repońedspeech

7. 1 Keep it in the family

7.2 Dealingwith figures

7.3 will and won't, be gomg to and first conditional

8.1 Franchising

4.2 Settingup a franchise

8.3 Pastsimpleand presentpeńect

PAGE 6

2 Dealingwith customers P AG E 1 8

PAGES30-31

3 Operations PAGE 32

4 Successstories PAG E 44

PAGES56,57 ).1

Selling PAGE 58

The organization PAGE 70

PA6ES 82-83

The stock markets PAG E 84

8 Going global PAGE 96

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Additional material

P AG E S ! 10- 117

Grammar and practice

pAGEsr18*133

Recordings

PAGES 134-r47

Wordlist

PAGES148-1s8

lrregularverb list

PAGT 159

:t f3ui.itless

'|.4 Making small talk

1.5 Formaland informalemails

1.6 Global Recruit

Telephoning - handlingcomplaints

Dealing with an email of complaint

2.6 The Panoramaconference

3.4 >-esentations - signpostsand sieppingstones

Ępralsa|s

kĘotiating

\€ g otlations - makingoffer' agreeingdeadlines

a4 >es€ n tations_ handlingquestions

5.)

3.6 ScotAir

4.5 Profiles of business leaders

4 .b

Instructions and procedures for an exhibitionstand

5.5

The EngIishA€ a demy

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Coolhunters

6.5 Agendas and action minutes

6.6 Soup kitchen vs Gourmet to go

7-5 Describing figures

1.6 Tradingstocks

8.5 Reportsof recommendation

8.6 Choosinga franchise

The Wordliłtiśa module-by.ńodu|€g|ossaryo' a||thewordsin g.ey in this Coursebook.

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Discussion lI Look at the people in the photos. They all work away from home. Read the quotes below and match them with the people. 1 I work abroad but I never stay in one country for very long. I install software systemsand train people how to use them. I'm in Thailand at the moment and I'll be here for another six months. 2 My univelsity has links with engineering firms in Germany. As pań of my deglee I'm working lbr one of them in Hamburg. 5 I spend two months every year in India buying supplies for my jewellery business. At the moment I'm staying in lodhpur. 4 I spend ten months every year working abroad. I never know where I'm going to be. It's . alwaysjn places wherethereare medical crrcrgc'r.ic:. Have you ever lived or worked abroad? Do you know anyone who lives or works abroad? compale youl answers with a pańner

Collocations Ę You aregoingto readan ańicle abouthow to geta iob abroad'Beforeyou readmatcha word on the leftwith a word on the risht to makea collocation. 1 career 2 work 3 foreign 4 application

a) b) c) d)

process language placement ladder

5 degree 6 cover 7 shoń 8 withdraw

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letter an application

h)

list

Reading for detail El Read the article and mark the sentences 7 (tlue)ror F (false).Changeeny false sentences to make them true.

1 To havea successfulcareerthesedaysyou needto haveexperienceof working abroad. 2 A work placementabroadwill help your applicationattractattention. 3 NannetteRipmeesterthinks that the Euro CV is ihe bestldnd of CV to usewhen looking .r 't forajob. 4 You needto checkthat your employerswill recogniseyour degreesubject. 5 cvs aremoreimpońant than covel letters. 6 A coverletterin Francemay be studiedby a specialist. 7 SarahHall withdrewher applicationfor a job in Spain becauseshe didn't like the questionsin her inteNiew. 8 When workingabroadyou shouldbehavein a similarway to thosearoundyou.

Listening and note-taking [ ! t.ot_l.ołListen to the foul peoplefrom 1 talkingabouttheirwork experienceabroad and completethe table. country I ndia

how long

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workingwith children

Jean Marc N4arika

Germany

Listening for detail searchfor the keywords working abroad to see what jobs are on offer. Hold a alassvote to choosethe three most aftractivejobs.

El 1 2 3 4 5 6

Listen to the interviews again and answer the questions. Who Who Who Who Who Who

likes

was in Venezuela last year? hopes to get a good referencefuom their company? found the food strange when they first arrived? is going on holiday when their job is finished? is staying in an expensive hotel? has a lot of business contacts in the countrv where thev are?

her localfamily

1.1Aboutbuśin€ s s O

Discussion !! In smallgroupsdiscussthe questions. 1 Which countrieswould you like and not like to go and work in? 2 What problemsdo you think peoplewho work abroadhave? 3 Do you think working abroadis essentialfor a successfulcareer?Why / Why not?

i.i today'scompetitivejob market, 50the CV rightbut the coverletter 'My adviceis be awareof 'culture not spendingtime abroadcan wrongand you destroyyourchances clash.'lnBritainthereis usually seriously damageyourchancesof of gettingshortlisted for interview a maximumof two interviews. ln climbingthe careerladder.lt is no essouthernEuropetheywill callyou becausethe coverletteris the first . surprisethenthat moreand more thingthat an employerwill read.The backfor a thirdor fourth interview. graduatesand professionals are I losta verygoodjob in Spainwhen lookingfor opportunities to liveand I thoughttheyweren'tserious.I Workin a for€ i gn country withdrew my applicationbecause mirror the kind of With recordnumbersof workers toothey askedme to go for a fouńh ': hopingto relocate,it is no longer messages you get interview Lookingback,I now enoughto haved onea work, realisetheyweredoingas they about communication placementabroador to soeaka alwaysdo. I behavedwrongly.' foreignlanguag e.'This and appearance is no longer 'lt'simportantto showthat you '05understand somethingthat makesyou the workingculture. '. different,'saysNannetteRipmeester, Adaptinga similarstyleof dressto . Britishusuallywrite long lettersto directorof Expeńisein Labour yourco-workers, eatingthe kind Mobility.'lt is somethingemployers bordraw attentionto relevantsections of food theyeat,enjoyingsimilar expect. on the CV,the ltalianswant one or activities - thesethingshelpto win But evenif you are a strong two sentences and the Frenchexpect 110 trustand respect.' ::candidate, the application candidates to handwritedetailed 'Thinkof yourselfas a cultural processfor foreignjobs is far letterswhichmaybe analysedby chameleon, mirrorthe kind 6shandwritingexperts. from straightforward. The EU you get about of messages hasintroducedthe EuroCV to When it comesto interviews, communication and aoDearance. standardise 115 applicationprocedures makesureyou know aboutthe Peoplelike peoplewho remindthem the of themselves, and nobodylikes - throughoutEurope,but Ripmeester work cultureand understand believesthat a culturallyadapted importancedifferentcountriesplace what theydon't understand.' I mon languageand speech.For CV is better,M/hat do I mean by that?Forexample,in the U( it example.the Frenchuse shoń sentences ano and i interestsat the hate silence,while of th€ In ltaly however, Scandinavians not necessary.' 15havea deep When vou wr it is respectfor also a gód idea pauses.You may = a photo is thinkthesepoints an should. are not importantbut by !onot payingattention,you be or English. are showingthat you do to about is not respectthe cultureof the c will countryyou wishto work in. Makinga mistakeat the a5interviewis something asWireless Systems,Whkh doesnt necessarily SarahHallknowsall 'translatehrto another languageand about.Sheis from oirture. Liverpoolin the UK You also need to considerthe and hasworked :oYerletter,the first thing that an eoin Germany, employerwill read.Approaches Sweden and differ from countryto country:gel Spain. ii,t!^ .

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Living e*emad

Discussion I

Look at the picturcabove.What everydayproblemsdo peoplew]-rolive abroadhave?

Reading and vocabulary Ę Read the e{racts fuom an article on living abroad. Find the corlect heading for each ex|ract. health! El

openinga bank accountD

mobilephonesE

accommodation !

Read the tets again and use the words in the boxes to fill in the spaces. bil|s notice

contract deposit

apańment

Perhaps the most difficult thing to organize is where you are going to live. Your employer might help you find an (1)or it might even be provided for you. The best advice is to start looking beforeyou go. Use the Intemet to look for places to rent and post your own advert on bullctin bo.rds. It is important to view anywhere though beforeyou sign a (2)and give a large (3)to a l.rndlord.You also need to check whether or not the utilitv (4)_ are included and how much (5)_ you need to Sive when you want to move out. Many people choose to live with a local family as a way of learning about the culture of the country they are in.

creditcafds

salarv

overdraft

To open a bank account in another country you will need to show your passport, proof of earnings,proof of your address and residency.It is also likely that you will be expectedto show proof that your monthly (6)_ will be paid into this account. Remembel that rules regarding banks ale not the same in ev€ r y country You have to pay for an (7)on your account in France,and the rules on (8)_ can differ greatly,make sure tou check beforeyou sign up!

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check-uo insurancescheme nationalhealthservice

In most countries you have to pay for medical treatment.For trips of up to three months in Europe, the European Health InsuranceCard may allow you to be treatedfor ftee by the (9)of the country you are in. Your employer may have an (10)that you can join or you might want to take out your own insurance policy. This will help you if you need to see a doctor while you are abroad.You may need to rc!,istcfwith a doctor and you mav also need to have a (11)-.

top-ups

landline

contract

number

In many countries,the processof buying a mobile phone is straightforward:you choose the Italy is one exccption, phone and the provider you want, you are then given a (12)-. where you will need your national ID card and your tax code. When you don't know how long you are plannin8 to live in the country,many people choosepri:peid packagesthat This means you can cut off the service when you want without worrying allow (13)-. These days many providers also offer wireless Internet about being tied into a (14)-. put into your {lat or apartment. accessmeaning you won't need to have a (15)-

Listening for gist Thesepeopleare all living abroad.Listen to foul convelsations.where is each E ł person?Whatis he or shetryingto do?

Listening for detail El

Listen to the conve$ationsagain and answel the quęstions.

Conversation 1 1 What does Carmen want to do? 2 Which documentsdoes Carmen need to show? Conversation 2 3 How many bedlooms ale therc in the apańment? 4 How much is the rent? Conversation 3 5 Does Mr Goodman have a European Health lnsuranceCard? 6 How tall is Mr Goodman?

a

Conversation 4 7 Why doesn't Yuki want a phone with a contract? 8 How much free talking time does the phone have?

Giving advice lN Look at the eight pieces of advice for people who are going to live abroad. For each set of four match the beginning with the conect ending.

search for the keywordś moving abrcad advice to read more about what you need to do when moving to another country

1 2 3 4

You might have to pay two month's rent When you move out of a flat You can have an overdralt You can use your bank card from home

a) b) c) d)

5 6

You need to be registeredwith a doctor Most employersinclude medical insumnce

e) broadband access in the arca where you live. f\ means you don't need to sign a contmct for your mobile phone. to get medical treatment. nl as pań of theil employment package.

7 Using top-ups 8 You needto checkthat thereis

for free with most banks. your landlord will check the inventory. to withdraw money from a cash point. as a deposit before you move into a flat.

Which pieces of advice are true for your country? Which are different? What other advice and information could you give? Compare your answers with a partner.

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Living abroad Pr.sontś|mp|€ she worksin London. permanentSituations I usuallyget up at 7.U) am. /outinesandthingswe do regularly > Gr'nń.r

n'.|..n.. pag€ l 18

PEpositions of time on weekdays dates spe(ialda)6 the weekend(Us) at the weekend(UK) festlvals flme5 ln months seasons partsof th€ day yearl date! Us English month/daterlear 0211/n20r0 UK English date/monthrYear. 14t02t2010 > G..mrn.r l.LEnc.

page t 19

Testyourself:Presentsimple ll

Read four descriptionsof people'sjobs. Write the correct form of the missingverbs into the text. Find the corred job for each text. computer programmer attend

enjoy

do

archited spend

human resourcemanager

businessstudent

like

a bit of everythingl I There are only two of us in the department, so | (1)(2)a lot of long meetings- many of these are related to budgets and to companypolicydevelopmentand | (3)them. I also (4)a lot of time interviewing candidatesfor jobs. Thls is one of the areas of the job I (5)the mo$. work

develop

create

spend

travel

My company (6)educational software for primary school children. Usually | (7)on maths proieds but we also (8)spanish language learning programs.Sometimes| (9)most of to Spain for meetings but | (10)the time at a desk in mv office. buy

want

search

send

not have

I needto repaymy student|oanso | (1l)to fiiłdj job bbforethe end of the year when my coursefinishes.Everyday,| (12)the Internetfor suitablejob vacanciesand | (13)the nationaland localnewspapers to look at the job ads.I also (14)my cV to companiesI am interestedin workingfo1 even if they (15)any vacanciesat the moment. not have

be x 2

work

meet

not like

think

Normally | (16)on one or two projectsover a three or four-year period, My latest projed is a chur(h and | (17)very excited about it. The church (18)very old and it (19)enough light. I need to design some more windows. Everyweek | (20)the Bishop to talk about the project.Sometimes he (21)my ideas but othertimes he (22)they're great.

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Testyourself:Prepositionsof time Work with a pańnet search łor the keywords festivals in Japan or festivals in Mexico to read more about festivalsin these Couńtries.Te||your pańner What happens on spe(ial days in these counvtes.

El

compIetethe teń about Elspethfrom Germanyu5ingprepositionsof time from the Refresh your memorybox. I Cameto Londonabout six monthsago. | stańed my job as a Winebuyerat Marks & To be exact'Istańed (2) February14lh.BeforeComing February. Spencer(1)I was in New here,I worked at a wine.v in south Africaand beforethat, (3)-2004, York Stateworking as an au palr.No matterwhere I am in the world, I alwaysphone my parents (4)6 o'clock the weekend. I try to call them (5)Sundays(6)(7)I try to do is home for christmas.I do liketo the evening.The other thing 90 spendtime (8)christmaswith my family.lf you ever get the chance,you really The GermanChristmasmarketsare the best December. shouldgo to Germany(9)in the world.

Lasteningfor detail Ę

1 2 3 4,

!

t.os-l.ls Listen to seven descriptions of national festivals and and write the date.

AustraliaDay Boxing Day (UK) GroundhogDay (USA & Canada) Bas{illeDay (France)

5 April Fool's Day 6 ShowaDay (lapan) 7 Day of the Dead (Mexico)

Listen again. What does each holiday celebmte? What happens?

El Question forms Use the prcsentsimpleto make questionsfor theseanswers. 1

From a small villase in south-west France called Marsac.

Usuallyat 9am but sometimesat about8.45. 4 5

Languages? English and French quite fluently and also a bit of Chinese. In a small aoartment near the centre of town. Usually by bus. but if the weatheris realJygood I sometimeswall(. I usually go on holiday in June. sometimes in the company cantccll, but mole often I go to the cafó round the corner

wolk with a pańnel. Take it in tulns to ask and answer the questions.

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11

Living abroad Discussion E

Look at the tips for small talk below.What is smalltalk? Do you think the tips are useful? tEcnl{lqrE o r

Always wear a Whatzit What's a Whatzit? Some people have developeda clever techniquethat works well for social or corporatenetworkingpurposes. The techniquerequiresno special skill on your pań, only the couragero wear a Whatzit. A Whątzit is aryft}JjDiLg unusual - a unique brooch, an interestingscarf,a strangetie, a funny hat. Awhatzit is any objectthat drcws people'sattentionso that they walk over and ask. 'Uh. what'sthat?' tEcHl{tQUEtWO

Whoozat? What to do when you haven'tgot a Whatzit... Like a politician, go to the host and say,'That man / woman over there looks interesting. lvho is he / she?' Then ask for an introduction. -otFind out about the stmngels job, interests or hobbies. The host might say' .oh, thatś smith. I'm not surc you've what his job is, but I know he loves 'oe to ski.' Aha, iust been givel the icebreaker youneed. Now walk over to Joe Smith and say, 'Hi, you're Joe Smith, aren't you? Susan was just telling me what a great skier you are.Where do vou ski?'

Reading for detail E Readthe ańicle below aboutsmalltalk to find: 1 threetopicsthatyou can makesmalltalk about 2 two topicsthatyou can't makesmalltalk about 3 two tips for managingsmalltalk

What is small talk? Your company sends you to an important intemational conference in the USA. While you arc tavelling tom the hotel to tlle conlerence centre you meet somebody who works {or the Spanish division of your company for the first time. The conversation tiat you have will gobably be v/hat we call small talk.

What do peoplemakesmalltalk about? There ale ceńain saJetopics that people usually make small talk about. The weather is probably the number one thing. Sometimes even friends and family members discuss the weather when they meet oI start a conve$ation. spońs news is a common topic, especiallyifa local team is doing extremely well or badly. If there is something that you and the

12

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other speakerhave in cornmon,that may also be acceptable to talk about. For example, if the bus is extremely full and therc are no seats available you might talk about reasons why. There are also some subiects that are not considered acceptable when making small talk. Personal information such as salaries or divorce are not talked about betweenpeople who do not know each other well. Negative comments about another person not involved in the conversation are also not acceptable:when you do not know a personwell you cannot be surc who their friends arc. It is also not wise to continue talking about an issue that the othel person does not seemcomfońable with or intercsted in. Lastly, avoid one word answels, and ask questions to show that you want to keep the conve$ation going.

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Listening for gist p ! I ,I o*l :t a Listen to three conversations where people are making small talk. For each conversation decide: 1 where the people are 2 what small talk topics they talk about 3 how many questions the spe-akersask to keep the convenation going.

Listening for detail l!

Listento the conversationsagainand write the questionsthat the speaken use.

Conversation 1 1 2 3 --

-

good weather? so? enjoy it?

Conversation 5

78 --youdo? 9 --10 ----visitlndia?

-

Conversation 2 4 _ _ 5 6 ---the

__

visit there? stav? continental?

for work or on holiday?

-

yourjob?

Making small talk fl Work with a pańnel. choose one of the topicsbelow to makeSmalltalk about.studentA should preparesomethingsto say aboutone of the topics,StudentB shouldpreparea list of questions going. ro keeptheconversarion 1 Your last weekend 2 Your job/studies 3 Yourjourneyto classtoday

4 What you'redoingafterclass 5 The lasttime you wentto a rcstaurant 6 The weathertoday

Beginnińg and ending smalI ta|k forbeginning andending !l Putthewordsin theco(ectorderto makesomeusefulphrases smalltalk. 1 2 3 4

but SonV have to go I now. meeting It's nice been you. believe can't how busy it I is. journey have you Did a good here?

5 your was How weekend? 6 Enjoy restthe of the conference. 7 to talking Nice you. 8 It's weather lovely today.

Mark each phrase B (for beginning a convenation) or E (for ending a conversation). Can you add any more? f,l Work in small groups. You are all at an intemational conference and it is the break between two presentations.You don't know any of the other people in your group and so you need to make small talk. Student A tum to page 110. Student B tum to page 111. Student C tum to page 112.StudentD tum to page 113.

Searchfor the keywords smal/talk to {ind more tips. With a pańne' list the three most useful tips.

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13

1 '

Ęing ąbload

Discussion ll

Work with a pańner.Discussthe questionsabÓut emails.

1 How manyemailsdo you write in a week? 2 Who do you write emailsto?

Have you ever wńtten a formal email?

Reading for detail Ę 1 2 3 4

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Read the email below and answer the ouestions. Who is the email from? Who is the email to? What three things does the writer ask the reader to do? Where is Ms Lee going? CJ

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9L:,!:*{{r Visit to Osaka Securities Dear Mr Watanabe, Thank you for your email receivedMarch 21. With regard to my visit next month I need to tell you that I will arrive at Osaka airport at 14.30on Thursday14thApril. As this will be my first visit to Japan I would be very grateful if somebody could meet me at the airport. Also, would it be possible for you to make a reservationat a nearby hotel for me? | would really appreciateit. In addition, could you possibly send me a copy of the agenda for our meeting and a copy of your most recent salesfigures. Pleaseaccept my apologies but my colleague Ms Lee will not be able to join me on this visit as she is attending an investmentconferencein Singapore at the same time. I look forward to meeting you, With best regards. Lars Oluffson

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Informal language Read anotheremail and find informalphrasesto matchihe phtasesin bold in exercise2.

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SuUjecr'Visitto OsakaSecurities

I 1 ] ] ] I

DearHaruki. Thanksfor yourmessage. Re nextmonth,svisitto Japan.|,mgoingto arriveat osakaairpoń at 14.30 on Thursday14April.Thiswill be my firstvlsitto Japanso canyou sendsomebodyto meetme at the airportplease?Canyou book a hotelfor me nearyour officestoo? Also,canyou pleasesendme a copyof the agendafor our meetingand a copyof your mostrecent salesfioures? I'm sorry but my colleague Ms Lee won't be able to come with me as she is going to an investment conferencein Singaporeat the same time.

see you nextmonth, All the best,

*l

Forręal and informal language In each set of fou! match a formal word on the left with an informal word on the right.

Ę

1 inform a) come to 5 further e) want 2 assistance b) help 6 grateful f1 more 3 require c) tell 7 near future c) hąppy 4 attend d) need 8 would like h) soon ' p ReadManuela'semailto Laura and write it as a formalemail.Use the expressionsfrom 2 and wordsfrom 4.

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Subject: Art and design conference Dear Laura Thanksfor your last message. Iwanttote|| you about next month,sańsand design conference. |t i5 going to be heId in sao Pau|o at the FirstConferenceCentre from June 18 to 21. The agenda for the conferenceis attached.Can you have a look and choose the sessionsthat you want to come to? Pleasealso tell me if you need any extra help. I can book a hotel for you or arrange for somebodyto meet you at the airport. I will be very happy if you can let me know soon. All the best, Manu e l a C a l o

Writing Ę o . . . .

Write a lormal reply to Manuela's email. Use the information below: you are going to attend the conference you can not stay for all three days the sessions you want to go to are New design methods and.The future of art ask Manuela to make a reservation at a hotel ask Manuela to organize a taxi to pick you up at the airport.

zJrSusiless

15

Living abroad Discussion fl Readthe informationbelow aboutGlobal Recruit.What arethe advantasesand disadvantages of usingan organizationlike this to help you find a job?

Global Recruito Looking for a job abroad? Global Recruitmay be able to help you.We work with a numberof high-profileorganizationsall around the world and find the right candidateto filltheir vacancies. Our job is to find staffwho havethe right skillsand qualifications for thesecompanies,We arran9eintervi€ w s and give adviceand suppoń on the locationand the requirements of the jobs,We can also help with visasand other legal requirements.

Reading and discussion Ę

xead the two job adveńisements. which job would you prefer?Why?

Joh TG I 4ge CALL DUBAIt the MiddteEast'sreading mobitephonecompany, haSan exce||ent opportunitv for an exńeribnced saIesadvisorin theirretaiI unitin centralDubai. Thejob willinvolveadvisingcustomers,processtng customerorders, and dealingwithqueriesand complaints. Applicants forthis positionshouldhavea minimumof a year'ssales experience withinan international company, shouldhaveknowledge of mobiletechnology and experience of working withcustomers. Experience withinan international companyis a strongadvantage, as is knowledge of English,Frenchor Arabic.

ą 3$$st&l& $as 'i Web Analyst in central Btazil. sra'ilian MrM,Brazit's

largestonlineclothesretailer, has an excellent opportunity for a senior webanalyst. Thepositionincludesanalysing customeractionson ourwebsite, reporting on customerhabits,maintaining and updating the websiteand managing a teamof webanalysts. Forthe positionyou need to have knowledgeof the followinglanguagesl AsP' PHą co|dFusion,JaVaor Net,experience of workingin the c|othing industry, managerial experience and a basicknowledge of Portuguese, Thejob is basedin ourofficesin Rio de Janeiro.

16

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Reading for gist search for the keyvvords work in Dubai ot work /n Brazil to read more about job opportunities in these countries.Try to find a job you would liketo do and tell your Partner about it.

Ę The four candidates below wele all shońJisted for one or other of the positions. Scan the information and see if you can guess which position they applied for TomasVisser 25 Buśineśs śtudies degr€ e

0)_ English.Flemish,French (2)_ ' Currentlyunemployed

Panayota Mitropoulos (3)_ Geographydegree Eng|ish,Fr€ n ch. German,chines€

(s)_ Worksin łami|ytavefna

MiroslavKalata 21 (6)_ Designswebśites for boutique!

(7rComputersand parties Websitedeśigner

Di Ponti Francesca 28 Modern languagesdegreefrom ltalianuniversity (8)_ Eng|ish, spanish,Fren(h,Pońuguese (9)_ Currently unemployed

Listening for detail Listento thefourpeopleintroducing themselves andfill in the missing E ł: l: ]:,].] informationon their profiles.

Discussion E wolk with a pańner' Decide who is the best candidate for each job. Give reasons for your decisions.

Lasteningfor detail E ł l l; Dana is the Recruitment Manager and Heidi is an administratol at Global Recruit. Heidi is calling Dana about the referencesthat she has for each of the candidates. Listen to the conversation and note down any problems that they find with the four candidates.

Discussion f,l Work with a pańnel. Discussagalnwho you think is the bestcandidatefor eachjob. Has the informationfrom the referenceschansedvour decisions?

Tb.Busine$

17

Dealing with customers Discussion E What can shopsdo to attractmorecustomers?Think aboutthe shopsthatyou like to go to and discussthe questionswith a pańner' 1 What is your favourite shop and why? 2 How oftendo you go there? 3 What do you like to buythere? 4 Do you shop in departmentstores?Why? Why not?

Vocabulary Below are some of the customel services and benefits that shops can offel their customers.

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Put eachone into the correctcolumnbelow.

a|IeraTronservtces gift wrapping special offers

facilities

selvrces

finan
customerparking

Reading for detai! ft Scanthe articleaboutthe GermandepartmentstoreBreuningerto find answersto the questions. 1 WheredoesBreuningerhavedepańmentstoleś? 2 Which departments in paragraph2 would you go to if you wantedto find the following: soapand shampoo,coffeecups,a handbag,a yogamat? 3 Which customerservicesand benefitsfromthe lists in 2 can you frnd in the text? Put a tick (/) nextto them. 4 Find at leastfive mole customelservicesand benelitsiń the text.'Add themto the lists in 2. E Readthe last paragraphaboutthe luxurypersonalshoppingserviceand answerthe questrons. 1 2 3 4

What thingscan customersdo beforetheycometo the store? What two servicescan custome$usewhilst at the store? What two servicescan customersuse aftertheyleavethe store? Do you think that Breuningerdo everythingpossibleto createa luxury shopping experience?Can you think of anlthing elsetheycould do?

Listening for detail E & l.zł Listen to RafaelFemandez,an expeń on luxurycustomerservicesin retailand completethe sentences. 1 Luxury consumeBwant productsthat are high qualityand -. 2 Salesassistantshaveto giveluxuryconsumerslots of -. wantto know thethingstheyarebuyingare5 Luxuryconsumers 4 If luxuryconsumersare pleasedwith the servicetheyreceivethey

Discussion luxuryretail to learn moreaboutthiskindof shopping.

18

fr.Business

Ę Work with a pańner You run the spońs and leisureweardepańmentin a successful depańmentstole.Your managerhas told you that the departmentmustimplove its customel serviceand developa Iuxurypersonalshoppingservice.Decidewith your pańner on six new servicesand benefitsyou are goingto offer.Presenttheseto the class.

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BRETINII{GER The beautifulthingsin life BRETININGER is a chrin of upmarket dcparrmcnr rt,;n: in store card. Card holders are addressedby their name at the cash Germany, which are famous for their high srłndardsofcustomer desks; they receive special benefits, money-off vouchers and a care. The company, founded in 1881 by Eduard Breuninger, sopresent on their birthday. now consisr ofa flagship store in Stuttgart and a further thineen Today, the stores have an Lr,.Prir,nrl range of additional s storesacross Cermany, facilities availablefor their cusromers.The Stuttgart store features The stores offer gendemen's and ladies'fashion, perfume a hairdresserj, fashionshows.cosmericworkshĘ.. a.a|ć on each and cosmetics, lingerie, shoes,accessories,sport and leisureweal flooą live entertainment in the piano bar, and a children's room household goods and lifesryle products. They ss - where children can play and paintwhile their promise their customers a taste of 'the beautiful parents shop. to things in life.' The stores themselvesare eleqrnt Another ofthese facilities is the Breuninger and stylish and the goods on sale are [Lrury, topluxury shopping service. This service offers a of-the-rangeitems from labels such as Burberry, unique shopping experience:ńe opportuniry Dior, Gucci and Yves Saint Laurent. Breuninger {oto buy the most luxurious items with personal bellevesrhat rt rs rhe company5 commrtmenr attention from specially-trained consultlnrs. rs to excellent cuslomer service which makes the To make rhis shopping experience as relaxing Breuninger shopping experienceso special. as possible,customerssend their measurements Breuninger have always had an eye for the and the colours and srylesthey like to the store comfort and convcnicnc. of theii cusromcrs. łs before leaving home. The consultants rhen use They were the 6rsi department.ro.. i., C..-"oy this information to choósesuirableclothes..i{Ąen zoto introduce lifts and escalatorsin the late l940s and rhe ńrsr ro a luxury customer arrives at the store they are guided to one ofthe \ĄP provide customer parking a few years later. Heinz Breuninger, reservedparking spacesrvhereone ofthe consulranrsmeetsthem.At grandson of Eduard, broughr back the idea of providing a car the private 6tdng rooms champagne or espressoare availablewhile ńe park for his customers from a trip to America in rhe 1950s. In socustomerchoosesfrom the larestcollectionsfrom famous designers. 1959, Breuninger was the first German department slore to Breuninger also offer made-to-measureservices,free tailoring and zs offer a store card. This forward-thinking decision enabled the luxury shoppers can even rake the clorhes home to try them on. When customers to pay without cash, long before it was normal to have all of rhe a credit card. Today, over 700,000 customers own a Breuninger !"k.n

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Discussion \\.i t ha p a r tncl cliscuSS 1l]equęStio ns' I 2

\\'hen\\as thc last tinre5routclephoncda corupan5r ? Whv did yor"lcall to solve a probiem. nlal
Reading and vocabulary [ieaclthc iLl'ric]c łlrd conrp1ete the in].orlration a b o u t h o * to d e al s ith custo mer so n thc pho nc.Use the \\'orclsru thc bo,rto hclp you. n a n g u p o r s co unt answ er l o s ey o Lr tr e m per agr eeo n a so lutio n e x c h an g e d ealw ith call back p u t t h r o u g h inter r upt

The Seven Steps to

CLtstoner: lv/];tttobileplrctte ]|1ą |ł,e iLto|1,t oLltg,oi|I 3 cąl Ls.' l lelpLine operutot:,Do you lląae tlrc photle uitlt you, sit?' .Yes.I'1|1usil!8 it t.o7Ł],, (-Llsto||1ef: llelpline operuttor: 'Well..the pltone is utorhingfitrc, sir. You just called nte!'

. a cal froma ' GREET THE CUSTOMEB. WhenvoulTlThankthecustomerfor customeryouneedto greetthemin a wannrranr'rer ihathrhena customerca is io ie thatsomethng s wrongt s caling.Bemember VouroppońUnty to put t ngr]t' lS, You reed ro:nc oLrtwhytheyare ASK WHAT THE PR9BLEM ca ling.Simpy ask whatthe problemis and et the.nexplan Ycu nraynot be ab e to (2)theprobem.Dont say m sof!/, cant hep. nsteadexpain nLtmbeT so to thecustomerthatyoucannotheLpthemar'roask fortirer terepnone tl-rem Sometrres thecustomerrnaywant tfratsomebcdycan (3)-. them-r-...- to the correctdepartment. to wa t whileyou (,1)thecustomerrnaysay a ot.You need LISTEN CAREFULLY. Remember An angrycustomermay takea longt me to to istenand trynotto (5)_. thatyoustay andthat expainWhattheprob|ems and so it is Very|rnpońant t s a goodideato takenole:sn thattou lou dont (6) are ]00o/óc ear abouta l ol the detaiS' Ask questons f thevare nottel ng you the nforraration Vouneedto know the Oncethecustomerhasf n shedexplaining DEFINE THE PROBLEM. ir,rcbem use yolrrnotesto check you haveunderstoodthe probem correcty SUGGEST A SOLUTION. Nowthatyou knowal of thedetals ol the another depańment N'lakean irfcbem yoLrcan suggesta so uton. Dont

arl-.c'ogyand sLrggesta so Lrton. The cLrstomermay ask yoL to ref'-rFdtha " .]oney, tliey nray ask lor a (7)on the r next order or they m ght ask :o goods boLrgl-rl for oi'ler tems You also musi be rea st c. the that tlrey i8t Don t prom se to de \'e| 10'c00 nevj pańs for .exi !.r€ e k i ]tcannci l]e cone. The custornerVr'|be even angre| next Week.l/henthe pańs don.l a|rVe

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once you and the cLrstomer t so that you both understandwhat the customer knows exactly what you are 9o ng has been dec ded. Make sure tliat to do and wher-ryou are go ng to do rl

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CONFIRM (9)

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Now that the customer s happy you can END THE CONVERSATION. end the conversaton Thank the customeraga n for cal ng. t s a good idea to et frst, as th s g ves them a fina chance to add the customer(l0)a i\,,thng.

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Listening It ! r,zs-r,zz Listen to threetelephoneconversationsbetweencustomerserviceassistantsand dissatisfiedcustomersand answerthe questions. 1 Why are eachofthe customerscallins? 2 whichof the .sevensteps'fromthe ańic|eopPositedo the customerserviceassistantsfolget when theyanswerthe call?

Telephone language Ę 1 2 5 4 5 6

Match the beginningwith the correctendingto makequestionsabouttelephoning.

What'sthe longestyou,veeverbeenput a) on hold for? Have you everhung b) throughto the wrongperson? Have you everbeenput c) long should it taketńem to answerthe phone? ^ Do you alwaysask peopleto confirm d) youi temperwhen you aretalking on tńe phone? When you call a company,how e) up on somebody? Do you lose f1 arrangements tńat you makeon the phone? Work with a partner.Takeit in tums to ask and answerthe questions.

Readlng and discussaon

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Readthe advertisements belowfor customerserviceiobs.

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,A friendly,polite telephonemanner is essentialto this role, but you'll needgood listening skills and the ability to be teassuring. You will be naturally sympathetic and be able to handle oftensensitive conversations.Could you be there with the right answers?

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Which do you think is for a healthcarecompanyand which for an insurancecompany?

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Match the words in bold in the advertisements to the definitionsbelow.

to makesomeoneagreeto do something(v) relationshipsbetweenyou and otherpeople(twowords) caringand opento understandingotherpeople,sproblems(adj) the way you speakon the phone (twowórdsl theabilityto listen(twowords) makingsomeonefeel lessworried (adj) if you havethis you are friendlyand enioytalkingto people(twowords)

E wolk with a pańner.You needto fin.dsomeonefor a job as a helplineoperatorfor your school,universityor workplace.They will be responsibleior dealingwith new customeis and potentialstudents.Decidewhat five essentialskiils and qualitiesthJy needto haveand createa jobadVeńisemenl. Compareyouradvenisement withanótherpairś.

Tt.Business

21

uil}.n ra64''-ą; &}u*m[f ffŁ3'roŁcrn€ r S countable noun5 a computeL some cońputels singuIarand p|ura|łorm un(ountable nount some water, some advice no pluralform

Testvourself:countableand uncountablenouns.

company customer money news information accommodation progress research equipment phone Ca|| he|p|ine oveńime emp|oyee

any Are there any computers? There isn'tany water. questionsand negatives with both kinds of nouns 50me I need some information. Some files are missing, positivesentenceswith both types of nouns a lot (o0 He's got a lot of rcports to write, She gave me a lot of good advice. positiveśentences for both kindsof nouns much/many How much water is there? How mahycomputei are there? muah is used foa quertionswith uncountablenouns many i5 used for questionswith countablenouns

Countable nouns

Uncountable nouns

progress

Use the words from the tab|e above and much l many or a /ot to complete the SenIences.

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1 Human Resources wants us to reduceour head count:how _ are _ there currentIyin this depańment? 2 We've spent _ of _ on office equipment this year. 3 l'm worriedabout the long hoursyou have been working.How _ did _ vou do lastmonth? 4 The directorwantsan updateon the repairwork to the building.How havethe buildersmade? 5 The companyis doing of market-We want to know what that customerreallythinksof the new productline.

Testyourself:Polite requestsand offers Complete the telephone conversationwith can or u/ould you mind and the verbs from the box.

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help

po|ite iequeśts Can or aould are used fo. makingpolite requelts,They are almost the same. Howevercould is a little more polite. Would you mind, is very polite. and is always followed by verb + ing. offe.i Do you want I would you like me to + verb are po|itewayś of offering to do something.

Are thesenounscountableor uncountable?Put them into the correctcolumnsin the table below.

E

put me through

ask

callingback

give

Receptionist: you? Nivenand Sellars.How ('l)_ | (2)_ you (4)_ please? Carlos:Good morning.(3) to Marco Grella, R; One moment.(5)_ who'scalling? | (6)_ C: My name'sCarlosTorres. R: Puttingyou through now Mr Torres.Oh. Mr crella'sline'sbusy.(7) (8)_ in ten minutes? you (10)_ C: No, that'sfine. (9)_ me his directnumber,please? R: ceńain|y,hi5extensionnumberi5 357. C; Thankyou. Goodbye. R: Goodbye, Read the statementsbelow and respond with offers and requests.Use Doyou wantl Would you like me to for offers (l-4) and Would you mind +ing for requests(5-6).

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It'scold in here.(shut/ window)_ Ithink we have run out of photocopierpaper.(ordermore) These books are heavy! (carryfor you) _ I have left the report on my desk. (fetch ) 5 We need to take a break. (make us coffee)_ 6 We are going to be late for our next meeting.(driveus station) 2

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A customer survey

E Completethe customerservicedialogueusingsome,/any / much / many and the verbsin bracketsin an appropdateform. (answer) A. Hello, this is Ame Schumannfrom MainstreamMoto$. Would you mind (1)(2)questionsaboutthe car you boughtfrom us last month? (take)?I'm in a bit of a hurry. B: 'Wbll, how (3)time is this goingto (4)questions. A: It won't take long,only aboutfive minutes.Therearen'tvery (5)B: All ńght then. A: First I'd like (6)informationaboutthe salesman.On a scaleof one to ten, how (7) (give)him for friendliness? markswould you (8)B: EĘ eightrr. Good. And how (9)marksfor competencc? B: What do you meanby 'competence'? A: For example, when you needed (10)advice about which make or model car to buy, was he able to sive it? B: Oh, I see,yes,hewasverygood. He gaveme (11)really usefuladvice.I'dgivehimten out of ten for comDetence.He ceńainlv knew what he was talkins about. A: That'sgood to hear.You boughtthe car four weeksago;can you tell me approximately how

(12)kilonetresyou'vedrivenin that time? B: Oh, not (13). The week afterI boughtthe car,I broke my leg. A: Oh, I am sorryto hearthat.Are there(14)otherdriversin your household? B: My wife can drivebut she doesn'tlike it. She saysthereare too (15)_ otherdriverson the road thesedays. questionsyou'd like to ask us? A: And finally,arethere(16)_ B: Not at the moment. Well,thank you for your time,goodbye.

Roleplay Ę Work with a pańner.You are colleagueswho work in the sameoffice.You arc both aboutto go on holidaytomorrowand you needeachother'shelp to finish your work. Takeit in tums to makerequestsand offers. StudentA . You need StudentB to checkyour accounts.Thereis a mistakeyou can'tfind! . You both needto changesomemoney.The bank closesin half an hour. . Your passpońis at studentB,s house. . You needto makea conterencecall to China but vou can't rememberhow to do it. StudentB Searchfor the keywords polite requer8 to learn more about making rnem.

You need Student A to give you last month's sale figures for your report. You both need to check your flight depańule times but student A has no Intemet connection at the moment. Your suitcase is broken. You need to write six different emails in English about the project you and Student A are workins on.

7',.Busi!t€ s s

23

Dealincr wittr ffiustomers AJ

Discussion E wolk with a pańner.What kind of complaintswould you expectthe followingtypesof businessto receive:an airline,an advertlsingagency,a bank, a mobile phonecompany,a computermanufacturer?

Listening for gist Ę ! l.za-l.:t Listen to foul customers complaining' What is each customer,sproblem and what solution is suggested?

Listening for detail p

Listen againand completethe expressrons.

Conversation! 1 I'm sorryMr Rossi. 2 I understandMr Rossiand 3 can we to help you with this? Conversaaion2 4 That must Conversation3 5 I'll look 6 whal--

_

Conversation4 7 I'm sorry_ _ 8 Letmesee___ do.

sorry

straightaway. -is... that.

Dealing with problems d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Match the problemsto the correctsolutions. I can't accessmy accounts.! You'vechargedmetwicefor my ticket.! You ve sentmea bill butI'vealreadypaid it.! The photocopier'sbrolicn down again.lt was only repairedlastweek.! We'veonlybeensent3OOpans.we ordered400.E Themeedng rooms beenu,'ub. b,',rl
a) We'll credit your account. b) We'll send somebody to flx it immediately. You need to install a new version of the software. d) Just ignore the second bill. Please have a desseń on the house. fl I'11call the driver and ask him where he is. l'll check and see if another room is available. h) We'lI send 100 more to you today.

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Describing and dealing with problems Visitthe website hoMo complain.(omto read more about thihgs to do when you complain.

l| Use the picturesto makemini dialogueswith youl pańnel. Example: A My son'stoy robot brokeas soon as he took it out of the box. He neverevenplayed with itl B I'm sorryto hearthat,sir We'll sendyou a new one.

t, when dealingwith customerson the El It is impońantto show intercstand understanding phone.Look at expressions1-6 and matchthemwith functionsa) to f). 1 OK / Right / Uh-huh 2 That musthavebeenverydifficultfor you. 5I'vegotthat. 4 I see. 5 Is that acceptable/ OK? 6 Reauy?

a) You are listening hI

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c) d) e) f)

You are surprised You sympathizewith the customer You havethe information Check thatthe calleragrees

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Roleplay fl Work with a partner. Think of a time when you had a serious problem with goods or services and you wanted to complain to somebody about it. Use the flow chań to have a conversation with your pańner. PrePare the conveFation and make notes of all that you want to complain about before you begin. Take it in tums to complain and to handle the complaint. Greet the customer

Explain the problem

Ask for more information

Give more information

Apologize for the problem and explain why it happened

,/

Ask what the companywill do aboutthe problem

Make an offer to keep the customer happy (refund / discount/ exchange)

/

Accept the offer and thank the personfor their help

/lŁ,Busin€ s s

25

Dealing wtth cL;::. tomers Discussion

Ę Work with a partner Look at the box' what do you do when thesethingshappen?Which do you find the mostannoyingwhen you aretryingto complain? slowstaff rudestaff unhelpfulstaff staffignoringyou staffnotgivingyouan answer beingputon hold

Skim reading p

Readan email from a dissatisfiedcustomerand answerthe questions. 1 What is the problem? 2 What action doesshe want? 6i]Ą

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Ticket refund (Order 769246I )T')

DearSir / Madam, I am writing in connectionwith a problemI encounteredwhen buyingticketson your websitefor the International Car Exhibition. I tried to buy two ticketsvia your websitethe first day they went on sale.I selected two € 3 0 ticketsand C|ickedthe 5ubmitbutton.Nothinghappenedso I Went back and tried again.Thistime I saw a messagesayingthat I had bought two tickets. When I checkedmy bank a(count|ater€ 1 20 had been taken' I calledyour customerhelplineand I was put on hold for ten minutes.When I finallyspoketo somebodythey told me ticketsare non-refundable and that they couldn'tdo anything. Thisis unacceDtable and lexoect an immediaterefundon the two extratickets. Regards, Alison Aloisi

26

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Reading and ordering Searchfor the keywords emails of complaintto learn more about this subject.

&x Ręadthe emailthat Fmnz Reynoldswrotein Iesponseto Alison's complaintand put it into the conect order

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RE Ticketrefund(Ordet7692461)T)

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Franzneynolds.Customerrelationsmanager.

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We are sendingyou two free ti(ketsfor the exhibitionand a refundof € 1 20 as an apo|ogy.

o

I am alsosorryto hearthat you were dissatisfied with our customerhelpline.We take all complaintsin this areaveryseriouslyand I apologizefor the way your enquirywas handled.

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We had some problemswith the serverbecauseof the largenumberof peoplewho were buyingticketsat the sametime.Therewas a technicalproblemand we are workingto resolveeverycasewhere customerswere chargedthe wrong amount. Dear Ms Aloisi, I am writing in relationto the problemthat you encounteredwhen buyingticketsfor the InternationaI car Exhibition.PIeaseaCceptour ś|ncere apoIogiesfor this probIem. We hope that you enjoythe exhibition. BeST W t Sn eS,

Dealing with problems Ęf Put the phrases in the box into the correct place in the table. Thankyou for your email regarding. We apoIogizefor any inconvenienc€that this caused' We wilt be happyto exchangethe items. We have been experiencingproblemswith... The reasonfor this problemwas... We can offer you a (10%)discount(on your next order). lam verysorryto hearthat... We will look into this problemimmediately. l a m wr i ti n go n b e h al{o f..,

Introducing

Apologizing

Explaining

Promisingaction

l am w r i t i n gi n re l a t i o n t o. . .

Pleaseacceptour sincere apologiesfor this problem.

Therewas a technical pr o blemw ith...

We are sendingyou two free tickets.

Writing Xl You have received an email about one of the problems below. Write an email in response, explain the cause of the problem and promise action. 1 A customer ordered a computer liom your online shop. The delivery arrived on time but some of the c,urrlporcrtsare missing. 2 You run a p vate language school. A yoga group uses one of your rooms every Wednesday evening. They have received a bill even though they paid for this month two weeks ago. 5 Your company sells high quality cakes. One olyour customers recently ordered a birthday cahe for their 90 year old grandmother When the cake was delivered it had 19 on it. 4 A customęI t ed to takę € 2 50 ftom one of your cash points (AIM) at a motor.Wayservice station. The machine onlv oaid out € 5 0 but € 2 50 Was taken from their account.

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Discussion I

Do you ever stay in hotels? Discuss the questions with a partner.

1 Which are the best and the worst hotels that you have stayed in? Why? 2 Agree on three facilities or services which your ideal hotel could offer to its customers.

Listening for detail Ę ! :.;.:lJan van der vaart organized this year's sales conference at the rccently restoled Panorama Hotel in Sicily. He is checking in with a number of colleagues.Listen and answer the questions. 1 How many premium class rooms did Mr Van der vaart book? 2 What dates did he book the rooms for? 3 Are there any more rooms available? 4 What solution does the receptionist suggest?

Discussion Ę

Work with a pańner and discuss the questions.

1 What do you think of the solution that was suggested? 2 What other solurionscould the receplionistsuggest? 3 what do you think Mr Van der Vaań should do?

Reading for detail p Mr Van der Vaań was unhappy with his stay at the Panorama Hotel' Read his letter ol complaint to the manager What six complaints does he make?

28

] ] , l k rJ9 inĘ5 $

f u E tl

r 'u .t r,". in rF .a c - lvp p.obleT.so.v'rs

on rh€ DV D. BoM

Z.eCuuertrraV I

Discussion p How can the hotel lespond to these complaints? work with a pańner Decide if ihe complaints are reasonable. sear.h for the keywords hotel .omplaintsto rcad moreproblemsthat guestshave in hotels. Chooseone complaint to read carefully.Use your own words to tell your group aboutit.

p You are going to read some more information about the complaints. Student A tum to page 117 and Student B tum to page 111. Look ai the list of complaints again. Does the new information affect your decisions in exercise 5?

Writing I You are Mr Lando,the managerof the PanoramaHotel. Writea letterin responseto Mr Van der Vaart'scomplaint.Apologizeand suggestactionfor the complaintsthatyou think are reasonable.

Mr Lando Hotel Manager Panorama Hotel Via Umberto Sicily

Mr Van der Vaart Sales Manager Electronics RDC Kerkstraat 26 Eindhoven Holland

February 10'h2008

Dear Mr Lando, I am writing in relation to the marketing conference that my company held at your hoteJfrom 5'hto 8rhof February this year When we arrived at the hotel the receptionist told us there were only eight rooms available. There were nine people from Electronics RDC attending the conference and so two of my colleagueshad to share one room. This was very inconvenient. Also, some of my colleagues complained that the hotel was too noisy fol them at ńght. There was a lot of noise and this stoPPed them from sleeping. At the conference they felt tfued and sleepy. Other colleaguessaid there was a strong smell of smoke in their rooms which was not very nice. Some of the rooms were too cold and my colleagues were not able to turn the heating up. They had to ask for extra blankets to keep warm. The conferencecentrewas also too far away from the hotel. In the other Panorama hotels we have used, the conference facilities were in the hotel. In yows we had to get a bus down the coast to the conferencecentreand this wasted a lot of time. When we checked out af the hotel1Ą/enoticed that the plice on display for the premium class rooms was cheaperthan the price we paid when we booked online. This is unacceptable. Electronics RDC use Panorarna hotels regularĘ We are GoId Class members and expect better seryice than this. I expect a reply from you within ten days. Yours sincerely,

{a-* ',la,n der rlaart

Review L Il Make expressions about working in a foreign country by matching each verb to a phrase a)-1)below. 1 2 3 4 5 6

s pe n d. . . ! cl i mb. . . ! dr aw . . . ! r e spe ct . . . ! withdraw . .. ! w i n. . . !

a) ... the careerladder b) ... the culture of the country you wish to work in c) ... an application for a job if you think the company isn't sedous d) ... time abroad e) ... trust by adapting to the local culture f) ... attention to relevant sections on your CV E Fill in the missing letters in these paragraphs about everyday problems when living abroad. yer might help you to find an apartment, 1 Your em or you can use the Internet to find places to r__t. View the apartment first before you s__n a contmct and give a dep__it to the land___d. Check whether the bi__s are included in the rent, and also how much n__ice you need to give when you want to m--- o-_. 2 To open a bank acc___t, you will need to show proof of ear _ gs, and that this salary will be paid into this account. Ifyou spend more than you eam, you may ft on your account. You will have to pay for the over get a credit card from your bank, but check the rules carefully before you s___ u_. ment you will be treated by 3 If you need medical tr the national h___th service of the country where you live. Your employer might give you the chance to join an in ce scheme that helps to pay for private treatment. 4 When buying a mobile phone, you choose the pro__der and then pay for a monthly contmct. Altematively, you can have a prepaid pa__age that allows you to make regular t p-u s. These days, many providers also offer wireless intemet access, so you won't need a I _-line in your apanment. E Fill in each gap with one of these prepositions: aóoud by, for, from, into, olf, on, out, aith. Apteposition may be used more than once. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I 9 10

30

to be an assignment in a foreign country youl apańment might be provided you places to rent use the lntemet to look you can live a local family to leam the culture to pay your monthly salary an account to deduct payments an account private medical treatment to pay to be teated the national health service you can take _ an insurance policy with a prcpaid package you can cut _ the service whenever you want

7''Buśiness

!l Complete the dialogue with present simple forms (positive/negative/question)ofthe main verbs in the box. Use contlactions (Łe ls ) łeś)where possible. attend be be enjoy interview

be do want

do

employ

A: So, you ra Human Resource Manager. How interesting!What exactly'Ż_you in your _ job? B: Well, I ra lot of meetings related to company policy development, and of course I acańdidates for jobs. A: And how big is the HR department in your company? B: Well, we 5_ many people in the HR section - only me and two others. So you can't really call it a depańmentl A: And your husband what 6-he -? B: He 7-a computer programmer.But, I have to say, 3he really his job very much. In fact he

to changeiobs.

A: I r0sure he'll find a new job very easily, there are always jobs in the IT sector rill in each gap with in, on or at.

Ę 1 2 3 4 5 6

-

Monday t[e evening the end of the week th. .""kend (uK) the weekend (US) chństmas

7 I 9 10 11 12

_ -

August24s summer 11o'clock Tanuarv lunchtime the 1990s

p The phrasesbelow are usedlor smalltalk, but the wordsin bold are all in the wrongsentences.put them back into the correctsentence. 1 Enloy was your weekend? 2 I can'tbelievehow go it is. 3 Did you havea goodtalking here? 4 lt's busy weathertoday. 5 Sorrybut I haveto lovely now. 6 lt's beennice to iourneyyou. 7 Nice meetto you. 8 How the restof the conference. E Match eachword or phraseon the leftwith one on the rightwith a similarmeaning. a) Can you t Thank you for 2 With regardto b) See you 3 I would be gratefulifyou could c) more d) Re 4 Pleaseacceptmy apologies e) All the best 5 I look forwardto meetingyou f) Thanks for 6 With bestregards '7 fuńher h) I'm sorry 8 require Arc the phruses on the right more formal or more informal?

Review 2 till in the missing letters in these services and benefits ! lhat shops can offertheir custorners: Facilities: cu er parking / ch___care,/ p vate f ing rooms / beau-_ sal / haird___-erś / cosmetic wol-__ops / cafć on each f I / live enter-_-ment Services: alter____n services / made-to-mea__reservices / gift wr- ing / horne del__ery Financial services and benefits: money-off v__cher / sto card / special o__ers / refu- s E Match each item in the box to its definition below. Then translate the words into your own language. fitting flagship made-to-measure refund

I 2

used in homes, or relating to homes _ money that you get back if you return goods that you do not like moving stairs that take people from one level of a building to the next _ the way that someone lives, including their work, their activitiesand what rheyown _ the paper or plastic that covers something that you buy

something that'helps you to avoid wasting time and effoń used in the phrase'_ room'to mean a room in a shop where you can put on clothes before buying them 8 made to a particular size (=tailor-made) _ 9 a piece of paper that you buy something with (instead of using money) _ 10 the biggest,most important, or best thing in a group (an idea that comes from rhe navry)_

4

You will come into contact with a variety of different people so you will need an _ and good

5

You need the confidence to sDeak to and customeN about our sewices, and the ability to persuade.

€!

Undelline the correct word in each pait in italics'

1

How much/many rnoney/monies did we make last month? 2 How much/many employee/employees work in their company? 3 We didn't get ruuch/many order/ o/dels at the trade fair 4 I didn't get much/many help/helps from him. 5 She gave me a lot/a lot ol uselul adaice/ adaices. 6 Do you have some/any intormation/intotmations about this project? 7 Wehave some/anl equipment thatis/arevery ont-otdate. 8 They didn't do some/any research/researches betore launching the product. p Make requests and olfers using the words below. You may have to add words, or change the form (e.g.change to ing form). 1 Could / open the door / for me? Could. vou open the d.oot tor (te? 2 Would / mind / open the door / for me? 3

Do / want / to open the door / for you?

4 Would you / me / openthe door / for you? f,l Completethe phrasesusedwhen dealingwith problemson the phone.Choosethe bestendings. 1 We']l credit

p Make phrases used in customer care by matching a verb from the left to the words on the right.

2 We'Ilsendsomebody

I greet 2 find out 3 let .4 deal 5 try

a) b) c) d) e)

wirh the problem.if you can not to interupt why the customer is calling the customer in a warn manner the customer explain the problem

6 We'llsend100

6 7 8 9 10

f) g) h) i) j)

by thanking the customer for calling the solution after you have both agreed notes so you are clear about the details calm and don't lose your temper a solution, without blaming anyone

stay take suggest confirm end

p Complete the sentencesfrom advertisementsfor customer service jobs using these words: existing, handle, intefp efsonal, manner, outgoing persona|iĘ, p otential' reas surin g, skills, te\ephone. 1 You'll receive a lot of calls, so you'lI need a friendly, polite _ _ 2 Customers may be worried or angry so you'll need the 5

5 4 5

]ust ignore I'11call the driver I'll check and see if

... the second bill.

...youraccount. ... to repairit immediately. ... moreto you today.

... and ask him where he is. ... another room is available.

S Put the words into the conect order to make phrases used when dealing with problems by email. 1 I am writing to your recent problem in relation 2 Please sincere apologies our accept 3 We apologize that this has caused for any lnconvenlence 4 we have some technical problems been expeńencing 5 We are working these problems to resolve as possible as soon 6 We will be exchange to happy the items 7 We can you offer a 10% discount your ne\t on order 8 We will into this problem look immediately

abilityto be

You will be naturally sympathetic, and be able to sensitive convenations.

]

31 '.BusinesŚ

i-,n lł i-' ,' ', i. i."', j.-il"

Listening for detail E ł r.:s Listento Andlea Livingstonegivinga lectureon work organizationand complete the notesbelow i l ' . 1 . f ' c ' . f ' r " . * -r . ( . . r * r , -. c . . f -" '

I'ł this sxsłew peoplewarred ał (|)

uy:"'\"^'

?rod,|^c+ io,,Lnoved ił+ła łąctories

ltews ąttd sotd łhz.w ał

Peęle wor1
w^s s!a,^) ^ad Proda1cłioa

\,lerltsinilar ło donestic s.9sten r.Ą!",nu",.o/Ż^^|ker o, - s,n;!a, ĄX subcon|,aeł ta ą (z) ] Fąnilies tlsed t|Le subcot.tractor's (ił) yept a!! tae proĄts -

ał|eriąls

arsl łacłor.6 bąlll]t,ł,(s) Ar\wriqtf wodą'ćłiol rr,asnr,rd. (6) eoł.di|io'tswere bąd

b[ R,ct,^ą,a h|t wol.rin

llen siwilar ło beła.e (?) is t,uuc)\fi.ore ^dyeaŁed M^.rtbehu"^.,|s ąoł .,ął'łledj4 łhz ł!łure? : No wi!! ł.eed b'uy,ł.ąsło (0) ąąd e%ti^ŁŁrs ło rr2,nl t|,\Ł wĄchi4Łs

Reading for gist Ę Norv read the text about a system of work organization used in Japan, and write the headings above each section, l|T The resu|t Beyondthe Japanesecar industry LĘanmanufacturing Chao5 TPS The employees

Reading for detail Gl Read the text again and mark the sentences f (true) or F (false). I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ę

Search{or the keywords lean manufacturing, advantagesot lean manufactuting, disadvantagesto find out more about the pros and (ons of this syrtem. Te||a pańner Whatyou read,

32

'rL l. ] 'riL,i.'

