Technical English 3 WorkBook

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ec nlCa Englis Workbook

Pearson Education llmited

lUustrated by HL Studios

Edinburgh Gate Harlow Esse.x CM20 2JE England

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All other images © Pearson Education

n...

Picture Research by: Kevin Brown

publishers aIkI

author ,"vould like to thank the

foIJm\ing for their im'aluable feedbac k, comments and

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aD "hich played an important part in the development of the course: Eleanor Kenny (College of the . 'orth Atlantic, Qatar) Julian Collinson, Daniel Zeytoun lillie and Terry utdiffe (all from the Higher Colleges of Technology. f\E) Dr Saleh Al-Busaidi (Sultan Qaboos 'ni\"ersil)" Oman) Francis . Ie. eice, (IFOROp, France), Michaela. lfiller (Gennany) lalgorzata Ossowska· 'eumann (~nia" Iaritime Diversity, Poland), Gordon Kite (British CounciL Italy) Wolfgang Ridder (VHS der tadt Bielefeld, Germany). tella Jehanno (Centre d 'Etude des Langu Centre de Formation Superieure d'Apprentis, Chambre de Commerce et d'lndustrie de I'lndre, France) and ick Jones (German;).

suggestio

Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders and we apologise in advance for any unintentional omissions. We would be pleased to insert the appropriate acknowledgement in any subsequent edition of this publication. Designed by HL Studios, Long Hanborough Cover design by Designers Collective

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1"

Unit 1 Systems

Unit 5 Safety

4

24 5.1 Warnings Control and waming systems Conversations between customer and helpline Discussion markers 25 5.2 Instructions Description of drum brakes and handbrake Advisory checklist for motorists Active and passive modals 26 5.3 Rules Air traffic incident Giving instructions Present participle and unless

5

6

1.1 Rescue Safety equipment Incident report Past simple Cohesion 1.2 Transmission Describing a flight data recorder Specification chart Relative pronouns 1.3 Operation Describing the evacuation of aircraft Describing how a life raft works Imperatives Instruction verbs

Unit 2 Processes ~

.

.,. 'I'

2.1 Future shapes Plastics applications Discussing the future of space exploration will for predictions 9 2.2 Solid shapes Process description of injection moulding Process description of rotational moulding Present simple passive 10 2.3 Hollow shapes Process description of vacuum moulding Process verbs Phrases to refer to a visual Present simple active and passive

Unit 6 Planning 28 6.1 Schedules Climate change and energy sources Questioning about environmental change Agreeing and disagreeing Future rnodaJs 29 6.2 Causes Cause and effect due to. oWlll9 to. as a resu - 0' ouns express ng a Causal suffixes: SOl 30 6.3 Systems Presentation about geothermal eoefQY Section markers in a tal

32 Review Unit C

12 Review Unit A

Unit 7 Reports

Unit 3 Events

34 7.1 Statements Security Reporting verbs Reporting statements 35 7.2lncidents Product review of a metal detector Reporting incidents Noun combinations Past continuous 36 7.3 Progress Describing the process of iris scanning Phrasal verbs

14 3.1 Conditions Discussing news features Discussing space exploration Explaining procedures for take-off and ejection First conditional Second conditional 15 3.2 Sequence (1) Discussing the mechanics of the LAS Describing the sequence for the space shuttle launch and re-entry Linkers Time clauses 16 3.3 Sequence (2) Describing process of ejection from aircraft Semi-technical lexis (verbs)

Unit 4 Careers 18 4.1 Engineer Blogs and CVs Terms used in CVs Present continuous for present and future going to 19 4.2 Inventor Product description of a line-thrower Specification Comparatives 20 4.3 Interview Job interview Questioning about a CV Terms used in a CV Time adverbials + for/since

22 Review Unit B

Unit 8 Projects 38 8.1 Spar Describing a marine terminal Discussing progress and past events Present perfect and past simple passive 39 8.2 Platform Describing a construction project Providing statistics Method and purpose: by (means of). to 40 8.3 Drilling Describing the drilling procedure Describing stages of a horizontal drill ing project Process verbs