The ToyotaProduction Systemstarted100 yearsago in Japan.! Toyota's machines are multi-purpose. They are able to produce more than one part. ! Le a n m a n u factur ing is ano lher namefo r the TP S. ! Toyoras employeesare involvedin the productionprocess.! lust-in-timemeansthat pans are orderedonce a month.! The cornpanyis impońanr to |apaneseemployees'! The TPS means that the environment the employees work in is less dangerous.f-l The TPS is successlulall over the world. ! Match the terms relating to TPS on the left With the definitions on the ńght.

1 lGizen 2 Just-in-time 3 Lean manufacturing

a) in this process stock is only ordered when it is needed - not before. b) a system that aims to produce more, using less. The removal ofwaste (waste = anything that does not add to the final product). c) continually making small improvements which lead to greater elfectivenessand higher quality.

Listening for gist ł l.:ł Listen to Eric Novak, a manager,talking about when he tried to introduce TPs in E his company. 1 What went wrong? 2 Whv didnl it work?

r.1 aboctrrusiner6 O

When implemented successfully, the TPS is a s\rstematicway to satisfy customer needs and create meaningful work for every member of an oreanization. The resulls of TfS are -u l'.r:, r product5and sen ice quality,shorl aolead times, low costs and a safe (physically, professionally and emotionally) working environment for the employees. Although lean manufactu ng is spreading from the car factory to other industries, manufacfure$ around the world who try to asimplementtheTPSarenotalwayssuccessful.Oneof thereasonsfor tilis is that companies r'r'hichhave been n:nning mass production systems sometimes find it difficult to adjust. Additionally, in ihe West, where enployees think of themselves before the company, l\ the 1970s, car production in Europe and Arnerica was huge. it is rnore difficult for employees to adapt to the TPS. )emand was high and cars were mass-produced on an enormous i.ale. But when demand changed, and mass production methods -:idn't, thousands of unsold vehicles sat outside the factories r\'aiting to be bou8ht. In Japan however, things were different. .he Toyota Production System (TPS) was developed inthemiddle -ri the last century by a Toyota manaBer named Taiichi Ohno. It :reated the most !-fficient car production system in the t{orld. ]ilstead ofusing machines thaŁbuilt only one sPcciiic part, Toyota :resignedmachines that could produce many different parts. This ::radeToyota more ile\ible and able to react quickly to customels' :hanging needs. 3\- the 1990s, the term Lean Manufacturing was being used to -lescribe TPS. Lean manufacturing combines the best elements of :raftwork and mass production. It uses less labour,less machinert ess space and less time. The aim of lean manufacfuring is to ;lllillatc al1 deieeŁs' If somethin8 8oes wrcng a\{olkel can stoP :he whole production line and deal with the problem immediately. Ii the worker didn't make this decision, production could carly .x producing faulty or incorect parts. \t Toyota, Lhe just-in-time system makes stores o! l\'arehorlses rnnecessary because parts are only produced or ordered when :hey are needed. This means that costs are cut, and tLrrno\jer ls increased. Tovota has more success with lean manufacturinq than other rmpa n ie" becau:eall iheir emplovee. ha\ e a clear u nderstanding rf the objective and are totally committed to katzer, the Japanese aermfor continuous improvement. Impotantly, Toyota employees ]dentify stlon8ly with Łheir comPany'

Listening for detail xx Listen to the managęIagainand fill in the flow chart.

Employees felt uncomfortable

Hadto repeat (1)_

Rutllout went around about own€ r smoving thefactory to (2)_

: (g)-

in thecompany

Discussion ffi In small groups discuss the questions about lean manufacturing. 1 what aIę the advantagesand disadvantagesof lean manufacturing? 2 Can vou think of any companies that lean manufacturing would work very well/badly for? 3 what ellects would lean manufacturing have on a company? Think about employees, custome$, equipment,pfcmiscs.

lrrBusiness

33

Operm.ti"ffxL.r; Discussion E Work with a partner.What do you know about changes in the aviation industry? Are things improving for a) small airlines, b) large airlines, c) passengers,d) the environment and e) airline staff?

Reading for detail Ę Reada reportaboutthe rccentpelformanceof ScotAiq a largepassengerairline.The wordsin bold describedifferentpartsof the graph.Writethe numbersin the corect place on the graph.

ScotAir's recentperformance

[email protected]

and trendsin the passengerair travelindustry , y-']a/ /4. toralol

psrcsnla!0 0flhemarkBt

-

n!

t--1

_...---rE

THISYEAR

NEWLOST-COST SUBSIDIARY Lastyearwasa goodyearforthepassenger aviation industry: the (1)wenl overall number ofpassenOers up,andthetrend continued into passenger thisyear. Weexpect numb€ r stocontinue to (2)incr8asg lorsometime.However, ourprofits beoan to (3)lall atthebeqinninO oftheyear. Thereason forthiswasthearrival oftwonswlow-cost competitors. Thelastfewmonths havenotbeeneasy,butwehope phase thatthisditficult is nowcoming toanend.Assoonasweget theoreen|ioht, Wep|an to buythreemorep|anes toaddtoourf|e€ t . Withtheseplanes andtheresources already available to us- crew,our p|anes' existing airport s|ots, etc.- Weintend toseiupa n€ W low.cost subsidiary. Thiswillbea milestone in ourcompany's history. Formany y€ a rs' ourpercentage o|themark€ t(4)rcmained stBady, bulit (5)wontdownf0łlhefirsttim€ everatthEbe!innino oftheyear. However, withournewsubsidiary weexpectitto (6)growaoain.We've setourse|Ves a deadIineI tobecome thernarke1 ]€ a deronceaoain by theendofnextyear.

Describing trends p Find four pairs of oppositesin the box below Then write themin the tablein the corect column. fall decrease go down grow increase 9o up flse shrink

E

What arethe pastsimpleformsof the verbsin 3?

Project planning terms p I 2 3 4 5

Match a word on the leftwith the correctdefinitionon the risht. resources milestone greenlight deadline phase

a pańicular period of time dudng the development of something b) a specific time or date by which you have to do something something such as money, workers, or equipment that can be used

to help an institutionor business d) theofficialapprova) to go aheadwith something e) an eventor achievementthat marksan importantstagein a project

Listening for gast t f' l::s Listen to Ms Bloom, a researchscientist,in a meetingwith an airline company. What is the problemtheydiscuss,and what is Ms Bloom'ssolution? 34

/tfBusiner;

Listening for detail - trends XN Listen to the meeting again and fillin the missing verbs to complete these descriptions oftrends. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The number of intelnational airpońs is -. The number of people who are subjected to aircraft noise is _. As the cost of airfares _, the demand for flights _. We are aiming to noise levels by 99%. While costs are -, unfoftunately our level of funding is ThiSwould-the utilizationof the aircraftand atthesametimę That męansthat thę ]ocal ęconomvwould -.

voul overallcosts'

Reformulation ffi

In your own words, explain the benefits ofthe silent plane to your partner.

Listening for detail The month is November. You are the council ofa small island that has recently been m ; 'discovered' by toudsts. Listen to the council leader talking about the number of tourists the island has receivedjn rhe lasryear.Draw in the lineson graph one. ''

]:

. ...,..r': ]'.:'.irj]'i,:' .] :'.ł*'...,';.{;ii;*'*;....; ',

.,,:i.'.,1

10000 9000 80oo 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 r00o

1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 april

r00 9o 80 70 6o 50

1000 900 800 7oo 600 500 400 300 200 100

30 2A 10 Apl

Describing trends S) Work in groupsofthree. StudentA look at page 112.StudentB look at pagc 1i 0. StudentC look at page 115. Describeyour graphto your group.Listen and fill in the trends on the graph. Sear.hfor the keywords aambridgeMIT to '.ad aboutthe latest sevelopments in this .roject.

Discussion Sl You have $2.5 million to spend on improving the island. Work in groups of three. Student A look at page 112. StudentB look at page 110. StudentC look at page 115.Use the information and the glaphs to make a project plan timeline' Set priorities, label the differęnt phases, set yourselves deadlines and write a plan of action.

Operatlons Presentaontinuous sales figures are going up. islarc+verb+ing an action in progress and trends > GEmmarefercр

Testyourself: Presentcontinuous lI

Completethe text about the wine industryin Californiausingthe presentcontinuous form of the verbsin brackets.

póge 122

The sunnywest coaststateof Californiacurrentlyproducesmorethan 90% of all Us wine. In the pastvery llttle of this was organic.but the US wine industry (1)(go)througha Iargeand impońant change.

Adverbs of manner Sharesin the company rose quickly. tell us how something happens used to modify verbs usuallycome after the matnverb To form an adverb faom an adjectiveadd -/yto the adjective ca,elul carcfully qui.k quickly slow slowly When an adjectiveends in -y, replace-ywith -ily happy happily angry angrily There are some exceptions good well

(grow)by ha|fa mi||ioneveryyeaĘand more The popu|ationof ca|ifornia(2)people live next to farmsand vineyardsthan ever before.Becausewine growers peopleare concernedabouttheir health.Now traditionallyusea lot of pesticides, (change)overto manywine growerswant to be good neighboursand (3)_ organicmethods. By movingaway from conventionalmethods,growers(4)_ (reduce)the amount of pesticides they use.Insteadof pesticides, some of them use batsand owls to keep bugs undercontrol. (realise) Many wine producers(5)_ also_ that sustainable, chemical-free farmingmakesgood economicsense,in additionto being healthier.At firstthe change to an organicsystemincreasescostsby 10 to 15%.But the demandfor organicwines (6) (grow)everyyear and sales(7) (9o up),so the initialcost is justified. With this changingtrend in produdion,the qualltyof organicwines (8)_ (improve)all the time.Thisis verygood newsfor consumers. Organicwinestaste better (fall). than ever beforeand prices(9)_ (increase) And salesof organicwine (10)_ not only in the USA,but also in suchfar-flungcountriesas Japan,Franceand Argentina.The future looksvery bright (9reen!) for organicwines.

> G::.."i,.!:":1Ts:. 113 Pr€ s eńt simp|epassive Tea is growh in India. be + pasl participle often usedto describe proaesses > Grańmal rcfercn.€ paqe 123

Testvourself:Adverbs E

Completethe sentencesusingadverbsof manner. 1 Therei5 a slow decreasein salesof tobaccoat the moment. Tobaccosalesare decreasing_. 2 Therewas a quickgroMh in the organicfoods marketlastmonth. The organicfoods marketgrew _ lastmonth. 3 | think there will be a sharprisein the shareprlceof HusseinSolarPower Plcvery soon. I think the priceof sharesin HusseinSolarPower Plcwill rise_ verysoon. 4 Everydaythere is a slightimprovementin our productionprocess. Our productionprocessis improving_ everyday. 5 our salesin Japanar€ verygood at the moment. Our productsare sellingvery_ in Japanat the moment. 6 T h e r ei s a steadyfallatthe mo mentin the amo unto fw astepr o ducedbyour factory. The amountof wastewe produceis falling_.

36

71l1 l}t]t.]'ng.lś|

Testyourself:Presentsimplepassive s€ a .Ch for the ke}'words ,',óla o| ,,DrHauschka', :a iind out moreabout :-e aompanyand thei. ,.ique production

Underlinetwo presentsimplepa5siveforms in the sentencesbelow about Dr Hauschka skincareproducts.

H

Dr Hauschkaskincareproduds are manufacturedby Wala,a world leaderin the produdion of naturalmedicinesand relatedproducts.Wala are verycarefulto make sure that only organic.naturalingredientsare usedin the process. Completethe descriptionbelow of the processfor manufacturingDr Hauschka'sRose Cream.Usethe presentsimplepassiveform of the verbsin the box.

!l

sell

store

involve

distribute make

qrow

send

I Around 150 peoplein the productionof Dr Hauschka'sRoseCream. 2 The plantsunder stri(torganicconditionsin the company'sown pesticlde-free garden. 3 Theyfor a year underspeciaiconditionsbeforethey _ to the laboratory. 4 All Dr Hauschkaproductsby hand,not by machines. 5 The rosecreamall over the world and in over40 countries.

Describing a trend Ę Wolk with a pańner' Describe the trend shown in each diagram below. Look back at exercise 2 on page 34.

t0-

\

7

*!i,/ 1998

I

)

-j

E 5r

-

Today

Laslysar

= $10-l

a

Now

Nexlyear

ffitsEr

tt754

$5-

5025 2 days ago yeslerday

loday

3 years

lomorow

2yeats

Last

This

Describing a process !t Work with a partner. Use the present simple passive to describe the process shown in the pictures below. Take it in tums to describe each step. Use the verbs in the box. cut

transooń

make

se||

chairs

i li.'iilrslnel's

37

3 i OperatioNS Discussion I Work with a pańnel and discussthe questionsaboutplesentations. 1 Why do peoplegivepresentations? 2 Have you evergivena prcsentation? 3 When you givea presentationwhat are the most importantthingsto remember?

Signposting language Ę Put the wordsin the illustrationbelow in the correctorderto makesomeusefuI presentation language.

Listening E

& r,rz Now listenand checkvour answersto 2.

Lastening for detail ! r::a Listen to a shoń presentationgivenby sonia PadronPerezfrom DMC Wood. t Answerthe questionsbelow. 1 What is Sonia'sjob? 2 When was the biggestfall in sales frgures? 3 Why did the salesincreasein September? 4 What is the nameof the new modelthat Sonia introduces?

search forthe keywordŚ bad presentatiotE to find out what not tb do. when you are giving a presentataon

Listen to the presentationagain.Match the phrases1-6 to a)-0.

El 1 2 3

I,d like to stań by First of all After that

4

M n vin o.'n

t .r

5 Let'sgo back and look at 6 I'd like to finish by

a) b) c) d) e) f)

we'll look at how this has affectedour shareprices. our sharepńces:the nextslide showsus ... gMng you a short overview of todayb presentation. showingyou how \łeaim to reachthis talget. we'regoingto look at the salesfiguresfor the last two years. the first slide again.

l'd / to I start I lik e/ by

o f lF ir st / a ll

38

7ilt/Business

Ę@

:'łse."l.ins !

pt on u n c ia lion pra c t lc e on t he DV D. RoNT

r " . . '""'i".

Giving a presentation foom5 and lf Workin smallgroups.Usethephrases

9ą|es łronJs for nąłutą| Ć.Ósw\e.+; ć.s ;^ EuroTz

the information on the presentation note cards below to prepale a shoń presentation' .

w,^o 1oA*ć+;on .

.',.,"^||'t

ÓvahLe',

.

u"@

$7"

Ó[

łhe w,ne

+ho tb ońly a 5ńall ęarcełła7 ;s .t3u,c' / ,ę'w +/.',) nn|s ;s c.ba^ą:,ną .,ę""s;vu / v;c:a ęr *". ;/ ;:;;".;i!

5d|.9

ń €utr?e

ala

;,ureas;n3

ął ą

. . . .

t1ąe' są|es fgu".s daub|;n1e'vety z-z y-ars ".o B.ł+.( d;s+;bu+;d1 / |^;:har :us+ea| &.;@d Nąłurą| ;^3/e.J;a+s ,/ .ł!a|;+|/ f.we| 'Ł;^ ?.Ób|e-ws Pre^;wn bt*,& |)lze AvaJą.Ó'.,J D( |ausć)^v<^ ale 9.Łe.ry ter/ ?Ó?u|ą/ . sÓ|A ;ń y'Mrr'^ać)e1 su7ert<*Lełs dńa |.Ód ^.ą|ł1^ . an|,Ae ;^./eą';ń3 'a|es . ;'9 ;^6./fi.a^/ ą^4 Aus+f;Ó, ,/ T47. Ó|x?',4^ą.e łÓ+d|_:,""ł;c' ^;:|^e,'+ io|.s

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El Work in smallgroups. You work in themaTketiłg depanment lor thecompanies tharmakeone oI tlie producisabove.You aregoing to givea presentationto a numberof peoplewho are interestedin investingin your products.

.

Preparea three-minutepresentalionto giveto the rest youl class.Use the note calds 1Toń6 and the phrases from5 to helpyou.

.

. . . .

N\]hbe/ a{ ,"łe,aał,orcl ąn?d|s,'y',Łą5;.9 ?asse9e| nuąbełs / rc'se / ?Ó||nł'd,.z.,ea'ń3

+Ó ,ŁŁft-ą9ż n.''. b| 997 w;|| U?, ńÓ+ dru!^ abae !b'u ,;ng' l 3r ^i.''o Ś:Ą9|e w;^9 ,/ [email protected] tue|-ełł;.;ał łne ł,.ułł ;" cńll n!|ł l .| |l;ys \."+ ^ete*e e,'eh 24 |Ą.,\k ?e/;Ó) L,[email protected] fu,f,"3 t t*a 2a2o P|ą@ s^d|J ba t,iry , ^;ń;n t9,ńs

Your classwill decidewhich companytheywant to investin.

y ou / c omin g/ for / Th an k

look / Let's/ back/ and / gola t

like/ f in ish/ t o / l' d / b y

questions?/ there / Are / any

TilraBusirress 39

3 Operations Discussion I Work with a partner.Readthe textbelow and answerthe questions. 1 Would you like to go to this eńibition? why? why not? 2 Why do you think companiesattendexhibitionsand conventionslike this?

THE INTERNATIONAL Comic

Convention, is an annual comic .book exhibition. It is a fabulous fodr-day event (Thursday to Sunday) held during the summer in Seattle,at the SeattleConvention Center Originally it shoi cased comic books but the exhibition has expanded over the years and it now includes seminars,workshops

with comic book professionals, film previews, the chance to talk to representativesof comic book and video game companies,In addition to this thele ale eveńn8 events such as awards ceremoniesand fantasticcostnmc contests, Like most exhibitions and I conventions,the International Comic Convention features a

large amount of floor space for exhibitors.These include media companies as well as comicbook dealers and collectors.The convention is one of the largest of its kind in the United States. When it startedin 1972there were only 115.rtferldecs.In 2007more than 115,000people visited the convention - and it is still trorving.

Describing a stand E Look at the iUustrationof the exhibitionstandand fill in the labelsusingthe information below. groupsof tablesand chairs comfortablechairs video screens displayracks pavement sign a raised floor reception area banners counter

3

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documents on the DVD.RoM

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Discussion Et You work for Coded Comics,a companythat makescomicsfor childrenwho are younger than 10.You receivedthis emailfromyour bossaboutthe InternationalComic Convention.With a pańnel discussthe questionsthat MI Gomez asksin the email'

.

Where is the best Dlaceto Dut the stand?

What kind of imagedo we want to put across? What shouldwe display,and how shouldwe displayit? What kind of freebiesshould we provlde? How are we going to make sure we look different to the other stands?

,' Pleasemakenotesand bring themto the meetingon Thursdayafternoon. LuisGomez Head.of5ales

Sequencing and imperatives t Readthe instructionsfor planninga standat a convention.Use the words in the box to frll in the spaces. Don'tforget

Then Secondly After that

Makesure Firstly Finally

Thereare manythingsto think aboutwhen planningyour standat a conventionor tradefair Here are someideasto getyou started. 1) -, 2) -,

decide on the budget for the stand. choose the size and the location of the stand.

designthe stand(shelvingscheme,displayarea). -, you book standspacewith the exhibitionorganizers. 4) 5) to think aboutyour colour scheme,graphicpanels,and audio-visual equlpment. 6) 7\

-,

organizethe logisticsof the delivery(stand,publicity,products).

śpt' t'ń rh p
Speaking Ę In pairs,decidehow you want youl standfor the exhibitionto look. Use the advicein exercise 4 to giveyou someideas.

Writing sear.h for the keyvvords "comlc book convention" , What information can you find for exhibitoru?

lN You are the head of the MarketingDepartmentat Coded Comics.Writean emailto your marketingteamaboutyour standrequirements for the InternationalComic Convention exhibition.You needto tell your teamaboutthe exhibition,includeinformationaboutwhat the teamneedto do, and in which ordertheyshould do it. Don't forgetto include approximatefigures and sizes.Rememberthat this is the first time you havehad a standat the exhibitionso your instructionsneedto be verv clear

Thegrtskress

41

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1-,,.,.' Discussion n How importantare thesethingsfor you when you fly? Ratethe followingas:A (veryimportant),B (impońant)oI C (not impofiant)' seatallocation wide seats free in-flight food ! ! ftee headphones D li:r,iplinLofflight ! curbr.,n a lot of legroom !

seatback TV ! fast check-in ! lree newspapers or magazines !

!

friendly cabin cicl ! freein-flightddnks ! a clean and tidy plane !

Compare your answers with a pafiner.

Reading for gist E Read the ańicle about changes in passengerair travel ovel the last 70 years' What two tlends does the ańicle describe?

The changing faceof air tnavel when Pan Am began the first passenger sewice across the Atlantic from New York to France in 1939, a one-way ticket cost $575. That's about $4,000 in today's money. These days a ticket on the same foutc can cost you as little as $250. In the past, if you wanted to fly commercially you had to book a seat on traditional, or national, airlines such as British Airways, Lufthansa or Air France. There were stdct rules and the airlines were often accused of 'price-fixing'. In the 1950s only the rich could afford the !70 retum fare from England to Nice. It doesn't sound much, but that's equivalent to about !1,500 today. Now this has all changed. Today, easyJetwill fly you to Nice for less than f15 each way. New budgeLarlines are appearingall the time,and most national airlines now have their own budget subsidiary Fares are cheap, food and drinks are not included, there is no seat allocation and the planes are often sccond hiur(1.However, it seems that most passengerswill put up with a bit of disconrlofL in order to t1y cheaply. But what about the effects budget airlines have on their employees and the environment?

L'

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in ret a c rive pt oblem .soIvin 9 on the DvD. RoM

Listening and note-taking E ł l.;q- l.aa Listen and complete the notes on what these people say about the budget ailline EvanAir.

J U{ililr

Has worked ar Evanair for 1l ) _ EvanAir don't provide tea, coffee or water Has to pay (2) Ior her u rrlirrrr

Rcl-rir-r )

Workedat EvanAt for threemonths. Spent(3)hoursflyingper day and threehours tlavellingto wolk. often stańedwork at (4)-

N4ichac'i EvanAir has revolutionized air travel. In the past only (5) people could fly, now everybody can afford it. -

./\nna EvanAiI ale uncomfońable but alsq (6) -. quicker than train or car.

T

Flying is

Moften

Difficultfor the crewto leaveand find new iobs.Doesn't usebudgetairlinesbecausesafetyand (7)_ are more lmDonant.

Rr,rth Britain's C0, crnissions are increasing. Shrlrt hłrll flights are the worst because most fuel is used for (8) and landing.

Discussion

ffi#'{i*p.."ł^il7P t'Jseań online carbon calculatorto find out what your carbon footprint was on your lart llight. You can find out, for example,that a return f|i9ht from stuttgań' Germanyto London Heathrow will use 0.19tonnes of CO, per passenger_

I Work in two groups.You arethe managingdirectorsat ScotAiE a traditionalairlinewith a long history ScotAir is in trouble.It is losinga lot of passengers to its low cost competitors.Share pricesare fallingand the stockholdersare demandingthat somethingbe done,quickly! Group A You think ScotAir needsto starta new budgetsubsidiaryThink of reasonswhy a budget subsidiarywould be a good idea,considerthe staff,passengers, the environment.Prepareto presentyour ideasto the restof the class. Group B You don't think scotAil needsto stań a new budgetsubsidiaryThink of reasonswhy a budget subsidiarywould be a bad idea,considerthe staff,passengen,the environment.Prepareto present vour ideasto the restof the class.

Tlr.Eusiness

43

4 ISuccess stories Discussion II When you start up a business the following are all important. With a partner put them in order ftom the most to the least impońant. financiaiba€ k ing a 5en5eof adventure a businessbackground |uck ambition a good marketing strategy good contacts original ideas hard work & dedication

Listening and note-taking E

E t:łs Listento a Podcastaboutthe cosmeticsproducel EstóeLauderand fill in the profile'

Listening for detail El 1 2 3 4 5 6

Listenagainand mark the sentencesT (true)or F (false).If theyare false,corect them. Estćewas bom EstherMentzer.! Estće'sparentswere Bulgarianilnmigrants.! 'osephine The first EstćeLauder counterwasopenedat Saks,on Fifth Avenuein 1938.! The companystańedto sell beautyproductsfor men in the 196os.! The EstćeLauder Companyconsistsof manywell-knownnames.! The companywent public at the end of the twentiethcentury!

Vocabulary I The fouowingwordsare all usedin the ańicle aboutEstćeLauder Match a word on the left to the corect definitionon the ńghr.

Searchfor the keywords "habib of blsiness succesJ"to find out other tips for enjoying businesssucceśs.

44

/l,.8uŚiness

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

to spill fragrance to demand stylish makeover

a) beautifuland well-designed b) a nice smell

to pioneer sample technique revolutionary unsurpassed

fl

changinga pe$on\ appearanceso that theylook better

d) to accidentallypour a liquid out of its container

to saythatyou wantsomething verystrongly

betterthan everythingelse of its kind completelynew and different h) a methodof doing something i) a small amountof a productgivento peoplefor free t) to be oneoI thelirstpeopleto do something

4.rAboutbusiness o

Reading for detail Ę With a partner, read the ańicle and make a list of What you think the six seclets of Estće Lauder's success arc. Compare your answers with another group. Did you find the same six things?

THE sWEET Śmall 0/ Śucca.ŚŚ ESTEELAUDERknew howto makea sale. and didn't revealmuch about her life or Once when she was refuseda counter the ingredientsusedin her products.5he at the GalleriesLafayettein Paris,she wanted her customersto believe that 'accidentally'spilt one of her fragrances35they were buying not only'beauty in a s in the crowdedstore.The scent wafted jar' but alsothe solutionto lookingand through the crowd of shoppers who feelingeternallyyoung.Shesaidthat 'ln immediatelydemanded to know what order to sell a cream.you sold a dream'. the lovely fragrance was and where she put a |ot of time and effoń into they cou|d buy it' Very soon afteĘ Estóe robuildingup that dream image. r Lauder got her counter and her products When she began her business,she went on sale in the GalleriesLafayette. didn't havea marketingbudget,but she be|i€ V ed that if you put the productinto the customer'shands,its quality would łsspeak for itse|f.she stańed by giving free demonstrations and makeovers using her own produds anywh€ r e she could: in hotels.beauty salons,subway stationsand even on the street. Most 50importantly,she pioneeredthe idea of 11'Estóe Lauder attributed her su(cess a'gift with purchase'.No one had ever to her sales technique.'lf I believe in heard of this befor'e,free creams, free s o m e t h i ng.lsell it, and lsell it har d', lipsticks!She began by giving away free she said.She was a brilliantsaleswoman samplesand then moved on to giving and she personallyvisited the staff on ssaway extra produds with a purchase, poher countersto offer them sales tios. These days many companies u5e this Her approach was very hands-on.She marketingtechnique,but fifty yearrago alwaysbelievedthat in order to make a the idea was revolutionary. sale,you musttouch the customer.Even With the combinationof hard work. to d a y t h e co mpany'smo tto is'Br inging 60dedication, ambitlon, and belief in 25the bestto everyonewe touch'. herseIfand her products,Estćecreated a Estóe knew about the impońance of cultureof quality,styleand unsurpassed She wanted to qive her oroducts customer service. This turned her traqe. ^ G' E< ' SO p n r (ateJ st I OOK anO per so nally company into th€ g|obal cosmetics .._ ' chose the blue colour of the bottles 6sleaderit is today.As she famouslysaid,'l gowhich she believedwould look stylishin never dreamedabout success,I worked everybathroom.She believedin secrecy for it'. I

quotar fuom the text with the correct explanation on the gnr. Match a quotation I Match 1 'Beautyin a jar' a) This stressesthe personal approach. It makes custome$ feel 2 'ln orderto sell sell 'ln order that they are each impońant to the company, but also that they 3

a cream,you sell a oream 'B nging the best to everyone we touch'

are getting the best quality available. b) The idea that you can buy beauty. c) The key thing is not the cream itself, but encouraging women to fantasize and Want a ceńain lifestvle. so that thele is then a market for the cream.

Discussion B

with a partner, look back at the ańicle and your answels to 5 and answer the questions'

1 Which of Estóe's secrets of success do you considel to be the most impońant? 2 Which of these secrets are still good business practice today? 3 Do you think there is still a market for new cosmetics companies? In which way would they ne€ d to be different?

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45

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Adiectives II Theseadjectivescan be usedto describepeople'spersonalityand their behaviourPut theminto the correctplacein the tablebelow.Use a dictionaryif necessary hard-working unhelpful generous hands-on dishonest disorganized ambitious uncooperative stressed positive

negative

honest lazy helpful lackingin drive organrzed hands-off cooperative

E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 lO

46

Il,i,Businoss

Usetheadjectives abovelo completethesenrences. [ nevergetangry I'm a very_ person. Junitacan'tfind the iilcs she needs.She'sso _. I don't reallytrusthim. He seemsto be a bit,_. Robeń is workin8 his way up the caleel laddćI.He's Very-' Angelais a veryperson.She gives15%of her salaryto charities. Cmig justwon't lift a finger He's a very_ man. Dieterneverleavesthe officeuntil his day'swork is finished.His colleaguesall say he's the most man in the company. Pat won't do anlthing for other people. She's the most _ woman I know. OIaf likes his employees to make their own decisions. His style of management is very Sand* hu, three small children and a full-time job. She's quite -, doesn't show it.

although she

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Listening E & r.ło Listen to Alan at a job interyiew.The interyieweraskshim to descńbehimself.Which four adjectivesdoes Alan use? Ę

Now listen again and write the reasonsthat Alan gives.

Word building E

pill in the table with the correct form of the words. Adiective adventure

r)

adventurous ambitious decisive financial

flexibility

lucky organiz€ d pioneering

Searchfor the find out aboutrome strangequ€stions that employeai ask.Discuss with a pańnerhowyou (ould answerthem.

stressful how to be a successfulbusiness owner. Fill in the spacesusing the correct E ią.Ja tl'" t"*t "uout word from the table above. Highly mode|s"lłey.|ead successfuI business owners areqreat.0|e theirbusine€flom s lhefrontandarev€ry hands-on. know thattobesuccess|u| They |lByne€dtoshow |heir Bmployees that they have asense ol(2)andarenotatnid totake a |isk. Highly intheirte€mandth€mse|ves. success|u| bus|ness owne6 investtime andmoney They fieirpeople develop andholdreoular training sessions solhateverybody who wolks lorthem isasW€ | linformed asthey canbe. High|y succesślu| business owners know howto manaoetheirtime andhav8 systoms M]ich€nablefiemtoWork efiective|y ata||times' They arealways 3)sotłnt they dontwaste theirlime. Highly success{ul They thata healthy business owners arefitandhealthy. understand mindandbodyimproves theirproductivity andgenenl welfbeing. Theyrcalize thatby (4)ke€ p ino themse|ves |itandthey the ofrunning abusiness. cancopewith Highly successlu| business own€ r have s (5)ideas. Their businesses offer people nerv ways0ldoing This things lhatother don't tiinkol makes lheirbusinesses shndoutfrom thecrowd. |'liohly successlu| bus|ness owners Iook aftel thekclients' Th€ yknow thatwithout clients would there benobusiness. They dedicate alotoftmetomaking surethattheir c|ients leceive |heb€sl service thatlheycan. (6)Highly successlul owners business arenotafraid lomake andtakeaction. They don't waste timethinkinq what todo,theyjust doit!Theyalso have about (7)-=theyknow what ttEywant theirbusiness toachieve andhowheyare going toachieve it,

Discussion ll 1 2 3 4

work with a pańner.Discussthe questionsbelou Which of the seven habits do you think is the most imporiant for a successfulbusiness? Think of two more habits of successfulbusiness owners. What sort of worker / studentare you? How would your colleaguesdescribeyou? Tl,eB,sźną.s 47

Success stories Testyourself:Pastsimpleand pastcontinuous Which timeline5howsthe pastsimpleand whlch timelineshowsthe pastcontinuous?

E

Write the example sentencesfrom the ,Refreshyour memory, box next to the correct ti m e l i n e .

o lrililIltrl|ilrrililt 1970

l-l

a

t

tlllltH

NOW

Complete the text about the Grameen Bank using the correct form of the verbs in brackets;pastsimpleor pastcontinuous,

E

The GrameenBank

Past śńple Muhafituad Yunnus founded Gtumeen Bank in r977. (ompleted action Past (ontiłuouś He was working at the Un i ve6 i ty of Chi ttag on g in the 1970s. waslwere+ve,b+ing backgroundsituations Paś continuous vs. past 'imp|€ He was working at the unive$ity wlEn he founded the bahk. during a background 5ituation,a specific adion happened > Grammarr€ f .renc page124

Used to Prcf Yunnus used to teach atthe UniveRity ofChitlagohg. He didn't use to be a banker. paśthabits or śtate' not true now > Grammrrt€ [email protected]

ProfessorMuhammadYunusfoundedthe bank in 1977while he was working at the Universityof Chittagong. Along with his students he (t) _-(launch) a research projectinto poveńy in rulal vi||agesin Bangladesh. (work)on the Whi|ehe (2)researchproject ProfessorYunus (3)_ (discover)that many of the villagers (4) (live)below the poverty line ProfessorYunus (5)_ (meet)some women who made bamboo furniture while (visit)a vi||ageca||edJobra.The Wońen'to|dhim that in orderto buy he (6)the materialsthey needed, they borrowed money from lenderswho charged a huge amount of interest.ProfessorYunus (7)_ (lend) $27 of his own money to a group of 42 poor viIIagers 50that they couIdescapethe ViciousCilcleof poveńy.What madethis schemedifferent,was that unlikeother moneylendershe (B)_ (not ask)for any securityor collateraland only chargeda smallamountof interest. The projed was verysuccessful (change)the livesof millionsof and(9)_ women in Bangladesh. With the help of a smallloan,and they (lO)_ (be)able to buy enoughfood and they could send all their childrento school.Todaythe bank has lent more than $5 billiondollarsto morethan 7 million borrowers.In 2006. ProfessorYunus(11)_ (receive) the Nobel peaceprizefor hiswork.

Testyourself:usedto with the correctform of usedto. El completethe sentences (smoke),but lgave up lastsummer. 1 l2 He (call)me everyday,but he hasn'tcalledthi5week at all! (live) in the same town as me, but they recently moved to the south 3 They of France. 4 She(like)herjob, butnowthatshe has a new boss,she lovesgoing to WOTK.

5 6

48

r,eBuśiness

l|_

(do)muchexercise,but now I gojogging regularly. (be)good with money,but thesedaysit goesso quickly!

f. Ń

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gr amma!

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Listening for detail ]t ś€ al(h .forthe keywords :,awbacks Grańeeh .6nk and makea list .'the advantage!and : sadvantagesof the 3.ameen€ r edit system.

t

l.łz Listen to Amina explain how the Glameen Bank changed her life.

Match the beginning with the corect ending to make sentences about Amina. 1 Amina and her neighbou$ used to work for others, 2 she used to live below the poveńy line, 3 Amina used to work for nothing, 4 Amina! daughters didn't use to go to school, 5 6 7

Women in Bangladesh used to have many children, Amina and her neighbours used to pay all their eamings back to the money lende$, Sufiya used to beg in the street,

a) b) c) d)

fl

now she is able to suppon her famiJy. now all her children go to school regularly. now they run their own cooperative. now she makes a small profit each month. now they invest their pro{itsback into their business and even save money at the bank. now she sells toys and other small items. now they believe that it's not necessary for their children to support them when they're old.

Speaking El With a partner, take it in tums to talk about something you used to do but don't do now' and, something you didn't use to do, but do now.

Writing El

Wdte five sentences about yourself using the past simple and the past continuous.

Wdte about something you did during a certain period of your life. Write one false sentence and foi]r truć sehtences. Example: I tryg!myboyfriend ahile I uas studyinqin Berlin. I zuas liuing with my parents uhen I bought my first car. Read your sentences to your partner, can thev guess which one is false?

Roleplay

The eight week competitionis almost over! There are now only two Contestańts |eft. six have |eft the competitionand tonight is the final episodeof this popular realityTV show. Lastweek the contestantshad to presenta businessplan for a new pasta company in Italy and the week before they were selling coffee on the streets of London. Who will show the best businessskillsthis week? What task will be set for them? l\4ost importantly,who will win the contract with Tomas Flint,the leading entrepreneur?

E Last night you were the winner of Tł e Tr(]inee and yo\ won the prize of a !75o,0oo contmcr with the successfulttltl.c;lt'cneul', Tomas Flint. Today all ofthe newspapen and magazinesrł'antto tall
, ', Eustness

49

4 Success stories

Listening for detail Ę ! l:łe Galina is working as an internin a lafgecompanyin Hong Kong. Her six.month appraisalis nextweek,and she'sreadingthroughthd prepamtionquestionswith her friend Suki. Listen and answerthesequestions. 1 What are Galina'sstrengths? 2 Does Suki agreeor disagree?

3 What are Galina'sweaknesses? 4 Does Suki agreeor disagree?

Agreeing and disagreeing

,lvlite,4 (aglee) Ę DecidewhetherGalina and Su}i usedsentences1_7to agrceor disaglee. nextto each. or D (disagree) 1 Well no, not completely.E 2 That'sright.You ceńainly are!! 3 lm norsure.You probablyare.but ...! 4 Oh, definitely!! 5 Absolutely.You sureare!! 6 I can'tagreewith that.That'sjustnottrue.! 7 That soundsaboutright.! p 1 2 3 4

Work with a pańner.Answel the questions' Which phrasescan be usedto stronglyagreewith somebody? Which phrasescan be usedfor mild agreement? Which phrasescan be usedto stronglydisagreewith somebody? Which phrasescan be usedfor mild disagreement?

Disagreeing diplomatical ly E When you disagree in English, it's better to do so in a diplomatic way. Read the phrases below and circle the diplomatic (polite) ways to disagree. I agreewith you up to a point .,. You'rewrong. l'm sorry,but I can'tagreewith you. | don't really see it that way. The problem i5 that ... That's rubbish! Absolutely not! Wel|, mayb€ ' but t ''. No Way! |,mafraid I don,tcomp|ete|yagree With you. What are you talking about? Of course not!

50

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pron u n c ia u o. p a o,c p on the DV D RoM

El Use the tablebelow to makedialoguesusingpolite or diplomaticstructures. 'I We shouldhire Tom.He has all the relevant qualifications.

,

2 The staff real|yneed a new canteen,the one w€ have is too smalland the food they serveis terrible.

a

3 lf they closethis office it will give us all a fantastic oppońunityto move Withthe company' 4 I reallythink that we need to createa new positionin our marketingteam. 5 Haveyou read my email about the working conditions? 5 l an e t oo k th e m o n e y f ro m th e c o m p a n y topay for the christmaspańy; We don,t need to te|| anyonewe saw her doing it.

,

)

l'm but l.can't _sorry qurre aqree wrrnyou.

a) think we need to tell a manager,it'sonly March!

lagree with you up to a point.

b) there is no moneyin this year'sbudgetfor that.

I don't reallysee it that way.

c) on all the pointsyou men!oneo.

The problemis that

d) | think w e'll all lo seour job s.

l'm afraid I don't completelyagree with you

e) H€ is Wel|.quaIified but he has absolutelyno experience.

Well, maybebut I

f) The food isn'tgreat but there are lots of shopsnearbywhere staffcan buy food for lunch.

t

with a pańner,try to continuethe dialogues.

Listening for detail El

ł

l.łg Listen to Galina talking to her manager They are in the middle of her appraisal.

Which of these questionsdoes the managerask? Tick the ones you hear ] 2 I 4 5 6 7 8 9 fl

what do you considerto be your pańicular strengths?! What eleincntsof your job do you find most difficuh? ! How do you get on with your colleagues?! Do you agree? L J Do you have any weaknessesyou d like to work on? ! Are therc any skills you would like to improve? ! What elementsof your job do you most en;oy?! W h a t d o y o u I i k ea nd dislikeabo utw o r king fo r this co mpany?! How can we help you? L,.J Listen again. Which of the phrases in the box below does Galina use to reply to her manager?

' l d o t h i n k th a t l ' m ... ! lthink I 'mgo o dat... ! ' Pe o p l e s a y th a t l ' m ... ! ! .l'dsaythatl'm... M yw eaknessesar e...! , l wo u l d l i k e t o ... tr loften find that ... L_J

M y st.engthsar e ... ! Thethinglhatemo stis... ! M y .o lleaguestell methatl'm...!

Roleplay El How would you answerthe questionsin 6 above?Make notes theywill help you to preparefor the roleplay. Searchfor the keywords appraisal tips to tind oot more about how to succeedin appraiaa15.

El Work in pai$. StudentA is the managerof the IT depańment, studentB is one of the programmers. StudentA tum to page111,Student B tum to page112.

'And your absenteeismis appalling!'

Success stories Reading for detail ll Readthe profileof MargareteSteiff,the inventorofthe teddybea! and put the events below in order

tr setup sewingworkshop ! !

won first prize at the World Exhibition contractedpolio

! D !

went to school nameda bearaftera US president madea toy elephant

1 Biographical background Malgalete steiff was bom in 1847in Giengen in souńern Gerruny. Unfortunately, she contracted polio when she was a small child and as a result spent the rest of her life in a rvheelchair.Although she had many oFrations on hel Ęs, she never walked again. However, this didn't prevent her fuomhaving a successful business cateer.

2 Keymoments inacareer/nature ofwork

After leaving school, she set up a small sewing workshop in her family's home. Then, assisted by her brother she set up her own business and factory ń 1877.Margarete always loved children, and so in 1880she produced her fust toy, an elephant. It was an instant commercial success.In 1902,her company produced the ńrst 'teddy' bear with moving joints, At first, it was less popular than the eĘhant and sales were disaPpointin8' However, evenfually an Ameńcan bought 3,000beals at a trade fair in LeiPzig. Aftel the Steiff bear won the first prize at the Wodd Exhibition in St Loriis, everyone wanted aleddy bear.In 1904stęiff introduced theil kademark ,button lń.ea!' and, in 1906the teddy beal 8ot its name: it was named after US president Theodore (Teddy)Roosevelt.

3 Charitable actions Over the yeals, the Steiff Company have produced a number of l].Iited edition chańty beard. The Ploćeeds flom the sales of these bears to to suPPort chańties and good causes such as the fi8ht against polio, and the World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) campaign to protect Eulopean brown bear6.

4 Today By 19071.7milion toy animals were being made a year.During her life Margalete's motto was 'Only the best is good enough for children.'AlthoughMargaretedied in 1909at the ageof ó1, the Steiff Company is still going strong today. The Steiff club for teddy bear fans began in 1992and currently has over 45,000members.In addition to this thele are steiff 8alleńes and teddy bear trade fails across the woild. ' Ą.''.-'9 .'* F .'i5 -st .|-

-Ń.ś3 'f.-..'

Linking words and phrases A The items in the box are useful for linking sections and putting events in order. Alswer the questions below about them. then current|y after (that) fuńhermore in the end however unfońunately at the moment in addition 1 2 3 4 5 6

52

7ilr.Business

Which Which Which Which Which Which

two items mean the same as noz? item means the same as eaentually? item is a more formal way oI saying but? two items are a more formal way of saying also? two items tell you that something happened next? item tells you that something bad happened next?

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m Prepaleto write a lepoń about Pierręomidyar thę founder of eBay,using the infbrmation oelow. Read the sentencesbelow Mark thę boxcs A B, C or D accordingto thesesub].ects: ' Pierre'sbackgroundand studies B Key noments in career / naturc of worl( c charitablęactions D The companytoday in 2005, Pieffe gave $100 million to t|reuniversjtythat hę gladuatedfron]t()launch the O m i d 5a r- T uf ts V i c ro l i n ar ce Fund ! graduatingfrom an American universityin 1988with a degreein contputerscicncc.hc 2 worked for Claris, a subsidiaryoi Apple Computer.f] 3 _ eBay is one of the most successfulecompaniesin the rvorld.! 4 _ he was happy developingsoftn'arefor Claris. he left the company in 1991and founded I n |(D ę \e I o p - n ę rtC o rp with thr cc lr iends'! 5 _, in 1998.eBay rventpublic and _, Pierrc becamea billionaile. ! 6 Settingup eBay in 1995.Pierręran an online company called Auction Shop. ! 7 Pierre omidyar was born in Paris in 1967.his father,a doctor,movęclthc l.alnilyto Maryland, USA while Pierre was still a child. ! 8 -, in 1996,lnk DevelopmentCorp, which included an internetshoppir'1g scction.was sold to Microsoft.! I

ffi Write a report on Pierre Omidyar usingthe seltences.Put the sentencesin orc]crancl into lbur scparateparagrcphs.Fill in the spaceswith linking words. There may be n]orctl'lanonc corrcct answęr.

Writing a repoń ffi Use linking words and phrcsesto turn the notes belo$'into a repoft about Zhang Yin. the world's richestself-pade woman. put the notes in the conect order. Ę',.

1i0a1

shońa00s

4

Success stories Discussion Ę Work with a pańner. Think of the three most impońant factors o1a language school from a student'spoint of view.

Scan reading Answerthe E Readthe textbelow aboutThe EnglishAcademyin Saint-lean-sur-Arc. questions. 1 2 3 4

Wherein Saint-Jean-sur-Arc is The EnglishAcademy? What two problemsare therewith computersin the school? Which memberof staffis not heloful? Whereis thenew |anguage schoólin Saint-Jean-sur-Arc?

saint-Jean-sur.Arc is a laĘe town in East central France.It has a populationof 3oo,0oo,of i which 20,000are studentsat the technicaluniversity.Englishis a compulsoryelementof all I the coursesthe universityoffersand the demandfor high qualitylanguageteachingis growing.l For the last 1.5years the university has sent studentsto a private languageschool called The I EnglishAcademy.The school is in avery prestigiouslocation,on one ofthe main strcetsin i the centreof Saint-Jean-sur-Arc. At the momenthoweverthe classroomsand corridorslook I very old-fashionedand needto be repainted. t The academyhas a largecomputerlaboratorywherestudentscan surfthe Intemetand a big i library where studentscan study,read newspapersand magazinesand watch DVDS. The I libraryis alwaysfull and it can be difficultto find a seatthere.In additionmanystudents i complainthat the Intemetconnectionin the academyis too slow and that thereare not I enoughcomputers. I In the past the English Academy was pań of a fuapchisebut a few years ago the otmers l decidedto leaveit and be independent.Howeveąsomeof the teache$are reluctantto stop I usingthe old, familiarteachingmaterialsfrom the franchisor. I On the whole,the standardof teachingis very high.Most of the stźlff are well-qualifedand i theil studentsoften get good results' There are, however,some teacherswho don't have ł the appropriatequali-fications. Many studentsalso find one ofthe receptionistsrudeand I unhelpful. I Last yeara new languageschool openedon an industrialestateon the outskirtsof Saint-fean-| sur-Arc.This school doesn'thavethe reputationor the locationof the EnglishAcademybut it I offerscheapercourses.The technicaluniversiĘis consideńngusingthis new school because I ofthe problemsat the EnglishAcademy. | * .--*.-"' -.*'**...,..r"'-'-*"**.,I..-"*^.*.--"*^-'--,--

Reading for detail E work with a pańner.Readthe textagain.Make a list of the strengthsand weaknessesof The EnglishAcademy.

Discussion Searchfor more information about one of the buśiness |eaders by typing their name or th€ i r (ompany,sname into a searchengine. Write a short report describingwhat they did and what their greatest achievementswere.

54

7rlBusiness

!t Work in small groups.Discusswhat the ownerof The EnglishAcademycan do to make surethe businesscontinuesto be successful.

Debate Ę Work in smallgroups'You think that rebrundingand givingthe school a new name will help the situation.You want to namethe school aftera greatbusinessleader.Some suggestions havealreadybeenmade- seethe profileson the oppositepageand the extra informationon page111.Choose one of themto namethe school afterand think of reasons why this personis the mostappropriate.

l

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on the DVD

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Aristotle

Onassis*u"

born in1eo6 in

Smyrna,Turkeyto a Greek family.His family moved as refugeesto Greece in the early 192Os. From there, Aristotle moved to Argentinaand worked in the family'stobaccobusiness.ln 1925 he becamea joint Greekand Argentineancitizen and by 1932 he was a very successful businessman owningcommercialships,tankersand whalers.Movingfrom the sea to the sky, he founded OlympicAirways,the Greek national carrier, in 1957. He was marriedtwice, firstlyto marriedAthina Livanos, daughterof shipping magnate Stavros Livanos, and secondly to Jacquie Kennedythe widow of the murdered US presidentJFK. AristotleOnassis died in 1975 at the age of 69. / l'$|'J. ,ł'lV-,.

COCO

Changl

wasborncabrielre Bonheurchanet in

1883 |n saumuĘ Flance. When she was six years o|d, her mother died and so Gabrie|legrewup in an orphanage.Whi|eworkingas a cafó singershe changed her name to Coco. She opened her tirst shop in 1912 and was one of the first designers to introducetrousers for women. She is probablybest knownfor her Chanel No. 5 oerfume and as the creator of'the little black Womanand she Was sti|l WorkingWhen dless'. she was always ą hard.Working she died in 1971.

Gianni

Versac€

*""bo,n in1946 inca|abria.

Italy,and murderedoutside his lvliamiBeach mansion in 1997. Versace spent manyhoursas a boy learningaboutmakingclothes;n his mother's small tailor shop in southern ltaly. He designad the first 'Versace' collection in 1972. Fromthere he movednorthand openedhis firstboutiquein Milan in 1978. In 1995 he successfully expanded into the USA and his creatlons were worn and desired by the beautifuland famous all over the world.The year before his untimelydeath, the Versace Company's pre-taxprofitwas $112 million.

lii !]'.l i l :ii ].l]|, . ffiffii&$jsr;*]lłl*&tntil.iiI il!il..i

Lakshmi

Mittal

was born 1e5o inrndia where he

obtained a Bachelor of Commerce from St. Xavier's College, Kolkata. After leavinguniversityhe worked in his family's steel business in lndia"These days he is the Chairman and CEO of l\4ittalSteel Company.The company, which was founded in 1976, is now a global steel producerwith operations in 14 countries. l\4ittalSteel's related activities include shipping, power generationand distrlbution,and mining.ln 2004 Mittal Steel made profits of $22 billion.This made LakshmiMittalthe world'sthlrd richestman and the wealthiest person in Britain,where he now lives. In 2004, he was named 'EuropeanBusinessmanof the year'.

W.

'r 'r lr ':'i iiiir $ $ 1 1 : i1 !: ; : illlli: llil', 'r' r :1,:::::::lil:r .r r :,r ':i'1r'' 7/Blrsiness

55

Review 3 ll Fill in the missinglettersusingthe cluesbelow.The wordsall appearedin the text 'ToyotaProductionSystem' on page53. 1 The amountofa productthat peoplewant is called the dfor the product.In business,the word is stronglyassociatedwith the oppositeidea of'supply' (theamountavailable). 2 Can are mass-produced (size, on an enormouss_ rateor level).This word is oftenusedin the phrase'the s...of the problem'. 5 A pieceof equipmentin a factorythat doesa particular job is calleda m_. We usethe uncountablenoun mto referto lots of theseall together. 4 The term'lean m-' is usedto describea productionsystemthat useslesslabour,less machinery lessspace,lesstime and lesswaste. 5 A fault in the way that a productis madeis calleda 6 The just-in-timesystemmakesstoresor w_s (large buildingsfor storinggoods)unnecessary becausepańs are only orderedwhen theyare needed. 7 Kaizenis theJapanese rermfor co _ imp_. 8 The resultsofthe ToyotaProductionSystemare (how long it supeliol products,shoń lt-s takesto makesomething)and low costs. Ę Translatethe answersyou wTotein exercise1 into youl own language.Also translatethesenouns ftom exercise1: supply,rate,leael,u)aste. f,l The phrase'goup'can be replacedby increase,riseor groa'.The phrase'go down' can be replaced.bydeuease, lall or shrink. Writeeach of thesewordsnextto its closest definitionbelow.Use a good English-Englishdictionaryto help you. I moveupwardsto a higherposition:increasein size. amount,qualityor strengthłse 2 becometaller;increasein size,strengthor impońance 3 become larger in number or amount _ 4 go down to a lower level or amount; go quickly down onto the ground _ 5 become less 6 become smaller

E Completethis shortspeechby a projectmanagerwith thesewords:deadline,greenlight, milestone,phase, fesources. of this projectis now finished, "Okay,the planning'and our managershaveput in placeall the ,_ we need in termsof moneyand staff.The good newsis, we'vegot the 316gs .head. As you all know,it's absolutely crucialthatwe finish the projectby the o_ given, the end ofJune.To make surethat we do this I will be monitoringthe progressof the projectverycarefully.I want to makesurethat everysis reachedsuccessfully, and accordinsto the timescale."

56

7ilt.Bu3inesg

El Each sentencebelow has two mistakes.The first is a mistakein the form of the presentcontinuous.The second is a mistakein the form or spellingof an adverb.Correct both mistakes. 1 The productionline is move quiteslow today- I think thereis a technicalproblem. 2 The adveńisingcampaignhas startedand sales increasingsteady. 3 I work veryhardlyat the moment- maybewe can meet in a week or so. 4 Yes,we'refine - everythinggoingverygood. 5 You are usingthis machine?It'squitecomplicatedand you haveto programit careful. l' completethis textby wńting the conect form of the verb in brackets.Choosebetweenpresentsimpleactive(it does)and presentsimplepassive(it is done). I don't know why there'sa problemwith this machine. (sewice)by an engineer,although Every monthit 1(not/send)directlyby the firm who it's truethat he 'Ż(come)from our own madethe machine.I think he 5(spend)a full technicaldepartment.Usuallyhe a_ aftemoonhere,runningchecksand doingmaintenance.He completesa checklistshowingeverSthinghe has inspected. (fill in) verycarefully- it's a good system The list 5(not/miss)anything. and I'm surehe 6E FiU in the missinglettersin thesephrasesusedin a presentatlon. 1 I,d like to s- _ _ - by givingyou a shoń o- - - ' _ _w of today's presentation.

2 First _ _ _ _ - _, we're going to look at the sales f_ _ _ _ _s fdr the last two years.

3 After that, we'l1 look at how this has affected our s

Drlce.

4 M_ _ _ _ _ _ _ to the next slide, you can see that ... 5 Let's go _ _ _ _ and look at the previous slide again. 6 I'd like to finish _ _ showing you how we aim to r e___thistar ___.

p Below you will see instructions for planning a stand at a convention. Fill in each gap with items from the box. Several answers may be possible, but one solution uses all the words in the best way. choose decide design to think about you book

organize

set

Fi6tly, on the budget. Secondly, the size of the stand. Then, the stand (how it will look). your space with the organizers. Make sure Don't forget_ audio-visualequipment. After that, the logistics of the delivery Finally, up the stand.

Review 4 E Make phrasesby matchingan item on the leftwith an item on the right.They appearin the ańicle on page45. 1go 2 use sales 3 havea 4 look 6 7 8 t 10

qualityspeaks pioneeran give havebeliel tum a company

tl Completeeachsentencebelow with one itemfrom the left column and one from the right.

a) hands-on approach

b) and effoń into sth. techniques d) on sale Ęlish away free samples into a global leader h) in yourself i) for itself i) idea

El Match a positiveadjectiveon the leftto its best negativeon the ńght. 1 calm dishonest 2 generous b disorganized 3 honest c unhelpful 4 hard-working d mean 5 helpful e stressed 6 organized f hands-off tlazy 7 ambitious 8 hands-on h uncooperative 9 cooperative I lacking in drive E Fill in the missinglettersto makeadiectives. Afterwardscheck-withthe tableon iage 47. 1 Someonewith a senseof adventureis adventu____. 2 Someonewith a lot of ambitionis ambit_- ,. 3 Someonewith a Iot of dedicationto their work is dedic____to it. 4 Insteadofsaying'theareaoffinance',we can say'the finan____area'. 5 Someonewho showsflexibilityhas a flex____ approach. 6 Someonewith a lot of Iuck is lu___. 7 This filing systemhas a good organization,it'swellorgan____. 8 Someonewho is a pioneeris pioneer-9 Someonewho has a lot of successin their careeris verysuccess___. 10 A job with a lot of stressin it is a stress___iob. H In each sentencebelow put one verb into the past simple(I uorked\ and one into the pastcontinuous(1u as working). 1 I(study)at universitywhen I _ (meet)my futurehusband. 2 I_ (mention)the good news aboutyour promotionwhile I _ (chat)to my friendslast nrgnl. E In eachsentencebelow put two verbsinto the past simpleand two into the pastcontinuous. 1 The flightwas delayedand we _ (haveto) wait five hoursat the airport.It _ (be)awful.Somepeople (try)to read,others(sleep)on the floor 2 I_ (sit)at my deskand otherpeople_ (talk) by the watercooler Suddenly,the fire alarm_ (go oĘ. At lirst, nobody(know)what to do.

usedto didn'tuseto 1 I2

like seafood when I was young, but now I

It'sdelicious!

I_ play a lot of tennis when I was at univeGity. ButI _anymo r e.

Ę łtatch the beginning with the end of each phmse to make phrases for disagreement. 1No 2 I'm sorry but 3 I'm aliaid I don't 4 Absolutely 5 I agree with you 6 I don't really see it 7 That's 8 I'm not

I can'tagreewith you. completelyagreewith you. no way! justnot true. sureaboutthat. up ro a polnl that way.

Ę Most ofthe phlases in exelcise 7 are polite or diplomatic. Find three that are strong and direct.

Ę

ri[ in the missingletters.

1 Your 'strongpoints'areyour'str___ths'. 2 Your 'weakpoints'areyour 'weak____es'.

iB Match an item on the leftwith an item on the ńsht. but fuńhermore curently after that in addition at the moment eventually however then in the end i! Use an itemfrom the right-handcolumn in exercise10 to completeeachsentenceaboutManuela.Theremay be severalpossibilities,but one solutionuseseachword once in the bestwav. 1 Manuela studied marketing at university and Ieft in 2002. -,

she did part-time jobs for a year or two.

2 Tired of working part-time, she applied for dozens of

full-time jobs. She was rejected many times. But, she found something that she really liked. -, She did that job for three years. She enjoyed it and leamed a lot. -, her luck changed and the company went banl(rupt. Manuela was out of work again. She decided to move from the marketing area to the sales area. There were several advantages.It was easier to find jobs people in the sales area change jobs often. it suited her personality _ she was fńendly and -, confldent. She still works in the sales field today. _ she is working for a consumer goods company, and visits big stores to persuade the manager to stock more of their products. Manuela is hoping to be promoted to Regional Sales Director in the next few yea6.

7beBuńnesg

57

Selling Discussion fl In small groups,discussthesequestions. 1 Can a productbe successfulwithoutadvertising? 2 What arethe qualitiesofa good advertisement? 3 Describean advertisem€ n tthatyou leally like' Do the othersagree?

Listening for gist E 3 z,ol Listento Tony Barkston,a collegelecturer,givinga lectureto first yearbusiness studentson advertising,and answerthe questions. 1 Why is adveńisingnecessary? 2 What modelof advertisingis the lectureabout? 5 Explain what a USP is in your own words.

Listening for detail p 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Listen againand mark the sentencesT (true)or F (false). This is the filst time Tony Barkstonhas talkedaboutadveńising.! AIDA standsfor attention,idea,desire,action.! The most importantpart of the AIDA model is that peoplebuy the products.! There are a lot of good-quality products on the market.E Productsneedto appeardifferentso that consumerscan rccognisethem.! A USP tells consumersthat a productis reallydifferent.E A good propositioncan makecustomerschangebrand.!

Discussion Ę How many differentforms of advertising.tirnyou think of? Which forms are most effective?Why?

Scan reading E l 2 3 4

Scan the article about body advertisingto find atswers to the questions. How manyadveńisementsdoest.heaveragepersonseein a day? How much was the winningbid for when a foreheadwas auctionedon eBay? Which typeof spońspersoncould be usedeffectivelyfor body adveńising? Name threecompanieswho havemadesuccessfuluse of body advertising.

Reading for detail E 1 2 3 4 5 6

Read the article again and answerthe questions. Who profitsfrom body advertising? which partsof the body are the mosteffectivefor body adveńising? What is one disadvantage of usingsportspeoplefor body advertising? Why is TV adveńsing not as effectiveas it was in the past? Why mightsomepeoplenot like this form of adveńising? How did Dunkin' Donuts and Toyota use body advertising?

Collocations I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

58

7l.r/BusinesB

Match a verb on the left with a noun on the ńght to form a collocationfrom the article' advertise lease receive eam lose target attract

a) b) c) d) e) 0 g)

a bid on eBay money products attention a body pań effectiveness an audience

s.l aboutbusiness o

ADVERTISINGSPACE personnotonlyseesover500advertisements Theaverage every Ina Wor|d Wherepeop|e areexperiencing fatigUe' adveńisino billboard brands th€ rea|cha|lenge day,butis alsoa walkino forhisor herfavourite |ormarketing is to oetpeopIe's attention' There simply bywearing theirclothes, theirhandbags ordriving arebasically toomanypeople selling toomanythinOs, carryinO andmany paid1orthisfree of theselhinosWedon'trea||y theircars'Butth€ s e peopleare notgettinq need'We see adveńisements : advertising. everywhere andsotraditional formsofadveńjsing areIosing their products Theideaof sellinqbodyspaceto advertise is a effectiveness. growing Innovative trendwhichbenefits boththewearer andthecompany. marketing methods suchas humanbillboards are justchoose P0tentia| Which bodypańtheyWant becoming increasingly bodyadveńisers attractive because oflowcostandtheability youraudience to lease andwhichcompany theywantto advertise. Theythenget totaroet better companies nowsendtattoo-cover€ d : a temporary tattooWhichtheyagreeto Wearfora ceńainamount human billboards to sporting events, musictestivals, beaches or you popu|ar of time.loreireads andbaldheadsareveryeffective because tourist resorts toadveńise theirproducts. canalwaysseethem,evenin badweather. 0fcourse' someconsumers maynotfindthistypeofadveńising popu|ar Thebodyadveńising id€ a became When Andrew Fischer verytasteful or theymiohtnotlindthebodypartson showvery auctioned hisforehead oneBayandreceived a bid0f $37,378 for attractive. |t is a|sonotDossib|e in a|loańsof theWorId Where .. wearing a company logo.Therearenowmanywebsites on the thereis notradition oftattoos orshowino so muchskinin oublic youcanbuyandsellbodyspace. Internet where is laboo. Ath|etes andspońspeop|e havea|Ways earned Well-known big brands such as Toyota, a |otot moneyby W€ a rinobranded spońs Vodaphone andDunkin' Donuts haveusedthis clothes. Nowthey canearnevenmorewith method: college kidsagreed to stickDunkin' Boxersin partibu|ar logoson theirforeheads :: bodyadveńising. Donuts duringan offera goodWidespacefor adveńising NCAAbasketball tournament; Toyotaused ontheirbacks.Theadvantage ottattoo bodyańtostańa wold0fn0Ulhcampaign : adveńisinq is thatthecompany name fortheScioncar or |ogois in ful|viewal|throughth€ Bodyadvertising showsthatit is not :: matchandnotlimited necessaryto spend largeamountsot Ęą.30 second primegoa commercial whichviewers mayswitoh moneyto fulliladvertising's ofFanyway. A disadvantage is that whichis t0 attractattention and get peopleinterested when athletesreally begin to enough to buythe products. sweat, thetattoostartst0 run. iri

I

Brainstorming and presentation lN In small groups,hold a brainstormingmeetingto think of an advertisingcampaignfor a new perfume.Look at your targetgroupbelow.What namedo you think would attrcctthis group? what soń of bottleand packagingwould appealto this gloup? And finally,think aboutthe adveńisingmedium.How do you want to getyoul taryetgfoup'sattention? Group A Your targetgroupis men who are over40. You areaimingyour productat professionalmen and so theywill havea good income.Think aboutwhat men in this groupwould be interestedin and what would encouragethemto buy your product. Group B Your targetgroupis womenwho are between50 and 60. Think aboutwhat womenin this group would find appealingand what imagemighthelp your productsell. s€ a rch fo. the keywords adverti sin g tattoo. Flnd out what the rates are for different body pańs'

Group C Your targetgroupis youngpeoplewho are between18 and 25. Your grouphas a limitedincomeas most of themwill be students.Think aboutwhat imagepeoplein this groupwould be interested in and what they would find appealing.

Present your ideas to another group, and give feedback on the ideas.

-t ll. B usiness

59

Selling

t9s6

Discussion E Work with a pańner Decidewhich threeof thesecharactelisticsarethe most impońantfor a good salesperson, and which are the leastimportant.can you add another characteristic? . really listens to the customer / interested . smilesall the time / friendly . knows a lot abouttheir products/ knowledgeable . has a smartappearance/ presentable o you feelyou can trusthim/her/ trustwońhy . can explainthe USP of the product/ competent . givesthe customertime to think / patient . good at makingthe customerbelievein the product/ persuasive o makessmal|ta|k / chaĘ Ę

Work with a partnerand makea list of adjectivesto descńbea bad salesperson.

E WorI(with a pańner Wlite a list of questionsyou would expecta salespersonto ask a potpntialcustomerwho wantsto buy a car.For example: Do you uant a used car? How much d.oyou uant to pay? 1I

J

60

Iź?Busile3a

1!Ńl

p.l,tl,.,

i,,t6ractiv6

vocabulaty

plactice

on th€

DvD.RoM

s.zvocabularv !

Listening for detail t! ! z'oz,z.ol Listen to two differentsalesmenĘing to sell a car to Mr Hunt and his daughter. How many ofyour questionswereaskedin the conversations?Listen againand makea note of the questionsthatwereasked. to

thinkareusefulto leam,

E

which talk is more effective?why?

Buying and sellang E 1 2 3 4 5 6

Listen to the conversation again and note expressionswhich mean it doesn'tcostmuch to keepthe car on the road. pńces as low as the rivals'' no extra chargefor bonowed money. wońh the price. a reductionin the pńce. currentprice of something.

E Match the customers,commentson the left with the appropriate responseon the ń8ht. 1 lt's quite pricey. a) I'm sure we can match that price. 2I'mnotsure. b) Of course not. But you'll entoy haying it. 3 It looks very complicatedto use c) But it's a good investmentfor the future. 4 Is this the only modelyou have? d) Take as much time as you need to think about it. 5 I sawthe samemodelat a cheaper e) Let me showyou how to use it. price in town. 0 No. we havethe completemodel range. 6 I don't reallyneedit.

Role play studentB is a buyerwho wantsto buy a new Ę Work in pairs,StudentA is a salesperson, laptop.stud€ n t A look at page112,studentB look at page113.

Customer collocations E 1 2 3 4 5

Match the customer collocations on the left to the correct delinition on the right. customerincentive a) Descriptionof a typicalcustomerfor this product. customersatisfaction b) Somethingwhich encouragesa customerto buy something. customerretention c) When many customersare happywith the product. customerprofile d) When the customerkeepsbuyingthe sameproduct. customerloyalty e) When the companytriesto keepthe existingcustorners.

Discussion lB Work in small groups.Think of the differentmethods of shopping, for example online or at a market. Make a list of the advantagesand disadvantagesfor customen of one of the methods.

Tl)eBl!'rnes,

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: ',

..' ,,

't "

.. .l.t,,..!.t. .: i:.

Comparatives Our company is smaller Add _er + tńan to adjectives with one syllable

Testyourself : Comparatives 1 | can assureyou that this car is _ (reliable)than your presentmodel.you won't havea breakdownwith thrscdr. 2 Thishandbagis not only _ (cheap),but _ (attractive) than the hiqhpriceddesignerversions. 3 | think you'll find that this mobile is _ (easy)to usethan the la5tmodel. (reasonable) 4 | can't make a _ offer than that. 5 Digitalcamerasa re _ (simple)to operatenow than a few yearsago. 6 The life ofthis batteryis _ (long)than most of its rivalsat almosthalf the once. 7 You'll reallylike thesecrisps.They are _ (crunchy) (tasty)than and _ any otherson the market. 8 This no-namewashingpowder is _ (good)and _ (effective) than the brandedgoods. 9 | would recommendthisjacket.lt's_ (stylish) than the other one and it really suitsyou. l0 Ican't recommendthis DVD player.ltstest resultswere _ (bad)than the others.

superIativeś Theyare the smallest companyon the market, Add the + -estto adjectiveswith one syllable The easiest thing to do is call the lT department. Add the + -/estto adjectives endingwith

Thereare some exceptions good befter the best bad worse the worst far further the furthest Grumńar r€ l er€ n c€ '

Testyourself: Superlatives El

Aśkin9queition5 Yeslnoquestions Do you work in lapan? auxiliaryverb + subje(t + marnverb

> Gl.mmal rcfeleń.e page r27

comp|etethesesentencesby puttingin the correctform of the adjectiv€ s . l 2 3 4 5

pag€ 126

Wń- que5tion5 Wherc do you work? queslronworo + aUxiIiary velb + Śubject + mainverb excepl il who, what ol whl(ń i5the subject Who told you? And with the verb to be Where is she?

Completethe sentencesby putting in the correctform of the adjectives.

Xl

Thistest is easierthan the last one. Replace-ywith -ler .r tńan With adjedives endjngin -y

Thismodel is the most / Ieastreliable on the market. Add the + mortl /eaJtto lonqeradjedives

.'

6 7 8 9 10

Asoneof _(good) customerswe have,I can offer you a specialprice. Thisis-(popular) model in the store.We only havea few left so buy one now |,msurethis is (comfońab|e) sofa you'veever sat on' (accurate) Thiswatch is one of on the market. (fresh)and _ We use only (high)qualityingredientsfor our t i sandwiches. (sophisticated) Thisis cameraaround at the moment. (pure)on the market. Our mineralwater is _ (low)priceI can offer This is (silly)suggestiont'veheard. That is ThisTV givesyou (sharp)picture.|t,5Wońh the extra money.

Testyourself : Askingquestions E

Make questionsfor the answers. How much ? The |aptopcosts€ 9 99What time 1 The bank closesat 4pm. )Lbo FrankRider is our most succes5ful salesperson.

whv

?

I usetelebankingbecauseit'sso practical. What Ithink the serviceis verygood. Where Women.sC|othin9i5on the firstf|ooĘMadam. How often 1 I buy a new car everythree or four years. uo

Yes,I alwaysbuy the samebrand.

62

t), )' tt|

t'Gl

r'nrtir", i.teractive

t . t ". ", "' ""rO

grammar practice on the DVD-RoM

Making comparisons E

Read the product descriptions of GPS systems and answer the questions.

portabt". wattet-sized navisator hasas.5inch 1 NewTech GPS Mapping System. This

yourroute inIessthanonesecond! Stat€ ' of.th€ artVoice recognition disp|ay screen andca|cu|ates ngWh€ eto l touch noneed totakeyourhands offthest8er screens orpress technoIogy means there's Inc|udes maps l']sA Voices asa do\\rn]oadabIe option' ofEurope, buttons. 0urUsPisa rano€ofce|ebrity guarantee. to mobi|e. connection andcanada onth€ 20GBharddisc.BIuetooth $530witha two-year

hasfut| maps. touch screen 3Dcolour With a choic€offifteen 2 GPS Route Finder. The4 inch yourdestination youthrough in1.5seconds. 0ur themainroadsolEurope, calculating lanOuages toguide ticket. lnc|Uded is is speedcamera d€ t ection technoIogy soyounevergetanother speeding specia|feature cities. Totalcost$499. multimedia cityquideof 28 majorEuropean anintegrated

receiver designed hand-held witha 3.8inchscreefl can 3 GPS EaSy NavigatOf, ourbeautitully Europe withup-to-date Getting around Western mapsis easyand beoperated withonlythreebuttons. quick,lockingonto satellites intwoto threeseconds. for to otferyouturn-by-turn directions 0urspeciality petrolandparking functions. Thewaterpro0f nearest systemcomescomplete stressed driversis one-touch integrated !ntohelnr€ 1An s. unbeatabIe With B|uetooth headsets Which canbeeasi|y $660' '1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Which GPS navigatoris the most expensive? Which screenis the smallest? which systemcalculatesyour routethe quickest? Which systemoffersthe fewestdestinations? Which systemoffe$ the mostrealisticpictures? which systemis the most convenientfor the driverto use? Which systemis most suitedto motorbikeriders? Which systemdo you thinl
ffifr

e

Discussion E Work with a partner.Which USP (UniqueSellingProposition)or specialfunctionof the GPS systemsis the mostinterestingfor businesspeople?Why?

Asking and answering questions ltr & z'oł Esengul Badem is conducting a customer satisfaction survey outside a supermarket. Listen and answer the questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 I 1 2 3 4 5 6

Why does the shopper use this supermarket? Does the woman go shopping on her own? ls she satisfied with the selection of goods? Does she think the store is tidy enough? Does she go shopping at any other supermarkets? What does she like the most? Now listen again and write the questions for the answers. At least once a week. Terrible! You have to walk so far to Dut vour troile| back. Yes, no problem. Around € 2 00. I like to go quite early in the morning, as soon as the kids leave for school. There isn't a good selection of wine. I always buy my wine somewhere else.

Discussion searchfor th€ keywords custońel sati'factioh iurvey. What sons of surveysare carried out?

Ę Work with a pańner. Think of something expensive you bought recently,e.g. a computet a mobile phone, a bike. Ask each other questions.Use the ideas below.

Why he / she boughtit. Wherehe / she boughtit. How oftenhe / she usesit.

How much it cost. The best thing about it. One thing he / she doesn'tlike about it.

/lrrBusirrsss

63

iSelllnffi ''.''

Discussion Work with a partner. Look at the pictures of negotiations. What are the peop]e I negotiating about?

flr

rt,, ".Y Jj":: i,l'ffł. Ę Complete the questionnaile ftom a business magazine about negotiating. MaIk the statementsT (tlue), F (false) or D (it depends). Compare youl answeN with a pańner'

Questionnaire I 2 3 4

Thereis alwaysa winner and a loserin a negotiation. You haveto give somethingto get something.

You need an agenda, Making smalltalk is necessary. 5 You need to prepareas muchas possible. 6 You can promiseanything. 7 Negotiationsare the sameall over the world. I lt'sa good idea to sum up agreementsregularly.

Llstening for gist E ł z.os-z.oz Listen to three negotiations taking p]ace. Where are the people and what is being negotiated?

Listening for detail p Listen again and decidewhich negotiationis win-win, which is lose-losę and which is winlose.

64

1;ll.]Bu$inBsŚ

[email protected] ' " * ' * " r "

s.łsn."ti,,s !

o'on u n c ra ron pra c.c e on rn e ! vD-BoM

El tttatch1-6with their repliesa)-0.Theremaybe severalanswers,but try to rememberthe ones fromthe dialoeues. searchfor the keywords win-win negotiation. What are the principlee b€ h ind it?

1 2 5 4 5 6

Can't you conlpromise this time? Can you go along with that? That's my bottom line. Is that your best offer? Can we talk about the price again? Take it or leave it.

a) b) c) d) e) f)

I have no choice. That makes two ofus. I can meet you half way. I think it's a fair price. No, I don't want to discuss this. That's out ofthe question.

rel Lisien to the threenegotiationsagainand completethe usefulexpressionsin the table. 1 Making proposals

What Majorca? l'd like to suggestsomething...

2 Bargaining

l'll go to Majorca for a week we go to the Alps for a week. I would only pay that priceon conditionthat ... l'll pay the 20,000_ she stayslonger. -

3 Accepting

Let'sdraw up the contract. -! OK. lt'sa deal.

4 Rejecting

No way! You can't be serious. That'sout the

5 , Maki!',rgconcessions

I can meet you -. You havea point there.

5 . Askingfor agreement

Can you 9o -

7 Clarifying

lf I understandyou correctly... So what you'reis ,..

' .] '

-

that?

Roleplay E

With a patner, use the chart to roleplay the following negotiations.

1 The marketing company that you work fot needs to save money because your competitors have increased their market share. You are going to discuss saving money through reducing catering costs. 2 The offices where you work are going to be painted. They were last painted ten years ago. you are going to discuss what colour the offices should be painted. 3 The engineering company that you work for is thinking of sponsoring a local group in order to raise consumer awareness in the area. You are going to discuss which local $oup to sponsor. Student A tum to page 112. Student B tum to page 113. Student A

StudentB

TTraBuslness 65

I

Selling

Discussion tl ln smallgroupsdiscussthe questionsaboutemails. I How coftectshouldemailsbe? Is it OK to makegrammarand spellingmistakes? 2 What is email etiq\lette?What arc your staiidards?Think aboul emoticons,subjectlines, capitalletters,openingsand closings.

Skim reading t|.tequęstions. E Readthe six exbactsfrom emailsbelow and ałrswęr 1 Which email is askingfor moreinformation?L-l 4 Which email is acceptingterms? ! terms? D 5 Whichemailis refusing 2 Whichemailis makinga quontionf ! 3 Whichemailis asl(ingfor betterterms? 6 Which email is placingan order?! ! aa9

s..:5,''..*.ł. ';'" @

Fuńhe, to your quotationdated 19 November' we are pleasedto placethe followingtrial orderfor 500 plasticwine glasses,order number wG759.

@ We are in agreementwith 15%discountfor promptpaymentand deliverybeforeDecember

tit l'm afraidthe ratherlow trade discountof

5% disappointed us. We would, however,be preparedto placea bulk order of 2,000itemsif you increasedyour discountto 9%.

@ We can offer you a gross price, inclusiveof deIiverycharges.of € 5 1.30 per 100 items'These ooods are inclusiveof VAT.

o 49

: ; i ^ , : .* i " " , @ We would be most interestedin receivingyour latestcatalogueand pricelist,quotingyour most comoetitive Drices.Pleaselet us know what trade discount you offer and what your deliverylead timesare.

66

;/fuBusin€ s 6

*

!); f l r

r,

you for your ofter oł 7o/ooff net pri(es o Thank for ordersover 5,000items.I regretthat these conditionsare not acceptableto us.

ffip,rrtt..

irrteractive writins practice and model business documents on th6 DVD-RoM

I

5.5writine o

Scan reading Search for the keywordt ernail etiguette to find out mole about thia. Do you agree with the poińts?

Completethe sentenceswith the expressionsin bold fromthe emailsin 2. The is how long it takes for the goods to arrive after ordering. is the total pńce of somethingwithoutany deductions. The Ais a leductionof the sellingpńce of a productwhen a manufacturersellsto a letailer. Ais to try out productsand senricesto seeif theyare satisfactory The _ is the amountthat is left afterall deductionshavebeenmade. Ais when you ask for a largenumberof itemsto be deliveredat the sametime.

El 1 2 3 4 5 6

Negotiating language !l 1 2 5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Match the beginningwith the conect ending. Furtherto your call, a) our termsare 8% discountfor ordersover 80,000. I hope everythinggoes b) if you need any further inJormatron. With referenceto discounts, c) accordingto plan. Our terms of palrmentare d) I'd like to confirmthe followingpoints. Pleasegetback to me e) 5% discountfor paymentwithin 30 days. Pleasefind attachedthe f) thatyou havereceivedthis email. g) 10'000pańs per month. agendaof the meeting h) firm offerof€ 1 00 per item. We have submitteda Tiansportcostsare i) as requested. j) freewithin Europe. We can guannteedeliveryof Pleaseconfirm

Plating"olders E

Completethe email from Hugh Bradshawto Ms Noonan usingthe wordsin the box.

O rB lEj

Ł,,e @ .l]

Dear Ms Noonan, Followingour telephoneconversationlastweek. I would like to (1)_ an orderfor 500 EnglishABC dictionaries. Your cataloguegivesthe (2)_ of the ABC dictionaryas € 1 4 can you confirmthat this is stil|the price? Also can you send details of the terms of (3)_ within 30 dayson an order of this size?

that you can offer for (4)

Pleasenote that we need (5)of the dictionariesbeforethe end of this month.We would be gratefulif you could (6)_ the itemsas soon as possible. I look forward to receivingyour (7)_ Yourssincerely, Hugh Bradshaw.

Writing p

Write Ms Noonan'sreply.Use the informationbelow.

.

You only have500 dictionańesin stockat the moment.Deliveryof the other200 would be in one month. The catalogue is out-of-date The currentpńce is € 1 6' You can offera 7% discountfor paymentwithin sevendays.

. .

7/,sEusin€ s ś

67

5

Selling Discussion Ę In smallgroupsdiscussthe questions. 1 What'strendyat the moment?Think aboutfashion,technologr,music and cars. 2 How do you find out aboutnew,trendyproducts?

Listening for detail Ę [email protected] z:oa Listento Gabdella Cortez,the managingdilectorofthe companyCoolhunters talkingabouta new typeof trcndspotter. Answerthe questionsbelow. problem 1 What do marketershavetoday? 2 What kind of productsdo youngpeopletodaywant? 3 How do Gabńella'strendspotters find new trends? 4 What did manycoolhunterslist on their websitesin the beginning? 5 How long doesa coolhunterhaveto tell peopleabouta new product? 6 What doesa trendspotterdo when a productbecomespopular? E & z,og Listen to the secondhalf of the interviewwith Gabriellaaboutthe adoDtion processand completethe pie chartwith the percentages.

,l laggards

')-%

take

a long time to

earlyadopters 1-% quick to

l!

68

7ł.Businesg

Listen to the secondhalf of the intenriewagainand completethe notesabouteachgroup.

f f i tu r tn e r

in leró cl|ve problF m .solvin g on lhe fV D aofl

5 .6 C ;:l;e s iu . iy

*

Mark€ t segmentation E Marketers need market segmentationto identily the needs and wants ol consumers. There are many ways of doing this: age, social class, family size, family lifecycle, and so on. with a pańner, match a name of a consumel gloup with a description and the coIIect prcture. a) b) c) d)

full-nesters DINI$ (Double income, no kids) bachelor empty-nesters

1 This group has a very high disposable income. They are over fifty and their children have left home leaving them fueeto spend their money on expensive holidays and high-quality products. They have worked hard all their lives and want to pamper and enjoy themselves. 2 The young, single person with no family commitments. This group has a rclative1yhigh disposable income and they want to spend as much as possible on themselves and trying out new, innoviltive products. 3 This group has a high disposable income and no children and tends to mix with other couples in the same situation. They do a lot of entefiaining and Statussyl]]bo]Sale Very impońant. 4 These are couples with children. As growing children are expensive, they need to be careful with their money and they tend to have a low disposable income. ll In smallgroupślook'atthe eńracts from a holiday brochure' Decide which holiday fits each consumer group.

-L

w'.'

'*r*L

Enjoya luxuriouswellness-week at the Hoteland Spa Quellenhofin the heań of Bavaria.You cań te|aXand pamperyourse|fin one of our five thermalpools,saunaand Turkishbath.Our five-starrestaurant offersan internationalcuisine.Our hotel is set among majestic mountainsidealfor walking and wandering.

Cometo EuroParcfor the holidayof a lifetime!Fun for you and your chlldren,whateverthe weatheroutside!Ask for our latestbrochure with all-inclusive rateswhich mean no nastysurpriseswhen you come to pay your bill!

.

all overthe world.We Our five-starhotelsare locatedat top addresses caterfor professionalpeoplewith excellenttastewho want to enjoy their holidaywith other professionalpeopleand not with families,

,

Want to enjoy and try out an exciting range of 5poń5With top equipmentand facilities?Do you livealone,but don't want to holiday alone?Then come to exclusiveonly Me HolidayClubsand meet new interestingyoung peoplewho want to meetyou.

Brainstorming and presentation El Work in smallgroups.You aregoingto launcha new car for one of the marketgroups. . Chooseone ofthe groupsto marketto. . Brainstorma list of featureswhich you think are usefulor necessaryfor your marketgroupand add someof theseto your product. Now presentyour ideasto anothergroup,and giveleedbackon the other groups'ideas.

Searchtor the keylvordsmarket segmentation.Make a list of the different ways you can segńent a marketand someofthe variablesthat ate used. ..:-: : ji-.':EłąYl*.MżĘErq:r<ł€&wM

1l,.&usiirć5s

69

The orgartlzation Discussion 'An entrepreneuris someone who has a good idea and seesa chance to stań a buśinesswith it.' PAVARTIPATEI.,START.UPCONSULTAT.IT

to n wolk with a pańner Decidewhich qualitiesare mostimportantfol an entrepreneur possess(1 = most important,8 = leastimportant). Diplomatic Optimistic ualm Energetic

! ! Ll !

Organized wrlungto TaKea nsK Determined Creative

! LJ tr !

Listening for gist 2l & z'lo Listento Robin Hurd interviewingMs Patel,a start-upconsultant,aboutbeingan entrepreneur and answerthe questions. 1 Can anyonebe an entrepreneur? 2 What stopsmost peoplefrombeingan entrepreneur? 3 Which countrieshavea lot of entreoreneurs?

Listening for detai! El Listen to the interviewwith Ms Patelagainand answerthe questions. Why doesMs Patel saythesethingsare importantwhen settingup your own business? 1 EnerS/ 2 A social securitysystem 5 A legal system

Scan reading !l Scan the article about the German businesswonian'IngridRoth to find answersto the questlons. 1 2 3 4

What typeof servicedoesIngridoffer? Why did she setup a Ltd company? Does Ingdd spenda lot of time in Englandbecauseof her company? How is it possibleto setup a Ltd companyin Germany?

Vocabulary

searchfor the keywords śtańup cońpany and find out whatservi.eś a.e on offerto help peop|e up their 'tań own company.

70

iflr? Buslnes6

Ęt In each setof four,matchan explessionflom the articleon the leftto the correct definitionon the right. 1 gap in the market a) documentsor processesthat cause delays 2 minimumequity b) a smallamountof moneyas palrmentfor a seryice 3 rcd tape c) the lowestamountof capitalallowedto stań up a company 4 modestfee d) this product or service doesn't exist, but there is a need for it 5 Memorandumof e) the centralofficeof a company Association f) if the companyhas debts,you only losethe amountof money 6 annualaccounts you invested g) a documentdetailingwho ownsthe company,how much 7 headquarters 8 limitedliabiliĘ capitalis investedand whereit is based h) yearlyrecordofthe tradingresultsofyour company

Discussion p

In small groupsdiscussthe questions.

1 What could Ingriddo to expandher business? 2 Is Ingńd Roth an entrepreneur?Give reasonsfor your answer.

5'lA bo utbu sinesś O

LTDS IN GERMANY

5+.

tf the company runs into trouble... j the owners donntlose everything

|NGRID ROTH wąs unemployed and single when she offered to organize her sister'sCh ristmascelebrations. Her sistęr, Karen Regensberger 5happily acceptedbecauseshe was maried with two children and a full-time, very stressfuljob. Ingrid bought and wrapped all the presents,bought and cooked all rothe food and decomted the house. And she offereda complete service - she cleaned and tidied everything after the event.It was such a successthat friends of the family 15wanted the same service - and not only for Chdstmas, for all sorts of celebrations. Suddenly Ingrid had more work than she could cope with. There was zoa real gap in the market - people were too busy to organize thet ov/n tcstivitics!She decided to set up her own company, but instead of choosing a GmbH (Gesellschaftmit zrbeschrAnkterHaftung), the Geman legal model, she chose to registerher company in England as Celebrations Ltd. Ingrid said, 'I decided to set up a oolimited company and not a GmbH becauseit's quick, simple and cheap.' The British title Ltd is also well-known internationally just in case Ingrid would like to expand her 3Ebusiness in the future. Ingrid is palt of a Browing trend of small business owners who chooseLtds. The main advantageis that the minimum equity required łois one pould, compared with a minimum of € 2 5,000 for a GmbH. A Ltd company can be registered within 24 hours whereas a GmbH

can take months and involve a lot abof red tape. It is also much easier to change the company structure,such as having a new director With a GmbH you would need to pay legal fees to change anything. Another soadvantageis that you don't have to do the paperr.olk yourself. You can pay a consultanta modest fee of 1500 to register your company at Companies House, Britain's s5business registry office.Various documents are required, for example a Memorandum oJ Association which gives the details of the company. For a further 1250 a year, 60your consultantwill submit your annual accounts.Ingńd.does all her business via the Internet and email She has never been to her company's hcadcluarlersin Birmin8ham or met asher consultantface-to-face. Ltd companies have been growing in Germany since 2002 r,,r'hen the Eurcpean Court of Justice allowed the use of business legal 70forms between countries in the European Union. There are now more than 30,000German Ltds, these are mostly small retail or service companies like Ingrid's. One reason ń for this is that they ale not ńsky and the ov/ners'liabilit]' is only limited to the amount they invested. This means if the company runs into trouble and has dcbts, the owners aodon't lose everything. Ingrid is not worried about going out of business;she now employs four people and works more than 12 hours a day. But, if anything ashappened to her company,she could start a new one within 24 hours.

Discussion m wolk with a partner. You ale entrepreneursand you have decided to stań a business providing a sewice for young professionals who lead busy lives. Decide together where you think there is a big enough gap in the market and think about what busy people don't have time to do. Decide what kind of sewice you are going to provide, whele youl headquańers will be and how you will make sure that your business is a success. Present your ideas to the class.

?}.gusi'eŚg

71

:..

!"j

l. j.ltg ą;a i'J cŁi*.;ćfi"tI# j; Ł'.l

Discussion fl

With a partner,completethe quiz aboutcompanies.

Succesgf u I ceimp* n i "":r; : t 2 3 4

true

false it depends

have to make big profits. shareprofitswith their employees. continuouslyexpandand diversify. offer good quality productsto consumers.

5 take over other companies. 6

havethe biggestmarketshare.

7

look after the environment and don't pollute it. have missionstatements.

I

Reading and vocabulary Ę

Read and complete the company descriptions below using the words in the boxes.

1

capita: liability accountants share This is for betweentwo and 20 people,and very oftenit is a groupof docton or (1)_ who setup this typeof business.Each personhas an equal(2)_ in makingdecisions and in whateverprofitis made.The morepeopleyou have,the more (3)_ you can put into the business.Howeveqyou are legallyresponsiblefor the otherpeoplein the business. and you all haveunlimited(4)_. So if one of you makesa mistake,you all haveto pa1, for it. 2 investment agreement accounts shareholders This typeof companyis ownedby a smallgroupof individuals,the (5)_, who arevery oftenthe membersof one family.You can only sell your sharesif the ownersare in (6)-. You havelimitedliabilityso you only loseyow (7)_ if the companyruns into trouble.You havea lot of paperworkto do as you haveto publishyour (8)_ every year. 3 capital

fall

sharer

Meeting

shareholder

Anyone can buy (9) _ in this company. This is a good type of company if you need to raise (10) _ in order to to expand and diversifu.You have limited liabiliiy but you can still lose money ifthere is a (11) _ in the price ofyour shares. You have little control in the running of the company unless you are a major (12) _ or enough other shareholders vote the same as you at the Annual General (13)_ of shareholders.

debts

trading

profit

boss

This is the easiesttype of business to stań. You simply need a good idea and enough money to start (14) -. You can organize your work as you want because you are your own (15) you make a (16) _, and you keep it for yoursell On the other hand, you if -, have to work long hours and you have limited liability. That means if you run up (17) _ you alone have to pay for them.

?2

/ l)lB1usiIness

@@rrrtrr",

o.zvocatularv !

interactivo vocab\rlarypractice on the DvD-RoM

E Read the teńs again and wdte each company tlrpebelow at the top of the correct paragraph. Pańnership Sole txader Private limited company (Ltd) Public limited company (PLC)

Collocations l! In each set of four, match a verb on the left to a word on the right to form an exprrssion ftom the tods. 1 2 3 4

stań make invest setup

a) b) c) d)

money a company trading a profit

5 run up 6 publish /

DUy

8 raise

e) f) g) h)

capital shares accounB debts

Ę With a partner mark the sentencesare T (true)or F (false).You may need to read the texts above again. 1 A PLC is ur ikely to have a hierarchy.! 2 If you are a sole trader and you go bankrupt, you may have to sell your possessionsto pay your debts.E 5 If a sole trader becomesa pańnership you have more capital to invest in the company.! 4 lfyou go bankrupt, it is better to be in a Ltd company.E 5 In a pńvate limited company,shareholderscan buy or sell sharesas they wish. ! 6 It is easierfor a PLC to raise capital. E 7 You cannotlosemoneyif you buy sharesin a PLC. !

Discupsipn E A shareholder.(AE stockholder) is someonewho has sharesin a company.This is differentto a stakehoWet A stakeholderis anyone who is affectedby the successor failure of a company,for examplea supplier. With a partnel label the diagramwith all the differentstakeholdersyou can think of for a . pharmaceuticalc.ońrpany.

Gald vo]sandp8op|o łno livs noa?Inooll planl

Listening for gist El ! z.t t-z.ro Listen to six differcnt stakeholdersand identjĄ' who they are, using the words in tJrebox.

I

/l

5 6

Tbetusi!'eaa

r''1 l

Repońed 5pee.h r's) was 'The company is very

Testyourself: Reportedspeech

Shesaid that the companywas very successful,

ff[ CompIetethe sentencesfrom a companytour usin9repońed speech. 9a

does ) did i nternatio n aI company,' He saidthat he worked for an international company,

.r.1 'We made a prgfit of $100million lastyeaL.l ,..4 'We can increaseow marketsharebv 3 o/i

is doing ) was doing 'We are building a new

5 'We investa lot of moneyin R&D.' --. 6 'Theco mpanyw ill build a plantin I ndia.'

She said that they were buildinga new plant. did > had done 'l joined the aompany three yearsago.' He saidthat he had jolnedthe company threeyearsa90. will ) would 'l will stay for another year' He addedthat he would stayfor anotheryear ha' donć , had done 'The company ha\

1 2 3 4

5hementionedthat the companyhad expanded. should and shouldn't te(ommendations 'Be punctual!' Shesaidthat lshould be punctual. 'Don't interrupt me!' He saidthat I shouldn't interrupthim.

with

for

through

up

away

into

after

up

1 2 3 4

We shouldlook _ the environment,not polluteit. Could you put me _ to customercomplaint5? | can'tcope_ any more work. I need a holiday. |f you Wantto be an entrepreneuĘ you shou|dn,tgivewhen you have a prootem. 5 Organizationsoften run _ difficultie5when they try to expandtoo quickly. 6 | want to set _ my own company,and be my own boss. 7 l'm looking_ a new job. 8 ThecompanyWiIlgive10,000copies ofthe new softwareas Dań of its marketingcampaign.

He looked at the report. literalmeaning I am looking forward to meetingyou. non-literalmeaning

h' Grammar rcferen.e page 129

She explainedthat they She mentioned Shesaidthat they Shesaid

Usethewords be|owto make phrasa|verbstocomp|eteeachsentence'

Ę

Phrasalverbs Verb+ pańicIe (preposition or adverb)

We need to deal with the problem now non-separaDte

5 6 7 8

Testyourself : Phrasalverbs

i: Grómmar rc'ćrence page l28

The directors closed the companydown. The directors closed down the companyseparabte

S h e s ai d S h e s ai d 5he added that they She continued that they

E

Match the phrasalverbsabovewith a defjnition. to transfera call o) to deal with to take care of something d) to stop doing something

to give somethingwithout receivingmoney to found s) to stań to have prob|ems n) to try to find something

f)

FŃit

p'. t t , . ,

l'ter actj ve

g.ammar

p! actr ce

U.tO ..--.r O

on tbe 1 ]vD .RoM

Listening for gist searchfor th€ keywords China, businessand adylce.What other information can you find aboutdoing businessin China?

[l j z:lz Listento HelenWanggivingadviceaboutdoingbusinessin China. Put the topics thatshetalksabourin the correctorder. First meeting Names ! written contractsfJ ! Presents! Tall
Listening for detail

-

Read the following exlracts ftom Ms Wang's talk and rcport what she said.

ll

1 'Shake hands with the most senior pe$on first.' She said that you 2

'Use the family name, not the given name.'

she added that 3

'People donl talk business straight away.,

She stressedthat 4

'Sometimes people bdng a present.'

She commentedthat 5

'A good choice of present is an expensive cognac.,

She pointed out that 6, .Thć Chinese prefer

lace ttl lilce meetings.'

She explained that 7

'People don't like to say No'.

. S h e s a i d th a r 8

'Don't inrcrruptpeople in meetings.'

She stressedthat

Phrasal verbs Ę 1 2 5 4 5 6

vatch the beginning with the corect ending to mal
What do you do when you run What is it important to remember when you set 7 what do you ]ook 8 What kinds ofgifts do companiesgive

a) b) c) d)

up as soon as they mect a prcblem? tńrough to the wrong department? with stress at work / university? after you whęn you were a child?

e) awayin orderto attractnew customerc? f) up !/our own company? g) for when you are when meeting a potential business pańner? h) into problemsat work,/ univercity?

With a partner, talie it in turns to asli and answer the questions.

t.

'"

ii:iYji:*fii:illT



Discussion I leople ofteninterruptbecausetheyare not good listeners.Being a good listeneris very impońant in any communication.Do the quiz to find if you are a goodlistenel.The lesultsare on page110.Compareyour scorewith your pafiner.Do you agreewith the results?

,,'

.- . '. ,11 Yes

1 I never finish sentencesfor other people. 2 It'sno Droblemfor me to listento two conversationsat the same time. I focus my full attention on the other speaker. I often interrupt other people.

8 I sometimeslose the thread of the conversation. I like to do other things, like write emails,while people are speaking. '10 I reDeatback what the soeaker has said. 1 1 lf I don't understandwhat someone means, I ask for c arificatlon. 't2 Body language is very important in any communication.

!!

7 I usuallythink about what I want to say while the other person is speaking.

. , rri. ij: : ,.t- .

tr! !! !! D! !! !! !D D!

5 I n e v e r n o d , s m i l e o r f r o w n w hen lam talking. I like to ask questions.

76

!D !!

! tr

No

Ę Ę@

l"'. '"". i""

pr onunciatlon

pr actice

on , he D VD

n.orO".U,rn I

aU M

Listening for gist sear(h for the keywords communicationskills. What are Someother impońant points for being a good aommunicaior?

E & z'ra Listen to a meetingtakingplacein a companywhich producesradiosand televisions. Lisa Spinelli,lohn ForbesTom Lee and Mary Riley are meetingto decidewhetheror not to open a fitnesscentrefor employees.Decidewho is an expeftlistenet who is an averagelistenerand who is a terriblelistener Lisa JohnTomMarv

Listening for detail Listen to the meeting again and mark the statements7 (true) or F (false).

El 1 2 3 4 5 6

Ms Sanchez definitely wants a fitness centre. This is not the firsr time a fitnesscenlre has been discussed. The litnesscentreshould be outsidethe company. The company would need to hire more staff. J o h n t h i n k s a f i tn e s s c e n tr ew o uldbeco L,nr cr pr o J r .Ltir c. There js a high illnessrareonly among productionstaff.

tr ! ! ! ! !

E Listen to the meeting again and complete the table with phrases for dealing with interruptions. Rejectingan interruption 1 lf I couldjustfinish

Polite interruption

lmpolite interruption

May I interrupthere?

Let me speakfor myself

2 Sorryto interruptbut l'd

ą st^n

: rPreventingan interruption

Coming ba(k to a point As I was saying. 4 Could we get backto

I

Adding an opinioh 6 l've got something-

5 l'd like to make

-

beforeWe a|lstań taIking.

Handling interruptions E 1 2 3 4 5 6

Match a beginning with the correct ending. Please allow me to finish and That's a very interesting point, which Can I ask you to be brief, as That's not relevant to this discussion so You've said quite a lot and now I don't agree with your last point

a) b) c) d) e) 0

and I'd like the chance to explain why. time is running short? I'd like to come back to later. then you can maLe your comments. could we get back on trcck? I'd like the chance to have my say.

p Work in groups of three. Prepare a short talk for the other members of your group. Be preparedto answerany questionswhen they intenupt. Student A look at page 116. Student B look at page 114. Student C Iook at page 115.

,.l'9BuŚin€ s s

77

)

The organization Scan reading lI Readthe ańicle on the impońanceof agendasfor effectivemeetings.what information can you find on an agenda?

eoplehold meetingsin businessall the time,but not everymeetingis as effectiveas it could be. The basisof an effectivemeetingis an agenda.People don't always know what the meeting is aboutand an agendahelpsyou here.An agendatells you why you are havingthe meetingand givesit a clearstructure.It shouldbe circulatedbeforethe meetingso that everybody can plan and prepare.The agendashould state why the meetingis necessarywho will attend, when and whereit is, and whatwill be discussed. Each item on the agendais a task and should containa verbwhich tells the participantswhat will happen.For example: Item 2: New adveńising agency This doesn't tell us very much. It is more effective to wnre: Item 2t Tony to prcsent new advertisingagency and costs. . Teamto approuenew agencyand costs. Aier Apologieslor absezce,the agendashould start with routine items, such as Matters arising fromthe last meeting.DitEcult itemswhich need morediscussionshouldbe in the middle.Ideallv.

E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

the itemsshouldbe timed so thatthe meeting Iinisheson timewith results.The agendashould frnishwith eny olÓer business.Thesearerelevant issueswhich needto be discussedbut perhapsare too recentto be includedon the originalagenda. After the meeting,the minutes should be written and given to the pańicipants. Action minutes give a shoń sumn]aryof what was discussed,and who will do what at which time.

Read the ańicle again and mark the statementsT (true) or F (false)' The pańicipants get the agenda when they arrive at the meeting.! The agendatellsyou what ńe meetingis about.E You don't know who is attending the meeting when you look at the agenda.L-.1 The items on the agenda tell you what will happen in the meeting. ! The agenda should start with difficult items. ! You should make a writrenrecord of the meering.! Ąclion minutesdon\ te|lyou who is responsiblefor which task'!

Agenda Date:4 September Time:3.3opm Venue:Mainconference room

Searchfor the keywords effective rneetings to find out more about what you need to do to run śuccessful meetin9s'

78

/ ] . b ł r s l nc ss

1 MatteE ańsing Firat to present new quotations for building new canteen

2 3

Adńan to propose changes to staff ncwslettel

4

AOB

[email protected]*r"r

6.swririns o

interactive w tins practice aDd model business documeDts oD ttre DVD.RoM

Writing action minutes E ! z,lg Action minutesgivea shortsummaryof what was discussed,and who will do what at which time.Listento the meetingand fill in the actionminutesof the meeting.

Minutes of teammeeting Dete:4 September Time:3.30pm venue:Mainconfer€ n ceroom

Present: clistina, Firat,L€ n a and Adran Ab5ent Birgit Minute tak€ r : ]) -

!h9?

. When? 1'''' I ąl

Point 3 Chanqesto staff newsletter Point 4 AoB - christmaspańy

8)_

N e x t M e e tln g: l0) _ Venue: Ma n conterenceroom

Reporting t! Sentences1-8 reportwhat somebodysaid.Sentencesa)-h) arewhat the perconsaid.In each ' groupol four matchthe sentenceswith similarmeanings. 1 She disasreed with the idea. 2 She suggesteddiscussing the issue at the following meeting. 3 He recomfnended the Thompson proposal. 4 She promised to finish the report by 8ń of September She wondered ifthe chlistmas pańy could be held in the canteen. 6 She wamed that we had a problem with the atmospllcrcat work. 7 He pointed out how much work went into the company newsletter. 8 We approved the Thompson proposal. 5

a)'Let's discussthis issueat the nextmeeting.' b) 'I can have the report ready by 8thof September.' c) 'I believe the Thompson proposal is the better one', dl 'l'm not in favour of that idea.' e) ,The company newslettel needs a lot of

time and energy.' f) 'We all agree with the Thompson proposal.' g) 'The atmosphere at work is bad and getting woIse.' h) 'Would it be possible to hold the Christmas party in the new canteen?'

p Turnto page113and readthe full minutesfromthe meetingbetweenC stina Fimt, Lena and Adrian.

Writing Ę Work with a partnel. Look at the notes taken fuom the follow-up meeting with Filat, Lena and Adrian and wńte uo full minutes.

Agenda Dat€ : ] ] september Timer15.30 venue:Mainconfer€ n ceroom 1 MatteNańsing 2 Lena to prcsentreporton hot deskingand

makea proposal 3 Firatto presentschedulefor canteen buildingwork 4 Adńan to makeproposalfor quańerly newsletter Teamto approve 5 Lena to repoń on christrnaspańy

AÓt dLs1i''1frver"7 uupopltlar ' Słałł de-ot,va] uoł "d. rea!'!y leńssai"ł, ?rob!'ey*ca.,t b" salued b.'t sną!i., d.srłł.,, Sone exrLra cost iąvoIye\ ' ",.,yi,'u'. ?uł up '!ewpori.rx ] łar eaątee^ | Ńo'lenber ' ?rcbieą "ąt swą!! óisł aąct ła wa!{ l't" opeł,. Lleąr auł łitł ląus a.{ cay]e'p n L t' uovenbe,.tsułdnn ,ucĄ l ] -.' Ńwenber . cpe.n 'yLewcął.')eel Ls Ńóyewber . Quarter!"ł 'newsleł | er - pros - lass ł ifue Łał'sĄ'Afuta.+. Ąore !'ew"s to reporł so nore illł eresłiłl,y. tess xsf . Laąs - .ło] so up ło-dałe. Prapas^i'łl^^.łe|i..ł łlewsle] ł er' Iean apprwed 1 u'',s' New|'^^łee aPe^.'a^ z9 |'arcoae,' v l..llov' c,u|.e, ^ !' , , . e, { a v o bl enl o c c f u ' L 1 , ^:|| ł ^ Ś [ ^ t | v ' r re^]

i ; t . a lt s E r . r r

79

Discussion You anctyour panner want to startup yóur olt,nbusinessand you necclmoney tioln the i...:., bank. Thinl


    Listening for gist Listen to CristianaVatlalld,a busincssexperl,explainingwhat a businessplan is. l: : Add the itemswhich are neccssarytor a busincssplan. Questions Personal details

    Where is it? ls it a oartnershipor soletrader? Missionstatement What specifically will the companydo7 Productdescription Where and how will you makethe product?What equipmentdo yo u need? Staff

    HoW mu(h moneydo yo|.]need to stań up the business? What is your estimatedproflt and lossa(count?

    fffi

    (,.r.(,i..t,"tbj 3

    r ,r . tt . , i . te r a c ti v e p roblem - solvin s on t h e DVD RoM

    Listening for detail E Ę

    xk with a pańner. for the mission -(h lements of wella'^/ncompanies. lat do the statements I you about the hpanies?

    f1

    Listen to Cristiana again and complete the table with the questions about each item. Match the expressions from the listening with the couect definition.

    1 2 3 4 5

    cash flow forecast mission statement target group profit and loss account return on investment

    a) b) c) d) e)

    the people you want to sell your product to accounts which show income and expenditure estimate of how much money comes into the company from sales, and how much is spent the money you expect to get bacL on the amount you invested definition ofwhy company exists

    Reading p

    Read the business plans below and answer the questions.

    1 What do you think the main differences are between the two business plans? 2 Which company do you think is more likely to succeed? Why?

    r

    |4.d|'v1,.|4\ł/tTo Go Owner:TimO'Connor.Date of birth:2.04.82. B.A, BusinessAdministration,Diplomain Hotel and Catering.Fiveyears'experience workingas head waiter in five star hotel. Gourmetto Go. Soletrader.Companyofficesare locatedon MissouriBoulevard,LittleRock,Arkansas, closeto the businessoark. Missionstatement: gourmetdinnerpańy food, usingingredientsfrom aIl overthe We make high-clasś, world to suit our customers'demands.You sendyour orderto us and we deliverall of the food to your event. 4 Objectives: to caterfor an averageof 50 businessfunctionsa week at mid-morningand lunchtime, 5 Productdescription; Our USPis that we make customisedlunchesfor companiesand corporateevents. We usefreshingredientsflown in from all overthe world and so can caterfor any tastesor needs. Produdion:Largekitchenof oWner,sown houseequippedWith necessary Work5uńacesand cooking utensils. 7 staff:three pań-timemembe15 of staff.one fu||-time' 8 Finance:Start-upcapital- $50.000.Bank loan necessary - $ 100,000

    SOUP

    KIT C HE N

    o\yner: Nancy Macfadden.Date of bińh: 4.09.50. Full-time mother and grandmother Soup Ictchen. Sole trader.Company located in downtown Little Rock, close to the univercityand centralshopping area. Mission statement:we aim to make hcallhv souDs usingorganiconly ingredients at Iow cost.A||oł the produce is locally-producedtoo. objective:to sell an aveĘge of 100 pots of soup throughoutthe day,

    Product descdption:our USP is to make wholcsomesoupsusingonly seasonal,local produce in an environmentallyfriendly way.We also use bioclcgradablcpots so that no wasteis produced. 6 Production:share kitchen facilitiesof Queen Hotel in Arkansas. 7 Staff:one full-time. 8 Finance:stań up capital - $2'000.Bank loan necessary- $15,000

    Writing a business plan p Work in small groups. Brainstorm a business you would like to start in the food industry. Now write a business plan. Use the table in 2 to help you. When you have finished, present your business plan to the other groups who are all potential investors. Be prepared to answer any questions they may have.

    1/).'Business 81

    Review 5 Use the words in the box to complete these phrcses I from the ańicle on page 59. amounts attention bid earn goal target trend wea. word-of-mouth

    switch off

    1 be a growing 2 r e ce i v e a _ o n e B a y 4 5 6 't 8 9 10

    a lot of money branded spońs clothes a commercial an audience start a campaign fulfil (= reągl/6ghi.'.1 . spend large of money attrcct people's _

    Ę ri[ in the missinglettersin thesewordsrelatedto buyingand selling. 1 A salespersonwho knows a lot abouttheir productsis 2 3

    6 7 8 9 10 Ę

    very knowl __-able. A salesperson who you can trust is trustw____y. A salesperson who is good at making the customer believein the product is pers---iv€ . A salesperson who makes small talk is ch __y. A car which doesn't cost much money to run is econ____al. Prices that are as low as similar products made by rivals are comp_- ive. If you borrow money to buy a product, and then you pay it back over time with no extra charge, you have an int-_-_t-free l- n. If something is wońh the pdce' then it is good v_- e-r_ -money. If there is a reduction in the price ofa product, then therc is a dis____t on the product. An informal expression for .the curent pńce' of somethingis the'go___-r__e'.

    rill in the gaps with wolds from the box. incentive

    loyalty

    profile

    satisfaction

    retention

    1 If many customers are happy with the product, then there is a high level of customer _. 2 If a company wants to encourage a customer to buy something.they offer an 3 It is useful to have a detailed description ofa typical customer: the of the customer program is aimed at Ęing to keep 4 A customel existing custome$. 5 If the customer keeps buying the same product, they show to the brand. E Complete the dialogue using a comparative or superlative form of the adjective in brackets. Extra words like the/than/more/ less/most/ least will also be neededA: I need to do a round-tńp hom Frankfuń to Paris next week. I'm thinking of taking my car.

    82

    /lr.Busin€ s s

    B: surely the train would be '(comfońable) your car And maybe'ż_ (cheap) as well, when you think about the petrol. A: The cost doesn't matter - the company is paying. The main thing is time and convenience. I need to go by 3(fast)possible means o{ transport, and I have rc

    trcvelfrom one meetingto the nextin Paris. \łell then,why not fly? And use taxisfor moving aroundthe city? It will be much a_ (stressful) yout cal _ you won't haveto wor4i aboutfindingthe ńght addresses. (ditEcult)cities That'strue.Pańs is one of 5I know for dńving.I want to be relaxedand ableto concentratein the meetings. Okay,so the 6(good)optionmightbe to takethe TGV train the joumeytime is underfour hours- and then usetaxis locally.That would be ?_ (stressful option of all. A: Yes,that'snot a bad idea. E Completethis dialogueby writing questions.Look carefullyat the answel includingthe form ofthe verb. Where ' B: I live in Budapest. How long '?

    B: I've been there for over ten years. r-

    there?

    happy there?

    B: Yęs I am, but I'm going to move soon.

    Where a-' -.move to? B: I'm going to move to Vienna. And why s that decision? B: I made that decision because there's more work in Vienna. Are you srire} Whó u that? B: Mv fńend told me' He works there now.

    Itr Match the beginningto the end of the phraseto make expressionsusedin negotiating. 1 Okay.It'sa 2 That'sout ofthe 3I'dliketo 4 Can you go 5 I'd only pay that pńce on 6 If I understandyou 7 I can meetyou

    suggestsomething. conditionthat... deal. question. half way' alongwith that? conectly ...

    fl Now writethe phrasenumber1-7from exercise6 next to its usebelow. Making proposals! Making concessions ! Bargaining Asking for agreement! ! Accepting Clańfying ! D Rejecting ! E Make collocationsusedin negotiatingby matchingan item on the leftwith one on the right. I 2

    3 4 5 6

    tmde lead gross terms paymentwithin inclusiveof

    pnce of palrment discount VAT time 50 days

    lI Fill in the missing letters in thesewords. They all appearedin the ańicle on page71. 1 If an entrepreneurseesan opportunityto produce somethingthat is not yet available,then theyspot a g__ _ __ m,-_,,. An entrepreneurstartsa businessby investing thefuown capital:thisis thee___tyin thebusiness. Entrepreneurshater__ t___ documents,rules or processesthat causedelays. Money that you pay to a lawyer is called your l___l f__s. The part of a job that involves keeping records and w ting reportsis calledthe pap-___rk Every year a company has to show its trading results in rts ann___ acc_ __s. 7 Another word for the 'head office' of a company is its 'headqu_____s'. 8 The amount of money that the owner of a company might lose if it goes bankrupt is their lia___iry.

    1 Can you me to customer services, please? When the baby is bom I will stay at home for a year or so to -_it. You have so much work! How do you _ it _ all?

    Keep on trying!You can do it! Don t now! We sell a lot of goodsto othercompanies,but we sometimestroublewhen we don't get paid on time. justtwo years It'sa new company.She it ago but it's already making a profit. This instructionmanualis so comolicated.When I the information I need I can never lind

    6

    Ę Make collocations by matching an item on the left with an item on the ńght.

    1 set 2 make 3 put 4be 5 run 6 do alot 7 8 9 10 11 72

    buy raise lose vote be your own work

    a) b) c) d) e) f)

    in agreementaboutsomething of pąperwork up a business into trouble when things go wrong capitalinto a business adecision/amistake long hours

    h) sharesin a public company

    boss capitalin orderto expand k) ') at the AGM D money if the shareprice falls i\

    El Look at the actual words spoken, then write them using repońed speech. 1 "I am tired" She said that she _ 2 "We will open a factory in Poland next year" He explained that they

    3 "We have a subsidiary in China" She mentionedthatthey_ 4 "Thecompanyis doingverywell" '-Ęe said the company 5 "Arrive at the the meetinl meetinson time!" "Arrive at She said that I 6 'Don't agree to anything specific" He said that we

    !l Completeeachsentencewith one word fromthe left column and one fromthe ńsht. cope give give look look put set run

    after away for into through up up with

    it. 8 We have 1000 free samples to trade fair

    -

    at the

    p The phrases below can be used during a meeting. But the words in bold are in the wrong sentences.Put them back into the correct place. I If I could just finish what I was running. 2 I'd like to get back here. 3 Please like me to finish. 4 Could we come in to the first point? 5 Can I ask you to be track? 6 Time is saying shoń' 7 That's an interesting point which I'd allow to come 8

    E

    back to later. Can we getback on brief?

    Look back at the sentencesin exercise5. Find:

    1 One usedto interruptpolitely.! 2 Tlvo used to reiect an intemrption and continue

    speaking.! ! 3 One usedto block discussionof a point temporarily.! 4 One usedto retumto a previouspoint.! J One usedwhen tlrediscussionis not relevant.! 6 Two usedwhen thereis littletime remainingfor the meeting.! ! I Match the repońingverbsa-h with their meanings1-8 below. a b

    She disagreedwiih ... He suggestedthat ....

    c d

    she recommended ... He promised that ...

    e f

    She wondered if ... He wamed that ......

    c

    She pointed out that He approved ...

    I 2 3 4

    say that you will definitely do something ! have a different opinion to someone else ! offer an idea for other people to consider ! advise that something should happen !

    h

    5 6

    tell someonesome ringthey had not noticed! think about something because you want to know more facts, or are worried ! 7 give officialpermissionfor something! 8 tell people about a possible problem, so that they can avoid it D

    ri!? Bu6ittośs . 83

    7

    lX-*xm xl"*m"k :rrim,x.i,., 1,, Discussion !l You and your pańnel own a smal] company and need money for a project. what do you think are the pros and cons of borrowrng money ftom: 1 lamily and friends 2 your bank 3 a venture capital group?

    Listening and note-taking H ł z.zt-z.z: John and Guntel are.discussingdifferentwaysof raisinglalge amountsof money.Listen to the conversationand makenoies of the ao'łnt"g., ot eachway. "'jai,Jauu,-'tug", Advantages

    Disadvantages

    Bank loan

    Venturecapital Searchfor the keywords lnitia! Public Offering to find out moaeabout how and why companies go public.

    Shares

    Vocabulary f! You aregoingto readan articleaboutthe BertelsJann group.Beforeyou read,matcha word or phraseon the left with a definition. 1 to ęstablish 2 unlisted public company 5 requirement 4 consolidated financial reports

    something that is necessary or that a rule says you must do b) to start a company c) a statementshowing the assets,liabilities, income and elpensesLharthe par enlco mpanyand ir s subsidiarieshare d) Tnesnar eso t thls co mpanycanno tbę bo ughlo r sold on the stock exchangę

    5 considerable 6 stake 7 IPO 8 buyback

    buyin8 somethin€ from the personyou previous|y:old il to rne pan ot a bustnessyou or,rn becauseyou hare investedin ir the first time a company's shares are offered on the stocL exchange h) large in size fl

    Reading for gist n

    Read the article opposite about Beńe]smann'

    Find answers to the questions. 1 What kind of company is Befielsmann? 2 What kind of company is Groupe Bruxelles Lamberl?

    ,.',OO""rO*,.*, I

    THE BERTELSMANN GROUP is the world's largest media company. It operatesin 63 countries worldwide and employs over 78,000workers. s In 2005its turnovel was a]most€ 1 8 billion. It owns or has major holdings in companiesinvolvedin book and m a g a z i n ep ublishing,film and music recording, online servicesand other romultimedia activities. Bertelsmannwas establishedin Gritersloh, Germany in 1835by the printer and bookseller Carl Bertelsmann.In 1887the company rspassed from Carl Bertelsmann'sson Heinrich to his son-inJaw, Johannes Mohn. It has stayedin the handsof the Mohn family ever since. Bertelsmannbecamean AG (a zoGerman public limited company) in 1971,but insteadof offeringsharesto the public on the .t(itI L '.rlr.rngt', the Mohns decided to keep all the shares

    themselvesand to become an unlisted public company. Why? Normally the only reason for a company to form an AG is to 30raise caPital to finance ne\Ą'Plojects or ideas. However this also \a,eakensthe power of the original ou'ners because the shareholdersthen want the company to representtheir interests. 3sMoreover a company that is listed on the stock exchangealso has to meet a lot of other requirements,such as publishin8 its consolidalcd financial reports every threemonths. Meeting 40theserequirementscan cost a company several million euros a year On the other hand one considerable advantageof being an AG is that you can take over other companies without ł5it costing you a single cent' All you need to do is to offer the owners some of your sharesin return for some of theirs. This is exactly what Bertelsmanndid sorvhen they took over Groupe Bruxelles Lambert, a financial group, in 2001 They offered the otĄ'ner,Albert Frbre,a 25%stake in the BertelsmannAC with an option to sell those shareson the * stock exchangelater. In 2005,Fróre announced that he wanted to do just that. This left the Mohn family with only tlvo choices - they could either buy back soFróre,s share of Beltelsmann to keep everything in the family or let Fróre do an IPo (ll1itiąIPllblic Offerittg)and risk having outside shafeholders. The Mohns decided on the Lru\bnck ssoption. They offeredFIEre € 4 '5 billion for his share of BertelsmannAG and Frore accepted. As a result, the BertelsmannGroup is now € 4 '5 billion poorer and may rohave to sell its 50%stake in Sony BMG Music Entertainment,one of the world's largest and most successful music publishers, to finance the buyback.

    Beilelsmann is now .€ 4 .5 billionpoo]el

    Reading for detail El 1 2 I 4 5 6

    Work with a pańnel and malk these sentences T (true) or F (false) Beńelsmann was established in 1835 and stańed producing films and records' ! When the company went public in 1971,it did not offerits shareson the stock exchangeThe company is nor listed on any stock exchange.! It can cost a company millions of euros every year to meet a stock exchange! requirements.The only way to take over a successful company is to oller the owners a lor of mone5. The owners of Bertelsmann paid € 4 .5 billion to stop the company fuom being listed on the stock exchange.l-.1

    Discussion E! Work in small groups.Were the Mohns ńght to pay so much money to buy the shales back? Why? Why not?

    ,.'

    .!i.'ll]l!:

    ].

    85

    * ,,,.,,".u 1'''tl i:: * ;,* i..:i::; IXI*?3-&:; u.xir

    a *

    .'.:';ł -tq1 '1..jP

    *i"

    ins

    I

    '.y

    ,

    f.J:r

    * ltr{ drry' I

    L-

    Saying numbers S a b c m

    Can you say the following numbers? 5th 2/s ! 1 9 9 ,1 8 4

    d e f

    1in4 13-17 yearc 156,000,000m,

    g 0.08 h 6,000,000 days i 550L3

    i

    7.'77%

    Completę the sentences using the numbers in 1.

    1 Apploimately 67%' oI , of all stań-up companies fail Within the filst five yeals' 2 I n a y e a rth e c h a nceso fbeco mingavictimo fviluses'sp! Ąvar eo r phislr ir r gareab out The cost to business is estimated to be several billion dollars a year -. 3 The averageUI( household consumes about _ of tap water a year and can expect to receive a water bill of about € 4 40. That Wolks out at p pel litre. 4 According to research,strcssis rcsponsiblefor lost rrr r LtclJlintheUK 5 The avęIageprice of a house in the UI( is thatśup by over last year. 6 The new economic ciiy of Hail in Saudi Arabia will have an area of and housę some 80,000people. 7 The Republicans voted against increasing the minimum wage for the _ time in less 1 t h a n a m o n th. ' 8 The average lilespan of a car in the UI( has been estimated as between _ by the commission for IntegratedTlanspoń'

    Listening for detail m

    ;

    Listento fbur economicreportsand writethe numbersyou hearin the spaces.

    The Federal Resewe announced it would drop its key interestrate by (1)_ to (2)_. This is the second drop in interestrctes in the last six monthsD . u ( l ' r r: ( \i .\ g re wb y ( l ) _ in the thild quańeĘ compaled with (4) in the first six months. Employers reported(5)_ new lobs had been crcatedin July.

    Japaneseindustńal production increasedslightly by (9)and unemplotmentfell by (10) to 2,890,000last year The yen remains yen to the dollar Bank strongat (11)_ lending rose by 2.4% in the year to Ap l, the fasresrincreasein the last(12) _ years.

    Germany'sjob gloMh was strongelthan expęcted in March. LrnclrrDio-r lr]crtr fell by (6)_ to 4.370,000.Its trade sLf plus grew again in the lirst quańel to (7) up 0.4.l' ovel the prcvious quartet The German car industry repoftedthat a Iecord (8)v.hic]ĆsWeIeexpońed in the firct threemonths.

    last Jobs in the sewice industry rcse to (13)year while jobs in rnanufacturingfell by (14)-. The National StatisticalOffice repoted that the number ofjobs paid below the national minimum wage has increasedto approx. jobs, (15)-. It also rcpońed that (16)3.2% held by those aged (17)_ were paid below (18)an hour

    -l

    G6

    r . ' , ' t, u , i n t era ct ive voĆ a bu la ry pra c t ic e on t he DV D RoM

    Describing trends E Look at the newspaper headlines below describing trends and draw an arrow to show the direction of the trend.

    0il prices

    INFLATION INCREASES BY 5% IN LAST 12 MONTHS.

    Exchange rates between the dollar and pound fluctuate wildly.

    Shareprices in travel industry stagnant.

    Profits in the lT industry fall dramatically.

    UNEMPLOYMENT FIGURE UP SIGNIFICANTLY OVER LAST YEAR.

    Commercial TV slaltons announce a 20% decline in adveńising revenues

    Government announces massivetax increase.

    lntelannounces , Ministers warn slightdropin of huge rise in profit. nuclearwaste.

    shoot up.ł ' Gameboxsales up slightlyafter Nintendocuts prices. HOUSE PR!CES REMAIN STABLE.

    Discussion

    Searchfor the keywords current economic trends to tind out more about new developmentsin the world of business.

    G! Work with a partner Decidę which headline: a) is good nbws for young consumers b) means goods and services have become more expensive c) rneans there are fewer jobs d) means that pęople will have less rnoney to spend in rurure e) is bad news ilyou have invested in companies like Adobe or Dell f) will ailect the plastics industry and make their products more expensive.

    that the patienfs blood pressure?

    share price of the company he owns. He's feeling much better nowl

    Adverbs and adjectives El Read the extracts below lrom economic repońs. Do the underlined adverbs and adjectives in the extracts describe: a big change? (A) a small change? (B)

    a sudden or fast change? (C) a slow change? (D)

    You may need to use more than one letter.

    .1

    Trend

    2

    Unemploymentin cermany hasfallengLighllyoverthe past l2 months. The overallcostfor informationtechnologyshowsa gradualdecreaseeachyear

    3

    Therehas been a considerablerisein salesof smaller,more economicalcarsin the lastvear

    BandD

    The sharepricefell dramaticallvafter PGTannouncedit was planningto closeits factoryin China. The marketfor € o nsumer eIectronic5 designedfor ,oIder,peopIewilI grow steadiIvoverthe next years. few The companyhas grown raoidlyoverthe lastfive years.Profitsare expectedto be up 30% on lastyear The EuropeanCentralBank hassaid it is thinkingof increasingits key lendingratefractionallyin the au t u mn. 8

    Wagesand salariesin the IndianlT lndustryhave risenquicklvin the lastfew years

    Discussion El Look at the extracts above. Are the trends P (positive) or N (negative)?Think about rvho they are positive or negative for. r_

    2

    3_

    4_

    5_

    6_

    7_

    8

    Y&:m l:*' |''li.'':ł'll:l. li"li, ;l.l X!*ł'*ł u-m will and won't The Japanete economy will grow nextyear. ]t won't grow as quickly as tntsyeaf, predictions

    Testvourself:will and won't Completethe dialoguesbelow with /i (=will) or won't (=will not).

    E

    'l JGr

    > Grammar rcfe.en.. page 130

    be going to We're going to open a new branch in Moscow nextyear, pIanś or intentionsthingswe havealready de.idedto do

    Luigi: lG: Luigir

    > Grammar reference page 130

    Rightthen, Luigi,l'd like to know why you don't think we ('l)_ be a bleto sello ur piz z asin ltaly.ltho ught ltalianslikedpiz z as! Well,JG lthink the name'swrong.JG'sSpicyPizzacrandy isn'tltalian and I don't think the name (2)_ appealto ltalianconsumers. OK, so we changethe name.No probleml That'sa good idea,JG, but I think we (3)_ still havea problem. Italiansdon't seemto like cLrffvflavouroizzasl

    2

    AntoniorOK everyone,l'd like to hearyour thoughtson the idea of taking over R GB.Sheila. S h e i l a r H mm...lthink it'sa bit.lsky,A nto nio .lt (4)_ be cheap.lt co u ld cost us between€ 2 ,500.000 and € 3 ,200,000 to get a majoritystakein RGB.That'sa lot of money. Peten Yes,Sheila,but RGB is an establishedcompanyand if we can afford that, we (5)havea companythat has over 357,000customers, a turnoverof € 2 8,000,000 and a realIygood name' Tom| Yes,but We (6)a|sohaveto investabout another€ 8 00,000 in RGB.The manaqementhasn'tdone anythingfor the lastfive years

    3

    Manuel: So,Jean,you think sharesin the touristindustry(7) fall. lean: Yep,that'sright Manuel,unemploymentis up again and that meansa lot more people (8)be able to afford a holiday.Fuel pricesare up so f|ights(9)be more expensive'.' and theserepońs about more ier.oristattacks(10)_ help. M a n u e l rO K , so a lo to f peo ple(11)-w antto tr avel abr o ad,butw hat about our localtouristindustry?

    First.onditional lł you offer a discount (then)we will increase our otcler lf + presentsimple, (then)+ will likelyfutureevents > Grammar refer.nce page l3i

    Testyourself:be going to El

    We askedpeopleon the streetwhat they thought about thesetrends.What havethey decidedto do? Completethe sentencesbelow with the corredtorm ot be going to.

    Government to close 12 of the UK's 23 nuclear Power Plants

    Ghinatostart exporting cals to Europe

    ONE WORKER FOR THREE PENSIONERS BY 2075 1 Well, l'm worriedabout the effectthis will haveon jobs in Europe.A lot of my friendshavejobsthat are conneded with the car industry.| (1)_ buy a Chinesecar even if they are a lot cheaper. 2 lf fewer and fewer peoplewith jobs haveto pay for more and more pensioners, the governmentwill haveto increasetaxesor cut pensions.My wife and I (2) look into privatepensionschemes- | think that'sthe only thing we can do if we want to haveenough moneyto live on later. 3 lf eledricitypricesgo up, what (3)do? What can I do? Nothingmuchexceptbuy a few energysavinglights.l'm certainly(4)_ installsolaIpanels, they costtoo much.

    88

    Q @ r " ' tt' . '

    , . ta * --* f

    i"t era ct ive sra m m a r pra c t ic e oD t h e DV D-RoM

    : Firstconditional Testvourself searchfor the keywords what will happenlo read more about what peop|€ think th€ future will hold.Make a note of three ideasthat you think will happenand threethat you think won't happen.

    p

    watch the beginningon the left with the correctending on the right. lf you buy a dozen, Unlessyou drop your priceby at least5% 3 Theywon't offer us a biggerdiscount

    1 2

    4

    |t.||costanother€ 150,

    5 OK, we'll replacethe partsfor free. 6 lf you buy this car now 7 Wewill haveto lookforanother supplier, 8 Unlessyou are willing to offer them at least€ 5 million

    a) unlesswe increasethe sizeof the order. b) if you want us to print your logo on them. c) l'm afraidwe will haveto reconsideryour order. d) we,I|giveyou one pairfree. e) they won't be preparedto selltheir sharesto you. f) if you can'tdeliversoonerthan that. 9) if you bringthe car to us immediately. winter h) l'llthrow in air-conditioning, tyresand a cD p|ayer'

    Discussion t! 1 2 5 4 5 6

    Work with a partner. Look at the topics below and discuss your options. An old aunt of yours has died and left you a hxury vilJa in the Bahamas. You are both unemployed and want to set up a company together. You are'planning a four-week holiday to the USA. You have been asked to organize a one-day festival/eventfor teenagersin your area. You ale going to live on a deseń island fol thlee months. Decide what to take with you. You run an olganization which helps families who live in pool pańs ofthe world' You have a monthly budget of € 1 0,000 for a new project.

    Ę Work with a partnel. Read these extlacts flom IepońS and answel the questions below using the iirst conditional. i

    China's carmakers plan to increaseproduction by over 50070in the next ten years and have also announced that they will open new plants in Eastern Europe.

    I i

    What do you think will happen to: European carmakers? It more Chinese cars ąre produced... b) steelprices? CO, emissions? The British government has announced that it plans to close 12 of Britain's 23 nuclear power plants over the next ten years.UK power plants currently genetatea fifth of the counĘ/s electricity.

    What do you think will happento: UK electricityprices? b) the share pdce of altemative energy companies? manufacturing costs in the UK?

    Over 25%of the German population is older than 60 and this figure is expectedto grow significantly in the next 20-30 years. Some projectionsshow that by 2075there will be one worker for every three pensioners.

    I

    I I **f

    What do you think will happen to: wages and salaries in Germany?

    b) governmentspending?

    immigration to Germany?

    IrlBlsiness

    89

    j"}'i Yśa* *$$.Ł c-:lt-:il. mr."!*. ***gx will and won't The lapaneseeconomy will grow nextyear It won't grow as quickly a5 this yeat p.edictions > Grammar refEren.e page l30

    be going to We're going to open a new branch in Moscow next year. plansor intentionsthlngswe havealready decidedto do > Grammar rcferen.e page 130

    airit.onditional lf you offer a discount (then)we will Increase lf{ presentsimple, (then)+ will likely futuae events > Grammaf rcferen
    Testyourself:will and won't S

    Completethe dialoguesbelow with '//(=will) or won't (=will not). JGr Luigi: JGr Luigi:

    Rightthen, Luigi,l'd like to know why you don't think we (1)_ be able to sell our pizzasin ltaly.lthought ltaliansliked pizzas! Well, JG I think the name'swrong.JG! SpicyPizzaGrandyisn'tltalian and I don't think the name (2) appealto ltalianconsumers. OK, so we changethe name.No problem! That'sa good idea,JG, but lthink we (3)_ still havea problem. I talians do n't seemto like.u.r yflavo urpiz z asl

    Antonio:OK everyone,l'd Iiketo hearyour thoughtson the idea of taking over RGB.Sheila. Sheila: Hmm...I think it'sa bit risky,Antonio. lt (4)_ be cheap.lt could costu5 between€ 2 ,500,000 and € 3 .200,000 to get a majoritystakein RGB.That'sa lot of money. Peter: Yes,Sheila,but RGB is an establishedcompanyand if we can afford that,we (5) have a companythat has over 357.000customers,a turnoverof c28,000,000and a reallygood name. Tom: Yes,but We (6) a|sohaveto investabout another€ 8 00.000 in RGB.The managementhasn'tdone anythingfor the lastfive years Manuel: So,Jean,you think sharesin the touristindustry(7)_ fall. lean: Yep,that'sright Manuel,unemploymentis up again and that meansa lot more people(8)_ be able to afforda holiday.Fuel pricesare up so flights(9) be more expensive... and thesereportsabout more r e r J ;,. attacks(10)help. M a n u e l:OK , so a lo t o f peo ple(11) w antto tr avelabr o ad,butwhat about our localtouristindustry?

    Testyourself:be going to p! we askedpeopleon the streetwhat they thought about thesetrends.What havethey decidedto do? Completethe sentencesbelow with the correctfarmol be going to,

    Government to close 12 of the UK's 23 nuclear Power Plants

    China tostart j exporting cals i toEurope i

    oNE woRKER FoR THREE pENsroNERs nv zozs j 1 Well, l'm worriedabout the effectthis will haveon jobs in Europe.A lot of my friendshavejobsthat are connectedwith the car industry.I (1)_ buy a Chinesecar even if they are a |ot€ h eaper' 2 lf fewer and fewer peoplewith jobs haveto pay for more and more pensioners, the governmentwill haveto increasetaxesor cut pensions.My wife and I (2)_ look into privatepensionschemes- I think that'sthe only thing we can do if we want to have enough moneyto liveon later. 3 lf electricitypricesgo up, what (3)_ do? What can ldo? Nothingmuchexceptbuy a few energysavinglights.l'm certainly(4)_ installsolarpanels, they costtoo much.

    Ę@

    runr'.'

    gram'ar

    i"telactive

    t . t ". "- - . rO

    plactice on the DVD.RoM

    Testyourself: Firstconditional s€ a rch for the keywords what will happen to read more about what people think the future will hold. Make a note of three ideasthat you thinkwill happenand three that you think wont happen.

    p

    vatch the beginningon the l€ f t Withthe corre(tending on the right 1 lf you buy a dozen, 2 Unlessyou drop your priceby at least57o 3 Theywon't offer usa bigger discount 4

    lt.||costanother€ 1 50,

    5 OK, we'll replacethe partsfor free, 5 lf you buy this car now, 7 Wewill haveto lookforanother supp|ieĘ 8 Unlessyou are willingto offer them at |east€ 5 mi||ion

    a) unlesswe increasethe size of the order. b) if you want us to printyour logo on them. c) l'mafraidwewill haveto reconsideryour oroer. d) We,I|give you one pair free. e) they won't be preparedto selltheir sharesto you. f) if you can'tdeliversoonerthan that. g) if you bringthe car to u5 immediate|y' h) l'll throw in air-conditioning, winter tyresand a cD p|ayer.

    Discussion !l

    work with a pańner Look at the topics below and discuss your options.

    1 2 3 4 5 6

    An old aunt of yours has died and left you a luxury villa in the Bahamas. You are both unemployed and want to set up a company together. Yod are planning a four-week holiday to the USA. You have been asked to organize a one-day festival/event for teenagersin your area. You are going to live on a deseń island for three months. Decide what to take with you. You run an organization which helps families who live in poor parts olthe world. You have a monthly budget of € 1 0,000 fol a new ploiect'

    E work with a pańner Read these extracts from lepońs and answel the questions below using the first conditional. China's carmakersplan to increaseproduction by over 500%tr the next ten years and have also announced that they will open new plants in Eastem Europe.

    What do you think will happento: Europeancarmakers?It more Chinese cars are otoduced,., b) steelprices?CO, emissions?

    The British govemment has announced that it Plans to close 12 of Bńtain,s 23 nuclear power plants over the next ten years. UK power plants currently generate a fifth of the countn/s electricitv. .ą i -1 -* .r .#.r .ą -+

    What do you think will happento: a) UK electricitypńces? b) the share price of altemative energy companies? manu-factuńnscosts in the UK?

    Over 257oof the German population is older than 60 and this figure is expectedto grow si8nificantly in the next 20-30 years. Some projections show that by 2075 there will be one worker for everv three Densioners.

    What do you think will happento: a) wages and salaries in Germany? b) government spending?

    immigrationto Germany?

    /LrlBusiness

    89



    The stock markets Constrastive strcss E & 1a) b) 2a) b) 3a) b) 4a) b)

    z'zs Listen to the recording and underline the words that are stressed. don't think their tumoverwill fall. don't think their turnoverwill fall. told you to buy more sharesin UPS if theywent aboveUS$ 70. told you to buy more sharesin UPS if theywent aboveUS$ 70. The shareprice hasn'tgoneup much yet. The shareprice hasn'tgoneup much yet. I think profrtsin the telecom industry will fall this year. I think profits in the telecom industry will fall this year.

    Now listenagainand practisesayingthe sentences. E 1 2 3 4 p

    Which of the sentencesabovemeans: I don't think their tumoverwill fall. I know it will fall. I told you to buy moresharesin UPS if theywent aboveUS$ 70. Not sell them. The shareprice hasn'tgoneup much yet.But it soon will. I think prolits in the telecom indusĘ will fall this year.But you may not agreewith me. Read the sentencesbelow with the correct word stressed.

    Sorry,but I ordereda glassofred wine (notwhite wine). Sorry but I ordereda glassof red wine (nota whole bottle). Mańo doesn'twant to talk aboutthe problem,Pete (hewantsto discussthe solution). Mario doesn'twant to talk aboutthe problem,Pete (fuliais the personwho wantsto talk). 5a) don't think their turnoverwill fall (butmaybeour tumoverwill). b) don't think their tumover will fall (but their profits might fall) . 4a) didn,t ask you to finish the repoń by Friday (tóm asked you). b) didn,task you to finish the repoń by Friday(I askedyou to finish the accounts). $ z:zs Now listenand check. 1 a) b) 2 a) b)

    Listening for detai! E & z,:o Listen to a negotiationbetweenAntonio and Birgit as theynegotiateoverthe supplyof new pańs. Fill in the spaces: BĘit: oK, perhapswe should (1)to business.Well, (2)Antonio, our new CEO is wońed about our costs and he expectsme to (3) -, cheaperpńceswith all our suppliers. Antonio: cheaperpńces!But you,realreadygetting'.. B Yes,I know,Altonio, you'resellingus the pańs at cost and you,ll be givingthemaway (4)---yourp cesanymore. A Exactly,Birgit,wagesand salarieshavegoneup, energrpriceshavegoneup ... everything's goneup, but you expectus to drop our pńces.It (5)Birgit! No way! --, B OK, Antonio. Let's (6) _ to prices in a minute and look at some other _ possibilities. What are our terms of palment? Six weeks? A Erm, no, eight weeks. Eight weeks is a long time to wait to be paid, BiĘit. B Hmm ... well, if we shortenthe termsof paymentto, (7)_ four weeks,will _, that help? Hmm ... yes,maybea little,but ... B But not enoughfor you to drop your pńces.Right? Well ... B What aboutdeliverytimes?If (8)_ anotherweek or two, will that help? _ _ A of course it helps, BiĘit, but your production depańment always needsthe parts '.. the day beforeyesterday! B oK, Antonio, (9)this idea? If we agreeto pay you 5.5%morefor parts deliveredwithin sevendays,2% for pańs deliveredwithin 10 daysand 1% if theyare deliveredwithin 14 days,(10)_ to drop your pricesslightly? _ _ OK, maybewe can drop our price by 1%,but only if you pay within 14 daysin future. B 1.5%Antonioand I thinkwe (11)_ _ _. OK, Birgit,if it helpsmakeyour new CEO happier,(12)1.5%,then. B Oh, I'm sureour CEO will be delightedAntonio. Now, how aboutlunch? 90

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    pronunciation

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    practice on tbe DVD RoM

    Negotiating language ft 1 2 3 4

    In eachset of four matchthe sentenceson the leftwith the responseson the dght.

    Can we agreeon paymentwithin 50 days?-1 Let's comeback to price later \ \-Can you deliverwithin 14 working days? We'd like you to drop your price by 5%.

    a) I'm afraid we couldn't agreeto that. Our costs have increased by over 3% in the last year.

    61 Yes, OI(, but only if the price includes the shipping costs. c) I'm afraid that's not long enough. We need 28. d) Yes, that's a good idea. Perhaps we should look at delivery times next.

    5 So what kind of quantities are we talking about? 6 What about service and mairlenance costs? '7 If you pay late, we will charge another 2% for every 30 days. OK, I think we have a deal.

    f) h)

    They're covered by the guaranteefor the first two years. Good! It was great doing business with you. Hmm ... 1.5% and I think we have a deal.

    Well, the fint orderwould only be for 500 units,but if we'rehappywith the quality...

    Negotiation !t Work with a pańnel to negotiatethe following situation. student B tum to page 114. student A read below You would like to order some gifts with your companyśiogo on them for an impońant trade fair which will take place in 30 days'time.

    [email protected]@G Calculators

    € 5 .00

    400

    € 2 '000

    Cups

    € 4 '00

    500

    € 2 ,000

    Keyrings

    € 0 '50

    1,000

    € 5 00

    Teddybears

    € 0 .80

    1,000

    € 8 00 € 5 '30o

    l".ol

    Search {or the keywords successfu|hegotiatiot s to find out more about negotiating.Make a list of five tips to tememberwhen you are negotiating.

    . .

    I

    The catalogue says that discounts for orders of more than 500 items are negotiable, but it is !o! clear if that means 500 items of one Droduct. or the total order. The catalogue price would normally be € 5 ,500. You would like a 10% discount for this order' Delivery times are normally 28 days, but you need everything to be deliveled in the next 1Ł21 days. 14 days would be best. Payment is normally 10 days, you would like to pay within 28 days. The catalogue says shipping costs are € 1 50 fol orde6 over € 1 ,000' but you would like the order delivered free.

    Try to negotiate a deal that both you and the seller are happy with. You stań. Phone student B. lVhen you reach an agreement Student A tum to page 116, Student B tum to page 117. Work out how good your negotiation skills are.

    IrzBusinecs

    91

    The stock mark"E.;: ł-fu Discussion E Look at the line graphbelow What doesit show? what othel typesof g.aphsand chańs do vou l(now?

    N TECH ASA 1.20 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00

    JI

    Jan

    Feb t\itar

    .lrrl

    Arn

    Nov Dec

    Reading for detail p

    Read the description of the graph and mark the sentences T (true) or F (false).

    The Norwegian environmental technology company, N Tech ASA had a turt lcnl year last year. The share price stood at US$ 1.13 at the beginning of January, but fell significantly in the first five months and stood at US$ 0.63 in May. There was talk of a t,:kc,r er bid by one of N Tech AS.{s competito$, Patercon, at the end of February This proved to be false however and 5 many speculators lost interest in the company and sold their shares. At the beginning of June, CEO Fredrik Berg announced the closure of one of the factories and plans to lay off more than 1,500employees at its othe! plants. Investols saw this as a way of cutting costs and improving the productivity. As a result of this the share price rose to USS 0.89 in July. ro The rise was sh()rt lived. In August, N Tech announced it had lost a US9150 rnillion contract with the Depaltment for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and its share price plummeted to US$ 0.48.As a result more job cuts were announced in September and the share price rose sliShtly to us$ 0.56. In the last quarter the share price rose dramatically from US$ 0.70 to US$ 1.15.This was due rs to the announcement of a massive order for their methane gas-fired power stations from China and the resignatio of Frediik Berg who was replaced by top industrialist, Matilda Inge.

    The share price rose slightly at the end of February because of speculation that one of N Techścompetitorswanted to buy the company.! 2 When N Tech announcedjob cuts in lune. the share price fell.! 3 When the company lost the contract with the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs its share pńce shot up. ! Fredrik Berg's resignation had a positive effect on the company's share price. ! 92

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    Causes and effects E

    Maich the effects on the left with a cause on the dght.

    EFFECT 1

    Salesof soft drinksincreasedby 22% lastmonth

    2

    EU expoństo the UsA fe||s|ight|yIastmonth

    3 4

    Productionfell by 150,000unitsto 700,000in June c) becauseof shońagesin the supp|yof oi|' ,|0%in d) becauseof a heat wave. Heatingco5t5roseby the |astquańer

    5

    Housepriceswent up slightlylastmonth

    e) as a resultof increasingcompetitionand Internettelephony.

    Telecom'sprofitsfell by t8.4%lastyear

    0

    b)

    as a resultof the strongereuro. due to a strikeat the Toulouseplant.

    due to the fall in interestrates.

    E Complete these sentenceswith your own ideas. IJse because of, due to ot as a result of + a noun to explainthe cause. 1 2 3 4

    search for the keywords green technologylo find out how companies are makingprofitsfrom sellangenvironmentally friendlyproducts

    Sales of film camerashave fallen dramaticallysince the 1990s... The number of smoke$ in the EU has dropped by over 6% in the last 10 years... Sales of convenience foods and ready meals have been growing steadily... Share prices in the airline industry fell significantly last week. ..

    Describing figures Ę Work with a pańnel. You ale going to wfite two halves of a shoń leport describing the share . price 'of irV.B.Rexford over the last year This company manufactures outdoor clothing. Student A read below. Student B turn to page 114 wlite a lepoń describing January to ]une. Use the graph below Include a descliption of the trend (it feLlftom... to...,it fell by... ,o.,.) and a rcason for the trend (bad aeather, a strike, etc\.lnvent thesereasons: , When you finish' swap Iepońs with youl partnel and Iead about the other half Óf the year Discuss together what actions the management could have taken at key moments.

    : w'B, R E X FO R D PLC 160 124 100

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    ,/]IJ.Busin€ s s

    93

    The stock markets Discussion I In small groups,discussthe questionsaboutshares. 1 What are the advantagesand disadvantagesof investing in shares? 2 Are therc any types of company you would not want to have sharesin? 3 Would you preferto investmoneyin: a) sharesthat are risĘ . i'e. you could makeoI lose a lot of money? b) 'safer'sharesof large,well-knowncompanies(blue-chipcompanies)? c) bonds that guaranteefixed interestrates? d) a mixture of all of the above? lvhy/why not? Ę Work with a pańner.Look at the companiesbelow. Cancas Corp. - a CanadianGas Company Cyberchip Plc _ a Bńtish computer chiP manufacturer Zero EmissionCars - a Germanproducerof electricvehicles Feijóo PretosSA - a Bmzilian coffeeproducer GenezapInc.- a US biotechcompanywhich producesgenetically-modified seed Decide what kind of oppońunities and thrcats there are for these companies.Think about environmentalfactors, market stability and competitors. oppońunities Cancas Corp.

    ThreaG Gas suppleswill run out soon

    Cost of manufaduring has fallen.

    Cyberchip Plc Zero EmissionCars AG FeijEo Pretos SA Genezap Inc.

    Reading for detail E Read the information about the five companies and add any other oppońunities or tbreals they mention to the table above.

    Negotiating E shares in the frve companies are currently worth €1oo each' You have €5,ooo to spend on shares.Decidewith a partnerwhich companiesyou aregoingto investin. Company

    CanGasCorp. CyberchipPlc Zero EmissionCars Feijeo PretosSA Totalvalue:

    94

    ZrdBusiness

    No. o' 3ha|€s

    o. of ńajer afGr firrt repoń

    i|o. ol śh.Ę5 after ś€
    Now listento an ectlnonic rcPofl and decide whetheryou woulcl Jikc to swap any o| m ł the sharesyou havc ior othcr shares.'thlk to othcr pairs and try to exchangeshares. Searchfor the keywords trading basicsto learn moaeabout when to buy and sellshares.

    s! ś swaps.

    Listen to a sccond rcport ancldccidc whcthcr you would lil
    Now listen to an intcryicw with stocl(n,]arket analystSarah Jolrnsonancl|ind out ł t how much your sharcsarc wońh and why.

    isa medium'sized Canadian lt ownsseveral Oasproducer produces gasoutput. Canada andcurrently about 8%ofCanada's natural Oasfleldsinwestern qasfieldsWi|| someofth€ sma|ler rUnoUtWithin th€ nexttiveyears. butth8company has production gasfields. fromitslarger beeninvesting a lototmoney innewir!r rirrto increase plans Environmental areangry atCanoas' to startexploiting suchasGreenpeace, a Oroups, pipeIine newgasfieIdinA|beńa andsaythep|anned Wi|| havea negative effect' Theincrease in pushCancas'share priceupto$100inrecent months' oilandoaspric€ shashe|ped A fa|| in prices plans. rl !|t]i)it,andinvestment energy wouldseriously atfect CanGas'

    hastwo,fabs'' or .ll]jl.]:]l l].il]!.inth€|']Kand r€ c ent|y it hasdeveIoped chipsWhiCh announced a neWmethod ofmanufacturing WiIl production plant reduce costssignificantly. Developing another willpr0bably costCyberchip thatCyberchip severaI miIlion eUros andsomeiĘvestors areWorried doesn0thavethe financial resources. FabPro, hasalsoannounced oneol Cyberchip's competitors, thatitsnew plantinSeoulwillalso gointofullproduction ofitsnewchipshortly. l\4any computer chip manufacturers havemoved labour totheFarEastwhere costsaresionificantlv lower.

    prodUceS sma|| e|€ c tricVehicIes forcity production lt sold50,000 driving. unitslastyearandplans to increase by50%inthenexttwo years. Highfuelprices havehelped to increase thedemand l0rthese carsandnewrulesand requlations onemissions couldpushdemand evenhigher. Critics saythecaristooexpensive journeys. andthatthe80kmmaximum range makes thecarimpractical forlonger Zero Emission Carssaysit is developing a newmodel whichusesa newhigh-tech battery which couldincrease thecar'srange to 180-200 km.

    produces high-quality, organic coffee. ltssuppliers growers aremainly localcotfee inthesouthern stateofParanii, Brazil, butit is increasingly buying morecoftee fromthestates ofEspirito whichhashelped SantoandBahia to reduce theriskoffrosibecause theyarefurther n0rth. |Most ofthecotfee itexpońs is fortheNońh prices American markets, toexpand totheEU.Coffee havebeenfallino butitis hoping onthe world'smarkets, butFeiieoPretos'strategy ottarqeting thetopendofthecoffeemarket has Worked We|| andlastyearit reported a profit 0f42 mi||ion Brazi|ian Rea|(BRL). 0r€ 1 5m, up 20%ontheyearbefore.

    jeds€ € d , produces genetica||y-modif suchas rice,Wh€ a t,maize andpotato' |tsturnover hasincreased morethan250%inthelast {iveyearsanditsprofits have1l]|rle{] inthesameperiod' There ar€ Signs'howeve|', thatthe forgenetically-modified is nowhopinq demand seedis slowing intheUSAandGenerap t0 be ableto break intotheEuropean andAsianmarkets. 0pposition to genetically-moditied foodis growing, particularly in Europe andtheUSA.

    ł}

    Going global Discussion I Work with a partner.Discuss the questions about franchising. 1 What is a franchise?Can you defineit? 2 What typesof businessestend to be franchises? 5 How much control do you think the ownerof a franchisehas? Think aboutsalary uniJorm,equipmentand decoration.

    Scan reading E 1 2 5 4

    Readthe articleaboutthe Subwayfranchiseand answerthe questionsbelow. Who is Fred Del-uca? Approximately how much would you have to invest to open a Subway franchise? Wherewas the first Subwayfranchiseopened? How manycountrieshave Subwaysandwichshops?

    Reading for detail Readthe articleaboutfranchisingand mark the sentences7 (true)or F (false). Thereare more McDonald'srestaumntsin the USA than Subwaysandwichshops. A Hilton Hotel Corp franchiseis veryexpensivein comparisonto a Subwayfranchise. A personwho runs a franchisecan decidewhat their employeeswear. Fred Deluca's fint franchiseshopwas veryfar from his first shop. Subway'sfirst overseasfranchise was opened more than 20 years afterthe first shop was opened. 6 The franchisoris responsiblefor all tax and legalmattelswithin the counĘ the franchise is operatingin. 7 Franchisinghas had a positiveeffecton Fred Deluca's company. El 1 2 3 4 5

    Vocabulary

    Joina leadet

    ina high-growth industry Low no investment, experience needed. Findoutmoretoday! Beyourownboss t0m0rr0w.

    96

    1,"Buśines6

    In eachset of four,matcha word from the ańicle with the correctmeaning.

    l! 1 2 3 4

    rapidly phenomenal fumiture and fittings outlet

    a) b) c) d)

    5 6 7 8

    abroad consider subsidiary tumover

    mcomeor revenue a businesswhich is ownedby anothercompany in a foreign country h) think about

    a shop or storethat sellsgoodsto the public very quickly | , extraordinary equipmentor fixtures

    Discussion Ę With a partnerdiscussthe questions. 1 Do you think a ftanchiseeis reallyhis,/herown boss? Make a list of the typeof decisionsa franchiseecan and cannotmakethemselves. 2 If you had the choiceof buyinga cup of coffeeor a hamburgerfrom a no-namecompany or a well-knownfranchise,which would you choose?Why? 3 If you wantedto stań your own businesswould you think aboutbuyinga ftanchise?Why/ Why not? 4 Do you think thereany typesof businessesthat would not work as ftanchises?What are theyand why do you think theywouldn'twork?

    8.1Aboutbusiness o

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    FREDDELUCA. theCEOor Suowa!,,

    I

    knownand establishedbrandwithtr ed 35and tested productsor serviceswhich consumerscan identifywith.Theyknow whatto expectwhetherthey are in Beijing,Bombayor Boston. Franchising is a simp e, but effective 40wayof expandingrapidy, however, as FredDeluca discoveredit takes time and a greatdeal of hardworkto cslablishyourcompany'sname and reputalior.lt took FredDeluca nine i5 yearsbeforehe felt the time was right to open the f|rsŁfranch|seds-bwa} sandwichshop ... and it wasn'ton the otherside of the giolre,butjust a 40minutedrivefrom Fred'sfirstshop. lt sowasn't until1984, almost20 yearsafter goingintobusiness,that the firstSubway franchiseopenedabroad- and not in or Europeas you mlght Canada,l\4exico Hilton Hotels corp,rorexamp e' 1'ou do expect,but Bahrain. r. not haveto investa small 'orlure in 55 As Subwaysoon discovered, A subwav furniture andrittings shopcan frarchisingis an excellentbusiness cost Iess than € 1 00.000 to eouio modelif you are thinkingof goingglobal. A franchisordoes not needto worry what€xact|yis a franchise andhow aboutthe laws or taxes of the foreign doesit work? 60countriesit operatesin; it doesn'tneed ł20Once a companylike Subwayhas to re ocate staff to set up and run established itselr andcanshow thatits subsidiariesabroad;nor does it needto businessmodelworks.it can offer its offerlanguagetrainingor cross{ultural trademark ornametoothercompanies coursesto staff.The franchiseeis Theypay an initial or individuals. 65responsiblefor runningthe business rranchise reetousethename anda basiśand makingsure on a day'to.day '?5 it complieswiththe egislationof the countryit operatesin. fulfilthe franchisor'sCl* standards.for Subwaycurrentlyoperatesin more examole.ihe stores and outletshaveto 70than 86 countries... so if you havea good idea,such as howto make and 30be equippedand fittedjn a certainway or the staff may have to wear a special sell a submarinesandwich,perhapsyou uniform.But the riskfor the franchisee shouldconsiderfranchisingif youwant is mlnimized- they are buyinga we,r to go global.

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    in hundteds of COUnttleS, pethapS yOU ShOUId think

    abOUt Setting'Up a

    franchise business. ::111ff:ff[ffiJJ::S::::i:"J1"

    Theyknowwhatto expectwhether theyarein Beijing, Bombay or Boston

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    97

    Going global Discussion I With a partner,put thesestagesof researchinga franchiseinto the correctorder a) Shortlisttwo or threefranchisesand talk to someof the franchiseesrunnins these businesses.How havethesefranchisesdeveloped?Are the franchiseeshaply with the suppofttheir franchisorprovides?! b) Decide how much moneyyou can affordto investand how much moneyyou feelyou can borrowBe rcalistic![ c) When youare happythat you haveall the informationyou needto makea decision, _ completethe applicationform ofthe franchiseyou think is the most suitablefor you. ! d) what areyou good at? What do you enjoydoing? Identifuthe typeof businessyóu would like to operatein. ! e) co*tacl the franchisesoperatingin that businessand ask themto sendyou information abouttheir franchisingagreements. ! resca'ch.Do the franchisesyou haveshortlistedalreadvhaveoutletsin 0 Do somemarl
    Listening for gist E ł , ,'. Listen to Ma a coelho talkingto businessjoumalistDave Townleyabouthel experienceof runninga franchise.Answerthe questions. 1 What kind of businessdoesMaria run? 2 Whereis her business? 3 Is the businesssuccessful?

    Listening for detai! E

    Listen to Maria again and complete a sq1nmaryof her franchise. Maria retumed to Portugal and decided she wanted to be her (1) _ and _ (2) a teashop. Maria llew to the UI( four or five times to select the right (3) _. She paid a franchising (4) _ of f12,000. she took pań in a two-week (5) The franchiser's European agent was unhappy about the location of the (6) _ Maria had chosen. She spent another three months trying to find a more central outlet she could afford to (7) _. The bank agreed to (8) Maria cso,ooo and she (9) another € 5 o,o0o from the three Fs. Maria pcrsuadcd the franchisor to let her have the (10) _ and (11) _ made locallyTte business is now very successful;the (12) _ has increased bv 50% over the same period last year.

    98

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    E Search for the kelMords global advertiing
    In eachset of four below,matcha verb on the Ieftwith a noun on the ńght.

    1 run ,) fill in 3 raise 4 attract

    a) b) c) d)

    money customers a business the paperwork

    equipand fit 6 attend 7 sign 8 budgetfor

    e) f) g) h)

    a course an agreement an expense a shop

    E Now usethe collocationsin 4 to saywhat thesepeopleare doing.Use the presentcontinuous (is/arc+-ing\. 1 A : Do I have to write my tax number in this box or the name of the tax oflice? B: Erm, I'm not sure.Whereis that list of instructionstheysent?

    Sheis 2 4.. We can't put the drinks machine there becauseit'll block the frre escape. B: Yes, that's true, but we can't put it over there either,unless we move the display. They 3A: I think we'll needto spendabout€ 1 ,000 a monthon adveńising. B: oK, so I'll put € 1 2,000 down fol that' Thev 4 Ai. What aboutofferingfreecoffeefor ordersover$5.00? B: No, I think we should offersomethingthat will appealto kids. Thev 5 A: It is very in-formativeand I am leaming a lot about customer care and the importance of corporateidentity. |1E

    6A: So the bank will only giveus f,25,000. B: Yes,but maybemy gra.ndfather will lend us the rest.

    He

    p Below arewordsthat are oftenusedwith the verbsdo, make andtake. Put theminto the corect column in the table. a profit a phone(all homework business marketresearch a decision somebodya favour a break a chance an arrangement a risk overtime a recommendation an excus€ an exam seriouswork make

    do

    tak€

    Discussion Use the verbsd o, make and take to lill in the questions. When was the last time you _ an excuse? Have you a chance recently? you a favour? lvhen was the last time somebody_ your homework? Do you usuallyDo you ever foĘet about arrangementsyou've -? Which companiesdo you think arethe biggestprofitsat the moment? Now take it in tums to ask your partnerthe questions.

    E I 2 3 4 5 6

    T.reBusiness

    99

    {}*rngglobal -

    ' -btutur 4\: :!

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    They opened their first shop in 2003.

    Testyourself:Presentperfectwith for and since

    completedactions lb Gramma. refer€ n (e page ]24

    n

    Presentprefed He has worked at most of the major banksin

    completethe dialoguebetweenRuth and Paolo by puttingfor or snce into the spaces. R: 5o. Paulo,you're a salesmanagerat BD International. aren'tyou? P: Yes,that'sright.l'm responsiblefor internationalsales.l've been with BD lnternational(1)_ I left universityin 1990. R: How long haveyou been in London? P: l've been here (2)almostten years.I worked in our Madrid office before that. R: I guessyou haveto do a lot of travelling. P: ohyes, l've had to fly to Paris,New York and shanghai(3)_ the beginning of the month. R : S h a n g hai? P: Yes,W€ have had a subsidiaryin shanghai(4)2001.I usua||yhaveto f|y theretwo or threetimesa year. R: That soundslike hard work! Can you speakany Chinese? P: A little.but mostof my colleaguesthere speakEnglishquitewell. Actually,l'm tryingto learnRussianat the moment. R: Russian? P: Yes,we've had an office in Petersburg(5)more than ten years. R; ls your Russiangood? P: lt's not bad, but I haven't had any lessons(6)the last two months. R: Languagemust bea big problemforan internationalcompany. P: Yes,languageand inter-cultural we traininghave been key issuesfor us (7)ndin9sthere' Iosta VeryimpońantContradin Dubaiin 1999becauseof mi5understa

    havelhas+ past pańicipIe actionsthat started in the pastand continue Intothe Present Peter Brozek ńa5 run the businessfor ten years. lor + lengthof time for ten yeart for hall We have sold more than 160,000copies of the DVD since2007. since+ time the action started since2007, since 1'l March, sinceI left coue9e Gńmmar r4f€ r eń(e page l32

    Testyourself:Pastsimpleand presentperfect Ę

    Readan interviewabout siemen5,recent historybetweenPeterDavis,a bu5ine55 journalist,and ChrisFrank,a businessanalyst.Uildellinethe correcttense. Peter (1)Have there been / Were there a lot of changesat Siemenssince1970? Chrls Yes, of course,Peter,but most of them (2) happened / have happened under KlausKleinfeldwho the leadershipof Heinrichvon Piererand his successor (3)resigned/ has resignedas cEo of siemensin 2007. Peter What 5oń of changes (4) did they make / have they made? chris We||,they (5)have moved/ moved siemensout of ceńain businessareassuch as defencesystemsand mobile phones.They (6)sold / have sold the defence businessin 1997and BenQ (7)bought/ has bought Siemens'mobilephone subsidiaryin 2005. Peter (8) Has Siemens moved / Did Siemens move into any new areas? Chris Yes, of course,Since 2000 they (9)took over / have taken over 20 new companiesin areasranglngfrom wind powerto industrialautomation, Peter Siemensis sometimescalleda sleepinggiant.Do you think that is stilltrue? Chris (10)That was / has been true in the past,but not any more,Peter.There (11)was / has been some radicalrestructuring in the lastfew years. Peter And, do you think that will continue? Chris Yes.l'm sure that subsidiariesand divisionswhich (12)were / have been performingbadlywill be sold off and Siemenswill buy into other companies with high growth potential.

    ll

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    F u l th e! in t era ct ive sra m m a r pra c t ic e on the DV D-ROM

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    Asking questions H searchfor the keywords companyhistoryto find out more about a companyyou are interestedin. Tellyour partnerwhat you find. ur I

    Ilse how long + the present pedect to make questions. Question

    Answer He'sbeen the Europeanagentfor the franchisesince2005. We've had outletsin Asia for over 15 years.

    -ra:r frasr*rF3

    Sue'sknown the CEO of the American divisionfor about five years. They'vebeen in the oil businesssince 1497. We've had an agreementwith thernfor ten years. l've seenthis problemwith the Europeanmarketcomingfor sometime.

    Describing companaes E Read the facts about global companies and use the present perfect (haae/lns done) or past simple ldid; of the verbsin brackets. (open)its fi$t foreignoutlet in Richmond, Canada in 1967.It now has 1 McDqnald's outletsin 120 count es. (be)the world's largestbanl
    Asking for information Ę SiemensAG is one of the world's biggesttechnologyconglomelates'It has subsidiariesin 190 countriesand employsalmost half a million peopleworldwide. Work in pairs. Ask youl pańnel questions to complete the filst 120 years of the company's history' Student A: use the information below. StudentB: tum to page 115. (When?) Wernervon Siemensestablishedthe Siemensand HalskeConstructionCompanyin Berlinin _. The companyconstructedthe Indo-European telegraphline betweenLondonand Calcuttain 1870. Siemenspresented_ at the BerlinTradeFajrin 1879.(What?) l nl 9l 9Si e m e n s f o rm e d a j o i n t v e n tu r ew ithtw o o ther manufactur er so flightbulbs.Thelo lntver ,tL rr.: companywas calledosram. The companyinstalledthe first automatictrafficlightsin _ in 1924.(Where?) Siemensstartedproducingthe electronmicroscopein 1939. Reconstruction of the companybegan,Over 80% of the company'sassetswere destroyedin WWll. Siemensdevelopeda methodto produceand enteredthe data processingindustryin 1953.(What., In 1964constructionof the worldt largestsatellitecommunications stationin Bavaria,Germanybegan. (When?) Siemensbecamea Germanpubliclimitedcompany;SiemensAG in _. Siemensset up the companyto producehouseholdappliancesin 1967.(Which?)

    Going global Discussion lI

    wolk wiih a pańner. Read the quiz about airpońs and decide what the conect answel is'

    Listening for detail El & z::s Listen to the filst pań of a presentation by Ingo Alspach, the pless officel at Munich airpoń. complete the sentencesbelow with the information you hear' I The decision ro build the new airpon was made in _. 2 The conslructionwork began in _ 5 The airpoń was officially opened in -' 4 lt has been voted the -Best Airpon in Europe' for -. 5 Last year there were 30.8 million and more than 400,000 -

    6 The numberof passengers has increasedby -

    and landings.

    and the numberof flightsby

    7 5% of the passengersfly class and 95% fly -. puĘoses and 487" fol 8 52% of the passengerssay they are flying for -

    (

    102 7ł.'BusiĘ.ss

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    s€ar(h for the keywordś HeattuowAirport to tind out moreabout oneof the world'! busiestinternational alrports.

    pronunciation Practic€

    on the DVD RoM

    s.aspeakine O

    p $ z,;o Now Iistento the questionand answer(Q&A) sessionat the end of the presentation and match the information on the left with the numbers and fisures on the rieht. peoplewoTkat the aiĘoń. a) 2003 I over b) 250 A second terminal was oDened in 27,400 3 A new runwayis plannedfor rooms. d) 20n 4 The hotel will have5,000 The hotelwill be readyin f) 2009 new jobs havebeencreated. 6 In the last two and a half yearsguests. 2.70 7 Night-Flight,the disco,is big enoughfor h) 4,000 8 Half a litre of beer at the Ailbreu brewerycosts €-.

    Handling questions E Put the pressofficer'sanswe$ to the questionsinto the correctorder. 1 You said that over27,400peoplework at the airport.What do theyall do? ) a good That's very question. 2 What havebeenthe most importantdevelopmentsat the airportsinceit opened? ) OK, glad askedI'm me you that. 3 Do you think the new runwaythat'splannedfor 2011is reallynecessary? ) it isn't say peopleSomethat,but... 4 Are you planningan!,thingelse? ) Yes,of course.I my mentionedAs in talk... 5 Have a lot ofjobs beenlost since September11,2001? . ),,Nq, the on contrary... 6 What has the aiĘort done to tightensecuńtyand makefllng salerfor passengers? t I'm afraidcan't I the detailsgo into here. Listento the Q&A sessionagainand checkyour answers. Ę l 2 3 4

    enswer ihć'.questions aboutthe phrasesfor handlingquestions. phrase you use when you don,t v-ant to say any mor€ about something? Which can Which two phrasescan you useto introducea negativeanswer? Which two phrasescan you useto introducea positiveanswer? Which phrasecan you use to referback to somethingthatyou talkedaboutearlier?

    Speaking @ Work in pairs. Prepar€ to talk for two minutes about your studies,qualifications and work expeńence.Preparea list of questionsto ask your pańner'when you aretalkingusethe phrasesin exercise4 to deal with the questions. B: What did you study? A: I graduatedfrom universityin 2005. A: That'sa verygood question,my main...

    Roleplay I At the momentyour local airpoń only offersdomesticflights,but it plansto expandand becomean intelnationalairpoń. Your local newspaperhas repońedthat: . the number of flights could increaseby 30 a day to over 300 a day within the next five years. . a new railway line and motorway from the nearestcity will have to be built. . two international hotels and a conferencecentre are planned. . a24/7 shoppingcentreis planned. . the runwaywill be extendedand a small forestwill haveto be cut down. . the groundwaterin the areawill haveto be loweredbecauseof the problemof fog in spring and autumn. . a new town may have to be built foTall the extra emPloyeesthe airpoń will employ. Ę Work in groupsof three.studentA tum to page114,B tum to page1l'3,studentc turn to page116

    7/rr'Bualness

    103

    Going global Discussion I Work with a partner.Have you ever had to write a report or make a written statement? what was it about?What kind of informationor factsdid vou includei

    Reading and analysis Find answelsto the questions. E Readtheseeltractsfuoma repoń of recommendation. 1 what Iocationsdoesthe repoń cover? 2 How many selectioncriteriawereused? 3 which locationdoesthe lepoń lecommend? Thi5first pań of this reportIooksat the advantagesand disadvantages of reIocating production to variouslocations in Poland, the CzechRepublic, HungaryBulgaria and Romania. The secondoart of the reoort looksat.... The seledion criteria we used to comoare the different locationswere: . localsalaries . availabilityof skilledstaff . land oricevrents . localinfrastructure . availability of local suppliers . transDortationcosts ... land pricesand rents are likely to rise and this could result in demands for higher wages and salaries.However,we forecastthat these costsare likely to increasefar more quickly in locations in the countries borderinq Austria and Germany. The main disadvantagesof setting up a production faci|ity in Rońania are the higher transpońation coststo the western European markets.We Wou|da|so be a|mosttota||y dependent on one local supplier for the electronic componFntswe need. These could be shipped from suppliersin Germany,Austria or the Czech Republic if there were a major disruption at th€ supp|ier,sfactory. The biggest advantagesof the Romanian sites are clearly the cost savingsfor skilled staff and the local authorities' offers of a free 99 vear leasefor the sites. ...the costof movingproductionto Romaniacould be coveredby sellingthe UK and Frenchfa(tories. We sugg€ s t locating the p|ant in either Bucharestor constanta ...

    p the pointsbelow aretypicalof a reportof recommendation. Which orderwould you exDectthemto be in? list which pointsweretakeninto account ! identifypossiblefuturerisks ! outlinethe structureof the repoń LJ identifuthe pros and cons ! makea recommendation

    tr

    Now readthe extractsagain.Does their orderon the pagematchyour order? p

    4

    tttatchthe phraseson the leftwith thoseon the rightwith a similarmeaning. Thislirstpan ofthe reponlooksat... a) Factors used to select were... The selectioncriteriawe usedwere... b) We predict that... ... arelikelyto ( se / fall)andthis The initial part of the repoń examines... couldresultin.... d) ... could (increase / decrease)and We forecastthat.... this may lead to...

    5 6 7 8

    The main disadvantages are... The issueswe looked at were... The biggestadvantages... We suggest...

    1 2 3

    104 Z,9Busineśs

    The most significant bene{its...

    0 The questions we examined were... c) We recommend... h) The biggest drawbacks are...

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    Listening for detail 3l & z,rz Listen to Ajit Singh,a telocationconsultant,talLingaboutthe problemsof building an electricmotorsfactoryin the locationDavid Green has visited Make somenotesaboutthe positiveor negativepointsyou hear.

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    Writing Searchfor the keywords repoń + (a subjectyou are interestedin) to find some reportstnat have been written about it.

    ll Work with a partnel and use the infolmation in the table above to wdte a shoń repoń to David Green's boss about the pros and cons of building the plant at this location and make a recommendation.

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    Discussion I

    work in small groups' Would you likę to set up and run your own business? why/why not?

    E Read the statementsbelow and decide whetherthey woutd rnostlikely be said by the owner of a.smallbusiness,an ęmployeeoI both. write o (owner).E (empioyee)o. ri 1bott'1 next to each. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

    I haven'thad a holiday for almost two years.! I've hadto do a lot of lrcr.linrc sincethe beginningof the month. ! We had to close the company for ten days last May becauseI was ill. ! Being a good listeneris very impońant.! There'sno point in having good ideas,thęy just get ignored.! If I didn't iake risks, nothingwould ever change.! l o f te nh a v et g 1 x kęw ..ę ho me w ith me' ! I didn't get a Christmasbonr , last vear.D

    Reading for detail ft Read what franchiseeshad to say about their lranchisesand completethe tabreopposite with the informationthat is missing.

    LewisandIsetUpa Finn|eyS |ranchis€in]V]a]aga spaintwoyearsaqo'WeWork |rom n0me. s0the0n|ycostsWehadWere forequippinq tireolfiC€'W€ probably paldiessthan !7'000 |oItł]e PcS,phones faxandfurn tUr€ ' LeW]s d0€ sa|lthepaperwork andIorganize thestaff' W€ have a dofen caleW0rkers anda]most2oo c|]e|ts' A ol0leloeny oeo0lp loS0dir atUlreyd0rIr0rnd y tave tari,yorlrien0s to sUpport th€ m s0there isa bigdemand f0I|,]om€ care h€ | e' lfyouefjoyworking wiihpeople, h0me careisa qrealbusin"ss opp0rtunity andavery 'ewardirg 0b.

    WhenSaliyandIlettcolegewedecided wewanted tow0rktoqether andrunourown 0 rsirpss. We0oked ;110 I'afclses.bJlmos-olthem seve.a. we,e looexpens ve,or us. 0uroutlet hasd0nerea|yWe]|' WeWere IUckyi Wefound ashopnearthóunivers]tV' so nea'ly all0u,cisloners d'estJdenls Findlng thetighl location iskeylnthisbusiness. Several oltheToasties lranchisees we knowhavehaddillculiiesbecause lheyopened 0u etsinlocations where lherewerealready a lot0ffastloodrestaurants andcales. Thefastfoodrnalket isVerycompetitive s0ify0Udon'tfindth€ lightlocation' yo|'] W0n't sUTV|V€ l0r0ng'

    Laura andIlovewhat\/ve ared0lng.Webothcareabout thBenvironmenl andlee that whatwearedoinO ls helping thep anet.Lotsol people buyclothes withoLt thinkino about vvhere lheproolcls co're'rom anolreaiTt0prov deplte cloltes tfalare radeina completely nalural y way. andenvironmentally friend Thebusiness qUick|y hasorown sinceWestarled andW€ nowhaveOver 2ooCus|0mers whoregularly order clOlhes 1r0m us.lvlost olthem areintheir lalelwenties orthr|es. lvloslfranchlses openi/'rsmalltowns, away fromtheblgshopping centres, butweaiso prodUcls de]iver top€ 0 plesh0mes' Thec othing mark€can t bedifficu|t t0break nto because lots0lbiochains arealready wellestablished s0if youdon't finda gapinihe yoJ',\,011 Tarkel. suviveto otq

    +

    @au'tr'..

    i"t6ńctiv6

    problem'solving

    a.scasestudv

    on the DVD.RoM

    Toasties

    Name of franchiś€ Established

    I

    Classic Cotton Clothes

    convenience food

    Businessarea

    f18,000

    Franchisefee No. of franchises

    Disabledand/orolder People

    Typicalcuśtomers Growth ootential

    Listening for detail

    for the keywordl Sear
    aboutthe differentfranchisesand add any $ z.:a.z.łoListento threepresentations t above' the table you hear to information

    Discussion

    why' with a partner,decide which foanchiseabove you would like to run and you chosein^5Look at the questionsbelow and E Imaginethat you are runningthe franchise ilin tt'ó t.ut" uuout the opportunities and threatsthat you face.

    E

    oppońunities: to run this business? I What are your strengrnsano why do you think theywould helpJou politics, technolosl, (changes in grów your business tretp witt ir'" t'"ndsitrat i. wii.i etc.) ? -" lifestyles,PoPulation, T'hreats: 1 Is there a lot of competition in this market? (in póIitics,technology,lifestyles,Population,etc.)could havea negativeeffect ż wt,at . "t.aog.. buśiness? on vour 3 Could vou haveproblemsfrnancingthe business? io you havethaicould havenegativeeffecs on your business? ; ńh;GJń.;e.s

    Presenting

    ftanchise you have chosen and what E With a partner,preparea shoń presentationabout the you' to the opportunitiesand thrcatsare.Use the Promptsbelow nelp StudentA 1 Thank the audiencefor coming 2 Say who you and Your Partner are s Teil the audiencewhal the topic ofyour Presentationis how long the presentationwill take and how it is structured. ł iuiiiii" "'Ji"""e 5 Presentthe opportunities you think your franchise offers' 6 Hand over to Your Partner' Student B 1 Thank vour pańner 2 Presenithethreatsyou think this franchisehas' 3 Sum up the keY Points. 4 Thank your audiencefor listening. 5 Ask if there are any questrons. 6 Answer any questionsyou are asked'

    7"he$\si,ńesa

    Review 7 ll Complete each sentence with a pair of items from the box. The items may not be in the same order venture capital/bankloan go public/makean IPO share/stake turnover/expenses assetvliabilitie5 l

    The pań of a businessthat you own is your in the company. The word is also used more generally to mean 'the degreeto which you are involved in something,. one pań of the ownership of a business, which can be bought and sold, is a _. A small company can obtain funding from two sources: a -, which it has to pay back, or -, which means giving a large part of the shares to outside investors in exchange for their money. one type of company repoń is a Balance sheet. Here, the are everything that a company owns, and the

    are all its debts.

    4

    5

    Anothel type of company Iepoń is an Income Statement (= Profit and Loss Account). (= income) appears at the top, and the Here, the (= costs) are taken away to give the profit. The phrases and have the same meaning. Another synonlrm, in the ńght context, is .list' used as a verb.

    Ę wńte these numbers as words, exactly as you would say them:

    1 2/3 2 1q q 1 R4 3 200,000m'Ż 4 o.52"/"

    1 2 3 4 5 6

    by a very very smallamount! a little! alot! suddenlyand surprisingly! slowlyand in small stagesD slowlyand at thesameconstanrspeed!

    E 1 2 3 4

    Match the questionsto the answers. Have you seenthis article?! Do you know what day it is neń Fliday? ! The plinter cańridgeneedschanging.! What do theyintendto do? !

    ) Yes,I do. It'll be the 10'hanniversaryofthe stock marketcrash. b) ) OlGy. I'll do it. ) They'regoingto sell all their shares, d) ) Yes,it saysthat the stockmarketis probablygoingto ńse this year Ę Look back at the use of zlll and going to in the answers in exercise 5. Write the correct letter a-d below. zill used for a spontaneous decision made at the moment of speaking _ Boing to lsed tot a decision made before the moment of speaking (i.e. it is a plan) _ 3 zlll used for a fact in the future _ 4 goizg lo used'fór a prediction in the futurc with evidencein the presenrsituarion_ E Complete the sentenceswith the conect form of the verb in brackets. All the sentences are first conditionals.

    ' '(goup) by morethan 10%,all If the shareprice (get)a bonus. the seniormanagers_ (not/goup) unlessthey_ Their profrts_ (cut)costsdramatically.

    p Complete each sentence with a pair of items from the box. The items may not be in the same order. decline/bestagnant shoot up/drop f luctuate/remainstable The words _ and _ as 'increase' and 'decrease'.

    2 If proiits_, 3 4

    fall/rise

    have the same meanins

    by the guarantee drop your price kind of quantities we couldn't acceptthat

    theyincreasequickly.If profits

    they decrcase quickly. To _ means'to go down'. To _ means'to not grow or develop'. If sales -, they don't go up and down very much. If sales _, they go up and down a lot.

    !t Match the adverbs in sentencesa-f with their best definitions below. a) b) c) d) e) f)

    ft Completethe sentencesusedin negotiatingwith the bestwordsand phrasesin the box.

    Sales rose considerably. Sales rose dramatically. Sales rose fractionally. Sales rose gradually. Sales rose slightly. Sales rose steadily.

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

    chargeanother2% have a deal payment within 30 days we should look at

    Can we agreeon _? We'dlike you to _by 5%. So, what arewe talkingabout? If you pay late,we will _ for every30 days. I'm afraid-. Perhapsdeliverytimesnext. Theseissuesare covered _ Okay,I think we _.

    El Make threelinking phraseswith the samemeaning usingeach ofthesewords:because,rcsult,due, a, as,of, ot, to. The price oI oil went up by 59" yesterday_ / /the threat of a serious hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico.

    1OB / ir, Business

    Review B We don't have all the information we need, but we a ńsk have to move quickly. I think we should and go ahead with the proiect. We've been discussins this for half an hour I'd like to a recommendation. We don't have the goods from our suppliers yet. I could phone them to complain but they always

    E Complete this text about franchising with the items in the box. brand businessmodel day-to-day fee furniture and fittings laws and taxes outlets risk standards turnover name If you want to be a global player with your rin hundreds of countries, perhaps you should think about setting up a franchise business. Franchising is now very like Subway, to large common, from small retail '?businesses like Hilton Hotels. How does franchising work? First, the company has works. Then it can offer its to show that its 3trademark or name to another company or individual (the 'franchisee').They pay an initial ato use the name, and also agree to pay the palent company a ceńain percentageof the s-. The franchisee also has to fulfill ceńain corporate identity 6-, such as those relating to the ?inside the store, or to stafl uniforms. But the advantagesto the fuanchiseeare many: they are buying a well-known brand and the s----i-J is minimized. For the franchisor, there are also many benefits. They don't have to worry about the e-of the foreign countries running they operate in, and they can leave all the r0of the businessto the franchisee. So, franchisingworks.forboń sides.ltśd genuinelywin. win situation! E

    Fill in the missing letters in these sentences.

    in the p---_ 1 Ifyou complete some forms, then you f work. If you prepare an empty store before opening it to the public, then you equ__ and f it. If you decide how much money something will cost, then you bu___t for an ex____e . If you think of ways to get custome$ to enter your store, then you att_-__ them. All the day-to-day aciivities of keeping a business going are called __nning the business. 6 Ifyou go on a course, then you a___ d it. 7 . If you try to get money for a project or business, then your e the money. Before you s--_ an aŁ_-__nt you should show it to your lawyer

    El Completeeachsentencewith one of thesewords:do, make, take. 1 I hope we a profit, not a loss. 2 I'll be there in five minutes, I l'ust have to -

    a phone call first. 3 I've meet them and they seem honest. I think we can business with them. a lot of market research before we 4 We have to _ launch the product. 5 We're about halfway through the agenda. I think we should a short break now. 6 I hate the end of the tax year. There is always so much paperwork to _.

    someexcuseor other 10 I'm on an MBA course.I _ June.

    my final examsnext

    l! Put the verb in brackets into either the past simple or the present perfect. Use contactions where possible (1'ze irstead,of I haae\. (they/sell) more than 500 1 So far this year franchise licenses worldwide. That's a big increase on (they/only/sell) 500. Iast year, when (I/see)the new Bond film. lthink it's 2 Last week (I/ever/see). one ol the best action movies (you/be)in this job?" ) "About 5 "How long _ (I/be) a burgertwo years. Before doing this flipper at McDonalds." 4 I know what happened last week and I understand why (I/do) it myself many (you/do) it. In fact times before. Ę 1 2 3 4

    Fi|| in the gaps with eitherlor or since' I've been in this job I've been in this iob I've been in this job I've been in this job -

    the beginning ofthe year. about nine inonlhs. a long time. leaving university.

    E The phrases below are used for handling questions after a presentation. Match the beginnings to the ends.

    1 2 3 4 5

    That's a very I'mgladyou As I mentioned No, I'm afraidI can't

    asked me that. go into the details here. on the contrary good question. in my talk, ...

    n Complete the sentencestaken from a business report with the wods in the box. benefit drawback issues recommendations forecast lead to likelv to looks at The first pań of this report the need to build a new Iactory were The selection criteria we used to make our location, cost and timescale. In terms of location, the we examined were cost of labour and distance from our main suppliers. Labour costs are difficult to quantiĘ. They are ńse and this may a loss of competitive advantage in the long term. that the whole In relation to timescale, we proiect will take around 15 months from beginning to end. The biggestof this proposal is its complexity is its in terms of planning. The most significant greaterflexibility for our futurc needs.

    7il,.Eusin€ s s

    1o9

    .F -\

    Additional material 1.4 Speaking Makingsmalltalk (pagei3, exercise7) StudentA You are at an intemational conferenceand it is the break betweentwo presentations.you don't know any of the other people in your group and so need to makó small talk' Get rcady to make small talk about the weather. You have five minutes to talk to all of the other members of-yourgroup. Use phrasesfor beginning and ending small talk so that you speak to everyonein your group.

    6.4 Speaking Discussion(page 76, exercise 1) 1 yes2no0 2 yes0no2 5 yes2no0 4 yes0no2 5 yes0no 2 6 yes2no 0 7 yes0no 2 8 yes0no2 9 yes0no2 10 yes2no0 11 yes2no0 1.2 yes 2 no 0 Your scor€ 0-8 You are a terrlble listener! You need to work on vour listeningskills. Perharps you needto slow dom ind make time to listen to people or you may need to pay more attention to what people are saying and reał io what they tell you. You will probably find that yout conversationsare more successfulif you do this. 9-16 You,re an averagelistener.With a litt]e extra effoń vou could.becomea reallygood listener'Why not try uśing body languagea bit more when you are talkingi Mak; sute you keep eye contact with the person you are talking to and always rememberto smile, people always respondwell to a smile. 77-24 We.lldone! Y.ouare an expeń listener! Yow listening skills are well developedand you alwalrspay attention to what other people are saying.

    11o lheB|,.lĄo''

    3.2 Vocabulary Describing trends(page35.exerciselO) Student B Graph 3 Road accidents Notes:mostof the accidentsoccurredat the weekends, esPecial]yat night, or on Thesdalnwhen the aiĘort is busrest. There were a few tropical storms in April and May. r(x) 90 80 70

    0o 5o ą 3() 20 10

    3.2 Vocabulary (page35,exercise.tl) Discussion Student B The road betweenthe aiĘoń and the town is firll of ho|es. There are no traffic Ęhts or street|ightingin the town or on the airpoń road. The townbnly ńd! sk police ofEcers_ they are all male.

    vl

    o.O,atorru, -.r"r,., J

    1.4 Speaking Makingsmalltalk(page13,exercise7)

    4.5 Case study Debate(page54,exercise6)

    StudentB You areat an intemationalconferenceand it is the break betweentwo presentations. You don't know any ofthe otherpeoplein your groupand so needto makesmalltalk. Get readyto makesmalltalk aboutwhereyou are from. You have five minutes to talk to all ofthe other members of your group.Use phrasesfor beginningand endingsmall talk so that you speak to everyonein your group.

    Aristotle Onassis But Onassiss'familymoneycamefromthe tobaccobusiness. His own personalfortunewas madethroughunscrupulous and illegalwhaling.He liked whalingand killed as many whalesas possibleregardlessof what kind theywere, includingprotectedBlue Whales.He got into houble for whaling too close to the coast in Peru, and for stańing the hunt a monthbeforethe seasonbegan.

    2.6 Case study Discussion(page29,exercise6)

    Lakshmi Mittal But In 2002he was involvedin a political scandalwith Bńtish Prime Minister Tony Blair: MitLal made a !2 million donation to the Labour paĄ/ in Ietum for business favours.

    StudentB E Read the hotel's explanationsfor three of the problems and then tell your pańner 1 Regularbuseswereprovidedto take gueststo and fromthe conferencefacilities.The busesonly took ten minutesand werecompletelyfreeof charge. 2 Ąl ofthe roomsin the hotelare non.smoking.The gueststrom Electronics EDC were all togetheron the samelloor o{the hotel.The air-conditioningsystem connectsall looms and any'sńoĘ smellscamehom otherroomson the samefloor. 5 ElectronicsRDC only bookedeightroomsand did not tell the Panoramahotelthat theyneededanotherone. The hotelwas completelyfull when theyarrived. E With your partner discuss what actioń the hotel should take.

    4.4 Speaking Roleplay(page51,exercise9)

    Gianni Versace But Althoughthe Versacelabelhas increasedsalessincehis death,profit increaseis at a much slowerrateand the companyhad to announcea cost cuttingprogramme. Gianni'sbotherand sister,Santoand Donatellanow run the company,but the sole heiressis Donatella'sdaughter, Allegra. Coco Chanel But She had an affairwith a Nazi officerin occupiedParis during World War 2. He allowed her to stay in the Pańs Ritz with him. A-fterthe war she lived in exile in Switzerlanduntil her comebackinto the fashionworld in 1954.

    StudentA You are the managerof the lT departmentat EMF engineering.StudentB is one of your programmers and todayyou are meetingfor an appraisal. Use your noteson StudentB and the questionsin 5 to help you. . Has worked for the company for three years. .oAlways punctual . A little disorganized . A numbel of impońant deadlineshavebeenmissed recently. . Other membersofthe departmentcomplainthat StudentB is unhelpful. . Very creativeand always has good ideas.

    I/reBusiness

    111

    ł4

    1.4 Speaking Makingsmalltalk(page13,exercise7)

    5.4 Speaking Roleplay(page65,exercise7)

    StudentC You are at an intemationalconJerenceand ii is the break betweentwo presentations. You don't know any of the otherpeoplein your groupand so needto makesmall talk. Get readyto makesmalltalk aboutthe hotelyou are stayingin. You havefive minutesto talk to all ofthe othermembers of your group.Use phrasesfor beginningand endingsmall talk so that you speakto everyonein your group.

    StudentA 1 The companyneedsto savemoney You think a good and easyway is that the company canteenshould no longerbe subsidized.At the moment employeesonly pay € 4 .50 per meal,but the real cost is € 8 . with 20,000employeesthat'sa savingof € 4 0,000

    4.4 Speaking Roleplay(page51,exercise9) StudentB You are a programmerin the IT departmentat EMF engineering.StudentA is your managerand todayyou are meetingfor your annualappraisal. Below are somenotesto help you. . . . .

    .

    Always arriveon time. Reallyenjoymy job and I am verygood at ir. Very hardworking and creative. Colleaguesin my departmentalways disturb me with questionswhich stop me from working.I try to help themas much as I can but sometimesI havetoo much of my gwn work to do. The companynĆeds. to offermore tmining'

    5.2 Vocabulary Roleplay(page61,exercise8) StudentA You are a salespersonin a largecomputershomoom. StudentB is a customerwho wantsto buy a new laptop. You needto: ask why the customerneedsthis productand how much he or she wants to pay. ask questionsto find out what your customerwantsto buy. recommendsomemodelsto the customerbecausethevare not surewhich modeltheywant. offersomealtematives. answerany questionsthe customerasks.

    2 The offices will be painted You havereadthat pink is calmingand makesyou feel happyand secure.To reducestressand illnessat work you suggestall officesarepaintedpink. 3 Company sponsorship You want the companyto sponsorthe local ice-hockey team,althoughit's not playingwell this season.It'san engineeringcompanyand the toughimageis a good fit.

    3,2 Vocabulary Describing trends(page35,exercise10) Student A Graph 2 Car hire . Notes: 12% of people who hired cars had small accidents. . 8% of hire cars were stolen or broken into. . There was a lot of rain in April. . Many tourists came for beach holidays in luly.

    Eilffi 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 m0 100

    Jul!

    Jtnlary

    3.2 Vocabulary (page35,exercise11) Discussion StudentA The airpoń roof leaksand the anival hall is verysmall. Thereare no security-controlled car parks in the town. The rail link from the town to the aimoń is verv slow.

    112 TheBw'.neś.

    I Additionalmaterial

    I

    1.4 Speaking Makingsmal!talk (page13,exercise7)

    6.5 Writing Reporting(page79,exercise5)

    Student D You are at an intemational conferenceand it is the break betweentwo presentations.You don't know any of the otherpeoplein your groupand so needto makesmall talk. Get ready to make small talk about the ioumey here. You have frve minutes to talk to all of the other members of your group. Use phrasesfor beginning and ending small talk so that you speak to everyonein your group.

    Minutes of meeting- 46 September Venue:Main conferenceroom Present:Cristina (chair)'Firat, Lena and Adńan Apologiesfor absence: BiĘit 1 Matters arising from previous meeting. Hot desking. Lena repońed that the staffwere still not happy about this and wamed that the atmospherein the ofEce was bad and was gettingwone. Firat agreedwith this. Lena agreedto write a rcport and promised to have it ready for 8ń September 2 New quotationsfor buildingnew canteen. Firat presentedquotations from Tirmbull Construction Ltd and Haines Ltd. Everybody agreedthat the Haines proposal was better.Firat agreedto draw up a schedule for the building work and to bring it to the next meeting. 3 Changes to staff newsletter Adrian pointed out that a lot of work was neededfor the staff newsletterand that the quality was decreasing. He suggestedproducing the newslettereYeryquańer Lena disagreedwith the idea. Adrian a$eed to write a proposalof the pros and cons of a quańeĄ newsletter. 4 AOB ChristmaspaĘ Lena wondered if the Christmas party could be held in the canteen.She agreedto check the schedule and to rePoń back at the nextmeeting. Next Meeting: september llu in the maiń conference room.

    5.2 Vocabulary Roleplay(page61,exercise8) Student B You are a customer in a large computer showroom. Student A is a salesperson. You needto: decide why you want tłfs product and how much you want to pay. ask questionsbecauseyou are not surc which model you want. answerall the questionsthe salegperson asksyou. think about the altemativeśthe ś:alebperson offersyou. ask any more questionsyou can think of aboutthe product.

    5.4 Speaking Roleplay(page65rexercise7)

    :'

    Student B 1 The company needs to save money You think the companycanteenshould staysubsidizedas a good meal at midday is very impońant. You think you can savethe sameamount of money by installing vending machines for drinks. At the moment dńnks cost nothing. 2 The offices will be painted You want the ofnces to be white as usual, you could go along with a pale yellow, but pink is out of the question. 5 Company sponsorship You want the companyto sponsorthe local balletschool. It's very successfuland sponsoring culture is always good. The.local hockey team is bottom of the league.

    8.4 Speaking Roleplay(page103,exercise7) Student B You live close to the airport and are the managerof a supermarket.The plans to expand could be very good for your business,but they could also createproblems for you. Think of questionsto ask c, the aĘort's press offrcer.

    lrlr? ludDer.

    113

    7.4 Speaking Negotiation(page91,exercise6) StudentB You work in the salesdepańment.Your companyspecializesin printinglogos on giftsthat companiesgiveawayto their customersor clients. You normallyoffera discountfor ordersof more than 500 itemsof one product, but you can be fledble thereif you think the total orderis largeenough. Your deliverytimesare normally28 days. YouI termsof pa1mentfor smallerordels (up to € 2 ,500) are normally10 days. Shippingcostsfor olderc over€ 1 ,000 are€ 1 50, but againyou can be flexible. Your ordersweredown 10%last month, Thestandardpricesin your cataloguefor up to 500 itemsof the following proouclsale: .--.-= fll

    [email protected]@G Calculators

    € 5 '00

    cups

    € 4 .00

    Keyrings

    € 0 .50

    Teddybears

    € 0 .80

    tri tii

    Discount_%

    Try to negotiatea deal thatboth you and the customercan live with. Your partnerphonesyou.

    7.5 Writing Describing figures(page93,exercise6) StudentB Writea reportdescribingJuneto DecemberUse the graphbelow. Includea description of thetrend(itlell fuom... to ...,it tell by ... to ...) and a reasonfor the trend (bad weather,a strike,etc).Inventthesereasons. When you finish,swap repońswith youl pańner and lead aboutthe otherhalf of the year.Discusstogetherwhat actionsthe management could havetakenat Keymomen$. W.B. REXFORD PLC

    114 7,l Busin€ s s

    6.4 Speaking Handlinginterruptions (page 77, exercise6) StudentB Preparea shoń talk on a company that is successfulall overthe world Make somenotes.Think aboutwhat the companydoes,why you think theyare successfuland who their main rivalsare. When you are readygiveyour talk to the othertwo membersofthe group. Be preparedto answerany questions thattheymighthave. when the othersgivetheirtalks Ę to ask a questionand interruptonce or twlce

    8.4 Speaking Roleplay(page103,exercise7) StudentA You live closeto the airpoń and your houseis betweenthe airpoń and the city.You areveryworriedaboutthese plans.What kind of negativeimpacts could theseplans havefor you and family?Think of questionsto ask C, the airPoń,sprcss.officer

    m crenJr ^dcr ,r ,o n ar o

    I

    5.4 Speaking (page77.exercise6) Handfinginterruptions

    3.2 Vocabulary Describingtrends(page35,exercise 10)

    Student C

    StudentC Glaph 4 cńme

    Prepare a shoń talk on the kind of company you would like to set up. Make some notes. Think about what your company would specialize in, why you want to set up this kind of company and what you would do to make sure it is successful. When you are ready give your talk to the other two members of the group. Be prepared to answer any questions that they might have. when the others give their talks try to ask a question and iń+oń

    'ń+ ^ń. A

    ^Y

    t u 'i.A

    8.3 Grammar (page101,exercise5) Askingfor information StudentB Ask your partnerquestionsto completethe fi$t 120years of the Siemens'historv. a

    Wernervon Siemensestablishedthe Siemensand Ha|skeconstructionCońpahy in Ber|inin l847.

    a

    The companyconstructedthe Indo-European telegraphline betweenLondonand Calcuttain (When?) _. Siemenspresentedthe first electricrailway at the BerlinTradeFair in 1879.

    . Notes: the police know that picl
    -

    i 000 900 8oo 700 600 500 400 300 200 100

    3.2 Vocabulary Discussion(page35, exercise1'l) StudentC Thereare no lileguardsor securitypatrolson the beach. The islandonly hasoneambulance. readyĘeforethe musicfestival. You should haveevery'thing

    In 1919Siemensformed a joint venturewith two of light bulbs.The joint other manufacturers venturecompanywas called-. What?) The companyinstalledthe firstautomatictraffic lightsin Berlinin 1924. siemensstańed producingthe eIectronmicroscope (When?) in _. Reconstrudionof the companybegan.Over per cent of the company'sassetswere destroyedin WW ll. (How many?) siemensdevelopeda methodto produceultrapure siliconand enteredthe data processing industryin _, constructionof the world'slargest ln satellitecommunications stationbeginsin Bavaria. Germanybegan.(When?) Siemensbecamea Germanpubliclimited € o mpany; siemensAG in 1956' to Siemensset up the companyBosch-Siemens producehouseholdappliances.

    I

    l

    7.4 Speaking Negotiation(page91,exercise6) Student A Use the tablebelow to seehow goodyour negotiationskills are. 0 Polnts Discount

    I Point

    2 Points

    3 Points

    2%

    Delivery within

    28 da!6

    24 days

    21 days

    18days

    Payment

    10 days

    14 da)ts

    21 days

    28 days

    Delivery co$s

    150

    8.4 Speaking Roleplay(page103,exercise7) StudentC You are the airport's press officer.You have the following information: The motorway is planned to go very close to As house, but no defrnitedecision has beentakenyet. The train line will be in a tunnel and will not have any environmental impacts for A. The motorway and train line will make it easier for local residentsto get to the city. About 12,000new jobs ńll be created. 4.5,ooonew houŚesand flatswill be neededin tłrearea. The productsand goodsin the 2417shoppingcentrewill probablybe 5-10% more expensivethan elsewhere. Lowering the groundwatercould have negativeimpacts for local plants and animals and an environmentalstudy is being done. You do not have the tindings yet. The new town will probably be located close to B's supermarket,but a linal decisionhas not beenmadeyet. House and land prices are expectedto increase in the next few years.

    6.4 Speaking Handlinginterruptions (page 77, exercise6) StudentA Prcpare a shoń talk on an organizationthat you would like to work for Make somenotes. Think aboutwhat the organizationdo, why you would like to work for them and what you imagineworking there would be like. When you are ready give your talk to the othertwo membersofthe group. Be preparedto answerany questions that they might have. When the others give their talks try to ask a questionand interruptonce or Twlc€ .

    I

    7heBlul'ltu

    . 717

    I

    Grammar and practice Present simple Ę Complete the dialogue. Use contractions (,l,mnot ł-aft; don,t not M) where possible' ryou work? A: Where B: A: B: A: B: A; B: A: B: A: B: A; B: A: B:

    I work in Lyon. Lyon? But I thought you said you worked in Paris? No, I 'Żwork in Paris, I work in Lyon. you married? Okay, so you work in Lyon. And 3Yes, I a. My wife's name is Zsi-Zsi. That's an unusual name.'she French? No, she 6French, she 7Hungarian. And 3she have a job? have a job at the moment. We have No, she etwo young children and she stays at home to look after them. TWo childrenl How wonderful!How oldr0_they? The girl is six, and the boy is just two years old. get much TWo years old! I imagine that you "sleep! Yes, you "right. I must look tircd! And what about the girl? 13she go to school? Yes, she ra.

    Present simple Positive UYoulwelThey work. Hel'hellt.works. Negative II YouI WelT hey do n't work. Helshellt doesn't work. Questions Do llyoulwelthey work? Does helshelitwork? Present śimP|e: to be Positive I'm Hungarian, You' relwe' relThey' re H unga rian. H e'slShe'sllt's Hung aria n. Negative l'm not Hungarian. You'relwe'relThey?e not Hungarian. Or YoulwelThey aren't Hungarian. He,5lsheśl lt,snot Hungarian. Ot Helshellt isn't Hungarian, Questions Am I Hungarian? Are youlwelthey Hungarian? ls helshelitHungarian? trI Correct the mistakes in these sentences. 1 Do you working for Siemens? 2 I doesn't work for Siemens, I work for Bayer, 3 And your wife, do she work? 4 My wife work as a teacher 5 She is German? 6 No. she not cerman. she'sHungańan.

    1 1 8 , ' l , r Bu s i n ess

    E Look back at the last two lines of the dialogue in exercise 1: Does she go to schooł? Yes, she does. (NOT Yes, she goes.) Complete the replies to the questions below.

    1A: B: 2^: B: 5Al B: 4A: B: 5A: B: 6A: B:

    Do you enjoyyour work? Yes,I Do you know this restaurant? No, l_ Does your wife work?

    No, she Does your daughter go to school? Yes, she Are you Hungarian? Yes, that's right, I Are you Hungadan? No, t _. I'm Romanian.

    p Match examples 1-3 with the uses ofthe present simple a)-c). Choose the best answer if several are possible. I 2 3

    MosI days I leave home around 7.00.! The Rhine meets the sea in the Netherlands.! Our company offers a rangeof in',estmentproducts.!

    a) present simple for facts such as what or where things are b) present simple for habits and routines c) present sitnple for actions and situations that are generally true (i.e. not temporary)

    Adverbs of frequency Put the time adyeńs on the frequency scale.

    !l

    always nearly always never not very often sometimes often rarely usually/normally 100% 5

    s sometimes \t/

    o% El Fill in one of the gaps with the word often. Leave the other gap empty. 1 He 2 He _

    work5 is _

    late. late.

    Adverbs of frequency come bglgtg the verb. The exception i5 to be, Wherethey come ąftcl' El

    pill in the missing letters.

    1 Instead of saying 'one time a year' we can say 'o___ a year'. 2 Instead of saying 'two times a year' we can say 't___ a year'.

    er"--ra

    Times of the day

    Dates

    E study how Brits and Ameńcanssaythe time.Look at the differencesin bold.

    lB Comparethe UK and the USA:

    r0.00 10.r0 1 0.15 1 0.30 10.40 10.45

    UK ten o'clock ten past ten ten-ten a quarter past ten ten-fifteen half past ten half ten ten-thirty twenty to eleven ten-forA a quarter to eleven ten-forty-five

    USA ten o'clock ten after ten Ten-ren a quarter after ten ten-fifteen half past ten (not used) ten-thirty twenty to eleven ten-forA a quarter to eleven ten-for-ty-five

    Complete the table below

    Yesterday, today and tomornow .' El Read the information in the box then do the exercise below. the day before yesterdatl yesterdajl today, tomorrow the day after tomorrow We say: the week before last, last week, this week, next week the week after next And for pańs of yesterday,today and tomorrow We say: yesterday: yesterday morning, yesterday afternoon, yesterday evening, last night today; this morning, this afternoon, this evening, tonight tomorrow: tomorrow morning, tomorrow afternoon, tomorrow evening,tomorrow night We say;

    Try to remember the phrases.Then cover the table above with a piece of paper before continuing.

    sayinga date writing a date writing a full date

    UK the third of July July the third 3 .July 3'dJuly July łd DD/MM//Y

    nruati.a "rra !

    U5A July third July i MM/DD/YY

    Now write todayl date:

    1 As a Brit would say it: 2 As a Bńt would writeit in full: 3 As an American would say it: _

    As an American would write it in full:

    Prepositions of time: in, on, at l! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

    Fill in eachgap with in, on, al, or - (no preposition). 10 _2007 ten o'clock 11 _ yesterday 12 Christmas 13 ChristmasDay 14 28luly 1s last week 16 winter I7 nextApril 18 _

    -

    -

    Saturday the end ofthe year New Year s Dav the 1990s a few days ago

    July

    the aftemoon the week after neń the dav before yesterday

    The rulesfor theseprepositionsare given below.But many peoplethink it is easierto just see if they'sound right' ratherthan try to learnthe rules,Use: . ,n With pańs ofthe day' months, seasons,years . On with dates. days of the week, special days . At with religiousfestivals.hoursof the clock. particularpointsin time . No preposition for yesterdayltodayltomorrow,lastl nexź,the day before|after Somespeakersof AmericanEnglishuse other formssuch - no preposition for days of the week (l'llsee you wednesday\ - on the weekend.

    The phrases in llalics below are not English. Corect them by writing a more appropriate phrase. 1 I'm busy tomorrow, but I can see yorl tomoftoa plus one day. 2 No, not last week, the week prezlous to last week. 3 We went to a greatbar yesterday ni\ht. 4 Would you like to come to the restaurant with us today in the eaening? 5 The metro stops running at midnight this night.

    l 7ilr.Business 119

    Countable and uncountable nouns E Read the information in the box then do the exercise below. countable nouns countable nouns can be singular or plurall.house(s), colleague(s). file(s), team(s), man (men), person (people). We use countable nouns for separatethings that we can count. Many countable nouns are concrete (one productl tńree products) but some are abstract (one idea|two /deas). Uncountable nouns Uncountable nouns only have one form, without -s:alt electricity, health, information, moneyt success. We use uncountablenounsfor thingsthat do not divide into separate units. Many uncountable nouns are abstrad (happ,ness)but some are concrete (Wat€ r ). Put these words into the corect column below: dollar, money, luggage, bag fumiture, chair, hotel, accommodation, iob, work, wine, litre, time, aeek, machine, machinery, intormation, tact, suggestion, ądoice.

    Uncountablenounstake a singularverb,not a plural verb (so 1 and 2 are wrong). Uncountable nouns do not have an -s form (so 2 is wron9). Uncountable nouns used in a general way do not have the or a (so 5, 9 and 10 are wrong). Uncountable nouns cannot be counted (so 6 is wrong). Uncountable nouns go with much, not nany (5o 15 is wrong). countab|e nouns 9o with many, not mucń (so 17 is

    wron9r.

    Countable nouns go with a few, not a l,'ttle(so 19 is ' wron9). Uncountab|enouns 9o With a ł.ftle,not a fery (so 22 is wrong). Summary . With countable nouns we use a, some, a lot of, many, a few. . With uncountable nouns we use some, a lot of, much, a little. . We do not use tńe before an uncountab|enoun used in a general way. łhe life is beautiful. )( Life is beautiful. / . In positive sentences,a rotof is common. . ln negative sentencesand questiont many/much and a feva ,itdĆ are common.

    some and any E Read the information in the box then do the exercise below. Note that this in{ormation is true for both countable and uncountable nouns.

    g If the sentenceis conect,put a tick (.2).If it is inconect,put a cross(f). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 72 73 74 15 16 17 18 19 20 27 22

    Accommodation are diffrcult to find in this city. Accommodationsare difficultto find in this city. Hotels are difficult to find in this citv. Time is money. The time is money. I had severalpań-timeworks while I was at university. I had severalpań-timejobs while I was at univercity. I'll go now. I know you havework to do. I'll go now. I know you havea work to do. She gaveme an advice. She gaveme someadvice. She gaveme a suggestion. She gaveme somesuggestions. dont havemuch informationto giveyou. don't havemanyinformationto giveyou. don't havea lot of informationto giveyou. don't havemuch factsto giveyou. donl havemanyfactsto giveyou. It only costa little dollars. It only cost a few dollars. Would you like a little wine? Would you like a few wine?

    120 7/.,,Buginess

    Some is common in positivesentences. I got some paper for the photocopier, Any is common in negative sentencesand questions. I didn't get any paper for the photocopier. Did you get any paper for the photocopier? Complete each sentence with the most likely word, some ot any, questions to ask me? 1 Do you have questions that I'd like to ask. 2 Yes, there are 5 Okay, that's all. I don't have more questions to ask you. There are some exceptions.For example, we can use ionre in a question if it is an offer or a request. Would you like some more wine? (o'l'ler't Could I have some more u/nez (request) And we can use any in a positivesentence if it means'no limit'. You can come any time - morning or afternoon.

    eranmar ana nraaice

    Can, could & would tor polite questions

    Requests wilh'mind'

    t! Read the information in the box then do the exercise below.

    Ę If the sentence is coffect, put a tick (./). if it iS inconect, co[ect it. 1 Do you mind to call back later?! 2 Would you mind to call back later? ! 3 Do you mind calling back later?! 4 Would you mind calling back later? !

    To request that someone else does something, we use can/could and would. (informal) Can you passthe saltT (neutral) could you open the windowl please? (polite) Would you help me move this desk? To request something for ourselves(permission),we use can/could and may(informal) Canlaskaquestion? (neutral) Could I borrow your pen? (polite) May I come in?

    Put a tick (/) by correct and polite replies to the question in italics. Put a cross (X) by incorrect or impolite replies. Would you mind callin7 bąck later? 5 6 7 8

    Rewritethe first sentencein a morepolite way usingcould, u.touldor may. Thereare two answerseachtime. Can I ask who is calling? Could I ąsk who is calling? Mav I ask aho is cąLlin!? Can you give her a ńessage?.

    Tip.Don'ttell peopleto do things,askthem. (notpoIite,evenWith,p|ease,) cive.ne-a-'tłanarełease. Couldyou giveme a handT(betterr Couldyou give me a hand.p/ease?(muchbetter) It is usuallysaferto usecourdin requesttparticularlyin a businesscontextwherethe personis not a personal friend.Canis sometimes too directand wourdis sometimes too formal. E Readthe informationin the box then do the exercise below. To askfor something,usel'd like,not lrr/a''f.Theword wantcansometimes be impolitein a request. To offersomething,useWould... like...? Theseusesof wourdrike(meaning'want')are not the sameas,rte (meaning'enjoy'). lf the sentenceis correctand polite,put a tick (/). If the sentencecan be mademorc polite with like, or iI it is grammaticallywrong, correct it. 1 2 5 4 5 6

    Does anyonewant a drink? Yes,I want a beer,please. Yes,I like somemineralwateĘplease. Yes,I'd like a herbaltea,please. Genemlly,I like white wine with lish. Generally,I'd like whitewine with fish.

    I mind. -Yes, I mind calling. -Yes, No, not at all. No, of coursenot, . Requestswith mrnd are followed by -rng. Would you mind waiting for a moment while I get my coat? . This means /s it a problem foryou?.So an answer with yes is impolite: it meansyet it is a problem.lnstead, use an answer with na like No, not at all. . W ecanalso useW o uldyo u mind if ,..,to askfor permission, would you mind if I sat here?

    2

    3 Can I write down one or two details? 4 Can you explain that again?

    !

    Polite requests and negative responses lf we haveto givea negativerespgnse to a request,we don'tusuallyusethewordno.Instead, we canfollow thisformula; l'm afraid/Actually6orry/t'msorry but ... + reason+ suqgest an alternative Thephrase/'mafraid...is notu5edin thiswayin AmericanEnglish. !l After eachpolite request1-4,wdte the two letteB that go togetherto makea full response. 1 Can I ask you a few questionsaboutthis report?E B 2 Would you mind working late on Tuesday?! ! 5 Could you giveus a discountif we order 1OOO units? ! 4 Would you mind openingthe window? D ! a) b) c) d)

    I'm sorrybut I'm reallybusyright now. Actually,the air conditioningis moreefficient. l'm afraidI cant, irs my daughtersbinhday. Sorry,we only offerdiscountsto regularcustomers.

    e) why don't you ask Mańana? She said shewas looking IOI SOme Ovenlme,

    But we could giveyou more convenienttermsof payment- perhapsanother30 dayscredit. Ask me againtomorrow.I'll havemoretime. h) I'll tum it on now. fl

    TllrzBusiness 121

    Present contanuous

    Present simple and present continuous

    EE Study the form of the presentcontinuousin the box. The contmctionsshown (1'nrfor I ąm, you're lor You are) are the forms used most often in speech and informal wmrng.

    E Study the differences between the prcsent simple (unit 1, module 3) and the presentcontinuous.

    Presentcontinuous Positive l'm working You'relWe'relThey're worki ng He,slshe,stśworking Negative l'm not working You'relwe' relThey're not working Or YaulwelThey aren't working He'slShe'sllt's not working Or Helshellt isn't working Questions Am I working? Are youlwelthey working? ls helshelit warking? Complete each sentenceusing the presentcontinuouslbrm of the vęrb in brackets.Use contlactionswhere possible. (rcdesign)our website. 1 We (you/enioy)the conlerence? 2 3 The photocopicl (not/wolk) at the momęnt'Try again later. (she/call)Iiom 4 Is that st€ p hanie on the phone? Pafis? (read)a greatbook about solutionsto the 5 I_ energycnsrs. (not/stay)at the Novotęlthis time, they've 6 They chosen the Mercure instead. $!! Match examples 1-3 with the uses of the present continuousa.c' choose the bęstanswerif severalare possible. 1 Let'sgo lbr lunch. I'll tell you about my news I'm working on a big project in Turkey.D 2 I'll linish the spreadsheetin about half an hour. I'm working as fast as I can. ! 3 Developmentsin communicaliontechnologymean that nore people are working lrom home. ! a) presentcontinuousfor an action happeningright now, at the moment of spęaking b) presentcontinuousfor an action happeningaround now, but not at thc exact moment of speaking c) presentcontinuoustbr a currenttrcnd or slow change happeningover a longertime period Note that usesa)-c)aboveare reallyjust variationson the one basicuseof the presentcontinuous:a temporary activityin progressnow.

    Presentsimple permanent habit fact

    Presentcontinuous temporary activityin progressnow slow change

    Complete each sentence by putting the verb into the presentsimple or presentcontinuous. 1 We (sell)our productsall over the world. 2 Fantasticotfer!For onę month only we (sell) this productwith a 20')i discountfor new custome$. (change) their adveńising agency _ they 3 They aren l happy r.ri(h the usual one. (change) ovęI time' 4 of course, all companies 5 She (work) for SAP (work) from home. 6 Today she _ !l The present simple and present continuous are associated with differcnt time phrases. Underline the corlect altemativę in italics. I 2 3 4 5 6

    This year/Eaery yecr we're building a new factory in Turkey. This yea Eaery year we increase our market share in the Turkish market At the momeht/Usuatly we're rccruitinga lot of new stalT business is going very well. At the moment/UsuąIIy the factory closes fol two weeks over the summer for maintenance. Right noa/Taicą ą yeąt we,re gettinga lot of orders fuomthę Middle East' Riqht noa/Taice ą yeąt we organize a special event for all our employees.

    State verbs E Put a tick (/) if the sęntenceis possible,put a cross (x) if it is not possible. 1 2 3 4 5 6

    I ]
    cram-". a.,anractice

    Adverbs E Read the information in the box then do the exercise below. . Adjedives describenouns. Adverbs describeverbs. There was a significant increase in sales. Sa les i ncre ased sig n if icantly. Most adverbscan be formed by adding -ly,-t1-aUta-ily. Some adverbs and adjectiveshave the same form: daily, early, fast,hard, late, quarterly. Good is an adjective.Wel/ is an adverb. Make adverbs foom the following adiectives.Think about the spelling.

    1 2 3 4

    slow slozłly

    dramatic

    hardhappy

    5 full 6 fast

    7 good 8 bad

    Passive: present simple and modals E Undelline the coEect formśin|italics in the following text about beer.

    What is beer?Beer tmakes/ismade fromjustfour ingredients:water,Ęarley,hops and jlebsJ.We'll look at the last threein moredetail. First thereis barley,which is a grain.Beforeit2can use/can be used to makebeer,the barley3goes/isgone througha specialprocess.The seedgrowsa little but then this groMh processis stopped At this point the barley acalls/is called. 'malt'. The malt is dried by raising the temperature.The flavourand colour of the beerdependsa lot on the temperatureduring this drying process. Next we havehops.Hops are a tlrpeof flowerand lhey 5giae/are giaelr flavour to the beer.Interestingly, the hop plant 6closely relates/isclosely relatedto the mańjuanaplant.Hops 7contain/arc contained acids' which givebeerits bittertaste,as well as oils that give beersomeof its flavorand aroma. . Finally,thereis yeast.This is a micro-organismand is responsiblefor creatingthe alcohol and carbondioxide found in beer Beer scanfind/ can be lound in two forms:'lager' Iike Heineken,Carlsburgand Budweiser,and 'ale' like the darker and less bubbly varietiesthat edrink/are drunk in the UK.

    comparesentencea) and b): a) People make beer from iust four ingredients. b) Beer is made from just four ingredients, Sentencea) is called 'active'.The person or thing doing the action is the subjed: people. 5entenceb) is called'passive'. The personor thing affected by the action is the subject:beer.

    !

    Here are the forms with the present 5imple: Adive Passive I do it.lHe does it. It is done. I don't do it.lHe doesn't do it. lt isn't done. ls it done? Do I do it?lDoes he do it? Here are the forms with modals (can,must, will etc)l ll'he can do iL It can be done, It can't be done. ll'he cant do it. Can she do it? Can it be done?

    lN Completeeachsentenceusingthe wordsin bmckets and the passive.Use contractionswherepossible(il's not # b. can't not ea1ź-,,ot\. 1 No, no, it's all wrong. (itldo) like this. -

    (Itlnot/do) like that,

    (ale/d nk) in continentalEurope? 2a. (Itlmainly/drink)in the UK. b: Not verymuch.(anyKorean cars/manufacture) in the Czech 5a: Republic? (produce)at Nosovice, b: Yes, H!rundaicars(still/not/make)in large althoughtheynumbers. 4 a:, You saythat you needthis itemby the end ofthe (will/it really/need)so soon? The week.But _ end of the week is difficultfor us. (must/deliver) b: It _ by the end of the week, Fńday at the latest.I'm sorry.. !l Match examples1-3with the usesof the passivea-c. Choosethe bestanswerif severalare possible. 1 First,the barleyis soakedin watet then it is drained and kept at a temperatureof 15 degrees.This allows the seedto grow.! 2 The barleyseedgrows.At this point it is called 'malt'.E 3 Beeris madefromjustfouringredients. ! a) passiveusedbecausethe subjectrefersback to a noun in the previoussentence b) passiveusedto desclibepań ofa processor procedute c) passiveusedbecausethe personwho doesthe actionis not impońant or not known

    Saying who does the action: by i! Read the information in the box then do the exercise below lf we want to say who does the action we use by. The car plant at Nosoviceis run by Korean managers. But in many casesit sounds strange or unnecessaryto mentionthis. Ale is drunk ffie mainly in the UK.

    Crossout any phrasesthat are not necessaryIf every phraseis necessaryput a tick (/). 1 The qualityofthe manufactuńngprocessis checkedby qualĘ control inspectorseveryday. 2 The qualityofthe manufacturingprocessis checkedby a teamof twentypeople.

    TlrdBusiness

    123

    Past simple re There are three different pronunciations of the rcgular -€ d past simple.FiIStclreckthat you can say the six examplcs in the table below the box. Then write the words in the box in the corect column. developed started realized discussed closed finished constructed complained accepted prepared introduced visited

    trdl moved

    focussed

    decided

    opened

    asked

    wanted

    Thereis a 'rule'for theseendings,but you haveto know a little about pronunciationto understandit. . A voicedsoundat the end of a verb is followed by a /d/soundfor -ed.'Voiced'meansthat your vocal chordsvibrateas you produceit. Trytappingyour fingersIi9ht|yón your throat a5you saythe ,v,of 'move'and listenfor the vibratingsound. . An unvoicedsoundat the end of a verb is followed by a /t/soundfor -ed.'Unvoiced'meansthat your vocal chordsdo not vibrateas you produceit. Trytapping your fingerslightlyon your throat as you say the .s,of 'focus'- there is no vibratingsound. . The sounds/d,/ and // at the end of a verb are followed by an /ld,/ soundfor -ed. lt would be impossibleto make eitherof the other two sounds. p How many irregularpast simple forms do vou know? write the missins forms bęlow. i n fi n i t i ve

    pastsimple

    infinitive

    become

    be gi n

    lose

    br i n g

    make

    buy

    meet

    choose

    pay

    cost

    5ee

    fa ll

    sell

    nd

    set

    forget

    speak

    gi ve

    spend

    go

    take

    9row

    tell

    have

    th ink

    keep

    understand wnte

    EE complete the quęstionsand ansrt,ers about Google' There are a mixturc of past simple forms: positives, . negativesand questions. 1 a: What (be)the namęsof the foundersof coogle? b: Their names were Larry Page and Sergey Brin. According to rhe company mytil, they _ (rot/ like) each othęr when they first (meet). 2 a: So when _ Lany and Sergey_ (meet)? b: They (meet)in i995 at Stanford University. 3 a: And where they (stań)theil business? b: They _ (star1)in a garagewith a stafi of just three- themselvesand one other percon.This first 'office'_ (nor/be)very luxurious- it also (contain)a washingmachine and a dryerfor clothes. 4 a'. When Google (make)a profit for the Iirsttime? b: It (makc)a profit in 2001,althoughthey (not/have) a stocl(marl(etlistinguntil 2004. Whai (bc) theil soulcę of inconrel b: The company,_ (grow)by developinga'cost per click. model of adveńising.Adveńisers (pay)to have thcir namcs on the searchpage,and tiren paid again when users_ (click) on the link. 6a: And why Google _ (have)so much successcomparedto other searchengines? b: They (have)a lot of successfor two main rcasons.First,their searchtechnology_ (find) bęttel resultsthan thę competitors'And seconcl.in the year 2000 thcy _ (introduce)an innovative tool cailed Google Toolbar.This was a browser plug-inthat _ (make)it possibleto use Google searchwithout going first to the coogle homepage. The Toolbar also _ (highlight) key words in searchresults,and _ (blocJ<) annoying advertisingpop-ups. Pastsimple Positive IIYouIHeISh eIltlwe IThey wo r ked. Negative IlYoulHelShelltlWelThey d idn't work. Questions Di d Ilyo uI helshelitlwelthey work?

    Ca"--a,

    Past continuous l! Match the examplesof the pastcontinuous1-4 with their usesa) or b). 1 I was working at Estće I,auderftom 2004 to 2006. 2 lt was the summerof 2005 and I was working at Estće Lauder. 3 That evening I decided to stay late at the ofnce. Anyway, it was 7pm and I was writing a repoń. 4 I was wńting the report yesterdayafternoon' I was exhaustedby the end! a) An activityin progressin the past.The pastcontinuous showsthat we werein the middle of sornething. E ! b) An activityin progressin the past.The pastcontinuous is usedfor the whole period.! ! In which examplesabovecould the pastcontinuousbe replacedwith the pastsimple?E E . Theform of the pastcontinuousis waslwere+ -ing. PositiveiI wasworking. We were working, Negative:l wasn.tWorking. Wę1ilerent working. Questions:WasI working? Werewe working? . We usethe pastcontinuousfor an activityin progress in the past. . Usuallythe pastcontinuoussholvsthatwe were in the midd|eof somethiBg.But it can a|sob€ ' osed for the whole period. E Complete each sentencewith the correct form of the pastcontinuous, (walk) to the station after work when it 1 Isuddenly stańed to rain very heavily. 2 Yesterda$in the office,why (you/look)at me in that strangeway? Did I do somethingwrong? 3 Miguel cameto the presentationbut he seemedvery (not,/listen) distractedand he to anythingthat the speakersaid.

    Past continuous and past simple E.Look at the sentencein ilalics then choosethe best answersbelow. Whilł I uas uorking at my compute|,I saw Ritą tąIl to the tloor I Which happenedfrrst:a) working at my computer or b) seeing Rita fall? ! 2 Which took longer:a) working at my computer or b) seeingRita fall? ! 3 Is it likely that a) I continued working at my computer or b) I stoppedworking? ! Now continuein the samewav.

    "na

    naactlce !

    While I was wotking at my computer,I saw Andy and his expensiaeneu suit. 4 Which happenedfirst:a) working at my computeror b) seeingAndy's suit? E 5 Which took longer:a) working at my computeror b) seeingAndyśsuit? ! 6 Is it likely tłlata) I continued working at my computer or b) I stoppedworking? ! . We often usethe past continuous(, was workingl togetherwith the pastsimple(rsav!/). The past continuousgivesthe backgroundto a story and the pastsimplegivesthe individualeventsthat happened. . We often useWńi|eWiththe pastcontinuou' and in thiscasethe meaningisthe sameaswhen: Whllel|l|lhenl WasWorkingat my computeĘl saw Andy fall to the floor . Thebackgroundactivity(workrng)is interruptedby anothershońeradion (saw).sometimesthe activity continues,sometimesnot - we only know by the context. I Complete each sentenceby putting one verb into the pastcontinuousand one into the pastsimple.Thesetwo tensesmightbe in any order. While I (check)the frgureson.th€ spreadsheet, (notice)that the salestotal for June was Iincorrect. When I (join) the company,they (expand)their activitiesin CentralEurope. (go)verywell until their boss 3 The negotiations(arive) on the scene. Incredible!Someone(take)my bagwhile I (sit) at the table outside the cafć. -

    Used to ll Readthe informationin the box then do the exercise below. Used to describesa long-term situation or a repeated habit in the past. lt suggeststhat the situation or habit is no longer true. I used to live in Dusseldort. but now I live in Koln. With negativesand questions used to becomesuse to. There didn't use to be so much crime. Did you use b drive to work before they opened the new metro line? Complete each sentence with a form of used to.

    1 Where(you/work)beforeyou becamea freelanceconsultant? (play)tennismostweekends, 2 In my twentiesI but now I'm manied and I don't play at all. J (not/like)him verymuch,but To be honest,I now I know him betterand we getalongverywell.

    TbeBtr&i''ees

    725

    Comparatives Comparativesand superlatives . We u5ethe comparativeform of an adjediveto comparetwo 5eparatethings'Note the use of tńan. This is a newer model than the one you're currently using. . We use the superlativeform of an adjectiveto compareone thing in a group with all the others. Note the use of tńe. This is the newest model on the market. Our competitorsdon't have anything similar. ]l Each sentence has a mistake. Cross out the wrong words and write the correctversion 1 Intemet speeds are more fast than with the old model. 2 This perfume is expensiver than the other one. 3 This year we made a much biger prolit than last year 4 lt's most expensive to fly to Brussels than to go by train. 5 Please make your desk look a bit tidyer - the CEO is visiting our oflices this afternoon. 6 Every year the situation is getting badder Comparatives shoń adjedives:5mall _ smaller doub|ingóf consonant(WhenWordends in one vowe|+ ńot - ńotter one consonant): long adjectives;convenient - more/lessconvenient -y changesto -i: ńeavy - heavier irregu|arforms:good - befter bad _ wor'e; łar - further

    Superlatives E Each sentence has a mistake. Cross out the wrong words and write the correctversion. 1 Of all the perfumes in this shop, this one is the expenslvest. 2 That type of engine has the most high fuel consumption. 3 The most far place from herc that we sell our products is Turkey. 4 This is the more powerful engine we've ever produced. 5 Thęir head office is amazing _ it's one of the most beautifulest buildings in the city. The design looks like something trom the seventies it's one of the worse I've ever seen. Superlatives 5hoń adjectives:small . the smallest doublingof consonant(whenword end5in one vowel + one consonant):ńot _ the hottest long adjedives:convenient - the mos least convenient -y changesto -i: heavy - the heaviest irregu|arforms:good - the best;bad _ the worsą far - the fuńhest

    126

    El The information in the boxes above is true. But some rules are more flexible than others! Try the following exerclse. Put a tick (/) if the form in italics is correct, put a crcss (X) if it is not. 1 The new system is a lot saler. 2 The new system is a lot morc safe. 3 The improved graphics make this computer game realer. 4 The improved graphics make this computer game more reąl' 5 Custome$ who get good after-salesservice are always the pleasedest. 6 Customers who get good after-salesservice are always the most pleased. 7 In lapan you should give people your business card using two hands - it's more polite. 8 In lapan you should give people your business card using two hands - it's porilel. . some shoń adjectives can haveeither-erkst or morelmost' These inc|ude:clear,łair,free, proud, safe, sure, true, (so 1 and 2 aboveare both /) . We do not use -erl-est with the word 'real' and with Instead. 5hoń adjedivesending in ed.Iike,p|eased,. we use morelmost. (5o3 is.xand 4 is /; and 5 is X and 6 is /) . some longeradjedivescąn haveeither-erl-estor morelmost.These include:.cleveL common, handsome, likely, narrow, polite, quiet, secure,simple, stupid, tired. (so 7 and 8 above are both /)

    l! Complete each sentence using a form ofthe word in brackets. Extra words like the/ thafi/more/ less/ most/ least will also be needed. Product:

    Handi

    Regula

    Price:

    35

    55

    5ks. Deliverytime:

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    1 week

    4 weeks

    3 weeks

    (cheap)Apex. Regulais _ (cheap). Of all three products,Handi is _ (expęnsive)Handi' Regu|ai5 (ex pensive) Regula. H andi is _ (expensive). Of all three products, Apex is (expensive). Of all three products, Handi is (heavy) Regula. Apex is (good) delivery time of all. Handi has (bad) delivery time of all. Regula has Apex is too complicated for our needs. Let! order (simple). Regula it's

    erammarana nracice

    Question forms Ęt Put the wordsin the corlect oldel to malrea question. Writeyour answeF below - decideif it is a'Yes/No' questionor a .wł' question' 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    it doescost a lot of money? how much it doescost? use a Blackberrydo you why? use a Blackberryyou will? I at your officecan park? wherepark I can? our bestsalespersonwho is? Benedicteis our bestsalesperson? alwaysyou do buy DVDs online? do you how oftenbuy DVDS online? Yes,/Noquestions

    .Wir' and llozł,'questions

    Compleie the table. Choose from th ese words are, are, ! can, did, did, do, does, has, haue, is, is, will.

    4

    Fernandahas alreadygiven her presenration.

    5

    Pierre made a backup copy of the file.

    6

    Petra will be at the meetinp tomorow

    lN Complete each question with an item fuom the box. Look at the reply for a clue. How much How often Where Who Whose

    you a marketingspecialist?

    you like this produd? she like this product?

    5_

    When

    Questions . A yevno questionis formedwith auxiliaryverb + subjed + main verb: Do you live here? Did she pay a lot of money for her flight? A Wh- or How questionis formed in exactlythe same way,but with a questionword in front: Where do you live? How much did she pay for her flight? The questionWord Wńoseis usedto ask Who somethingbelongsto. Whose glass is this? ls it yours? Whose idea was it? Was it Peter's?

    he a marketingspecialist? '-

    What Why

    1 a: _ did you meet during your trip? b: I met all our colleagues from the Paris office. 2 a: do you travel abroad on business? b: Oh, three or four times a year I suppose. 3al are you going to do about it? b: I'm going to call them in the morning. +a: did they cancel their order? b: Because we didn't have the items in stock. 5a: does your flight leave? b: Nine o'clock tomorrow morning. 6a: did you pay for those shoes? b: About 150 euros. But I really like them. exactly is the meeting? b: In the conference room on thę'second floor 8a: nęwspaper is this? b: It's mine, but you can read it if you want.

    Yes/Noquestions '-

    !

    you comingwith us? he comingwith us?

    she buy it here?

    he ever be€ n to Zurich? rr-

    E Study the information in the box, then complete the sentencesbelow w|thWhąt or Which' What or Which? Wńat is more common a) for thingsand activities b) where there is a wide choice. Wńltń i5 more common a) for peopleand organizations b) wherethere is a limitedchoice.

    you speakGerman?

    E Change each affirmative sentence into a'Yes/No' questlon. 1 David is a communications consultant. Is Daaid ą communications consultąnt? 2 Marketa is arriving tomorrow. 5

    Roberto thinks it's a good idea.

    I 2 3 4

    -

    time does the meeting begin? room is the meeting in - room 207 or room 208? salespenonwon 'employeeof the month'? do you do in the evening?

    1/rlBusirrei!

    127

    big way. I think he said they 6Romania and Bulgańa next year.

    Repońed speech Read the information in the box. You hear Mańa say .sa|esare rising,.You can repoń this commentto a colleaguein two ways: (1)Mafta nys (that) salesare ńsing' (no tense change) (2\ Marta said (that) saleswerc rising. (tensechange) There is no rule about whether to change tense or not, but if We think Mańa,5originaIstatementis sti||true and relevantthen we are likely to use no tense change (1). By usinga tensechange(2)we can sound moreformal and objective- we are distancing ourselvesfrom the statement. ,repońed Making a tenseChange|ikein (2)i5ca||ed people speech'. this'indired some call speech'; The word that is in bracketsin the examplesabove becausewe often leave it out. With repońed speechthe originalverb,movesback,in time. Study the verb tenses: Actua| Words:,ltśa great idea., Repońed: He said (tńat) it was a great idea. Actual words: 'l work part-time.' (tńat) she worked part.time. Reported: she 'a,d Adual words: 'sa,/esare rising.' Reported: He satd (thbt) sales were rising. Actual words: 'leff started his own company.' Repońed: she sa,d (that) Jeff stańed'/had sta|ted his own company. Actual words; 'Market share has grown.' Repońed: He sald (tńat) market share had grown. Actual words: 'We will expand the business.' Reported: she said (tńat) they would expand the business, Actual words: 'We can deliver next week,' Repońed: He said (tńat) they could deliver nert week'

    In all the examples above the lepońing verb is say. I Study the information in the box. Say,tell, and ask We say something. We say !q someone.(NOT s8Fomrone) We te||someone somethin9. (NoT tesomeen€ ) To repoń a question we can use ask. Now fill each space with said., told or asked. 1 2 3

    Actual wordsr 'l'm very pleased to tell you that sales this quańer have increased by 6% compared to the same period last year, and I am confident that we can maintain that rate of increase going forward. We have an ambitious expansion plan, and we are moving rapidly into the new markets of Central and Eastem Europe. We will open new branches in Bucharest and Sofia next year' Repońed: Did you go to the plesentation? No? Let,s see if I can remember what he said. Oh yes, he said that sales this qlarler |hąd increased by 6% compared to last year, and he 'Źconfident that the company 5the same late of increase. What else? Oh, yes, some ambitious I remember He said that they aplans, and that theV 5into Central Europe in a

    12 8 1 ; ł , Bu s i n e s s

    she She She -

    me she was leaving the company. she was leaving the comPanY me if I was happy working here, and I

    'yes'.

    to Michael that she was leaving the She company, Michael that she was leaving the company. She Michael what he thought about the 6 She her that he was happy here. company, and he -

    p Thereare many otherreportingverbs.Match eachverb 1-8to its closest meaning a-h below. Be careful - some are very similar! 1 Hestatedthót....D 2 He addedthat...E He continuedthat ... E + He explainedthat ... E 5 He claimedthat ... ! 6 He insistedthat... E " 7 He stressedthat ... ! I He pointedout that ... !

    b c d f

    Now read this extract from a presentation, then I complete the lepońed version below.

    new branches in

    c h

    He said something in a way that helped us to understand it better. He said something in a definiie and formal way. He said something more (and different). He kept talking about the samething. He kept saying very firmly that something is true. He said that something is true, even though there is no definite proof. He said something that we had not noticed or thought about. He emphasized something such as an idea, fact or detail. We often use shou,d/'ńou,dn,tto repoń an imperative: Actual words: 'call back tomorrow please.' Repońed: 5,'e said (tńat) t should catl bact tonorfow.

    A completethe reportedversionoftheseimperatives. 1 'Includeyour mobile numberon your CV.' She said I 2 'Don't list all your hobbieson your CV.' He said I

    G.ammarandera(tke o

    Phrasal verbs P

    Read the information in the box. A phrasaIverb is a verb + ,a pańic|e,.Don.t worry about the Word pańic|e - it just means adverb or preposition. Compare these two sentences: (1) I took off my jacket becauseit was so hot. (2) The plane took off. In sentence(1)the verb'take'and the adverb'off'are being us€ d Withtheir norma|,IiteraImeanings. In sentence(2)the meaningof'take' changeswhen it is followedby'off'. The meaningis non-literal. You probablyalreadyknow somephrasalverbs,at least passively: lwoke up at 6 o'clock this morning. l'm looking for a new job. I deal with customers from all over the world. Many phrasalverbsare easyto understand,eitherfrom the individualwords or from the context; We're going the wrong way -tum round. The factory is going to close down next year, We ran into trouble with óur cońtróversial advertiiing campaign. But other phrasalverbsare not so obviousand you just haveto know them: Don't worry aboutthis problem. l'll sort it out and get back to you tomorrow.(=l'll find an answerand contactyou again) Phrasalverbsare useda lot by nativespeakers.But don't worry if you don't use them yourself - there is nearly alwaysanother,simplerway of sayingthe samething,

    Complete each sentence with a phrasal verb from the box. The definitions are in brackets. k€ e p on keep to |ook after look into put forward put off set back set up 1

    I made a complaint and they promised to _ the matter. (investigate) 2 It's hard work to _ three children all dav (take care o0 I don't like working for a large, bureau*atic organization - I want to leave and _ my own business. (start) The production problems in the factory are going to our plans by several weeks. (delay) _ At the last meeting she _ a very interesting idea. (suggestsomething so that other people can discuss it) I'm solry I'm busy on Fńday. Can we the meeting until next week? (arange to do something at a later time)

    Costsare increasingall the time and it's difficultto our budget.(do what you agreedto do) Don't worry if you'renot successfulat first- iust trying.(continue)

    @ Sometimes the phrasal verb is separable,other times non-separable. Look at the words in bold and write a tick (/) if the word order is possible, or a cross (X) if ir is not. 1 Hello? Is that Citibank? Can you put me through to the mortgage department please.D 2 Hello? Is that Citibank? Can you put through me to the mortgage dePańment please.! 3 Can you pick up Patricia from the airpon? ! 4 Can you pick Patricia up from the airpoń? ! 5 Don't worry, I'11deal with it. D 6 Don't worry I'll deal it with. ! 7 Just give me a little more time - I'll figure out the answer soon. L_J 8 ]ust give me a little mole time _ I'll ńgure the answer out soon. L_J The easiestway to know if you can separatea phrasal verb is just to say it and see if it soundsright.lf you want to know more about phrasalverb grammar,readthe following bullet points. . Some phrasalverbsare intransitive - that means they have no object.Herethe phrasalverb cannot be separablebecausethere is no objectto put in the middle! Suddenly the lights went out. I grew up in Hamburg. . Some phrasalverbsare transitive.This meansthat they must have an obiect: I deal with customersfrom all over the world. l'll sort out the problem. . And some phrasalverbscan be usedboth with and without an object: We closed down the factory lastyear, We closed down last year, . Usually,a phrasalverb with an objectcan be separated: Can you pick up Patricia? Can you pick Patricia up? We closed down the factory. We closed the factory down, . But sometimesa phrasalverb with an objectcannot be separated: l'll deal with it. (NoT#ńffi+.) lf the phrasalverb is separable,and the objectis a pIO!QU!, then it must come in the middle: Can you pickher up?(NOTffi) We closed it down. (NOT tlM) Wh€ n the objecti5a |ongphrase,then the phrasa| verb is not separated: Can you pick up a colleague lrom our Warsaw oflice who is arriving at 7 this evening?

    ([email protected] @

    TTr.Business 129

    will Read the information in the box then do the exercise I below Wrl/is used in severalways: To talk about a futuref!ś! somethingwe cannotcontrol. The company will celebrate its twentieth anniversary next year, To make a orediction(herewe often use, tńink .''). I think the share price will be much higher one year from now To make an i!ś!oEldcśi!i9!(somethlngWe decide at the momentof speaking), ltśraining. l,ll take an umbrella' To make a plo!o!!c. Don't worry l'll speak to my bossabout this tomorrow. To make an offer of help (to saythat we are willing to do something). l'll carryyour bags for you. To make a reouest(to see if the other personis willing to do something). will you give me a hand with these bags? Look at the six sentencesbelow and decide how zlll is used. After each one write one of thesettact, prcdiction, instant decision, promise, olter ol help or request. 1 lsn't it hot in hdre? I'll open the window. 2 She'll be in Toulouse all next week, so there's no point calling her at the Hamburg office.

    3 Will you call a ta"rifor me? Thanks.4 I'll look afteryour thingswhile you go to the bathroom. 5 6

    I'll love you for ever Irhink saleswill probablyimprove nexr quaner. _ Someof the examplesabovecould have morethan one answer(e.9.4 is probablyan offer of help,but it could be an instantdecisionor a promise).The importantthing is to realizethat wll/ is much morethan just a simple future. Noticefrom the examo|eshow Will is often shońenedto ,//in speech.pańicuIar|y after pronouns(,.,/, ńe7 etc').

    Ę Read the information in the box then do the exelcise below.

    I

    ł

    I

    . The negative of wrli is won't (will not). I won't be in Toulouse- l'm going to Lyon instead. . Noticethat we don't use wont alter I thinkl NOT:ftffiffit appeal to ltalian customers. INsTEAD.sAY / don't think the name will appeal to Italian customers. . Be careful! Use a present tense, NOT w//, after these words:ił, when, before, after, as soon as. NOTIl'll give her your messagewhen M+see her. INSTEAD,SAY /'//give her your messagewhen I see her.

    Cross out the ellor in each sentence and w te the correct form. 1 2 3 4

    Sorry I not be able to come to the meeting ne\t week. I think we won't make a profit next year. I will call you as soon as I will get the information. I should know whether we have funding for the project after I will meet the bank manager.

    be going to El Read the information in the box then do the exercise below. Be going to is used in two main waysl . To make a orediction. See that fence at the end of the garden? l'm sure it's going to fall down soon, . To talk about a plan or intention. l'm going to start my own business. Look at the four sentencesbelow and decide how be going lo is used. After each one wdte either prediction or plan/ intention. 1 Joelle wants a salary increase - she's going to speak to her boss about it next week.2 Have you seen the most recent opinion poll? I think the social Deńocmts are going tÓ win the election. 3 Unemployńent is going to increase if the govemment cuts its spendingprogram.4 I got some money from an inheritance. I'm going to invest it in stocks and bonds. E Read the informJtiJn in the box then do the exercise be1ow. will and be going to Predictions:Will and be going to are both used to make predidions.and ln manycasesa nativespeakercould use eitherone. But if there is stronqevidencein the present situation'then be gong Źois more like|y. Look at the clouds.I think it's going to rain. Decisions:Note that wll/ is usedfor instantdecisions, whereasbe golng to is usedfor a plan or intention wherethe decisionhasalreadybeen made. Complete each sentence with a form oI uill or be going to and the verb in brackets. In every case both are possible, but decide which form is most likely. Predictions (be) late. 1 Look at the time! We (be) nice weather at the weekend. 2 I'm sure it Decisions (give)you a 2% 3 Okayl That's agreedl Wediscount. But you have to place a minimum order of 1000 pieces. 4 I was talking to my wife about this last week. We (give) our daughter € 5 00 a month while she,s at unive$ity.

    Grammar and eracti
    First conditional

    Variations . In exercises5 and 5 you saw that a firstconditional often has/f + presentsimplefollowedby wll/ in the resultclause. . But in exercise7 you can seethat there are some commonvariations./fcan be followedby other presenttenses(presentcontinuousl/2 or present perfect 3). . And in the resultclausewe can use an imperative(a), or another modal besideswill (b/c).

    p Read the information in the box then do the exercise below. A sentencebeginningwith /f... is calleda conditional. Thereare differenttypesof conditional.By far the mostcommonis calleda first conditional.lt is used when a future event is reasonablylikelyto happen: lf the venture capital company likesour businessplan, they'll investin our company. lf we decide to buy shares, we'll have to accept some risk. Notice the form of the examolesabove: lf + present simple, '.. Will (+ simple inłinitive) A commonmistak€ i5to useWilIin the /f '.. c|ause. NoT /ftńe yenture capital company witt1ike our businessDlan. ... The tf,,. clausecan come at the end We'll have to acceptsome risk if we decide to buy share5, We can use negatives. tf the venture capital comlbnl tikesour businessplan, we won't have to investso much of our own money. lf the venture capital company doesn't like our businessplan, we'll have to take out a second mortgage on the .house.

    El Read the inlormation in the box then do the exercise below. Unlessmeansif...no t. Unless we employ more part-time staff, we'll missthe deadline. lf we don't employ more part-time staff, we'll missthe deadline. Rewritelhe sentencesusing łn lcss. 1

    Cofiect the errors in these sentences.Each sentence has two effors.

    2

    1 Ifthe company will be successful,they list on the stock market. 2 If I don't will hear from them soon, I will to send them an email. 3 Don't worry I don't will say an5rthingabout your new iob if your colleagues will be in the bar with us this evenlng.

    p

    Complete these sentences using a first conditional form t and the verbs in brackets. Use contraclions ('II nol uill) where possible. 1 Ifyou _ (sign) today, I _ (give)you the items ' at last year's price. 2 If you _ (take) our extended guamntee, you (not/have to) worry about service and spare -

    by and until By meanson or be{ore. I need your report by Friday. Until meansup to. l'm out of the office until Friday. Complete the sentenceswith by or untiL.

    (not/get)

    Ę ltatch the beginning of each sentence 1-3 with the most likely ending a)-c).

    [f we don't pay morc moneyJwę won't attmct people with the right skills. we won't attract.peoplewith the right _, skills. You ll ger wer ifyou don t take an umbiella. You'll get wet _ .

    Read the information in the box then do the exercise below.

    nerr< fnr fn, , r v pr r <

    (miss) the deadline if we _ 3 We _ any more money for rhe project.

    O

    4

    I can give you _ the end of the month to pay your first instalment. We need the goods the end of the month at the latest. The CEO is over 65. I think he'll retire _ the end of next year. For a small additional payment we can extend your warranty the end of next year.

    1 If we're seeing the bank manager next week ... 2 If you're looking for a model with more features, .. . 3 Ifyou've got a problem, ... a) ring our Helpline. b) we should think about how much money we need to borrow. c) I can show you our new Alpha range.

    / L B ' rs, , . .

    131

    n /''.!pletę the table below. The final column is needed tc naLe irregular forms ol the present pedect. i!rfinitive

    past5imple

    pastpańicipIe

    becorne

    became

    !regrn

    began

    bing bLry

    broŁght

    brought

    bought

    bou9ht

    :hcose

    cnose

    fal !

    fell

    finC

    found

    aJ b) c) d)

    The form of the present perfect is hayńave + past pańicipIe(thirdcoIumnof verb tabIe5). contractions are commonIn Speech. Affirmative: I have (l've)gone, He has (He's)gone. Negative:/ haye not (l haven't)gone, He hasnat (He hasn't)gone. Questions:Havelgone?, Hashe gone? The present perfect is neither a past tense, nor a presenttense,but both.lt'looks back'from the presentto the Dast. Studyexamples1-4again.Noticehow they all look back from the presentto the oast. We can usethe pastsimpleas well as the present perfectfor'the presentresultof a pastadion'. Thisis Very€ o mmon (a)in Ameri(anEng|ishand (b)With the wo(ds just and already. We havejust opened a new office in Prague. OR We just opened a new office in Prague.

    found

    forgot 9ave went grew

    go

    9l9w, h3ve

    nao

    had

    *ep!

    kept

    t
    teft

    ir"t

    lose

    El Complete the sentencesby putting each verb into the correct form of the present perfect. Use contmctions where possible.

    lost

    rnake meet pay

    . palg

    r"ll

    sold

    seT

    Set

    tp""L

    Jnderstand

    50enr

    took

    !aKe

    t h i nk

    5et

    spent

    :P'ęnd '. rell

    .. s ol9

    -ipot"

    --told

    l

    '

    I

    thouoht understood

    told - '-

    the presentresuJtola past aclion life experience up to now repeated actions before now a state lasting up to the present

    _-

    understood

    ,r,!rt!Ie

    ,-oYer t!.reright-hand column with a piece of paper and test ycłrse!!'Repeatuntilyou have learnt all the folms!

    Present peńect Ę ł,tatchthe examples of the present perfect 1-4 with their $sesa)'d) below. 1 I've been to Prague 12 times this year ! 2 We've opened a new office in Prague. Our operations in centra! Europe will be much more efficient now ! 3 Tlre Prague office has been open for thlee months. ! 4 I've lever been to our office in Prague.E

    (welmake)the ght decision? 1 2 I had a headache but I (take) an aspirin and I feel better now ( not/See,her J D o vo u l
    Christine/never/tell/me about her familv

    5

    you/ever/have/an aĘument with your boss?

    '! cramrrar and rracice

    Present peńect and past simple p Put the verb into eitherthe pastsimple (I did) or the presentperfect (1Ó aae done). Decide whetherthe speaker seesthe action as completely in the ijast, oI as linked to tłre present. (crash)lastweek and so I'm usingmy 1 a My PC laptop. (crash)!What am I b On no! My computer_ goingto do now?!? (be)a serious 2 a News is just comingin. There_ earthquakein San Francisco. (be)a smalleańhquakejustoutside b ThereSan Franciscowhile we werethereon holiday. (act)in mole than thińy moviesduring 3 a She her career,but now she'sretiredand spendsher time working for charity. (act)in morethan thińy movies,but this b She is her best film yet. (stań)yet? I hope I'm the meeting4 a not late. (stań)on time? I wasn,t b the meeting.. I thereso I don't knów. Ę It is verycommonto ask a questionwith the present perfectand then replywith the pastsimple.Use this pattem to comDlete the sentences.

    1 a: How many cv31gnęrshaoeyou sćfbed(you/serve) this week? (have)over b: Oh, loads.On Monday alonewe [email protected] 500 peoplein the shop. (you/ever/be) 2a: to Germany? (be)in Flankfurtlastyearfor a trade b: Y€ s ' I snow. (you,/know) 3a: How long Robeńo? (work) togetherin London for b: For ages.We a long time. (you/come)to this talk? It'snot really 4 a: Whyyour field. (look)interestingon the b: You'reright.But it _ progmm. (you/finish)yet? 5 a: (finish)agesago. b: Yes,of course,I _ (not/welmeet)somewherebefore? 6 'a: b: Yes,I rememberyou fromthe conferencein (give)a talk on direct Chicagolastyear You _ marketing. E If thereis a time expression,then it controlsthe verb tense.Completethe sentencesby puttingthe verb into either the past simple (1did) or the present perfect(l haue done). (nake) a profit of € 4 million' 1 a Last year we b This year we (make)a biggerprofit _ somethingcloseto € 6 million. (have)15,000hits on 2 a So far this month we _ our new website. (have)an average b A few monthŚ ago we only of 8,000hits per month.

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    (never/visit)Rome,but I hopeto go theie Ione day. (\risit)Rome in 2002,for my honeymoon. b I(not/speak)to my bossyest€ r day - he was I4a really busy. (not/speak)to my boss.I'll b I'm sorry,I still do it this afternoon. 5a our lawyer - (look at) the contractyet? L (look at) the contract our lawyerbeforehe went awayon Yacation? 3a

    Notice from the examplesabove how: . some time expressionsgo with the present peńect becausethe time period inc|udesthe present:fńis year, so far this month, nevet still, yet. . Sometime expressions go with the pastsimple becausethe time period is in the past:,ast yea,i a few months ago, in 2002, yesterday-

    for and since p We oftenuselol and since with the prcsentperfect. But we can usefol with othertensesas well. Readthe informationin the box then do the exercisebelow. for + length of time present perfect; /,ye been here in Lońda for rwo wee/G. past simple:/ /iyed ,n London for a year just after I finished univeBity. present continuous:l,m staying here in London łor a Year. (=ong ys61 16161a1; Jince + point in time when the adion started present perfect: /'ye been here in London since the beginning of the month.

    Completea part of Louisa'semailto a friendby: o puttingthe verb into eitherthe pastsimpleor pieseut perfect . underliningeitherfor or since. Hi Ana, how arethings?I'm writingto you from Paris! It'smy secondtime here.If you remember, the firsttime (be)hereon holiday2tot/since two was when I 1weekswith Paulo. It seemslike a long time agoi Anyrvay,now I'm herefor work experience,and i'm (ańve) at staing3tot/since a year.Actually, I athe beginningof fanuary- morethan two monthsago! (not/wite) 6for/sincethen. Sorry that I sThingsare goingwell. I havea job in a bookshopand I'm learningFrench- I speakit all the time.I 7_ (meet)all sortsof interestingpeopleslor/since I got here,includinga reallynice guy calledAlain. Let me tell you abouthim. We e(meet)for the first time a coupleof weeksago. (come)into the shop and ... He ro-

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    Recordings 1 Living abroad 1.1About businessWorking abroad ! t:o,t-t:oł Kiki

    My name! Kiki and I spendtwo months everyyear in India buyingsuppliesfor my jewellery business. When I come to India I spendlime meetinglocal nranufucturers in diffeIent pańs of the country talkin8 with them and lookinS at their jewellery India is such a big countrythat it can sometimes take two days to go from one city to another I'm in lodhpurat the momentand tomorow I'm goingto Delhi. When I find some jewellery that I like, I buy it from the manulactu€r to sell in my shop in Hong Kong. I have a lot of very good contacts herc in lndia, and this is my tenth visit here-I alwaysvisil the samecompanies and I know a lot ofthe managersvery well. When I first came here I thought the food was very strange, therc wasn't very much meat and the flavours were very different to the food in Hong Kong. But now I love the food and I alwa!6 buy lots oI spices to add to my cooking back at home! Antl My name3Anil and I'm a softwareanalyŚt for LOO SoftwareSystems.My company often sendsme abload and I usually spend more than half of each year away from home. I go to companiesarcund the world and-help them to install our software systems.I then stay there to train the employeeshow to use the new system and to h€lp with any problerns that the company have. This process usually takes about six months from beginning to end. Last year I was in Venzuela for seven months and at the moment l'm irr Thailand so I see some very different and interesting plac€s. [,m staying in a really nice hotel in lhe cenlre of Bangkok, itt got five sta$ and has everything that t need.I reallyenioy my job becauseI meet a lot of people and I leam a lot about how diffel€ n t countńes do business' Jean Marc My nańe! ]ean Marc and I work abroad for ten months every year I work as a doctor and I bavel around the world giving medical help after natural disasters such as dloughtsand tsunamis'I nev€ r know whe.e I am going next and that's what makes my job really exciting. At the momentl'm working in Indonesia,on a very small isiand. I m going [o be here for about ten months. The joumey here takes four days becausethereare no roads,you have to fly and then get a boat. I work in a health centre givinB ńedical treatment to local peopleand I,m also t€ a ching the youn8 children about how impońant clean watel is. I love working with the childr€n and the people here are all very friendly. When my work herefinishesI am going to spendsix weekstravellingamund IndonesiabeforeI stań my nex1]'ob'I don't knowwhere it will be though!

    Marika My university has links with engineedng fiIms in Germany. As part of my degree I'm spending a year working for a petroleum companynear Munich. I'm working in their labs helpingtherndevelopnew equipment. At first it was difficult because I had to leam a lot aboutthe job and I also missed my fiends and family. I soon made lots of new ftiends though and stopped feelinghomesick.There are people hom all over the world working for the oĘanization and I made lots of Geman fńends' I'm stayingwith a tocal family and this really helped me when I first arrived. They made me feel at home. They showedme around the city and gaveme lots of help with any problems that I had. I'm really enjoying working here and my managersaysthat I am doing a good job, Hopefully I will geta good rcferencewhen I leave and this will help me find a good position after university.

    1.2VocabularyLivingabroad ! r:os-l:os Conversation I Bank manager come in, Mrs silvera. Pleas€ sit down. Carmen:Thank you. BMr Now, what can I do for you? Cr I'd like to open an account. BM: Well I can hear that you're not from New Zealand, Cr No, I'm not,I'm from Brazil but I'm going to be in New Zealand for a year. ; ' my companyhas sent me to work at their subsidiaryherc. BM| oh. great'you'regoing lo |ov€ it here.is this your fi$t visit to New Zealand? C: Yes it is, but everyone at work is very fiendly and the countryside is so beautiful. BM: That's good. Now, beforc I can open an account I ne€ d to seesomeimpoItant documents,do you haveyour passport? c: Yes,here it is. It'sall in Poltugu€ s € though. BM: That's OK, I just need to check the address and the photo. I also need to see a lettel or a contraĆt flom your company' Do you have one? c: Yes, her€ you are. BM: Great, Does it give detailsofyour salary? Oh yes,I can see it herc. Good and it's got your addressin New Zealand too. Now, I need you to fill in theseformsand then we can open the accountforyou. I'll go and make a copy ofyour documentswhile you fill in the form. I'll be back in a couple of mrnutes. C: OK. Conversation 2 Iandlord: oK, so this is the aPartrnćnt.If we go throughthis door you'll seethe living room. Petra: wow look at the view, you can see ń8ht acrossthe harbour! Ikis: Yes, it's beautiful. L: Yes, the views are good. You can see that the apartrnent is fully fumished so you wont need to buy any fumitule or equrpment. P: Thatśgood,and the kitchen? Ll Yes,throughhere is the kitchen. P: It'sbiggerthan our old kitchen at home!

    K: And it's much more modem. How many bedroomsare therc? L: Therc are two bedrooms in the apartment, the doorbehind us opensinto one ofthe bedrooms, the other is back through the hall. K: TWo bedrcoms, that means we can have visitoN to stay! Pr I supposethe mosr imponant questionis about the rent. How much is it? L: weII,it's € 1 ,500 permonth but that includes all of the bills. P; And how much is the deposit? L: one and a half month,srent,so that's€ 2 , 250. K: ThatS a lot of money, but my company saysthat they will help us with the deposit and the rent for the frrst month. L: It mi8ht seem like a lot of money but itśa lovely apartment. I don't think you'll find anlthing cheaper in this area. P: We need to think about it. Can we call you back tomonow? Lr Of course,but don't take too long, another couple are coming to view the apartment later.You wouldn't want to lose it, would you? K: No, we'll be in touch soon, bye. Conver6ation 3 Doctor: Come in, Mr Goodman, have a seat. Mr Coodman: Thanks. D: So what can I do for you today? Mr G: well, I arrived in Greece last week. I'm working for Athens Bank on a year's placementand they told me that I need to come and register with a doctor D: Yes,it,Ś definitelya 8ood idea.Before we start the examination, do you have a Eurcpean Health lnsurance Card? Mr G: No, l dón't. Dr OK, here'sthe form. Fillthis in and you łvon,thave'to pay so much fol youl medical treatment. You can give it to the receptioniston the way out. Mr G: OK. D| Now th€ r e are a number ofquestionsthat I need to ask you- AIe you taking any medicine at the moment? Mr G: No I'm not, D: Cood, now I need to check your weight and your hei8ht, how tall ar€ you? Mr G: I'm one metre65. D: And your weight? Mr G: I'm not sure. D: Well ifyou can stand on the scaleswe can check, they'rejust over there... Conve$ation 4 sales assiŚtant:Good aft€ m oon, can I help you? Yuki: Yes, l'd like to buy a mobile phone. sA: Well, you're in the ńght place,we are the largest mobile phone shop in Copenhagen. What kind ofphone do you need? Y I don t havea landlinein my apanment here so I need a cheap phone.AIso I'm not sure how long my company need rne to stayh€ r e and so I don,t want a phone with a contractSA: OK, we have a lot of phonesthat come with prepaidpackages,thelet a lot of choice. Y And is buyin8 top-ups easy?

    F

    **"r.,"n.! SA: Yes, lots ofthe phonescome with free minutesso that you can use them as soon as you buy them.This one, for example comeswith 400 minutesfreetalking time. When you need to top the phone up you can come back to this shop to buy some morc cr€ d it or you can call the providel with your crcdit card and they will put more credit on the phone for you. h s very easy. Y And what happenswhen I go back to Japan? SA: Well thereis no contractso you don't have to pay when you don'i want the phone any more. Y: Thatśjust what I need,can you show me someofthe prepaidphones,pleas€ ? SA: OI course,the most popular one is this one.....

    1.3GrammarPresentsimpleand Prepositionsof time $ t:os-r:t s

    B: And did the children enioy it? A: Oh yestheyloveit whenwe 80 camping. They didn't want to come home! B: well, that soundsreally nice, ifyou'll excuseme I've 8ot to make an important phone call. s€ e you soon' A: oK, s€ e you later'

    I go running everyday.ln fact, I try to run in at leasttwo marathonsa year.I'd love lo run a marathonin anothercountryone day.I want to go and work abrcad so that I can leam about living and working in a differentculture becauseI want to experiencesomething totally differcntand I want to seethe world.

    conversation 2 c: I can't believehow busy it is. D: No, me neither I didn't know so many peoplewould be able to take the time to travelto Thailand for this conference. C: Did you have a good joumey here? D: well I left home in H€ l sinki on Monday but I had to stop in Abu Dhabi for a m€ e ting so I arrivedhere on wednesday' C: Abu Dhabi, wowl What was it like? D: wellthe weatherwasreally hot but it's a really interestingplace. C: Was it your firstvisit there? D: No, we do a lot ofbusinessout there actually. C: Oh, rcall$ vhere did you stay? D: In a reallynice hotel, right in the centrc of Abu Dhabi. C: was it called the Continental? D: Yes, I think it was. Why do you ask? C: Oh t stayedtherelast month D: Really? I didn't know you did business there. C: Yes, we do. I go thereabout threetimesa year well, € n joy the restofthe conference' D: Yes,you too, bye.

    Panayota Hi, my name'sPanayota,but that'sa bit difficultso everyonecalls me Pana.What can t tell you about myself?Hmm, well, I come from a largetraditionalCreek family.I studied geographyat universityin Athens but at the momentI'm working in my familyl tavema.I mosrlyservein rhe restaurant,I love chaning to th€ customersbecauseI can p|actisemy languages,I can speak English, French and German and even a little Chinese. I also keep the accountsand oĘanize the ordersand the deliveńes'I'm good with figuresand I'm very well organized.I'm nearly28 yearsotd and in Creecethatmeansthatall my aunts keep asking'when are you gettingmanied?' I'm not readyfor that yet. t would like to see somethingofthe world first,althoughone day I'd like to have a big familywith lots of chitdren.My hobbies?Well, I come from an island so I have to say sailingand swimming-

    1 Januarythe 26'his Australia'sofficial nationalholiday.It rnarksthe day that the first ships landed in SydneyCove in 1788. On that day the prime minisier makesa specialspeechon the TV and peopleset fircworks off in the evening, 2 Boxing Day in the UK is the day after chństmas Day and so is th€ 26lhof December It is a public holiday and in the UK it is common for spońs eventsto take Conversation 3 place. . E: Where do you want to 8C|? 3 CroundhogDay is a traditionalfeslival 'F: The Royal Hotel please. that is celebratedin the United Statesand E: OK, no problem.Are you herc in Paris for Canada on Februarythe 2"d.A groundhog wo.k or on holiday? is a small animal that lives in a hole in the F: lt's work actually. ground.Peoplebelievethat ifa groundhog E: Oh, what do you do? seesits shado\yon this day therewill be F: I'm an enBineer,I work for a largespanish six more weeks of cold weather. engineeńngcompany.I,m the researchand 4 Bastille Day is the French nationalholiday developmentmanaget I'm in chargeof and it is celebratedeach year on the 14'h a group ofsix scientistswho work in the ofJuly. On this day in 1789the Bastille,a lab. we,re responsiblefol d€ v elopin8 new prison in Paris,was attackedby the local ideasand productsfor the company. residents.Everyyear thereare military E: That soundsreallyintercsting.Do you like paradcs. your job? 5 Apńl Fool's Day, is not a real holiday,but F: well, everyday is different,so y€ s ' l love it' is celebratedin many countńeson April Some days I'm in the lab while othersI'm the 1.'by playingiokes on fńends and out doing research.We'realwaysworking neighbours. on new and excitingproductsso I never 6 ln Japan'Apńl the 29.his showa Day.This have a chanceto getbored.At the moment was the Empetor'sbińhday and it beginsa we're working on a new software program rł.eekoffestiva|s,called Golden week' Ior the Indian market. 7 The Day ofthe Dead in Mexico is the 1"' E: That soundsvery exciting.Ar€ you goin8 people visit the of November on this day to visit India? gravesofth€ i r familiesand they also build F: Yes, I'm flying out therenext week. Have and fly large kitcs. you been there? E: Yes, last year I... 'l.4

    !

    SpeakingMaking small talk t,ro-r,ra

    Conversation 1 A: Hi ther€ ' B: Oh hi, how was your weekend? A: Oh, it was great,we took the kids camping. B: Wow,that soundslovely.Did you have good weather? A: Well, no, on Saturdayit rainedall aft€ m oon but it was much betteron sunday,it was sunny and warm all day. B: So \vheredid you go? A: We went up into the mountainsand campedon the shoresof Lake Garda.

    1.6casestudyGlobalRecruit .Q t:ts.r;zz Tomas My nameis Tomas.I'm 25 yearsold and com€ from the Netherlands.I finisheda degreein BusinessStudiesin Eindhoven one year ago. I rcally enioy working with people,in my last job I worked for a mobile phone company in Gemany but I finishedtherelast month. I had to offer adviceto customersand help rhemwhenrheyhada problemwilh their phone.l'm prettygood at languages.I speak English,Flemish & French. My hobbies?well

    Miroslav Hello, my nameis Miroslav.I'm 27 yearsold and single.I have a diploma in information in rechnoloryfromthe (echnologicalcollege Bratislava.In my currentjob I designwebsites for expensiveboutiquesacrossSlovakia. k is impońant for the shops that thefuwebsites look good becausemost ofthe customers go, I speak shop online. As far as langiraBes English and a|soPońuguesebecausemy mothel is from Pońugal. When l,m not working I love computersand spendlots of my freetime keepingmy own websiteup-todate' The address is !^Ą!&mircs!ay!a!LEk' I a]solove pańies and going out, I have a lot of fńends who are designersand so we sPend a lot of time at nightclubs,discos and pańies' I reallywant to go and work abroadsomewhere excrtlng, Francesca Ciao, my namel Francescaand I'm 28 yea$ otd. I leamt to speak English, Spanishand a little bit ofFrench and Portu8ueseat one of ihe bestunive$ities in ltaly. I studiedmodem |angua8es and as pan of my de8r€ e I spent a year studyingin spain. I had a fantastic time.You leam so much when you live away from home,that'swhy I want to do it again. After I graduatedI spentfour yearsworking as a senior computerprcSrammerfor an IT companyin Rome. I was responsiblefor a team oftwenty other programmersbut to be honestit was a little bit bońng so last month I left.Now l want to try living in another country In my freetime I love to be outside, I love walking in the mountainsand cycling so I'd like to go to a countrywhere I can continueto do thos€ things'

    ,r/'rBusin€ s s

    135

    $ r:z: Heidi: Hi there Dana, this is Heidi from the recruitnent depańment' Dana: Hi there,how are you? Hr I'm frne thanks, I'm calling with regard to the applicationslor job numbersTC / 428 and WA / 926. I've got the rcferences for all of the four candidates that you shortlisted.I thoughtyou'dlike to hear about them immediately. D: oh' excellent,thatl great'can we stań with the Call Dubaijob? H: OK, first of all there was Mr Visser. D: Oh, yes Tomas.He was a very nice young man. What did his referencesay? H: Well it says that he was very hardworking in his last job and he was popular with thę other members of staff. D: Thatśgood. Hr Yes it is but the rcason he left was because there was a p(oblem \ rith a customer. The reference doesn't give any mone information.It just says'Tomasleft the company after a complaint Lom a customer'Maybe the customerwas very difficult or maybe Tomas did something wrong, I don't know. D: That soundsa bit worrying,we'll have to talk to him about it. Now what about Ms Mitropoulos,the lady from creece? H: Well this is a little bit stange but because sh€ left universityand worked in her latherśtavema there was no pmfessional reference for her. The rcfercnce that we have is from her university professox It says that she was.a very good student but it doesn'tsay anythindaboutwhethershe would be suitablefor a Iob in Dubai. D: OK, we need to have a think about her too. What about WA / 926,the job at MTM in Brazil? H: Well, the fiNt person was Miroslav Kalata. At the momenthe is working as a webdesigne.in slovakia. His rcfercncesays that he is very creative and he produces somereallygreatthingson his websitebut unlortunately he is often late for work and is often tircd. Last month he was more than half an hour late on six occasions. D: Thatśquite a lot. but itt a problemrhat isn't difficult to fix. And what about Francesca,I think her sumamewas Di Ponti. H: well she has a lot ofexpeń€ n ce as a mana8el, her I€ference said that she was rcally good at her job. She was a senior computerprogrammerfor an IT company in Rome. D: Yes, I rememberhex I thoughtshe would b€ ideal for the job in Brazil. H: She has a lot of strengths but her rcfercnce says that she was very unpopular with the other employees.She worked well on her own but when she had to woIk as pań of a team the results were not good. D: Well that'snot greateither OK, thanks for letting me know. Can you email the rcfelences to me? H: Yes,I'll do it staightaway, D: Thanks a lot Heidi, that'sgreat. H: Not a problem,Dana. Bye now. D: Goodbye.

    136 lt.Business

    2 Dealing with customers 2.1 About businessThe shopping experience $ tza Interviewer:Good aftemoonand on Modem Business today I am joined by Ralael Femandez.He is a malket analystand an expeń on luxury customerspending'cood aftemoon Ralael. Rafael:Goodaftemoon Emilia. I: so, Rafaelcould you stań by telling us what a typical consumer looks for when shoppingin a luxury departmentstore? Rr Well, the tust is the productitseu.They want to know that the product they are buying is of a high quality and that it is relioble.Salesassistantshave to remember to tell the consumer this. The second important factor is the experience of buying these products' Th€y want to enioy the expeńenceand don't want to have any prcblems.Salesassistantsneed to make the expeńence of shopping as pleasurable as they can so they need to make the consum€ r feel special.This could involve gMng them perconal attention, calling them by their names and carrying the shoppingto the car.It also meansthat the assistants need to be able to deal with problems quickly and carefully. You've heardthe expression'the customeris always ńght?' l: Yes. Rr Well here it is really important. If the customer doesn't feel they are getting tlra' service they are paying for they will go to another store. That leads me onto the final thing that these consumers look for, value for money. Even though they arc spending a lot of money they still want to feel that the tiin8s th€ y ar€ buyingarc wonh the moneythat they are spending. I: Wow, it sounds like luxury consuners are very difficult to please. Rr Well, yes they can be, but rcmember, if they come to youl stołęand aIę pleased with the service,they will come back a8ain and again. I: Wow, it sounds like they love to spend! oĘ thank you very much Rafael,now it's time for...

    2.2 VocabularyTelephoningand customer care $ t:zs*t:zt Conversation I A: Cood moming, Custom Compute6, how can I help you? B: Hello, I'm calling about my new computer that was deliveied last week. A: oK, can you t€ I l me mor€ about the problem? B: Yes,the computerwas delivercdto the office last we€ k , but we had some problems setting it up. Lots of the cables are mrsslng, A: Right, so the computer was delivered last week but some pans are missing.This is a Problęmfor our deliveriesdepaltnenl Can you hold while I put you through? B: WeIl I'm adually very busy, do you think somebodycould call me back?

    A: Ofcourse sir, I'll get somebodyfrom deliveries to call you back later this moming,goodbye. B: Oh, goodbye. Conversation 2 A: Good aftemoon, Simpson Stationery How can I help you? B: Hello, I'm calling about my delivery oJ stationery A: oK śilwhat seemsto be the problem? B: We oldered 25 boxes of paper for an sx 279 laser pńnter. The delivery was supposed to arrive this moming but it didn't. We've run out ol paper fot our laser pńnter and so we can't pńnt any documents. This is going to have a huge eff€ c t on ourbusiness! A: oK, so you ordered25 boxes of pńńel paper for an SX 279 printer and the order was supposed to arrive this moming, Do you have a r€felence number, sir? B: Yes il's,+E2/ 917. A: OK,482 / 917 and what was the delivery address? B: 27a Delta Avenue A: I'm just checkingon the computernow sir. Oh, I seewhat the problemis. Our cońputer has the delivery address as 37a Delta Avenue.It mustbe our driver'sfault; he is always doin8 things like this. He took your paper to 37a Delta Avenue. I'11 anange for another driver to come and deliver it later today, would that be OK? B: Yes that would be great, thank you very much. A: Thank you fot calling, goodbye. B: coodbye. Conversation 3 A: Good moming, Inter-Europe hotels. How can I help? B: Good moming, I'm calling about a I rqPrvation ńat I made with you last week. My name'sMr Lalo. A: oh, do you have the detailŚ of the rcservation,Mr Lalo? B: Yes, I reserved six single rooms for employees of my cornpany as we a!e... Ar No, I meando you have a booking reference number? B: Hold on, let me have a look, yes, itśwA 8628. A: oK, can you t€ll me which of ou! hotels the reservation was made for? B: Well we were going to stay at your hotel in Walsaw.-. A: Yes and when did you deed the rooms? Br Well, we neededsix rooms for thrce nights... A: Yes, I know that, but when did you need the rooms? B: We need the rooms from Tl.rcsdaythe seventeenth. and it was for threenights A: OK, so what's the problem? B: Well, one of our employeescan't come to the conferenceso I need to cancel on€ of the rooms. A: Right, I see.That'sno problem.We can change your resewation ftorn six single room6 to five, Your new reference number is WA 8629. B: WA 8629. Thanks for all your help. A: You're welcome. B: Goodbye A: Goodbye Mr Lalo.

    recoraines ! 2.4 SpeakingTelephoningHandlingcomplaints ! rr2a-rrsr

    IT Right l've found the problem, we need to install the program again on your PC. I'll come up and do it now, are you on the thid floor? B: Yes. IT:oK, I'll be ther€ in a minute.Goodbye. B: Bye.

    converśation l Lu€: cood momin8 HF Precision Engineeńng, Luca speakin8' How can I help? ConveBation 3 Paul: Hi there,this is paul Rossi and I'm Restaurant Managei Hello, Restaurant calling about a delivery of five hundrcd Exclusivo,how can I help? head cleaners. Mr LangenbuĘ:Hi, my name is Mr Lr I see,what'sthe problem? Langenburg and I came to your restauńnt P: well, the deliv€ry date was yesterday but last ni8ht with some vefy impońant guests notiing arrived. lt s very inconvenienfrom Japan. becauseit's holding up productionat my RMr I see. pranr. Mr L: well, the servic€ was absolutelyterrible! L: ['m sorry aboutthat Mr Rossi,do you have It was really embalrassing. the rcference number? RM: What was the problem? P: Yes, itśAJl96241 Mr L: Well we waited more than an hour for L: oĘ I m just checking it now on our the food to be brought to ńe table. It was system' Ah' her€ it is, de|ivery A|/96241 geat food but it wasn't hot enough. When should have aEived yestelday but there we complained to lhe waiter he said that was a problemat ou! dishibution centre. the restaurant was very busy and therc was UnJoltunat€ly the wrcng label was put on nothing he could do. your delivery so it was put on the wrong RM: Oh dear lony. Your delive4r is cunently in our Mr L: Also when I askedto speakto the distdbution centre in Milan but we can manager he said that there was no deliver it to you before the end of the manager working last night. My guests week. wele very important and so I didn't want P: Well, this is vely unsatisfadory tłlis łs to upsetthem by becomingangrybut delayingproducrionand my cornpanty is I want to let you know that I am very Iosingmoneybecauseof this. disappointed. L: I understand Mr RosŚi an.dI am very sorry. RM: This is the first time that I hav€ heald We are working hald to try and solve this about this but I'll look into it straight away probleń for you' can we do an!ńhing to to find out which waiter it was. help you with tiis? .. Mr L: Good. P: I think that you coulil give me a discount RM: Also to make things better what we could on the delivery to rnake up for all the trade do is give you a fr€e meal for eight people that I have lost. in our vlP sectionnext Friday night. L: I think thatśleasonable' would a Mr L: That would be g!€at. Thank you' discount of 10% be OK? converśation 4 P: Yes, I'd be happy with that. Jon: Good moming LaboratoryPloducts,Jon L: OK. I'll put a 10% discounton the Lauflrnan speaking. delivery notes and the palts will be vrith Ingńd: Hi there)on, this is lngdd Heller you beforethe end of the w€ e k. I'm sorTy calling ftom Scitech, for the inconvenience. ll oh, hi, InBridhow can I help? P: That's OK. Thanks fo! all your help. Bye. t: Well, Jon therel a bit of a problemwith L: Goodbye. the machine that we ordered from you. conv€Nation 2 ,: Reall$ what's the problem? IT suppoń: Good moming rT 6uppoń, how I: Well, you said that it would arrive on can I help? Monday but itl now Thursday and it still Bruna: Hi theE, this is Bruna Percz and I'm hasn't arrived. calling from the Finance departnent. ll I'm sorry to hear that, that's very strange. I'm having ploblems with our computer I: Yes it is, we really need the machine so ' system this moming. I can't access the that we can move on wiń our research.ltś accounts for the Asia group. l€ally urgent. Il That must be very frustrating, can you give J: oĘ let me seewhat I can do' wiII you be me somemore details? in the offrceall ńoming? B: well, when I stań the compute! everlthing I: Yes,I will. is OK and all of the other programs run J: Right,I'll rnakesome phone calls and I'll without any problems. When t try to open get back to you on that, the progam that I use to run the accounts I: Alń8ht, thanks foryour h€ l p Jon. for the Asia group I canl get into them. J: No PIobIemIngńd, bye. .IT Can you access the accounts for the other I: Goodbye. goups? B: I dont know, I haven't tńed. I only ever use the Asia accounts. It Do you get a ńessage on the scrcen? B: Yes, it says 'Error 27c, unknown command.' IT oĘ let me see what I can do. Are you oK to hold the line fo! a minute? B: Yes.

    2.6CasestudyThePanorama conference .P l::z Receptionist Good moming sir, welcome to the Panolama Hotel, how can I help? Van Der Vaad: Hi there, my name's tan Van Der Vaart. I'm ftom Electronics RDC and I made a reservation lor myself and some colleagues' we'r€ herc fol the Panorańa conferenc€ ' R: Ah, Mr van Der vaań, ith nice to see you,let me check the detailsof your resewation. V: OK R: So, you booked our eightprcrniumclass rcońs on the top floor ofthe hotel and you're staying for the conference, that's from the 5t to the 8ń of February is this correct? V: Well, the dates are conect but therc are nine of us. We booked eight rooms on the Intemet but we had to bdng another colleague to the conference. Do you have another premium class room available? R: Well we only have eight prcmium class roomśin thę hot€ l ' Let me see if theĘ are any othe! rooms available. I'm really sorry Mr van d€r vaalt but the hotel is completelyfull becauseofthe confercnce. I'm very sony. We don't have any rooms available in the whole hotel. V: Arc you sure nothing is available? We have neverhad a problemlike this and we've brought extra guests before. Electrcnics RDc use your hotels rcgularĘ we stayed in the Grand Hotel iĘ singapore last month and last week we stayed in the crand Hotel in Lisbon. we are cold class meńbels and exp€ct 8ood service. R: I undelstand what you are saying, sir but all our roomsare fully booked.This is a very busy time of year and the confercnce also means that our luxury rooms are fulI. v: What do you suggestw€ do then? I can't send one ofmy colleaguesback to Holland. R: The only solution I can think of is for two of your pańy to share a room. In each of the prcmium class looms therc aĘ two king size beds and they al.eour most luxurious room6. Your colleagues will be very cornfortable. v: well it's not peńect but I suppose we don't have any choice if all of the rooms arc raKen, R: I really am sorry sir, now can I ask you to fill in these forms with your passpoń numbei! and the namęs of youJ colleagues. I'll organizefor your bagsto be taken to your rooms,

    TłreBssinesi

    73?

    3 Operations 3.1 About business Lean manufacturing

    ! r:r:

    Good aftemoon and welcome to the first of our ]€ c tur€ s on the historyofthe organization o|work in lhe UK' Throughoutthis coursś we arc going to focuśon how workin8 tr€nds have changed throuEhout history I'd like to start today with an overview of the peńod' it,s important that you all undelstand this. Theie are four main stages in this intoduction and they are the dom€ s tic system, the workshop system, ńe factory system and the post-factory system. Let! look at each of them in a little more detail. First ofall was the domesticsystem.Duńn8 this time most people worked from home, a bit like today but without the compute$! It was a very simple process and everything was very basic. People bought the materials that they needed and then made whatever productsthey could, most peoplemade clothes or cloth products. The whole family worked from home and then sold what thev made at malket each w€ e k. Most families wele also farmers and so this was a way that they could make extra money, working pań.time.one rcsult of this thou8hwas that productionwas very slow The second stage waŚ what we call the workshop system.This was very similar to the filst stage,people still worked lrom home and slill worked pan-time.The mair. difference was thót the people were organized by a subcontEctot a bit like a manager.The people didn't buy their own supplies,they used the subcontractoI's. The Śubcontmctor paid the families to make the products but kept any profit that was made when the products were sold. In ńe eighteenth century work moved from the home into factories. The first factorv in the UK was built in 1769 by Richard Arkwright. Around this time a lot of new machineswere developed.Thesewere usually laĘe and so couldn,tfit inside people,s homes. One advantage of the factories was that production was much quicker but pćople had to leavetheir homesto go to work. working conditions in the factoł'ieswere also quite bad. We still use the factory system today but they are much nicer placesto work in, Many people refer to this as the post-factory system.The system is laĘely the same but we use much more advancedtechnolog/.This reduces the need for humans because today our computeE can do almost anlthing! Many people think that one day nobody will \ł/ork to produce things in this way but I don't think this is true, we need humans to check the machines and we always need enginee$ to mend them when they break down. NoĘ who knows what I mean by......

    $ l:rł Back in the 1990sour companydecidedto send a teań of ńanageE over to Japan to leam about the TPS, or lean management system.They cameback full of cuthusiasm about this wonderful efricient system and they wantedto implemcnlit in our company immediately' well, th€ first thing

    138 /r.Business

    we did was to sendall of our employees to a sedesof workshopson kaizen and, lean manuJactuńng. six months later we introduced the systemto our factory floox At first the employees were verJ kcen on the s!Ńem. They could see the benefrts immediately.They liked beingmore involved, they began to take mole pńde in their work, and it was clea! to them tbat theia work was less stressful than before. But soon the problemsbegan.One ortwo employees felt uncomfońable having to make decisions about production; decisions which had previouslybeen madeby their supervisors or managers.We had to repeatthe workshops, and this cost a lot of time and money. Then a rumour went around the company that one ofthe owne$ was thinking about moving the factory to Eastem Europe in order to save on wage costs. Faith in the company was lost, and when some ofthe employeesdecidedto go on strike, well, the end to working to a lean management system was in sight. Maybe employees in the West are unable to identifywilh their companiesin the wa! that Toyota's employees arę able to in )apan. I don't know. lvhateve. the reason, although our expelienceof lean manufactudngwas wondedul while it lasted we're now back to mass prcduction.

    3.2 Vocabulary Trendsand planning 19 rlt> Mr Ruby: ... and if we look at rccent trcnds we can all see that the number of inlernationaIaiĘorts is increasing'and at: the sametime, the numberofpeopl€ who are subiected to aircraft noise is ńsing. Now, we all know that as the cost of aidares goes down, the demand for flights goes up. Thercfore we cannot ignorc the problems of aircraft noise any longe!. This is why we,rc interestedin heańng abou. the sil€ n t plane.Ms. Bloom, can you tell us a bit morc about the project? Ms Blooń: Thank you, Mr Ruby. Yes, we'r€ currentlyworking on producinBa silenl aircraft. Admittedly, the plane would not be completely silent, but we are aiming to decrease noise levelŚ by 99%' R: That's a significant amount. B: lndeed,and itśa big challenge.Most people think that a plane! engines produceall the noise,but that'snot entirely true. At the moment almost hall the noise comes from the body of the plane,althoughthe other half does come from the engines. Tladitionally, a plane's engines are situated below the wings; we intend to situatethe ene)nesabooe the wings,This would keep the noise up in the air and shield the people on the ground fiom the noise. Of cou$e, innovative design and research costs money. And while costs are growing, unfońunately our level ol tunding is shrinking. And that's why I'm here. Rr Could you tell my colleaBues what the benefits would be for us as an airline company? B: well, apań fiom tuming you into a good neighbour to the people who live near aĘońs, the silent p|ane could cońpletely change your pattem of operations. You would, for example,be able to land

    at night time. This would incręase the utilization of the aircraft and at the sarne time decrcase your overall costs. More flights into and out of an ai4rort would increase the amount of jobs in the area and that means that the local economy would grow.So, good news all lound. R: And v/h€n will this silelt plane be frnished? B: As long as we can get funding, we hope to have a plane ready and flying by the year 2020 ...

    .l! r;rs

    Councillor: In the past,an averageof2,000 tourists visited our island every year. This number stayed the same for many yea$. Then, this yea!, with flights arriving from six new deslinations,the number of tourists rose dramatically. ln lanuary we welcomed 550 toulists, which was normal fo! the time of year, but then, after that television ploglamme about oul island, mor€ and mor9 tourists came. There was only a slow inclease at firct; by Apńl the number rcse to just over a thousand. Hovever, the numbels grew throughout the summer and peaked in Septemberat 7,0001From September the numb€ r of touństsfell' but the numbers didn't go down that much. At the moment,in November we still have about 3,000 tourists on our island. Now, on the whole this is a good thing. We ale very happy about the moneythey bńng to our island,our economy is 8rowin8, but we also have sońe problems. To make matte6 more urgent, the first island music festival.is going to take place neń August' As this was also announced on the t€levision programme we can expect mor€ visitors duńng ńat week. tadies and Bentlemenofthe council we currentlyhave 2.5 million dollars in the bank and it's time we Pqt thąt monoy to good use.

    3,4 SpeakingPresentations - signposts and stepping stones

    & r,rr

    1 I ' dl i k et o s t a ńby . . . 2 Filst ofa ... 3 Moving on to ... 4 Let's go back snd look at ... 5 I'd liketofinishby... 6 AĘ therc any questions? 7 Thank you for coming.

    $ t:ra Good aftemooneveryone,I'm glad you could all make it. My namet Sonia Padron Perez and I'rn the sales manager herc at DMC wood. I'd tike to slart by 8ivingyou a shoń overview of today's prcsentation. First of all we're going to look at the sales figuJ€ s for |astyear Then we'|lsee how ouJ competitoE did duńn8 the same period' AJter that we'll look at how this has afrectedour share pńces, and finally we'll see what we intend to do about this in the futur€. Ifyou have any questions,I'll be happy to answerthem at the end ofmy presentalion. oK, so let's stań with the sales figurcs. On the first slide, you can see that ou! sales figuresfell dramaticallylasrsummer.As yocan see,the biggest fall was in June, sales went up slightly in september, but ihen f€ll again in October Last summer was very

    Recordinss o unusualbecausethat is usuallywhen we sell most of our prodrrcts'we think that thś was becauseofthe bad weatherthat we had duringthe summer We expectedpeopleto buy much more ofourBarden fumiture for barbecuesand gardenpartiesbut therewas a lot of rain in June and so peoplewercn't intercstedin beingoutdoo$. The saleswent up in Septemberand that was becausethe weather was a little bettel' Th€ summer was a litde late but it eventuallyańved! oul sales did go back down againthough in October which was a bit of a surpńse' Ler's take a closerlook at thar lasl poinr. on the next slide you can seethat our competitorsbroughtout a new productin May .. . Moving on to our shareprices:the next slide shows us how our sharespe omed over the last year As you can see,it wasn'ta very good year for our shareholders. But it's not allbad news,we can seethat the sharep ces didn't incrcasevery much but we can seethat at the end of last yearthey were slightly higher than they were at the start'This is a very prcmising sign for neń year Now, let'sgo back and look at the first slide again.Here you can seethat our salesfigures rose in septembel'This is an i4dication tłat we still have a chanceto rcgain our position as the marketleaderand that we can close rne gap. I'd like to finish by showingyou how \,.eaim to reachIhisrargel.Ladiesand gentlemen,let me introduceyou to rhe new GTQ luxury model ... Welcometo the future!

    3.6 Case study ScotAir ! r::s l l,rł 1 ['vebeen working for EvanAit for the past 19 monthsand in that time I've seen the companychangein such a big wayl When I did my raining we were told that safetywas the main concem for EvanAir. Not any morc! Some cabin crew don't even have securitypasseslI dont mind so much the tea and coffeebeingtaken away from us but they won't even provide waterfor us. They hiie cabin crew whose first languageis not English and they make us pay {25 a month for our uniforms-We work on average10 and a halfto 11 hours .a day and Veryoft€ n doni have a break' I worked for EvanAir for threemonrhsand had to give up becauseI was extremely tired.I oftenfelt ill when I had 12 hours flyinB per day without a break plus three hours per day just travellingto and from home to work' can you imaginestańing work at five o'clock in the moming and spending15 houN per day in uniform? I was sad when I left becauseI reallylike this job, but t think your health comes first. I can unde$tand that for the employees it might be better to work lor larger traditionalairlineswherethey are treated bettel receivebettersalariesand lots of benefits.But EvanAir has revolutionized air traveland enabledeverybodytofly,not only the ńch. It is EvanAir which gives us this PossibilĘ not th€ airlineswhich provideall the extrasfor the employees.

    There is a reason why EvanAir are one of the most profitableairlinesin Eurcpe. 4 EvanAir may be uncomfortable,but they're cheap and they get me to my meetings quicker than travellingby train or car ever did. I fly with them nearlyeveryweek. For me, it's just like taking the bus' It g€ t s me liom A to B in a shoń time' and thatś good for my business. 5 EvanAir of course,wantsto make a profit, but when th€ cabin crew getsso tired that passen8ersstań to notice,that! going too far Nobody forcedthesepeople to work for EvanAir, but I imaginecabin crew employeescan'tjust leavetheir iobs, given the economicslateof manyairlinecańers today.I'm not going to fly with budget aillines again.Safetyand secuńtyis morc impońant than savinga few eurcs. 6 Bńtainl co, emissionsfrom aircraft doubled between1990and 2000,and they are likely to doubleagain by 2030.And rts not just us; othel Europeancountńesare no better.One long-haulretum flight say, from London to Sydney- will, by itself, doublemostpeoples carbonlootprintlor the entire year' But shoń flights are even wolse as they use proportionallymore fuel fortake-offand landing,so, for the environment,flying short distancesis the worst way to lravel,

    4 Success storaes ł'1 About bu5inessBusiness Ieadersand successstories .fl t:łs Prcsenter:Hello and welcometo today's three minutepodcastin the series'Great businessleadersofthe twentiethcentury'. Todaywe're goingto hear about a beauqr industryic(Ir who literally changedthe face ofthe cosmeticsindustry:Estóe Lauder. JosephineEsther Mentzer,known as Estće,was bom in Queens,New York in 1908'the daughterof Hungańan and Czech imrnigranis.From an earlyage she was fascinatedby the lotions and potions developedby her uncle,a chemist.She beganh€ r businesscar€ e r in the 1930s, sellinghis skin care productsto New York beautysalonsand hotels. In the 1940s,she foundedthe Estće Lauder Company togetherwith her husband,JosephLauder Her first major breakthroughwas in 1948,when she managedto get counterspaceat New Yorkśprestigioussaks Fifth Avenue clepartmentstore. EstćeLauder had a combinationof ambition and stubbomnessthat enabled her to get aheadin the businessworld. A risk.takeĄshewas the first salesperson to pioneerthe idea ofgiving away free productsamples.This ńsk paid oĘ and she was able to expandher rangeof skin carc productsand intoduced other cosmeticsand pe umes.In the 1960s,she venturedinto the male cosmeticmarket, and broughtout the very successfulAmmis productline. Another of her brilliant businessideaswas the medicallytested

    and fragrance-free Clinique line. Today'the EstćeLauder comPany consistsof many well-known bmnd namessuch as M.A.C, Bobbi Brown, Tommy Hinger, Donna Karan, and man$ many moie. The productsar€ sold in 130 countńesaround the world and the companyhas a turnov€ r of over six billion dollars. Her family was alwaysvery imponant to Estće,and althoughthe companywent public in 1995,the majońtyofthe stock is held by l,auderfamily membersand the companyis curr€ n tly headedby one of her grandsons. sadly Estćedied in 2004,but she will be rememberedby all as an entrepreneurwho was neverwilling to settl€ for anlthin8 but the best.

    4.2 VocabularyDescribingyourself and being successful ! t'ło Interviewer:So Alan, your qualificationsarc all in order and you have alreadyhad some experiencein sales.Now I'd like you to tell me somethingaboutyourself.What kind of personare you? AIan|w€ l l, I think I'm a positiveperson,I mean,I alwaystry to look for the best in a situationand I try to focus on the positive thingsthat are taking placearound me. For examplein my last iob the manageE introduceda new systemfor dividing up tbe salesdeparJment.They decidedthat every member of the sales department was goingto be givena new salesregion.A lot of my colleagueswere angrybecausethey werc given a new arca with new clients.I thoughtthat it was good thoughbecause we could all leam somethingnew and face new challenges. I: w€ I |, I can understandthat,thereale lots of peoplewho donl like change.What else can you tell me about yourself? A: I would probablysay that I'm a helpful person,iJ someonehas a probl€ m I try to help them out. In my last companythere was a mentońngsystem.When somebody new joined the companyone person was responsiblefor introducingthe new memberof staffto their colleaguesand helpingthem with any problems.I often volunteeredto do that, I think I did it about four times. I: Oh, really? And is therc anythingelse? A: Um, let me think. I am also generallya calm pe$on and I'm able to work well undeaprcssure,I don't get nervousor over-excitedeasily. I How do you managethat? A: Well, actually,my mother is a yoga teacher and so she taughtme and my sisterhow to do yoga and meditate when we were very young.Justtwo or thrce minutesof yoga exercises- you can do them atyow desk, no one will notice - can help you deal with everyday stresŚ at work. I: Hm, I know a lot of people who should learn to do that. A: well, if I get the iob. I would be happy to teach them how. I: That soundslike a good idea.

    irt?Business

    139

    A: Oh and I almostforyot,somepeople say I'm a lucky person, things often seernto go ńght for me, but I don't think it's luck. I think I g€t positive results because I focus on what I do and I'm oĘanized. I always use an online personal organizer so that I never miss meetings or deadlines. I think that it's a really good way to make sur€ thal you know exactlywbat you are doing and when you need to do it. l: Yes, I would defrnitely agee with that, I wish more of our employees thought like you,

    4.3 GrammarPast simple,past continuous and used to Amina: Yes, GrameenBank has madea rcally big differcnce to our lives. My business is making baskets. I work 12 hou6 a day making baskets. These days I work together with ten other women in the village.We usedto work for other people,and they would tell us, "we need 100 bask€ts by next T|ręsday', and we would have to make them. sometim€s I worked in the dark. tt was very bad for my eyes. Now, with Gmmeenl help, w€ have formeda working group,a coopeEtive, and thiśmakes our work easier and ńore

    fun.

    Befor€ I heard about Glameen bank ard micro credit, I used to live below the poveńy line. Actually,I didnleven know that the!ę.was 6uch a thilg as a poverty line! Now I'ń able to suppoń my family - my husband died two yeals ago, you see,and so I have to plovide food for ńy children. I used to work for nothin8. ThiĄ8s ale so much better now. In hct, l even make a srnall prcfrt each month. It makes such a difference, when my husbanddied, I took my children out of school. BecauseI work all day,my dau8hlershad to look after!hś home and their little brothers. Nov thev all go to school rcgularly, even my two daughtersl I hope they will study hard and becomćdocto$ or businesswomen' women in Bangladesh used to have many childrcn. It was the only way to make surethat someonewould look afte!you when you are old and no longer able to work. Now we know that running a small business and saving money is a much better way to plan for the futuie. Beforc we received the loan from Glameen to buy our mateńals, we always had to bolrow from money lenders. WeU, it was terrible, the money lenders asked for so much interest that we had to pay nearly all our eamings back to them, if we were lucĘ we had enough money left over to ieed our families.iJ not....rvell.we didn't eat' The stań up loan ftom Grameen rcleased us from this vicious circle and now we are even able to invest our profits back into oul business 4rtd save a littlę bit of money in the bank. And it's not only women's cooperatives that receive help. I know a woman called Su.fiya.She used to beg on the streeq she had a very hard life. Grameen gave her a small loan and now she sells tovs and

    l4O,lreBuBiiess

    othel small it€ m Ś' she,sŚtill on the street every day, but she's not begging an!'rnore. Gńmeen has rcally made a huge difrerence to the lives ofthe peoplein our village.

    4.4 SpeakingAppraisals

    ! t.łs

    $ l:łs Mana8er: OK, so we've talked about your job descdption,your responsibilitiesand your duties.Now, moving on to the seLf. pań ofyour appraisa];can you asscssn1ent tell me: what do you consider to be your pańiculal strengthŚ? Galina: Um, I do think that I'm a hardworking person. I always try to get my job done on time. I stick to deadlines;even if they're tough, in fact I think I'm good at working under pressure; I mean, I always manage to stay calm. M: From what I've s€ e n, l,d say you 8et on well with your colleagues.Would you agree? G: Oh absolutely!People say that I'm a friendly person, always rcady to help out. Yes, I think that'strue;I think I'm a fiendly and helpful person.I d say tlar I'm a social person. M: Your sectionleader,Alan, thinks that you sometimes have problems workin8 as pań ofa team.Do you agree? G: Well no, not completely. I don't really see it that way. I can be a team-player,but maybeI'm just betterat working on my

    Calina: suki, can you help me with my appraisalpreparationform, please? Suki: Oh, I hatethose,they'rea wasteoftime, donl you think? G: Well no, not completely, they can be useful.I mean,they do make you think about your job and yourself, Sr That's what I mean! An)May, how can I help? G: well, for me, the most ditEcult bit is talking about my strengths and weaknesses, s: so' l€ t 's be positiveand stań with your suengths. G: well, I ńink I,m hald.working'' ' s: That's ńght. You cer'air''y are! G: And I'm probablya team-player, too. What do yo.r think? S: I'm not sure. You probably are, although I think you work better on your own, but put it down an!,vay. G: OK, and shall I say that I'm a social M: Uh huh. I see.NoĘ we don't like to talk person? about weaknesses h€re in this companŁ s: Oh, definitely. Everyone says how fiiendly but, as we all know, nobodyśpedect, you are. Everyone except Ben, that is. so are thereany skills you would like to G: Ben? why? what did łe say? improve? S: Oh nothing. Forget him, he's iust annoyed G: Yes,thereare' AltłloughI,m good at working under pressu€ , I would like tc because you wont go out with him. G: Huh! That's another thing l could Ńt improve ńy time management. I often find that I have to stay longer than my down. I'm alwayscalm,and I'm good et working under pr€ s sul€ . colleaguesin the eveningsin order to get s: Abso|utely.You sur€ are. Even with Ben in my work fińsh€ d . M: And why do you think that is? the same otnce! G: And what about my weaknesses? G: well, at home, in my coudtry people stań Hmmmm, I don't think I'm very creative,I .l ,' work later,that'swhat l'm usedto, and so could put that down. I often come in later than the others. With S: I can't agreewith that. That's just /rot true, the llexitine thatl not a problem,but then, That Christnas card you designed was I often frnd l canlstań work immediately I allow mjlsell to be distracted too easily. bńliant. G: oh, I foĘot about that.shall I say that I'm So maybeI also need to be more focused. foĘetfijl? M: So would you agreethat you need to work on your time-managementand leam to be S: No, don't be silly, But maybe you're not always focused. morc focused? G: Yes, I a8l€e with that' G; Oh, do you rearlythink so? s: l'm alraid so. I mean.sometimesyou ańve M: Fine. so, how can we help you? latff than the othe$. G: Well, maybewe could ... G: But you all stań at 7! Thatśfar too eally for mel S; Maybe,but it takesyou a while to get dovn to your work and that means you 5.1 About businessAdveńising can't always finish on time and have to $ z:ot stay late. A: Hello everyone. Today we'rc going to talk G: That's true. So, l"put down, not very about adveńisinBagainand in pańiculal focused,and that I needto improvemy ri-. UsPs. so, to rccap,why is adveńising -"-".--.-r necessary? Sr That soundsabout right. B: To pelsuadepeopleto buy products. G: Thanks lor your help. c: To reach the ń8ht taĘet 8roup. s: No problem. An]ńime. shall we go for a A: Good. Anghing else? drink now? D: To position products. Gr Sorry,I can't,I've still got a lot ofwork to B: And to crcateblands. do. E: Actually,l don,tthink adveńisingis S: Focus, Galina, and get that time necessary I hate all the hype. I only buy management undea control! what I need and ['m one hundredper cent sur€ that ads don't influ€ n ce m€ in any way. They are a waste of money.

    5 Selling

    F

    R*"rdi"s. o -.}_ A: Well, if more consumers thought like you, then ads would be a wasteof money'Expeńs say that peopleare in fact influencedby ads and we'll talk about this next time' fu8ht' Last week w€ spok€ about a model ofadveńising from the 1920sto help us understandwhat it is. Who can remember? E; It was the AIDA model which standsfor attention,intercstand, oh, what comes next? A Yes,A standsfor attention.Ads must attract attention. I stands for interest, ads musr get peopleinteresred.The D is tor desire.The ad must createthe desireto havethis product.Ąnd' molt imponantly' the A standsfor action - peopleactually go oul and buylhe produc(.So advenising needsto include thesepoints. D: And to tell customerswhy a productis good and betterthan others. A: Yes,exactly.To tell customerswhy this product is the biggest,best,most attractive, the one you absolutelymust buy if you want to feel happy and successful.But the marketis full ofgood-qualityprcducts,so how does the consumerknow which one to buy? Di You need to differentiatcyour product. You need differcntiatorsso 9onsutłersl rccognizeyour product. A; That's ńght' hoducts need to be dif1erent. They should have a specialsomething. Somethingthat no other producthas; somethingthat peoplewant orthink they want - and are happy to pay for- In reality, your product may be almost th€ sameas the other products,but you need to adveńisea specialsom€ t hing. This special somethingis called a USP Does anyone know what it standsfor? E: Unique s€ l ling something? A: Almost ńght' Itśunique selling proposition,but a lot of peoplesay point. It'snot a new markeiingconcept;it was usedin the 1940s.In hisbook Reality i/t Ade'ertisinSRosserReevesgivesa definitionofa USP Firstly,each ad must make a clear propositionto the customer which says'Buy this productand you will gel /łis benefit..secondly' the proposition you arc offeringmust be unique - no other productcan giveyou this. And thirdly, the propositionmust be strongenoughto attEct new customers,and to make people changebrands. Now, if you open your books at page53 ...

    5.2 VocabularyBuying and selling Salesman 1 SalesmanrCood moming, My name is Simon Harper May I help you orwould you like to browsea litile longer? Mr Hunt: We'rc looking for a small car for my daughterhere.She! going to universityin September S: Oh, well done,...? JulierJulie. S: Which universityare you goingto, Julie? l: To Nottingham. S: Nice town. A snall car.you say.WhicL model? H: We're not rcally sure.This is the first dealer we've tńed.

    S: Do you want a new car or a usedone? H: Ir reallydependson rhe price. we wanr sornethingeconomicalwith low running costs. S: What aboutyou,lulie? J: Well I like the BMW Mini, especiallythat red one over therc. It looks grat. S: Yes, it's nice. That one has a lot ofoptional extras and it is quite pńcey' I had the impressionyou're looking for somethinB morc reasonable. Hr ReasonablelCheaperyou meanl Halfthat pńce actually! S: No problem.We have a wide selectionof good three-yearold usedca$ with a {ull guaranteeat very comp€ t itive pńces' And, of course,we hav€ somevery interesting customerincentlvesfor you. H: What, for example? s: well, at the momentwe'rc offeńngan intercst,freeloan on salesover !12,000 Hr So I can pay everymonth at no extla cost? s: Exactly'Now, what about the engin€ ? You mentionedan economicalcar so maybea diesel? J: Does it matter? S: Well, the dieselis more expensivebut more economicalin the long term.With the petrol engineyou have more fuel consumption.Arc you planningto travel long distances? J: No, not really. S: Then I think the petrol engineis fine. TWo or four doors? H: Oh, a two-doormodel is fine. ł If you'd like to come with me, I can show you a selectionof cars which are very Bood value for money.Would you like a cup of coffee? J: Could I have a Coke? S: Of course.So, what are you goingto study? J: I'm going to train to be a ... Salesman 2 s: Looking for anlthin8 in pańcular? H: We're looking for a small car for my daughterhere.She'sgoing to universityin September. S : New or used? H: We're not rcally sure.This is the first dealer we'vetded. Most customershave someidea before they come in. They look on the Internet or whateverfor infomation. What do you want to spend? H: Well, about !10,000. S : At leastyou know that.That limits your choice quite a lot. You can forgetthese cars,they'reway out of your price range. cotect me ifI'm wrong,but I think you,r€ looking lor a three-yearold usedcat twodoor model with a small engine.Basic model with no optional extras.Right? Quite right.Whai haveyou got in that pńce range? Not much, to be honest.Ifyou'le prepared to spendmoie, I could offeryou this threeyear old Golf for f,12,000. what about a discount? A discount!!12,000 is the going rate for this car You won't find it cheaper anylvhere else. If you want value for money,you have to pay for it.

    l: What about the colour? S: Good heavens,the colour! Yes,extremely impońant' \łĄat colour would you lik€ , young lady? Jr Black if possible. S: Right.The used cars arc over there.Go and have a look at them. If you frnd one that you arc interested in, come and tell me. I'm goingto speakto those people over there.They look as if they might actr:allybuy someńing.

    5.3 GrammarComparatives, superlativesand asking questions

    $ z'oł

    EsengulBadem:Excuse me. My name's Es€ n gul and [,m conductin8a customer satisfaction survey. Have you got a few minutesto answersome questionsabout your shoppingexperiencehere? Shopper: Oh, all right. Fire away. Er OK, first of all, why do you come hereto do your shopping? S: Well, it'sthe closestsupernarketto my house,and it's not the most eĘensive' Er And how oftendo you do your shopping here? S: At leastonce a week. E: And who normallycomesv/ithyou? Your husbandor your children? S: Oh, I like to go alone. It takeslongerif I have the kids with ine. Er And what do you think aboutthe parking faciliti€ s ? S: Terrible!You hpve to walk so far to put your trolley back. Er And what aboutthe selectionof products? Are you satisfied? S: I supposeso, althoughthereisn't a good selectionof elotic fruit. E: How aboutthe displayof the products? Can you easily6nd thingsand reach them? s: Yes,no probleń. E: Do you think the storeis clean and tidy enough? s: [t seemsclean € n ough; it could be tidier though. There are always a lot of empty boxes in the way. E: How satisfiedare you with the speedof the check out desk? S: I've neverwaited longerthan five minutes. E: May I askyou how much you normally spend? s: Around € 2 00' E: Where else do you go shopping? s: You meanto which other supermarket? E: Sorry,yes,that'swhat I mean. s: I find Quidsin very reasonable. E: What time do you normallygo shopping? s: I like to go quiteearlyin the moming, as soon as the kids leavefor school. E: What do you like the most aboutthis store? S : well, it's open 2417Śo I can pop in any time if l,ve foĘotten somethin8. E: What do you like the least? s:There isn't a good selectionofwine. I alwaysbuy my wine somewhereelse. E: Thank you very much foryour time. El You're welcome,

    d?Buslness

    141

    7

    5.4speakingNegotiating ! z'os-z,oz Nęgotiation l Husband:What about Majorca this summer? we should startplanningor everythingwill be booked. Wife:Oh, not anotherbeach holidayl You want to Bo to Majorca althoughyou know I hatelying and doing nothing.I'd like to suggesr something activelike lreLkinpin the Alps. H: Walking up and down mountains.You can't be seriousl w: You don't know anlthing about it! come and have a look at the blochure' Thereśa lot of sun too in the Alps. aboutit' H: I don'l wantto know anJĄhin8 I need two weeksto relax,eat too much and do nothing'Thereśno way l'll walk around mountains,in spite of the sun. W: I'll go to Majorca for a week providedwe go to th€ Alps for a we€ k . H: No way! W: We do what you want everyyear.Can'l you cornpromisethis time? H: I can meetyou halfway. Let's find an island with a mountainon it. That way you can wanderaround on it and 1 can lie on the beach.Can you go alongwith thatt w: Thatśout ofthe question.Either we do somethingtogetheror I don't want to go. T L!+'s ńv h^rr^ń lińA

    H: That makestwo of us. That meansthat neithel of us is 8oing on holiday this y€ a r Grcatl Negotiation 2 Man: Thanks for showingme around. It'sa beautifulhouse. Seller:Yes, I know-I don't want to sell it, but my husbandhas got a job in New York so we nave lo move. M: So, how much are you asking for it? s: I'd like € 5 00'000. M: Frankly, I think that'sa lot for this house. Is that your bestoffer? s: I think itśa fair pńce. Remembeltherels a very big gardenand a new garage. M: True,but look at the windows.You need to replaceall ofthem. And the floor downstairsdoesn'tlook good.I would only pay that price on conditionthat you do all the repails. S: You havea point there.I should repair the windows.However,I don't have time to do all ofthe work. If I understandyou conectly,you will take the houseif I lower the pńce becauseof rcnovations? M: Exactly. Look, you want a quick sale,and I really like the house.Ifyou go down to € 4 50'000' I'll take it and you'll haveyour money at the end ofthe week. S: Donel Let's draw up the contract. Negoliation 3 Modelling ag€ n t Ifyou want Tania to model your winter collectlon,it will cost € 1 0,000 an hout Shop owner:That'sfar higherthan I expected. We only need her for two hours. A: Fine. That'll cost € 2 0'000 fol the evening' Itl at your new shop in the centreoftown, isn't it? Nice location.

    14 2

    '

    9lrsiness

    O: Look, the model I booked can't make it. our new shop openson Friday and I really need a model but can we talk aboutthe price again? A: No, I don't want to discussthis. You know Tania is a|mosta toP model.€ 1 0,000 is the pńce ifyou want a famousface' I can't go any lower than that.Take it or leave it. O: I have no choice. But can't we take a long term view? If Friday is a success,then I'll book Tania for the springand summer collection.Surelyyou can giveme a discountfor threefirm bookings? A: 'Fraid not. As I said,Tania is in demandat ttr€ moment' O: Look, I'll pay the 20,000as long as she stays for an extra hour and chats to my regularcustomers. A: So what you're sayingis you want more than two hours work. No deal.You can have Tania for two hours and not a second long€ r Ifyou want extras,you have to pay for them. o: I think that,svery unr€ a sonable, but, oK, it's a deal.€ 2 0'000 for the two houN, but I won't do businesswith you again.

    5.6 Casestudy Coolhunters Part one InterviewerIn the latestin our seńes on new businessesI'm her€ with the managing directoroI the companyCoolhunters, Gabńel]a cońez. Good aftemoon Gabriella. cabńe||acoń€ z : Hi, it.sniceto be here' I: So why did you set up Coolhunters, Gabńella? GC: Well aftermany yeals working as a marketerI beganto rcalizethat young, singlepeopleand coupleswith no children today have more disposableincome than everbefore,and they want to spend it. A few yearsago marketersdidn't know what thesepeoplewantedto spendtheir money on. l: Why was that? GC: The main problemwas these$oups were no longerbeing influencedby traditionalmethodsof advertising,such as commercialbrealG on the Tv They wantedabsolutelyup-to-dateproducts,but the productsalso had to be as individual as they are.Companieswere investing a lot of money in tryinBto identw new trendslo give rhe righrcusromerrhe righr productbut by the time they had identified and produceda new cool productit was alreadyout-of-date.This was when I decidedthat therewas a gap in the market for a cool hunting company. l: So how do you know what ihe nexl big trend is? Gc: simpl€ ! I have a t€ a m of brilliant young trendspofters.I have to admit that I find it reallydifTicultto identifywhat is cool and what'snot. Actually,they are led by my nephew,who is l9 and so he has no problemsspottingnew trends.They use the Intemetand lrack (lo$n cool new ploducts beforcthey b€ c ome too populal and everyonehas them.Then they post what they have found on my website. Large companiescontactme for more

    informationabout the next big thing. Cool huntingis basicallythe searchfor what's not popular - yet. I: How did cool hunt€ r s b€ 8 in? CC: Many coolhunters started their websites by listingthe productstheyliked,anyhing from shoesto shampoo.They then receivedtips from thouŚandsof p€ o ple visitingthe site,and the sitesgreq Of courseit wasn'tlong beforemarketers and big companiessiańed lo8gin8on to seewhich productswere generating attention.It is one ofthe most effective ways for marketersto understandwhat young peoplewant.The lntemet has speededup the processof trendspotting. As soon as cool huntersspot a trend,they have only a few secondsto tell the world. And companiesonly have a shoń time to reactand mass producethis item.When the productbecomesrcally popularand thousandsof peop]€ stań buyingit, it,s time for the cool hunterto ideniiĄ' the next trend. t -^ ^ Part Two I: What doesa companyneedto do if they want to sell a new product? GCr Ifyou want io intrcduce a new product or serviceand selJir,you needro kno$ and describethe buyingbehaviourofyour customels.s€ l ling the rightproductto the ń8ht customelis a complicaiedbusiness. Not all custom€ 6 rush out and buy n€ w productsas soonas rheyhit the marke.. I: ls this the'Adoption process?' GC: Exactly. How and why consumersbuy and acceptnew productsis calledthe "Adoption.Process".Let me explain.We have,for example,the laggards.These are consumerswho are not interested lin tłlelatesttechnolos/ or complex, multilunctionalproducts.Laggards,also knou'n as traditionalists,take a long time to try out and acceptnew products, perhaps never buying them therc are still a lot of peoplewho have no PC or only a very basic mobile phone.This group makesup about 16% of consumersThen at the other end ofthe spectrum we havethe innovators.Theseare individualswho really love anlthing new or complex.They want to be the first to own the product Innova(or5,or enthusiastsas they are sometimescalled, accountfor only 2.57oofconsumersand so ar€ not very impońant for companies. I; Thesegroupsare both quite small,what about the other groups? Gc| The biggesttwo groupsare the eaĄ and late majority.They have waitedto seeif the productworks, if it's wońh the money and if they reallywant it. For this reason th€ y are also called pragmatists'Thesetwo grcupsmake up 34% each and are very imponantfor masssales.The earlyanc late majońtyare very influencedby eaĄ adaptors.This group is also quick to buy new productsand servicesand they make up approńmately15%.Thesepeople,also known as opinion leade6, can influencea greatmany peop]eand are very impońant for companies.

    Re.ordin9ś O

    6 The organization 6.1AboutbusinessEntrepreneurs t--^

    3 lt's importantfor companiesto grow, create iobs and pay tax. The more people thele ale in work, the more moneythey spendand that'sgood for the economy. And ifpeople are happy with the economicsituation,they'll vote for me again. 4 some companies arc too big and powerful. They pollute the environment and test their productson animals.They donl investtheirbig profitsto stop global warming.I think they should show morc responsibilityto the community. 5 The companyshould be as profitableas possibleso I can earn a dividendwhen th€ profit is announcedat the Annual Geneml Meeting.Ifthe companydoes badly,I'11 sell my sharcs or t \vill try and fire the dircctors. 6 I want the companyto do well so that it buys the componentsmy companymakes. Ifthe companydoesn'tpay me quickly enough,I'll have cash flow problemsand I can't pay my workers or I may have to close down.

    Robin Hurd: So Ms Patel,you'rea consultant for people starting up a business. What's impońant at the beginnin8? Ms Patel: You have to decide which soń of business you want to stAń. Do you want to work alone, or with a partne!? There are advanta8es and disadvantag€s fol both types.But fo.both you need to be an entreprcneur. R: what exactly is an entrepr€neul? P: First of all, we all have the potential to be an entepreneut An entrcpreneur is someonewho has a good idea and sees a chance to stań a busineŚs with it. This soundssimple,but to do it you need creativity, vision, optimism and, v€ry impońantly, you are willing to take a risk. If you are afraid of failure, you can nev€ r be an entrepreneur'You need a lot of eners/ too, becauseyou willwork day and night to get what you want. Also, you don't give up easily. If things go wrong 6.3 Grammar Repońed 5peech at the beginning, you keep trying, even b z,tz harder than before. R: I guessthereare too many risks for most H€ l en wang: well, the li$t meetingis people.some countńesseemto ptoducd' I important.You shakehands with the most more entrcpreneu$ than others. Why is senior personin the room first,but not that? too hard.You use the family name,not the P: Well, entrepreneuis usually thńve. in givenname,so Le€ Peng is Mr Lee. countń€ s wherelhere is only a very basic when you exchangebusinesscards,you social security system such as in Ameńca' use both hands. Always read it and tben This means the individual is rcsponsible pitt'it in a card case. Don't wfite any extra for frndingand keepinga iob, and if information on it. you don't work, the state doesn't help In China people don't talk business you. This drivesa lot of peopleto make straight away,they make small talk. something out ol their lives, and you have sometimesin the filst me€ t ing you don't nothingto lose.You have to b€ l ieve that talk about businessat all, you getto know this can happen-this is the American your businesspańnet Dream.It doesn'tmatterifyou have a bad You should be punctual and som€times stań in li'e, anyone can becomerich and peoplebńng a present'A 8ood choice of successful-You also need a legal system presentis an expensivecognac.Ęain' gjve where you can set up a company easily the presentwith both hands. If you receive and quickly without too much red tape a present, take it with both hands and In this sort of syst€ m , it,susuallyeasier un$rap it latet to 8€ t banłs to fr ance you or to bonow The Chinese preferface-to-facemeetings moneyfrom othel P€ o ple' In Ameńca, to emailsor Ihephone.as ir! beter for Britain and Australia,where thereis a lot the relationship.Don't interruptand of entrepreneudalactivity,people are very don't disagreeopenlyor the oth€ r person mobile.They donl expectto live in the mightloseface.Neversay'No . This is same ĘIaceall oI their lives' They go where too direct.Say somethinglike 'We need the work is. time.'or.That wil| be difficult.,Don't stań R: Have you got any advice for would-be your Presentation with a ioke aŚ this is too entrepreneurs? informal. P: YeŚ' Don,t sit arcund thinkin8 about Above all you need a lot of patience, starting a business - get up and do it now' especiallywhen you come to the written contract.You may find that the detailsin 6.2 VocabularyTypesof companies the conbact get changedall the time.This ; --. -.is normal. A written contract is not as irnpońantas in the weŚt. A company should make good quality products at competitive pńces' There should be a good choice ofproducts and services.No companyshould have a nronopol\. If I don'tlike a product.I ll buy anotherone the next time. I need my salary every month. I want the companyto do well so I can keep my iob. The company should give me job security, good working conditionsand a fair salary

    6.4 SpeakingInterruptingin meetings

    $ z,ra

    Lisa: As you know, Ms sanchez, memberof thę boald for HR, has asked us to look into the possibilityof havingour own companyfitnesscentreand ... lohn: Not that again! We've discussed this several times already and we always came to the conclusionthat ... L: If I could just finish what I was sayinglMs Sanchez is personallyvery interestedin setting up a fitness centre on the company premisesbecause... Tomi May I interrupthere? This is a new issuefor me. I d like to know why lohn is against the project. L: well, the issuecameup last year ... Jr Let me speak for myseli Have you any idea what a fitnesscentrewould cost? It's not only the building and equipment,but you need trainedperconnelworking there and workinguntillatein the evening.[ ... Mary: Sorry to interrupt,but I'd like to come in here.I r€ a lis€ thereśa lot oI cost involved, but maybe in the long term we would save money because employees would be fittetand lessoftenilland | ... J: Stop right there!What if peopleinjure themselves?we'll have more absentccisrn than beforc,and if it's a seriousinjury maybethey'll want to sue us! T Could we getback to the first point? I'd like to know what Ms Sanchezhas in mind. L: As I was saying, Ms Sanchez rvould like to ńiŚe this issueagain' Now, I'd like to make two poinls beforewe all sran ralking again.Firctly,Ms Sanchezis concemed about the high rate ofillness not only in the produclion area but also amonBoffice stafl Secondly, we are talking about a possibility.We may come up with another ideato ... M: I've got something to say here. I've brought some chańs with me about illnessrates and theil caus€ s , which I think is very relevant,..

    6.5 Writing Agendas and action manutes

    ! z,rg

    cństina: so, let'smake a stań. Thank you for corning' Present today are lćna, Fimt and Adńan' BirBit can't come as she is in anothermeeting'Firat, I think itśyour turn to take the minutes.fught,item one on our agendatoday.Lena, I think you want to stań with Mattersarisjng' LenarThe office staffis not happy aboutthe hot deskingwe ageed last time.The work atmosphereis bad and gettingworse.I think we should reviewthe situation. C: Any comments? Firat:Yes,I agreewith Lena ... c: so, Lena, you wiIIwńte a repoń to review the situation.How long do you need? Lr I can have it readyby the eighth of September. c: cood. I,etśmov€ on to the next item' Fimt, are you readyto present?

    7l,.'Busin€ s Ś

    143

    F: Yes, w€ had two quotations for building a new canteen,one ftom Tirmbull Contuction Ltd, and one ftom Haines Ltd. Now let rne show you the facts and flgwes ... F: so, I beli€ v € the Haines Ltd proposalis better C: Do we all agrce? All: Yes. C: We all agree with the Haines Ltd proposal so we will go aheadwith it. Firat, Pl€ a se draw up a schedulefor the building work and let us have it at the next m€eting. oK, our last item today is about the company newsletter I know you wanted to point out somethin8, Adńan? Adrian: kt me start by saying the newsletter needs a lot of time and energy.The quality o{the articlesis no longerverygood.why don't we produce the newsl€tter every quańel, and not once a month? L: l'm not in favour of that idea. Itt very importantto ... c: Right. we can't r€ach an agr€ement today' Let's discuss the issue again at the next meeting.Adńan, pleasew te a proposal with the pros and cons of a quańerly newsletter.That brings us to the end of the meeting. Any other business? L: would it be possible to hold the chństmas pafiy in tle new canteen? c: Good idea.Check the building schedule and repoń back neń rneeting. oK, the next meeting is here on the eleventh of Septembet

    6.6 Casestudy Soup kitchenvs Gourmet to 90

    $ z,zo

    Cristiana:OK, you'vegot a geat idea and you,rc williflg to take a ńsk and be youi own boss. That's good, but you need to plan carefully. You need a business plan to show lhe detailsof sraninBand developing yourbusiness'Most n€ w businessowners need to borrow mon€ y from the bank' The bank will want to seea businessplan which stateshow much sran-upcapilaL you need,what resourcesyou have,and a cash flow forecast. You need to peasuade peoplethat yourbusinessis a Bood investment.so, what should a business plan contain? It should answera number of questions. well, frrstly,the Pe$onal detailŚ of the owner of the company; what are the qualfications and expeńence? secondly, you ne€d the name and tj'pe of business; where is it? Is it a pańnelship or a sole tlader? Thirdly' the mission stat€mentj what are the general aims of the business? Then you need the objective; what specifrcally rvill the cornpany do? You also need a productdescńption;what is yourUsP;who is youl taĘet group and what cońpetitors do you have? Then of courseyou need detailsofth€ production; where and how will you make the product; what equipment do you need? Another important detail is your staff. How many people do you need to do the work? Lasdy,and p€ r haps most impońantly for the bank is you! finance;how much money do you need to stań up the

    144 7'cBusiaes3

    business?what is your cashflow forecast? And what is your estimated profit and loss account? The bank will also want to know what rctum on investment they can expect.

    7 The stock markets 7.1 About businessKeep it in the family

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    Part 1 John: So, Guntel can you tell us sorneofthe ways companies raise money for new ideas or projects? Guntei Yes, of cou6e. Therc arc basically two ways for companiesto do this. They can ask for a loan from abank or they can offersharesin the companyto individuals or institutions. J: OK, so what are the advantagesand disadvantages of borrowing the money hom a bank? G: Well, the biggest disadvantage is that banks are not always happy about lending money to new or small companies- especiallyif the company cannot secur€ the loan. l l Securethe loan? G: Yes, if a company asks for a loan of, letś say $200,000,the bank will want to seethe loan can be rcpaid. It may ask the owners of th€ company to Śecurc, or guamnte€ the loan with their own private savings or a house,for example. l l I see, so what are the advantages? G: we|l, the advantagĆis that the loan is usually for a ceńain number of years - maybe frv€ or ten years - and the interest tatesare fixed, so a companyknows exactly how much it has to pay lor the loan every year There are no hidden costs or suĘnses. Pafl2 l: Can a companyborrow money hom other institutions ? G| Yes, ofcourse.They can also ask vęntur€ capitalcońpanies fo! a loan. Venture capitalists arc often pr€Pared to lend sńall Śtat-up companiesmoneywhich no bank would, but they also want more money for the loan than a bank does.Have you heard of two and 20? J: No, I haven't.TWo and 20, what'sthat? C: A venturecapitalistcornpanyusuallyasks for a management fee ol2% of the loan. l: 2Ól. - well. that'smuch lower than mosl banks ask for a loan. G: Right,but they also want 20% of any prolit the companymakeŚ' J: I see. Pań 3 G: The other way to raise money is through equlty. I: Equity? Yes, what exactly is that? Well, equityis basicallymoneythat investors giv€ a company in rctum fol a share of the profits it makes. ll So they buy a share in the company. ExacW ,J:And what arc the advantages and disadvantagesfor a company therc?

    G: The main advantage is that the company doesn't have to pay any intercst for the equity, just a share of its profits, in other words,a dividend.The ńain disadvantage is that if the original owne$ don't have mor€ than 50% ofth€ company'sshare,", the companycan be taken over.Another disadvantagefor companieslisted on a stock exchangeis. of course,the cosr ol ńeeting the frnancial repońng standards' t: Well, thanks very much, Gunter It was very interesting talking to you. GI You'r€ welcome.

    7.2 Vocabulary Dealingwith figures $ z.zł'z.zl America The Fedeml Rese e announcedit would drop its key interestńte by 0'25%to 4.25%.This is the seconddrop in interest rates in the last six months. Productivity 8rewby 2.1% in the thid quańel, comparedwith 3.9%in the first six months.Employersrcpońed 123,000new jobs had been createdin July. Germany Germany's iob go\ł'th waŚ stron8el than expected in March. Unemplolment fell by 185'000to 4,370'000.Its trad€ surplus glew a8ainin the first quańel to € 1 8'4 bn. up 0'4oloovel the prcvious quańex The German car industry rcported that a record 750,000vehicleswere e.l.pońedin the lirst thrce months. 3 lapan Japaneseindustńal productionincreased slightlyby 0.7%and unemplo!.mentfell by 195,000to 2,890,000lastyear The yen rcmainssuong at 111 yen to the dollar Bank lending rose by 2.4% in the year to Ąpńł, the f6test increase in the last five years. The UK Jobs in the service industry rose to 2.1 million last year while jobs in manufaduńng fell by 315'000.The National Statistical Office lepolted that the number ol jobs paid below the national minimum wage increased to approximately 338,000'It also repońedthat 57'000jobs, 3.2%held by thoseaged 18 to 21 were paid below f,4.10per hour.

    7.4 SpeakingNegotiationsmaking offers, agreeing deadlines

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    1 a sory, but I ordered a glass of rcd wine. b Sorry,bur I ordercda g!g$ of red wine. 2 a Mario doesnl want to talk about the problem, Pete. b Mańo doesn't want to talk about the problem, Pete. 3 a I donl think lhelr turnover will fall. b I don't think their tumover will fall. 4 a ! didn't ask you to frnish the rcpoń by Friday. b I didnt ask you to fińsh the Ępolt by Friday.

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    BiĘit: oK, perhaps we should 8et down to business. well, as you know, Antonio, our new CEO is worried about our costs and he expectŚ rne to negotiate cheaper pńces with all our supplien. Antonio: Cheaper prices! But you're already

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    B: Yeś,I know, Antonio, you're selling us the pańs at cost and you,ll be giving them away if you drop your prices any more. A: Exactly' BiĘit' wages and salałieshave gone up, eneIs. pńces have gon€ up ... evełthing's gone up, but you e,{pectus to drop our pdces. It can't be done, BiĘit! No way! B: oĘ Antońo. l,eth come back to pdces in a minute and look at some other posŚibilities. what arc our te|ms of palment? Six weeks? A: Erm, no, eight weeks. Eight weeks is a .. long time to wait to be paid' BiĘit. B: Hrnm ... well, if we shorten the terms of palment to, let's say,four weeks will that help? A: Hmm ... yes,mayb€ a little,but '.. B: But not enough for you to dlop you! prices. Right? A: Well .,. B: What about delivery times? If we give you another week or two, will that h€lp? A: Of course it helps, Birgit, but your production deparhnent always needs the pańs the day before yestelday! B: OK, Antonio, so how about this idea? If we a$ee to pay you 3.5% more for parts delivered within seven days, 2% fol pańs delivered withi]ą 10 days and 1% ifthey are delivercd within 14 da!s, will you agree to drop your prices slightly? A: OK, maybe we can drcp our pdce by 1%, but only i{ you pay within 14 days m future. B: 1.5% Antonio and I think we have a deal. A: oK' BiĘit' iJ it helps make your new cEo happiel,let'sagr€ e on 1.5%,then. B: Oh, I'm surc our CEO wi[ be delighted Antonio. Now, how about lunch?

    7.6 Case study Trading stocks

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    Economic r€poń 1 oil prices hit an all.time high today. A ba.łel of oil was up US$ 0.9 on yesterday at US$ 80. Analystssay the price could go even higher if the tenorist attacks on oil rclineiies in the Middle East continue. Intel announced it will be introducing a new generation of processors next month. A spokesman for lnt€l said the new chips will cost undelUS$100. The EU has announced that it will tighten controls of imported food. Many consumer groups are unłrappythat a lot of processed food contains genetlcally-manipulated ingr€ d ients' Tiopical stoms in Kenya have d€stoyed many of the country's crops this year Tea and coffee exports could be as much as 807o down on last year

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    Economic repoń 2 BP Amoco, Britain's largest oil company announced it has found a large oil fleld 30 km from the Faeroes. A spokesman for the company says the field could contain enough oil and gas to cover Britain's enersr needs for the next 25 to 30 years. The German govemment announced it wi|l dlop road tax for emission.ITe€cars and lorries next year. Mr Braunling, the new German envilonment ńinistel says the .govemment hopes that 1 in 20 cals will be ęlłlission fiee within the next 7 to 10 years. The authorities in many larger German cities have also announced that they plan to inhoduce a ban on petrol and diesel vehicles if ozone levels go above 100 milligrams per cubic metl€. India today announced they would subsidire genetically-manipulated crops. They say such crops will help to stop food shortages.last year heaw rain and flooding destrcyed a lot df crops in central and southem India. China could soon become the world's laĘest chip producer. At the moment the chinese seńiconductor industry only ploduces about 107oof the chips used in Chinese computers, but the govemment says it will increase its linancial supPoń to the industly signifi cantly. consum€rs in Nońh Amedca and Euope are worried about a new World Health oĘanization repoń that up to 60Ól. of tea and coffee that is imported contains the dangercus pesticide, Endosulfan.

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    Pań 1 David: So, Sarah, Cancas sharcs have increasedto € 1 10 this week. BP Amocoś announcementhasn,t affected cancasś share pńce. why's that? sarah: well, David, you can only transpoń gas in Iargequanridesif you have a pipeline, so the discovery of a laĘe gas freld in the UK won't affect the gas supply in Canada. D: OK I see. Pań 2 s: How are cyberchip shares doing?

    D| Thereśnot much change there either, Sanh. Investors are waiting to see if cyberchip can ńise the money to finance the new production plant. If they can, the share p ce will probably ńse signficantly, but at the moment they are tmding at €120. Part 3 Dr I seethe Brazilian coffeeproducer,FeijSo Pretos, is doing very well. S: Yes, David. A lot of consumerc arc worried about the reports on Endosullan and have switched to oĘanic coffee brands. Feiieo Pretos shale price is up by €10 to €150. Pań 4 D: Genezap's sharc pńce is also up €5 on last week. s: Y€ s , but thereśa lot of speculationthere. It's still llot clear if tłle Indian govemment v/ill pay subsidies on geneticallymanipulated seed that is imported or if they will use the money to support local biotech companies. At the moment, Genezap's share price is €1 10, but it could shoot up if the lndian govemment annou4cesit will also subsidizeimpońed seed. Pań 5 D: Finally, Sarah, what about Zero Emission Cars' sharep ce? S: They are doing very well at the moment They ale up € 2 5 on last week at € 1 75. Analysts think the market share for emission-free vehicles in Germany will double in the next 12-18 monthr. It will take the big car produceń at least thrce to four yean to intioduce emission-free cars, so shares in companies like zEc are in great demand at the moment.

    8 Going global 8.2 VocabularySettingup a franchise

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    Dave:so, Mańa what madeyou decideto open a teashopin Lisbon? Mańa: well, Dave I studied chemistfy at camb dge Unive$ity fol thre€ years, but when I cameback to Ponugal five years ago, I decided I didnt really want to be an employee at some chemical company. I wanted to be my own boss and run my own business. D: OK, but why did you choose to run a teashop,Mańa? Are teashopspopular with the Pońuguese? M: You'd b€ surpńsed'Dave! My bank managerwas a bit sceptical,but I love spendingtime in teashopsand thoughtit wouldbe a greatideato openone herein Lisbon. D: And has it been a success,Mańa? M: Well, yes and no, Dave. It $'as very hard work at th€ beginning and finding the dght franchise was a lot more difiicult than I'd thought it would be. D: But you found one in the end. M: Yes, but I had to fly back to the UK five or six times the following year for talks and discussions with vańolrs franchisols before I finally found the ńght one. D: What other difEculties did you have? M: Well, mising the fuanchise fee was OK; it

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    7 was only X12,000which is quite cheap for a franchise,but I also had to attenda two-weektEining prcgrammein London which cost me another{2,500which I hadn't budgetedfor. D: You had to pay a coursefee? M: \o. burthe Iligir.thehotelandIood ... and, as you know Dave, London isn't cheap. D: Whatabouropeningand equippingthe shop? You openedthreeyeals agordidn't you? M: Yes,that was the next problem,Dave. The franchisor'sEuropeanagentwasn't happy with the site l'd chosen.He didn't think itwas centralenoughor in a prestigjous enoughlocation. D: So, the franchisorselectsthe location of the outlet. M: No, not really,but the siteyou select has to meetcenain srandardsbelore ir is approved.lt took me almostthrce months to find a more centralsite which I could affordto rent,but by then I had spentmost ofmy savingsand the big€ e st expense - equippingand fittingthe shop was still to come, D; And how did you manageto raisethe moneyfor that Maria? M: My bank agleedto lend me € 5 0,000 aftel they'dse€ n my businessplan and I managedto borrow anothel € 5 0,000 from the threeFs. Dr The threeFs? M: Yes,thethreeF5' Dave family.lńends and fools. D: I seeand was that enough? M: Just,Dave, but only just.The lianchiser wantedto ship all the equipmentand fittingsfrom the UK, but I pe$uaded them that it would be cheaperto have eveqrthing made herc. lt saved a lot of time and moneyand I was able to open ihe shop within six weeks of signingthe lease. D: So who arc your customen? M: The shop has been a rcal hit amongstthe businesscommunityhere and, of coulse, we also attract a lot of tourists during the summermonths.Our tumover is up 50% overthe samepeńod last year. D: Great|Welldone,Mańa ''' and ''. erm,is thereanlthing you regretabout openinga franchise? M: No, not rcally.I don't enjoyfilling in the paperworkand havingto ring the headquarte$with a breakdownofsales everymonth,but who enjoyspaperwork? D: Huh, yes,I know what you mean.Well, thanks very much for iaking the time to talk to me. M: You'rc welcome,Dave ... and good luck with the ańic]e' D: Thanks.

    146 7 / i . Bu s i n e s s

    8.4 SpeakingPresentationshandlingquestions Pa1 Good moming, ladiesand gentlemenand thank you very much for coming today. My nameis Ingo Anspach and I'm in chargeofthe pressdepaltn€ n t hele. Now, beforewe beginthe tour, I would like to give you sorneback$ound informationabout the airpori. The official decisionto build a new ailpoń at this location was first madein 1969. After a lot of prctests against the decision and couń hearin8sits construclion beganin 1980. The ailport was officially openedon the 17'hMay 1992,23 yearslat€ r . It is now the seventh largest airpoń in Eurcpe and has been namedthe 'Best Airport in Europe' for the last two years. since the mid.gosthe aiĘoń has become morc and morc impońant for ilansi| passengers.Last yearwe had 50.8million passengersand therewere morc than 400,000 take-offsand landings.Forthose ofyou who like sraiisticsthat meansthe number of passengersusingthe aiĘoń has increased by 156%and the number of take-offsand landingshas gone up by 114%sinc€ the aiĘort frńt opened. About 30% ofthe flightsarc domestjcand 70% are intemational.Brcken dou'n amongst businessand economyclass,we can say that arcund5qoofpaisengersfly businessclass and 959. economy.|f \łelook at the reasons'' for their flight,we can say that 52% ofour passengerssay they are flying for private purposesand 48% are flying for business puĘoses' Now let'shave a look at ... Part 2 Ingo:Right then, now if any ofyou have any questions,l'd be happy to try and answer them. Questioner1:Thank you Mr Anspach.That was a very interestingpresentation,You said that over 27,400peoplework at the aiĘolt. what do they all do? I: That'sa very good question.Pleasedon't forgei that not everyone who works herc checksin luggageor talks to the pilots hom the conłIoltower.In many ways the ailpoń is like a small city.over 550 differentcompaniesand organirations work here_that makesihe airpoń the secondbiggestplace of work here in Bavada. Questioner2: What have been the most impońant developments at the ailport since it opened? I: OK, I'm glad you asked me that.There have obviouslybeen a lot of impońant technical developments,but in termsof expandingour s€ r vices and bui]dings;the Kempinski Intemationalhotel was opened in 1994,the Munich AiĘoń cenhe which includesa shoppingmall was openedin 1999and a second teminal was added in 2003. QuestionerS: Do you think the new runway thats plannedfor 201I is reallynecessar},"

    [: Some people say that it isn't,but iJ the numberofpassenge$ and flightscontinue to grow as we forccast, we will need to increase the maximum nurnber of take-offs and landingsfrom 90 to 120 an hour and that is only possibl€ with a third runway' Questioner4:Are you planninganything else? I: Yes, of couise.As I mentionedin my talk, we are planning to expand our multifunctionalservicecentre.That meansmore shops,more restaumnts,more conference facilitiesand servicessuch as doctors'and dentists'practices.A new three-starhotel with 250 rooms is also plannedfor 2009. Questioner5: Have a lot ofjobs been iost since September11d,2001? I: No, on the contary In fact,the airport has createdmore than 4,000new jobs in the last two and a half years. That's {our new jobs every day. Questioner6: what has the aiĘoń done to tighten secuńty and make flying safer fol passeng€ r s? I: I'm afńid I can't go into the details hel€ , but I expectyou know ftom the newspaperc and TV that a lot has been done. Questioner7: Is thereanJ.thingfun that passengersand ńsitors can do when they come herc? I: I'm glad you askedme that.Yes,we have a visitors,centrcwith an eńibition hall and famous,old aircraft.We also have a disco called Night'Flight which is big enough for over 3,000guestsand, ofcourse,we have our very or,r,nbrewerycalled Airbńu' I. pmducesaround 5,000hectolitresofbeer a year.I'm surc someofyou might like to try it afłel youl tour Half a litre only costs ę2'10'

    8.9 Writing Reportsof recommendation David: Well, Ajit, I think this is the best location I've seensince I arrivedlast week. Ajit: Yes,David, the land is very cheap.Your companycould buy a lot more land here than the locations we looked at in the Mumbai area. D: Exactly.So we wouldn't have any problemsif we wantedto expandlater Ar Yes,but I am a little worriedthere could b€ a good reason ]ł/hythis land is so cheap,David. D: what,s that then? What ar€ you woried about? A: I think we should talk to the locals,David. This area is very flat and there's a large river only a kilometre away. D: So, you think there'sa chancethis area could be flooded. A: Yes,we need to check on that.The othei problemhere is the high hunidit\,. Materials and parts will have to be kept in specialbuildingsto stop them from !ustjng. D: OK, but I think we can live with that,Ajit. Do you seeany other problems? A: Well, the town has good milway connecrions to Mumbai,bur lhe roadsin this area arent good,especially,duringthe monsoonpeńod'

    D; Yes,but ther€ arc plans to build a highway to Mumbai, aren'ttherc? A: Yes, David, plans, but it could be years beforc the highway is built, D: Hmm, what about finding staff? A: wel|, t}ereare a |ot ofsmallfactońes in the area, so finding skilled workers will be easy. D: GĘat|That's good' A: Yes, but you will probably have to invest in sorne retraining progmmmes. D: Yes, thatb clear. A: I'v€ checked to see if there ale local suppliers for the parts you need. D: And what's the score there? A: That shouldn'tbe a problem,but I couldn't find a local supplie! for the contol units you need' You rnighthave to fly theń in Irom the UK at the beginning. D: oK, we,ll have to think about tłEt, Ajit, thanks.So, if we frnd the area doesn't tlood. How long do you think it will lake to build the factory her€? A: well, rhe constructionwork and equipping the factoryshouldn'ttake more than six months. Therc are some very good local constructioncompaniesin the area,but first we need to do all the paperwork the authoritiesneed and that could take six montnsto a veat D: Six months tó a year? clan't yoil spleedthat up? A: l can Ę, David, but I can't make any prornises ther€.

    8.6 Case study Choosinga franchise

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    Finnlelrs Lewis: Good moming, ladiesand gentlemen. Thank you for cominglo my presentalion this moming. l d iust like to giveyou a shoń oveNiew of Finnley care and some ol the oppońunities a franchise with Finnley Care can offer you. Finnley Care has been in the care business since 2000. We provide carr to help older and disabledpeoplelive comfońably and secul€ly in their own homes. The UK carc market is wońh more than f,10billion a yearand this is growing quickly. Home care, ladies and gentlemen, is a high gowth market with . great potential. Our businessmodel clearlyworks. We now have over 280 hanchises in the UK and expandedinto Europe thrce years ago.And we have more rhan 20 franchises in spain, Pońugal and France cańng fol British and otherforeignresidentsthere. You may not have any expeńence in the care business, but Finnley Care will provideyou with all the supportand trainingyou need to make yourbusiness a success. The franchising fee is ver1 reasonable - only f,20,000and includes tr:ainingand a business package to ensuaeyour business is successful. Thanł you for listening. Now l,d |ike to hand you ov€ r to ... Toastiee

    Sarah:... Now I'd like to hand over to my colleague, Tom Darling, who will tell you more about Toasties. Tom:Thank you, Sarah.OK, so now that Sarah has rold us all abour the franchisins concept,I'd like to giveyou some backgound informationaboutToasties. The first Toasties outlet opened in Sydney in 1999. We have expanded rapidly since then and we now have iust over 530 outlets in 30 different countriesWe believe that providing an attmctive range of freshly toasted sandwiches in our modem, warm and welcomingoulletsis what makes us different from the othen m this market. Toasties customers are mainly young prcfessionals,officeworkers and students. Our businessmodel has been a gleat success as you can see fiom our rapid gro$'th and we make it easy for you to be your own boss and stań your very own Toastieshanchise.The initial franchisefee costs{7,500and fittingand equippinga Toasties outlet can cost less than f60,000. we want to ńake Toasties the |aĘest and most successfirlindependenrsnack retailer in Europe within the next five yeats. Classic Cotton Clothes Laula: So, I'd like to move on now and ask: Why is a franchise with Classic Cotton Clothes different? well, it's different because we rcally believe in our products, we believein ourbusinessmodeland we believe that you can help us make this world greene! cleaner and more sustaiuable. Classic Cotton Clothes has agreements with 25 cotton farms around the world and we have almost 100 fmnchises. The first franchise was opened in 1989, but it was not until the mid-gos when the groMh in organicgoodsbegantlal our concept took off. As you can see hom the diagrambehind me. sa|esof oĘanic productsin the UI( fust went above!1 billion in 2003 and they have glown by 25-30% everyyear since. oĘaldc food salesmake up most ofthese figuresbut environmentally-fiendly clothing is increasingsteadily. OK, so how does our franchisesystem work? Well, most of oul franchises are m small towns.We encouńge franchisees to stay out oI the laĘe cities. In smal]er places there are fewel depańment stores and so therc is a greaterchanceofbeing successful. So, what do you need to starta franchise?WelI,you need to frnd suitable premises where you can sell the clothes ftom, I'll talk a bit more about the delivery side of the hanĆhises lateĘ but the franchisingfee costs!18,000and your total investmentcould cost between !30.000 and !40.000.

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    1 Living abroad 1.1 About business: Working abroad abroad /e brcrd/adverb in or to a foreign country We try to go abroad at leŃst once a year. analyse /'onelarz/verb [transitive]to study or examine something in order to understand it or explaln it the ability to ąnalyse and eualuate information application /'epll'kęIj(e)n,/ noun [count/uncount]a folmal request for permission to do or have something Hls application for membership of the club uas rcjected. candidate ,/kendrdert/noun lcount] one of the people competing for a iob The candidate must demonstrate Eood communic ation skills. career /ka'ne(r)/noun lcount] a job or profession that you work at for some time Rosen had decided on an acad.emic career. He lelt like haaing a career change and uent into teachin+. chameleon /ke'mi:Len/noun [count] a type of small lizard with skin that changes colour to match the colours around it Competitive /kam pętahv/adjective a competitive activity is one in which companies or teams ar competing against each othet the struggle to suraiae in a highly competitiae marketplace cover letter / kevo(r)lete(r)./noun [count] a letter that you send with something, to explain what you are sending or to give extra information culture ,/'k^ge(r)/noun [uncount] activities involving music, literature, an d other arts If you're looking lor cultute, then Paris is' the place |or you' Britąin's literury culturc CV / sr 'vrl noun lcount] BRITISH curiculum vitae; a document giving details of your qualifications and the jobs you have had in the past that you send to someone when you are applying for a job. drought /draut/noun lcount] a long period when there is little or no min emergency /rm:(r)$(e)nsi/ noun lcount/uncount] an unexpected situation involving danger in which immediate action is necessaryWe always carry a medical kit tor emergencies. expe€ t /Ik spekt/Verb [trunsitive]to think that something wiII happen We're expecting good weather at the aeekend. handwrite /'hendrart/verb ltransitive] to w te something with a pen or pencil homesick /'heumsrk/ adjective feeling sad and alone because you are far from home noun lcount] a penon manufacturer /,mEnju'fsektjsre/ or company that makes a particular type of product, especially in a factory mirror /'mrrs/verb ltransitive] to match or express the qualities, features,or feelings of someone or something reference /'ręf(o)rons/noun a statementgiving information about you that you ask someone who knows you or has worked with you to provide when you apply for a new job Her former employer prouided a rcference for her. re|evant / relev(e)ntladjective impońant and directly connected with what is being discussed or considered Ho1ł is that releaant to this discussion? re|ocate /$lau'kęIt/ Verb lintlansitive/transitive] to move to a different place, or to make somebody do this.

    l43 alf.Business

    shoń|ist ,/Jo:tlrst/ [count]verb to makea list of people froma largergroupto decidewho shouldgeta job, pńze etc straightforward /'streń fclwed/adjectiVenot complicated or difficultto undeIstanda straighttorwardprocess withdraw /wó'drc:/verb [intransitive] to no longel take pań in something:The injury has |orcedhim to withdraw fuomthe cortpetition. '1.2Vocabulary: Living abroad bulletin board /'buletin,bcrd/noun [count] COMPUTING a place on a computer system or on the Intemet where you can leave and read messages contract /'[email protected] noun lcount] a written legal agleement between two people or organizaŁionsAtte| si! months she was offered a contract of eruployment, deposit ,/dr'pDzrt,/ noun lcount] an amount of money that you pay when you rent something. You get the money back if the thing is not damaged when you retum it. exception /rk sepj(e)n/noun [count] someone or soĘething that is different and cannot be included in a general statement TÓere are some errceptions to eoery grammatical rule. insurance /mJuarens/noun luncount] an arangement in which you regularly pay a company an amount of money so that they will give you money if something that you owl is damaged,lost, or stolen, or i.fyou die or are ill or injved Do you haue insurance tot the house yet? |and|ine /'lŹen(d).lam/ noun lcount] a.telephone that is not a mobile ohonó .landlord /ilen(d),1crd,/ noun lcount] a man who owns a house, flat, or room that people can rent overdraft / euve,draft/noun [count] an agreementwith your bank that allows you to spend money when you have no money left in your a'ccdunt ' prepaid /,prrlperd./ something that is prepaid has already been paid for before you use it prepaid postage register /rredSste/verb [intransitive/transitive]to put a name or other infomation on an officiallist Births must be registered uithin 42 days. noun [count] BRITISH an amount of top-up /'tDp ^p/ money added to other money in order to reach the necessary level a top-up loan utility bill /jult eti ,bi11/noun lcount] a charge for a public service such as gas, water, or electricity that is used by everyone

    1,3 Grammar: Pres€ n t simpIe and prepositons of time attend /e'tend/verb [intuansitive,/transitive] to be present at an event or activity Most of his colleagues attend,ed the uedding. au pair /eu peal noun lcount] a young woman who lives with a family in a foreign country and helps to look after their children budget / b^djrt./noun lcount] the amount of money a person, organization, or govemment has to spend, or their plan to spend itTao-thirds of thetubud+et goes on ląbour costs. canteen /kćentirnl noun [count] a room in a factory school. or hospital where meals are served

    Word aist

    fireworks /'farowsrks,/ noun [plural] objects that make loud noises and coloured lights in the sky when they explode grave /grerv/ noun lcount] the place where a dead body is buried in a deep hole in the ground l{e's never eaen aisited his mothet's graae. kil.e /kat/ noun lcount] a toy that flies in the air while you hold it by a long string parade /pa rerd/noun lcount] a public celebration in which a large group of people moves through an area, often with decorated vehicles and bands playing music permanent /'psrm.nent,/ adjective happening or existing for a long time, or for all time in the tuture The illness can caus e p ermanent b lindne ss. repay /fl'per/verb [transitive]to give someone back the money that you borrowed from them shadow /'Jedau/ noun [count/uncount] an area of darkness that is created when something blocks light Tłe dogs arc aLutays tryitg to chase their oan shadous. vacancy /'verkensi/noun [count] a job that is available We haue seueral aacancies to fill in the Sales Depąńment. winery / wain(a)ri,/noun [count] a place where wine is made 1,4 S pe aki ng:

    Making small talk conference /rkonf(o)rens/ noun [count] a large meeting where people who are interested in a pańicular subject discuss ideas a conference hall/room/centre corporate /'kcrp(a)retl adjective relating to a corporation corporate culture divorce /dr'vcrs/noun [count/uncount] a legal way of ending a marriage 1 uant a diaorce, extremefy /rkrstrirmli,/ adverb very He knous the area extremely well. icebreaker / arsbrerke(r)/noun [count] something that you say or do to make people feel more relaxed at a party or other social event have something in Gommon /hev In komen/ l1 phrase10 have the same intereslsor 's,m€ opinions as someone else We'ae got such a lot in common. networking /'netwerkr!/noun [uncount] meeting people in order to make friends who will be useful for your business techniqu€ ,/tęk'ni:k/ noun a method of doing something using a special skill that you have developed surgical 'techniques unique ,/ju:nirk/ adjective very special, unusual, or good It is her use o| coLour thąt makes her wo|k unique'

    1.5 Writing: Formal and informal emails agenda /e dsęnde,/ noun lcount] all the things that need to be done or thought abo,rt Cutting the numbet of uorke# is not on the agenda. attached /el!ętJt/adjective joined or fixed to something colleague / koli:g/noun [count]someonewho works in the same organization or depańment asyou Fiends and colLeagues will remember him uith affection. grateful /rgref(o)l/ adjective feeling that you want to thank someone because they have given you something or done something fioryou l'm aery gratelul for all your help uith the patty.

    o

    reservation /,rezo'ved(e)n/ noun an armngement to have something such as a room in a hotel or a seat in a theatre kept for you to use

    1.6 Case study: Global Recruit advisor /edrvarze(r)/ noun [count] someone whose job is to give advice on subjectsthat they know alot about the Prim e M ini ster's ada isers boutique /buitirk,/noun lcount] a small fashionable shop, especially one that sells clothes high-profile ,/'har,praufarl,/ adjective often seen or mentioned in newspapers or on television a high-profile camp ąi 8n / comp a y / p o li ti ci an Ieading /'1i:dI4/adjective main, most impońant, or most successful He became a leadingfigure in the London art uorld. location /lau kerJ(e)n/noun lcount] the place or position where someone or something is, or where something happerc The talks ąre takin{place at a seuet location, oppońunity ,/'Dpe tju:neti/noun a chance to do something, or a situation in which it is easy for you to do something The trip sounds Like a wondet.ful oppońunity. process /'preuses/verb [transitive]to put information into a computer in order to organize it Data is processed as it is receiued. qualification / kwolrfrke{(e)n,/noun [count] BRITISH something such as a degree or a diploma that you get when you successfully finish a course of strdy Simon lett school with no qualifications. requirement /n'kwaramont/noun [couht].something that is necessary or that a rule or law says that you must do a list o| safeĘ requfuements taverna /te'v3:na/noun lcount] a restaurant which serves traditional creek food unenrployed / adjective without a job Haoe ^nrm'plcrd,/ year you been unemployed or more? fot a

    Unit 2 Dealing with customers 2.1 About business: The shopping experience chain /tJern/ noun[count]a groupof businesses thatall

    belong to the same cornpanyJapan's leading hotel chain Consu|tant /bn s^ltent/noun lcount] an expeń whose job is to give help and advice on a pańicular subject convenience /kenviinions/noun [uncount] a condition that helps you to avoid wasting time or etfortHer hair ruas cut short tor conaenience rather than tashion. depańment store /dI pojtmentsto:/noun lcount] a large shop that is divided into sepamte sections. u'ith each sectionsellinga differenttype of thing € | egant ,/'ellg6nt/adjectlve beautiful in a graceful simple way She always looks so elegant. € x c€ p tiona| /rk.sepJ(e)nal/ adjectlVe extremely good or impressive in a way that is unusual Her scores were quite exceptional. facility /fe'srlati,/noun [count] a feature of a machine or system that allows you to do somethingthe text messaging facility on your phone flagship /'flegfrp/ noun lcount] the biggest,most important, or best thing in a group

    Tili.Busiress

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    F

    T I

    luxury /'l^kjari/adjectiveveryexpensiveand of the highest qnalitya luxury hotel/item/car refiabfe /rr'lareb(e)l/ adjectiveableto belrusled a reliable wotkmąn/car a level of standard /'stendod/noun [count/uncount] qualĘ or achievement, especiallyone that most people think is normal or a cceptableWhat can be done to raise standardsin schook? 2.2 Vocabulary: Telephoning and customer care blame /blerm/verb ftransitive]to say or think that someone or something is responsible for an accident, problem, or bad situation Il it all goes wrong d.on't blarue me noun fcount] a place where a large Gal| c€ n tre /'k.:l 'sente/ number of people are employed to deal with customers by telephone calm ,/ka:m./adjective not affected by strong emotions a calm aoice confirm /ken'fs:m/verb [intransitive or transitive] to tell someone that something will definitely happen at the time or in the way that has been arranged You cqn make an appointment nou, and then call neą,rerthe time to conftrm. adjective annoyed because dissatisfied,/dis [email protected],fard/ something is not as good as you expected it to be a dissatisfted customer

    2.3 Grammar: Countable & uncbuntable nouns, requests & offers busy ,/bvi,/adjectivehavinga lot of thingsto do He is an extremelybusy man. noun [uncount]the abilityto do competenc€ /'kDmpltens/ somethingwell l arz not questioningyourcompetence. direct number /dar,rekt 'nrmbe/noun lcount]a telephonenumberstraightto a personand not througha receptionist noun lcount]a telephoneline that extensaon /rk'stenj(s)n/ is one of two or more lines in the samebullding I'm on erdension 334. noun [count]the peoplewho live household /'haus,heuld/ in a house or a flat scale /skerl/noun [singular/uncount] the size,rate,or level aware of the scale of of somethingIs the Gor.,ernment the problem (=arctheyauare of how big it is)? 2.4 Speaking: Telephoning - Handling complaints broken down /,breuken'daun/ adjective no longer working, or in very bad condition distrabution centre /drstdbju{(e),sente/noun a big building where large amounts of goods are stored verb lintransitive,/transitive] double-book /,d^b(e)l'bukt/ [often passive] to promise the same seat,table, or room to two different people at the same time credit /'kedrt/ verb ltransitive] to add an amount of money to an account - opp osite DEBIT The money will be credited to your account, urgent /'3:dj(o)ntladjective urgent things are things that you need to deal with immediately lle ład some utgent 150 //,r Business

    to. businessto attend. 2.5 Writing: Dealing with an email of complaint component /kam'p.unant/noun [count] a part of a machine or piece of equipment noun lcount] a public show exhibition /,eksr'brJ(a)n/ where ań or other interesting things are put so that people can go and look at them an exhibition hall/cenbe/space non.refundable /non rr f'rndeb(e)l/adjedive if the money that you pay for something is non-refundable, you cannot get the money back for any reason non-rclundable tickets sincere /sm'sre/adjective showing that you really mean what you say His apology seemed sincere. submit /sebmrt/ verb ltransitive] to formally give something to someone so that they can make a decision abouI it The plans uill be submitted. nełt week' adjective too bad to be unacceptable /,,rnek'septeb(e)l/ allowed to continue

    2,6 Case study: The Panorama conference blanket / ble4krt/noun lcount]a thick covermadeof wool or anothermaterialthat you useto keepwarm in bed the placethat check in /'gekrn/ noun [singular/uncount] you go to when you ańve at an airportor hotel,oI the processthat you go through beforeyou go to your flight or room / thermostat /i0b;4eu.st€ tnoun [cóurrt]a pieceof equipmentthat controlsthe temperaturein a building, machine,or engine

    Unit 3 Operations 3.1 About business: Lean manufacturing defect /.dffękt/ noun [count] a fault in someone or something domestic /de'męsttk/adjective relating to peopleśhomes and family life dom estic chores domestic appliances efficient /r'fiJ(o)nt/adiective working well and producing good results by using the available time, money, supplies etc in the most effective way The new machine is far more efticient than the old. one. eliminate /r'lmr,nert/verb ltransitive] to get rid of something that is not wanted or needed Many infectious diseases hazte been airtually eliminated. noun luncount] the feeling enthusiasm /m'0juizi,@zam/ of being very interested in something or excited by it llis enthusiasm for music has stayed strongflexible /'flekseb(e)1/ adjective able to make changes or deal with a situation that is changing A more fl.exible approach is needed. imp|€ m ent /lmpll'ment/verb [transitive]to make something such as an idea, plan, system,or law stań to work and be used keen /'kirn / very interested in an activity that you do often because you enjoy it a keen cyclist/ gardener, Luke's keen on swimming. premiśes /'premislz/noun lplurau the buildings and land that a business or organization uses

    F

    wordrkr o rumour /rruime/ noun [countor uncount]somethingthat peopleare sayingthat may or may notbe 1:'ue A student had beensprcadingrumoursabout the teachers. specific /spe'srfrk/ adjectiveinvolvingor limitedto only one pańicularthing or purposeYoł Łaoe to enterthe intormation in a specificorder. adjectiveof high quality,or betteror superior /su'prerie/ biggerthan somethingelseThe hotel'sseroiceis superior. adjectivedoneaccordingto a syst6matic /,srste'[email protected],/ careful plan the turnover /b(r)n,ewe(r)/noun [count/uncount] value of the goodsand servicesthat a companysellsin a particulalpeńod of time wa'€ h ouse /lw€ e 'haus/noun lcount]a big buildingwhere largeamountsof goodsare stored workshop /'w:rk,Jop/ noun [count]a room or building wherethingsare madeusingtools and machines 3.2 Vocabulary: Trends and planning noun luncount]the activĘ of flying aviation / elvi'lęJ(e)n/ or makingplanes competitor /kem'pętlte(r)/ noun lcount]a companythat sellsthe samegoodsor servicesas another destination ,/des ned(e)n/npul [count]the placewhere someoneor somemmgls gomg hire /'hare/verb ltnnsitive/intransitive] to pay someoneto work for you I łired s:omeone to paint the house. leak ,/lirk,/verb ltransitive]to give secretinformation about the organizationyou work for to a journalistor to the public The story ubs kaked to the pftss. lifeguard /'laifigard/ noun [count]someonewhosejob is to save swimmerswho are in danger market leader /,ma:kt'lirde(r)/ noun [count]a company that sellsmore of its productsthan any othercompanyof its type pickpocket /'prk,pDkrt/ noun [count]someonewho steals thingsfrom people'spocketsand bagsin crowdedplaces subsidiary /seb'srdiori/ noun lcount]a companythat is ownedby a Iargercompany 3.3 Grammar: Present continuous, adverbs and present simple passive conventional /ken'venJ(o)ney adjective using ordinary or traditional methods, not new ideas or new technolosl a conaentional oaen / conaentionąl ueapons (=not nuclear or chemical weapons) .ng]€ d ient /n.grildient/noun [count] one of the foods or liquids that you use in making a particular meal Mix all the inqredients to Eether carefully. laboratory /le'boret(e)rilnoun [count] a building or laęe room where people do scientific reseatch our neu research laboratory organic /clganrk/ adjective organic food or drink is produced without using artifrcial chemicals organic apples/meat posticide /rpesh,sard/ noun lcount] a chemical used for killing insects that damage crops state /stert/noun lcount] a region of a country that has its own govemment ll'e stąte of Michigan strict /strrkt/adjective strict rules or conditions must be

    obeyedcompletely Theyoperatewithinstricttimelimits. to begood. LynnBaaeusstrictinstructions 3.4 Speaking: Presentations:signposts and stepping stones cosmetic /koz mętk/ adjective relating to the implovement of someone's appearance cosmetic products

    3.5 Writing: Instructionsand procedures for an exhibition stand annuaf /'anjuel/ adiedive happening once ayear an annu a I c onf erence/ f estiual / ho Iid ay attendee /a ten'di:/noun lcount] someone who is present at an event or ac/[iutyThere zaercmore than 600 attendees at the conterence last month. noun lcount] a large meeting of Gonvention /ken'venJ(o)n,/ people from a pańicular profession or organization Gostum€ /lkDstju:m/noun lcount/uncount] clothes that the actors wear in a play or film expand /rk'[email protected]/verb ltmnsitive/intransitive] if a business or service expands, or if you expand it, it grows by including more people and moving into new areas lve are expandinq the programme to prooide more student places. freebie /'fii:bil noun [count] something that someone gives you that you do not have to pay for location /leo'kerJ(e)n/ noun [count] the place or position where someone or something is, or where something happens The talks arc taking place at ą secrct location. logistics /la'd3rskks/noun [plural] the practical arrangementsthat are necessary in order to oĘanize something successfully noun [count] a meeting or class in Seminar /'semr,na:(r)/ which a small group of people discuss a subject noun [count] an event that showcase /Jeu,kers,/ emphasizes the good qualities of someone or something

    3.6 Case study: ScotAir budget air|ine /'b,rĄrt'ee(r)lam/noun [count] an air company that has low fares but that doesn't offer many traditional passengerservices f^tpnnt noun lcount] the total carbon footprint /kar(r)bon amount of greenhouse gasesthat a service produces crew /kru:/ noun fcount] the people who work on a ship, aircraft etc: can be followed by a singular or plural verb AII the passengers and ctew on board the iet uere kilkd. noun lcount] something discomfoń /drs'k,rmfe(r)t/ that makes you feel slightly ill oI uncomfortable 'łe discomlorts of life in the desert emmision /r m{(e)n/ noun lcount] a substance,especially a gas, that goes into the air Neu laws are aimed at reducin g v ehi cle emi ssion s. route /ru/ noun [count] the roads or paths that you use when you go from one place to another The tunnel is the rcute taken by most driaefi. second hand /,sekend'hend/ adjective owned or used by someone else before yo:usecond-hand, books / clothing adjective travelling a shoń shoń.hau| /'.|c(r)t 'hc:l/ by air distance, especially

    Tr.Business h

    151

    ,|.

    uniform /Jur fc:(r)m./ noun [count]a set of clothes that you wearto showthat you arepart of a particular organizationor school He uas still ueating his school uniform.

    Unit 4: Successstoraes 4.1 About business: Business leaders and successstories ambition /€ m ,blJ(e)n/noun [uncount]determinationto becomesuccessful,rich, or famous contact /'[email protected]/ noun [countor uncount] communication betweenpeople, countries, or organizations Do you and Jo still keep in contact? dedication /,dedr'ked(e)n/ noun [uncount]the beliefthat somethingis good or ńght that makesyou spenda lot of time and effoń doingor suppońingit /'is dedication to the fight against AIDS financia| ,/faI nenJ(e)l/adjectiveinvolvingmoneyóazłs and otherfinancial institutions icon /'arkon/noun [count]someonewho is very famous and who people think representsa pańicular idea immigrant /'mrgrent/noun [count]someonewho comes to live in a country from another counĘ lipstick /'lrp,strk/ noun [countor uncount]a coloured substancein the form of a small stick thatwomenput on their lips, or a stick of this luck /l,r.k/noun luncount]successthatyou haveby chance We'd all like to uish you luch in your new iob. motto /'mDt.U/noun [count] a shoń statementthat expressesa principle or aim original /a'ndg(a)neV adjectivenew,interesting, and differentfrom anlrthing elsea highly oriBinal design, a aeryoiginal songwriter secrecy / sirkesi/noun luncount]a situationin which you keep somethingsecret adjectiveknowingand sophisticated /se'frstr,kertrd/ understandinga lot about a subiect Consumers are getting more sophisticated. tip ,/tp,/noun [count]a useful suggestionor piece of informationthat someonegivesyou Tłte booklet giaes somegood tips on gettingthe most out of your software. waft /warft/verb [intransitive] if a smellor a noisewafts,it floatsthroughthe air 4.2 Vocabulary: Describing yourself and being successful cope /kaup/verb [intransitive]to deal successfullywith a difficultsituationConsideringhow bad.het injuries arc, she'scoping aerywell. The satetysystemis designedto cope 1łithenginetailure' file /farll noun lcount]a set of documentsor recordsthat you keepbecausetheycontaininformationmedical files habit /.hŹebn/ noun lcount or uncount]somethingthatyou do oftenhealthy eatinghabits risk /nsk/ noun [countor uncount]the possibilitythat somethingunpleasantor dangerousmighthappenTłe |isks to consumen are beinganałysed' role model /reul'mod(e)I,/ noun lcount]someonewhose behaviouris a good examplefor otherpeopleto copy

    152 7)|/Bu3iE€ l t

    stand out from the Crowd /'[email protected]óe 'kraod/ phraseto be differentand easyto noticeHe's the kind ol man uho stands out fuomthe crowd well-informed ,/welm'fc(r)md/adjectiveknowinga lot about a subjector a situation 4,3 Grammar: Past simple, past continuous

    and used to

    basket ,/barskt/noun [count]a containerfor car4ringor keepingthingsin, madefrom thin piecesof plastic,wire, or wood woventogethera laundry basket cotlateral /ke'l.e(a)nl/ noun [uncount]property that you agreeto give to a bank ifyou fail to pay back money that you have borrowed entr€ p ]€ n eur /'DntepĘ.rc!(T)/ noun [count]someonewho usesmoneyto stań businessesand makebusinessdeals found /faund/verb ltlansitive] to stań an organization or institation The newspaper was founded in 1909. launch /lcrnt/verb ltransitive]to makea new product available for the public to buy for the first time Tłe company uill launch a neu aersion of the softuare in

    IuIv.

    poverty /'pDve(r)tilnoun [uncount]a situation in which someonedoesnot haveenoughmoneyto pay for their basi.cneedsHaIf the uorW's population is liuing in poaerty. reality show /ń'@teti noun [count]television 'JeU/ programmesthat do not use professional actors but show rcal eventsand situations involving ordinary people rura| /'ruerelladjective r€lating tq the countryside,or in the countryside rural ateas/roads/ schools vicious circle /'v{es,$!(r)k(e)l/ noun [singular]a process in which the existenceof a problemcausesother problems,and this makesthe originalproblemworse 4.4 5peaking: ApirrAisa|ś elenent /ęlment/noun lcount] an impońant basic part of something,for examplea systemor plan Fiell.work is a key elementot this course.Adaeńising is not the only elementin the marketingprocess. f|exitime / fl€ k si'tanr'/noun [uncount]BUsINEss BRITISH a systemin which workers choose the hours each day that they work, as long as the hours add up to the samefixed number of hours everyweek or month intern /m'tu(r)n/noun [count] a studentwho works in a tob in order to get experience pressure /'FęJa(r)/noun [count or uncount] attemptsto persuadeor force someoneto do somethingPressute lor political chanqeincreasedin the 1990sself-assessment /,selfe'sesment/ noun [uncount]the processof formingyour own opinion aboutsomething that you have done

    *"4,o, I 4.5 Writing: Profiles of business leaders charity /'6areti/noun [countor uncount]an organization that givesmoneyand help to peoplewho needit campaign /[email protected]'p€ i n/noun [count]a seriesof actionsthat are intended to achieve somethingsuch as a social or political change:an election/ad.aertisingcampaign f|oat /fleut/verb [transitive]BUSINESS to stań to sell a companyl shares limited edition /'tlmfidr'drj(a)n/ noun [count]a book, pictue, etc that has been produced in very small numbers merchandise /'[email protected])tdav/noun [uncount]FORMAL goodsthat peoplebuy and sell polio /'peulier.r/ noun [uncount]a seriousinfectiousdisease that mostly afrectschildren and destroysmuscles shońage /Tc(r)ttll noun [count/uncount]a lack of somethingthat you need or want R€lzgees are |acing seious food and fuel shortages. trademark ,/'tręldmal(r)V noun [count]a nameor design that belongs to a pańicular company and is used on its products wheelchair /'wit,{eelnoun [countla chair with large wheels that someonewho cannot walk uses for movinq around irtt

    4.6 Case study: The English Acadgmy
    Unit 5 Selling 5,1 About business: Adveńising billboad /'brl,bc(r)d/ noun [count]a largeboardfor advertisements branded /'brEndrd/ adjectivebrandedgoodsare madeby well-knom companies,and havethe companynameon them desire /dr'zus(r)/noun lcount or uncount]a strongfeeling of wanting to have or do somethinga des e tor peace differentiate /,drfa'renjiert/ verb [intransitiveor transitive] to see or show a differencebetweenthings Neil is colourblind and cannot dilferentiatebetweenrcd and.Ereen. forehead /'fJ|hed/noun lcount]the upperpań of youl face,betweenyour eyesand your hair hype ./harp/ noun [uncount]INFORMAL the use of a lot of advertisements and informationto interestpeople lease ,/lls/verb [transitive] in to havea legalagreernent which someonepaysyou to useyour building,land, or equipment logo /'leugeu/noun [count]a symbolthat representsan organizationor company potential /petenja)l/ adjectivepossibleor likely in the fut\te a potential disasterThe diseaseis a potential kilkr. proposition /,prope'zrj(e)n/ noun [count]a statementthat peoplecan examinein orderto decidewhetherit is true run /r,u./verb [intnnsitive]if a pieceof clothingor a colour runs,the colour spreadswhen it becomeswet tastefu| /,telst(e)l/adjective shówing good judgment aboutwhat is attractiveor suiiable taboo /to'bu/adjectiveif somethingis taboo,people do not do it or talk aboutit becauseit is offensiveor shocking word of mouth /,ws:dev 'mar,iOl noun informal conversationsbetween peopleMost of our custome8 hear about us by uord ol mouth. 5.2 Vocabularv; Buying and:;r.lling noun [count]a typical characteristics /,kenkte'nstrks/ qualityor featurethe main charucteistics of 20thcenturyculturc comp|icat€ d /'kDmpltkęfud/ adjectivedifficultto do, deal with, or understand potential /pe'teDj(a)l/ adiectivepossibleor likely in the ttiure a potential disaster pricey /'parsi/adiectiveINFORMAL expensive rival /'rarv(e)I,/ noun [count]a pe6on, team,or business that competeswith another She scored tuice as many Dointsas her ri)al.

    5.3 Grammar: Comparatives, superlatives and asking questions

    5.5 Writing: Negotiating by email

    assure /s'Jc:/verb [trcnsitive]FORMAL to tell someone that somethingis definitelytrue or will definitelyhappen Therc'sno mistake,I can assurcyou, breakdown /'brerkdaun/noun count a situationin which a machineor vehiclestopsworking detection /dl|tękJ(o)noun luncount]the plocessof tellingsomeonewheresomethingis aircralt capable of aaoiding detection adjectiveCOMPUTING downloadable /daunlaudeb(s)l/ if informationis downloadableit can be movedto your computerfrom a computersystemor fuomthe Intemet exotic ,/rg'zotrvadjectiveinterestingor excitingbecauseof beingunusualor not familiar he|met /'hęknd noun lcount]a hard hat that you wearto protect your head Verb [intransitiveor transitive] integrate /!ntI'greń/ to becomea full memberof a societyor groupand be involvedcompletelyin its activities,or to help someoneto do this adjectiveeasyto carryor movea Pońab|e /'p.:teb(e)l/ p ortqble telzuision/ heater sate||ite /sćte'latt/ noun lcount]an obj€ c t that is sent into spaceto travelroundthe Eańh in orderto receive and sendinformatiol a spy/communications/rueather sątellite state.of-the.ań /'steitev & adjectivevery new and 'a!t/ modem steering wh€ e l /'shemjwiil/ noun lcount]the wheelthat you hotd and tum in orderto controlthe directionthat a vehicle travels in trolley /'tmli/ noun [count]BRITISH a largecontainer with wheels that you push and use for carrying things in a supermarketor at an aiĘort wateĘ]oof /'wc1e'pruf/ adjectivewateĘroofclothesor materials do not let water pass through them

    etiquette /'etrket/ noun [uncount]a set of rulesfor behavingcorrectlyin socialsituations adjectiveincludingall costs inclusive /rn'klu:srv,/ prompt /pmmpt/adjectiveimmediateor quickPrcmpt action is rcquired.

    5.4 Speaking: Negotiating agenda /o'gends/noun [count]a list of thingsthat people will discussat a meeting ballet /'beler/noun luncount]a typeof complicated dancingthat is usedfor tellinga storyand is performedin a theatre compromise /kompra'marz/ noun lcount/uncount]a way of solvinga disagreement in which both peopleaccept that they cannot have everythingthat they want Neither ol them is willing to make compromises. verb [transitive] subsidize /'s'r.bsr'daŹ/ to pay someof the cost of goodsor servicesso thatthey can be sold to peopleat a Iowerprice verb to givea summaryof something sum up /'s,rm,rp/ trekking /'treki!/noun a long and difficultjoumeyon foot. Somepeoplego on holidayto do this He had tuekkedacrossSouth Ahica. She'sgoing ttekkingin Neu Zeąland'

    154 1llt Busiaess

    5,6 Case study: Coolhunters noun lcount]a smallmagazine brochure /'breuJe(r)/ containingdetailsof goodsor servicesthat you can buy disposable /dr'spsuzeb(e)1/ adjectivedesignedto be thrown away after being used once or a few times

    innovative /'mevetry/ adjectivenew and advanced pampor /'[email protected](r),/ verb ltransitive]to look aftersomeone very well, especiallyby making them feel very com{ortable relatively /'reletwli/adverbin comparisonwith someone or somethingsimilara relntiuelysmall flat status symbo| /.stęItes |smb(e)l/noun [count]a possessionthat is a symbolof someone'smoneyor power track down /'trekdaun/ohrasalverb to find someoneor somethingafter a long searchI finally managed to track him doun in Manchester. noun [count]a person whose trendspotter /'trendspDta(ry it is to identi8' things that will be popular in the future iob

    Unit 6: The organization 6.1 About business: Entrepreneuis debts /dets/noun [count]an amountof moneythatyou oweBy this time we hąd debtsot oaerx15,000. expand /rk.spend/ vłb trtransitive/intransitive] to become larger,or to makesomethinglargerTlrepopulation is expandingrapidly. festivities /festNetiz/noun [plural]lively and enioyable activitiesin which peoplecelebratesomething headquańers /'hed,kwc*e(r)z/ noun [plural]the place wherea company,organization,or militaryunit has its main otfrcesor its main centreof control noun [uncount]Iegalresponsibilityfor liability /,lare'brleti/ causingdamageor injury or for payingsomething paperwork / perps(r),wa(r)k/ noun luncount]the part of a job that involvesproducingrepońs,keepingrecords,and wńting lette$ 6"2 l/o€ a bu|."lry: 'fypes of companies bankruPt / b€ ł k^ptl adjectivea penon oI businessthat is bankrupthas officiallyadmittedthat theyhaveno money and cannotpay what theyowe farl verb ltransitive/intransitive] diverify /dar'vsr(r)sr BUSINESS to developadditionalproductsor activities .wc(r)mił/noun g|oba| warming /gloub(g)l luncount]the increase in the temperatureof the Earth that is caused partly by increasingamounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere noun [countor uncount]complete monopoly /ma'nopeli/ controlover somethingby one organizationor pe$on

    un".O,,r, I pollute /pelul/ verb ltransitive]to makeair,water,or land dirty and dangerousThe oil spilLagehas polluted the harbour.

    6'6 cas€ study Soup kitchen vs Gourmet to go

    be |ocated /bi lou'keilld/phraseto existin a pańiculal placeThe centreis conuenientlylocated close to many historical sites. biodegradable /,baieudr'grerdsb(e)l/adjective decaying cognac /'kDnjek/noun [uncount]a typeof Frenchbrandy naturallyin a way that is not harmfulto the environment face to face /'ferste fes/ adjectiveinvolvingtwo people cat€ r /'keto(r)/Verb lintransitiveoI tlansitive]to provide who aretogetherin the sameplacea face to tace meeting food and drinks at an eventsuch as a partyor meeting interrupt /,mte'rptl verb [intransitiveor tmnsitive]to hea|thy /'hęlOi/adjectivemakingyou strongand not ill say or do somethingthat stopssomeonewhen theyare - oppositeUNHEAUIHY healthytood/a healthy d.iet/ lifestyle speakingor concentratingon somethingPleasedon't organic /c:'(r)gen*/ intenupt her while she'suorking. adjectiveorganicfood or drink is producedwithoutusingartilicialchem).caIs organic apples/ meat, oryanictarminI 6.4 Speaking: pot /pDt/noun[count]a deepround containerthatyou Interrupting in meetings cook or servelood in a set of pots and pans utensil /jultens(a)l/ noun [count]somethingthat you use absenteeism /,Ebsenti:,rz(e)m/ noun [uncount]the habit for cookingor eatingwith of not beingat school or work when you shouldbe wholesome ,/'heuls(e)m/ clarif ication ./,klerefr'kerJ(a)n/ noun [uncount]FORMAL adjectivewholesomefood is good an explanationthat makessomethingeasierto understand for you counterproductive /,kaunte(r)pre'd^ldrv/ adjectivehaving the oppositeresultto the one thatyou intended Unit 7 The stock markets frown /fraun/verb lintransitive] to move your eyebrows 7,1 About business: down and closertogetherbecalse you areannoyed, Keep it in the family worried,or thinkinghard |ose the thrcad /'luz ó€ ored/phraseto stop buyback /'[email protected] [count] an arrangement in which concentmting so that you do not understandwhat someone agreesto buy back shares or goods that they someoneis sayingMore than once she lost the thrcad previously sold to someone a share buy-back and had to ask them to speak moie slawly. 6.3 Grammar: Repońed speech

    6.5 Writing: Agendas and action minutes atmosphere /'€ t mes'fia/noun [singular]the mood that exists in a place and affectsthe people there Therc is an atmosphereof tensionin the city today. demotivated /dilmeutrvertrd/ adjectivesomeonewho is demotivatedhas lost their interestin something hot desking /'hDt'deskĘ/noun [uncount]BUsINEss a way of working in an officewherepeopledon't havetheir own deskbut use any deskthat is available newsletter /'njuz,lete(r)/ noun [count]a shortsimple magazinewith information for membersof an organization guańer|y /'kwc(r)te(r)til adjective,adverbdone or producedfour timesa year quotation ,/kwou'ted(e)n/ noun [count]the price that someonesaysthat theywill chargeyou for doinga job structure /'str k{e(r)/noun [countor uncount]the way in which the partsof somethingare organizedor arranged into a whole lłe slructule of DNA, the changing structurcof agriculturein this country summary /'s'meń/noun [count]a shoń account of somethingthat givesonly the most impońant inlormałjonThe textprcaidessummafiesot the plots ot Shakespeare'splays. temporary /lemp(e)rcriladjectiVeeństing,done,or used for only a limitedperiod of time Tłesemeasuresare only temDorarl).

    consolidated /kan'soLdertrd/ adjective several small things that have been put together into one larle unit dividend /'dwr,dend/noun [count] a part of the profrts of a company that is paid to the people who own shares in the company secure /srrkjue(r)/ltransitive] FORMAL to get or achieve something impońantThe team securcd their second aictory of the season. stock exchange /,smk'rks$erng/noun [count] a place where people buy and sell sharesin companies 7^2Vo cabul;r ;': D ea|ing w ił |-l i;gur e::

    annually /'enjuali/adverbcalculatedovera periodof one yearan annual salary |ifespan /.laiĘspen/ noun lcount]the lengthof time that someonelivesfor,or the Iengthof time that something exists ov€ ń ake / euvotęIk/verb ltlansitive]to becomebetter, bigget or fasterthan someoneor somethingelseThe uomen studentsseemto be ooertakingthe men. phishing /fdrrJ/noun luncount]tryingto trick someone into givingtheir secretbank informationby sendingthem an emailthat looks as if it comesfromthet bank and that asksthemto givetheir accountnumberor password productivity /,prod^k'tNoti/ noun luncount]the rateat which goodsare produced,especiallyin relationto the time,money,and workersthat are neededto produce them surplus ,/'s3!ples/ noun [count/uncount]moreof something than is necessarya surplus of oil

    noun [uncount]a unemployment /,^ mrplcment/ situation in which people do not have iobs, or tłlefact that someonedoesnot havea iob Unemploymentrose Lastmonth to ik highestleael in ftaeyea$. v€ h ic|e /'vi k(e)l/noun lcount]a way of expressing ideasor of makingsomethinghappenlle launched the newspaperas a uehiclelor his campaign. virus /'vaircs/noun lcount]COMPLITING a progmm that ente$ your computer and damagesor destroys information that you have stored Mosl z.tirusesare spread oaer the Intemet. 7.3 Grammar: will and won't, be going to, first conditional curry /'k^rilnoun Lcount/uncountlan Indianfood consistingof meat,fish,or vegetablescookedin a sauce with a hot flavour dozen /'d.Ąz(e)n/ determinera setof 12 thingsor peoplea d,ozenrcd,rcses adjectiverelatingto ener$rthat is nuclear /'njuldie(r)/ produced by changingthe structureof the central part of an atom nuclear power/energy pensioner /'penJ(e)ne(r)/ noun lcount]someonewho receivesa pension power plant / paue(r)plent/ noun [count]a large building that with machines which produce power,especially electricĘ risky /.nski/adjectiveinvolvingthe possibilĘ of danger, harm, or failure solar panel /'seulp(r) ,pan(e)l/noun [count]a pieceof equipmentthat uses bnerglrfuomthe Sun in order to createpower terrorist /'terenst/ noun [count]someonewho uses violence in order to achieve political aims a suspected./ convicted.tenorist villa /'vrle/noun [count]a largehouse,especiallyone used for holidays 7.4 Speaking: Negotiataons: making offers and agreeing deadlines catalogue /'kEte,loglnoun [count]a book that contains pictures of things that yoa can buy a mail order catalogue guarantee /'g3reD.till verb ltransitive]to makeit ceńain that somethingwill happen or will exist The goaemment prouideshelp fot small businesses,but it cannot guaranteetheir success. maintenance /'memtenens/ noun luncount]work that is doneto keepsomethingin good conditionaircralt matntenance noun [countor uncount]the turnover /'tsn,euve(r),/ value ofthe goodsand servicesthat a companysellsin a particular peńod of time

    7.5 Writing: Describing figur€ s noun [countor uncount] resignation /,rczrg'ned(e)n/ the act of leavinga job permanentlyRebel groupshaue demandedthe resignationof the goz)emment. run out /r n eutl phrasalverb to use all of something and not haveany left Many hospitalsarc running out ot money, shoń-lived ,/Jct'tvd/ adjectivelastingfor a shoń period of time noun lcount or uncount] sp€ c u|ation ,/'spękju'led(o)n/ guessesaboutwhy somethinghas happenedor what uuBul

    u4PPcrr

    noun [count]a situationin takeover /lęik'ouve(r)/ which one companyor countrytakescontrolof anothór company or counary turbulent /'b(r)bjulen/adjectivea turbulentsituation, place,or time is one in which thereis a lot of uncontrolledchangethe country'sturbulenthistory 7.6 case śtudy: Trading stocks barrel /'berell noun fcount]a largeround containerwith a flattop and bottom,usedfor storingliquids chip /sĘ/ noun fcount]a verysmall pieceof silicon that is markedwith electronicconnections.It is usedin computersand othermachines fabricate /'fsbr*eitlverb [transitive]BUSINESS to make somethingsuchas a machinefrom diffelentpańs field /firld/noul.an areawheregas,-coal,oil, or other usefulsubstanćds ąrefound frost /frDst/noun [uncount]a thin white layerof ice that looks like powderand that foms on thingsoutsidewhen the weather is very cold.bushes couered.uith ftost gent€ t ica||y-modif ied /se'netIkli'modrfald/ adjectiveused for describingcropswhosbgeneshavebeen changed,or for descńbingfoodsmadefromthesecrops pipeline /'parp,lain/ noun [count]a long undergroundpipe that carries water,gas etc from one place to another a s01-kilometreoil pipeline plant ,/plntl noun [count]alarge tador a nuclear/ chemicalplant processed /'F€ U sęsd/adjectiveto treatfood or another meat/ substancewith chemicalsor machinesprocessed. cheese profitability /prDflte'brleti/ noun luncount]the degreeto which somethingmakesa profit refinery ,/n'famari/ noun lcount]a factorywherethingsare removedftom a natural substanceto make it pure trip|e /'hĘ(e)l/adjectiveinvolvingthreethingsof the same ktnd a triple killing

    Unit 8: Going global 8.1 About business: Franchising Gorporate identity /'kc:p(e)ret atdęntti/noun lcount]the public imageof a cornpanyWe need to think of a nea corporateidentityfor theAsian market. establish /r'stebl{/verb [transitive] to startan organizationor companyThe companyuas established in 1860.

    156 Ibe&ld.E€.3

    fulfil /ful frl,/verb [transitive]to reach a padicular standard or have the qualities that are necessaryfor something Do you tuLfiI the entry rcqufuementstor the course? g|oba| p|ay€ r /,gleub(e)l noun [count] a lalge and infl uential multinational 'plęIe(r)/ company globe /glsub/ noun [count] a round object that has a map of the world on it |€ g is|ation / le$I sled(e)n/noun [uncount] a law, or a set oI laws a complex piece of legislation outlet /'aut,letlnoun [count] a shop or place where a pańicular product is sold overseas /,euva(r)'slzladjective existing in, or coming from, a country that is across the sea from your country oaerceas aisitots / students/matkets relocate / riilou'kert/verb lintransitive/transitive] to move to a different place, or to make someone do this reputation / repjulerJ(e)n/noun [count/uncount] the opinion people have about how good or bad someone or something is 7łe loun has a bad rcputation' tried and tested /tard 6n 'testrd/adiective known to be good or effective $.? \i{!{;rb r,iil.." l.,,': setti'l{l ij13; J.ł.;ifi{ixi5f

    appeal ,/oprt,/noun lcount],anurgentrequestfor people to do somethingor givesomethingTłerehaae been seoeralappealstor an end to the tightin*. contact /'[email protected]/ verb ltlansitive]to communicatewith someoneby phone,email,letteretc Please contact us it you haue any inlormation. market research /,mo:(r)krt'ss(r)fl noun [uncount]the processof collectinginformationaboutwhat products peoplelike to buy,or what peoplelike or dislike abouta pańiculaI pIoduct persuade /po(r)swerd/verb [transitive] to makesomeone agreeto do somethingby givingthem reasonswhy they shotld He did ti ally come uith us, although it took a Iongtime to persuadehim. prestigious /prerstr$os/ adjectiveadmiredand respected by a lot of people realistic /ne'hstrld adjectivebasedon factsand situations as theyreallyare - oppositeUNREALISTIC Chan,ing your job is the only realistic solution. I don't think it's z)eryrcalistic to expecther to help us. sceptical / skeptrkel/ adjectivehavingdoubtsabout . somethingthat otherpeoplethink is trueor riłhtI'm oery scepticalqbout the rcsultsof the sułaey. 8.3 Grammar: Past simp|e and past peńect applian
    joint venture / d5cmt,vęntje(r)/ noun lcount]BUsINEss an agreement betweentwo companiesto work together on a particularjob light bulb /'laitbrlb/ noun [count]a glassobjectthat you put in an electriclight to producelight misunderstanding /'mls^nde'stŹendĘ/ noun lcount or uncount]a failureto understandsomeoneor something correctlyTherc'sbee a misunderstanding:Mr Jones you until tomoftou. isn't ercpecting radica| /l€ d *l/ adjectivea radicalchangeor way of doing somethingis new and very differentfrom the usual way a radical solution to the problemof juaenile cime restructure /rilstr k$e(r)/verb ltransitive] to changethe way that a company is organized silicon ,/'srlft.n/noun luncount]a chemicalelement,used especiallyfor makingcomputerchips 8.4 Speaking: Presentations: handling questions noun lcount]a tall control tower /kon'heul,teue(r)/ buildingat an airportfromwhich planesaregiven permissionto take off and land domestic /de'męstk/adjectivelelatingto a particular countrydomesticp olitics expand /[email protected]/ verb [intransitiveor transitive] to becomelarger,or to makesomethlnglargerThe population is expandingrapidly.Therc are plans to expand the national park. fog /fog/noun [uncount]thick cloudsthat form closeto the groundand are difEcultto seethrough groundwater /'graunąwJlta(I)/ noun'[uncount]sc|ENCE waterthat collectsunderthe ground impact /\[email protected] [count]an effector influence Intenet shoppinghas begunto haae a seious impact on ttaditional bookshops. runway /'r^nwęI/ noun [count]a long road that is usedby planeswhen theyland and TAKE OFF statistics /sto'trctrks/ noun fplural]a groupof numbersthat representfactsor describea situation termina| /'b(I)min(e)l/noun [count]a pań of an airpoń wherepassengers arriveand leave transit /'[email protected]/ noun luncount]the movementof people or thingsfrom one placeto anotherOur suitcasesuere damaBedin trunsiL 8.5 Writing: Reports of recommendation availabilityr /a,ve a'brleti/noun [uncount] the state of being able to be used Parc k are concemed about the auailabiliĘ o| drugs in the school. Component /kem'peunent/ noun [count]a pań of a machine or piece of equipment criteria /kar'tr.ri./ noun [puml] standards that are used for judging something or for making a decision about somethin1 Eoeryone whose qualiftcations meet our criteria will be considered. depend€ n t /dl'pendont/adjective if one thing is dependent on another, it is affectedby the other thing and changes if the other thing chanTes yow pay is dependent on yout work experience. disruption /d$ r pJ(e)n/noun lcount/uncount] a problem or action that interrupts something and prevents it from continuinp

    Tlr. Bu.ineB.

    157

    noun [count]a featureof something drawback /'drc:,bak/ that makesit lessusefulihan it could be The main drauback of the plan is its expense. ł|ood /fl^d/noun[countor uncount]a largeamount of water that covers an area that was dry betore The southwestof England has beenbadly hit by tloods. forecast /'fcr(r)karst/ verb ltuansitive]to make a statement about what is likely to happen, usually relating to the weather, business, or theeconomy noun [uncount]the amountof water humidity /hjulmrdetr/ that is in the air noun Lcount]the setof infrastructur€ /.mfte'strŃse(r)/ systemsin a country or organization that affect how well it operates,fol exampletelephoneand banspoń systems monsoon /mon'sun/noun [count]a periodof heavyrain in India and SoutheastAsia rust /r st/noun luncount]the red substancethat damages the surfaceof metal 8,6 Case study: Choosing a franchise bonus / baunes/noun lcount] extra money that you are paid in addition to your usual salary a Christmas bonus cotton /'kDt(e)n/noun luncount]clothmade from the white fibres of a plant called a cotton plant a cotton drcss adjective unable to use pań of your disab|ed /drs.erb(e)ldl body or brain normally oveńime / euve(r)'talm/noun funcount] extla hours that someone works at their job, or money that is paid for working extra hours retir€ /rl,talo(r)/Verb lintmnsitive] to stop working permanently, especially when yolu arc old He retircd frcm the army last month. sustainab|e /se'stęnob(o)l/adjective using methods that do not harm the enYironment

    158 ftPBusin*s

    List of irregular verb forms Infinitive

    Past simp|e

    Past pańicip|e

    Infinitive

    Past simple

    Past pańicip|e

    be beat become begin bend bite blow break bńng build bum burst buy catch choose come cost cut deal

    was/ were beat became began bent bit blew broke brought built

    been beaten become begun bent bitten blown broken brought built

    laid led Ieamt /leamed Ieft

    laid led leamt / leamed left

    bumed / bumt burst

    bumed / bumt burst

    bought

    bought caught chosen come cost cut dealt

    lay Iead leamt leave lend Iet lose make meet pay put read ride rittg rise run say see sell send shake shine shoot

    lent let lost made met paid put read ridden rung nsen run said seen sold sent shaken shone shot

    sink sit

    lent let lost made met paid put read rode mng rose ran said saw sold sen! shook shone shot sang sank sat

    speak spend stand steal stick swim take teach tear tell think throw unde$tand wake weal win write

    spoke spent stood stole stuck swam took taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore won wrote

    do draw drink drive eat fall feed feel frght

    frnd fly forgive lreeze give grow hang hear hide hit hold hurt keep know

    chose came cost cut dealt dog did drew drank drove ate fell fed felt found flew forgave froze got gave went grew

    hung heard hid hit held huń kept knew

    rr I

    done drawrr {runk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forgiven frozen gor given gone grown hung heard hidden hit held huń

    sunk sat slept spoken spem stood stolen stuck swum taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken wom won written

    known

    1/:'.Busin€śś 159

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    Student's Book

    is a multi-levelbusinessEnglish coursewhich offers the student a cutting-edgeblend of electronicand print material.The syllabus is organized by topic and has been developed from detailed researchinto business-relateddegree coursesin leading Europeaninstitutions. is particularlysuitable for studentsstudying business university, but the course will also appeal to working business at college or people who need to enrich their vocabulary and expressthemselvesmore authoritativelybeyond their immediate professionalcontext. Level:pre-intermediate,takes studentsfrom Council of Europe level 42 to 81 offers you: an integrated , includingvideo, interactive workbook, businessdilemmas,interactivebusinessdocumen-ts,progress tests and all the course audio. a f lexible which offers users maximum choiceand flexibility.The units are divided into speaking.writing, vocabulary, grammar,businessknowledge and case study modules. thorough and detailed including a Student's Book word list, grammar referenceand extensivegrammar and vocabulary practice material. systematicdeve|opmentof specific - f rom repoń writing to stating your views persuasivelyin a meeting. package includes:Student's Book and DVD-ROM pack, Teacher'sBook with notes and extra photocopiables,Audio CDs and a Website with tests,course updates and innovative supplementarymaterials.

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    www.macmillanenglish.com

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