42 Review Unit D

45 9.2 Buildings Describing shapes Fact sheets Modifying superla es p a genera. a J 46 9.3 Sites Describing the appearance of buildings Describing floor plans. shapes and detajs Complex not;n phrases

Unit 10 Disasters 48 10.1 Specu lation Speculating about causes Present perfect modals: usf fr'ay I ca:le might have 49 10.2 Investigation Investigation interview ThIrd condTbonru should have 50 10.3 Reports Sections in a lire investigation report must should e oer'ec:"':-~ e

52 Review Unit E

Unit 11 Materials 54 11.1 Equipment Speciiying the ma:Erials of ~ a sa:es proposal a cient ::4a-ge:;"'~ _~:: e _ :ss-;: ::r:::c€-es

55

56

Unit 12 Opportunities 58 12. 1 Threats Predictions of CO_a otSSOS a;:O change < Future per;ec: a ~ :.ass _ - a: 59 12.2 Innovation Description of a saiboc.rd Explanation of aerodynami:s Describing si arities and rE".."....,.,,,,,bettt-eeo vehides Range of forms 'or e.c' _ ~; s~ a-j and d"erence 60 12.3 Priorities Discussing marXetDJ !*IDs for a reN ~ Discussing autOfTlOtive sysrems Supe a ,\les

=

62 Review Unit F

64 Audioscript 70 Answer key

Unit 9 Design 44 9.1 Inventions Talking about automotive design Comparing car specifications Modifying comparatives In a genera, or specific way

3

==

1 Rescue 1

Match the words and phrases 1-8 with the definitions a-h. a) a series of radio waves that are sent in an emergency 1 ~ flares 2 _

emergency beacon

3 _

inflate

c) to lift someone or something with a wire and a lifting machine

4 _

satellite

d) the organisation that helps boats in danger

5 _

emergency signal

e) a machine that is sent into space and orbits the earth

6 _

winch (v)

7 _

coastguard

8 _life raft

2

b) a small rubber boat used by people from a sinking ship

0

a device tha t sends a signal in an emergency

g) to fill something flexible with air so that it becomes larger h) e mergency devices that produce a bright flame

Use the words and phrases 1-8 in 1 to complete this news story.

Emergency beacon aids rescue from sinking boat 23.12.09 [1)

Three men were rescued from a sin king f ishing boat in t he Gulf of Mexico today. The 32-foot-long boat was equipped with an (1) emergency beacon that helped rescuers locate the vessel in the ea rly-morn ing da rkn ess, a Mexican Coastguard • spokesperson said. The fishermen said t hey w ere asleep on the boat when a w ave hit ;" their vessel. They could not send a radio message or make a cell phone call. •

[2)

The (2) station in Veracruz w as notified that the ground from t he boat's EPIRB station had received an (3) (emergency position indi cating radio beacon; this sends a sig nal that is picked up by a (4) and is transmitted to the groun d station).

[3)

A helicopter was despatched to the area. As it approached, one of the f ishermen set off one of the red (5) which were kept on board, and the helicopter crew saw it.

[4)

The f ishermen were about to (6) th eir (7) w hen th e helicopter reached them . The heli copter crew managed to (8) t he t hree men to safety, and then flew them to the coastguard station, where t hey w ere given hot dri nks and dry clothes .

3 Explain what the w ords in bold in 2 refer to. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Systems

that (para 1) the vessel (para 1) their (para 1) that (para 2) it (para 3) which (para 3) them (para 4) where (para 4)

an emergency beacon

2 Transmission 1

"·W Listen to this lecture about an FOR (flight data recorder) . Underline the correct a1tematives in the specification chart.

I I

Operating frequency

375 kilohertz / 3 7.5 kilohertz

Maximum operating depth

14,000 fee t / 40,000 feet

Frequency of transmission of signal

once every 30 seconds / once per second

Duration of signal

13 days / 30 days

Shelf-life of battery

6 months / 6 years

Method of transporting FDR if it has been in water

in a container of ice / water

Shape of beacon

cylindrical/ conical

I

Colour of FDR

orange / black

I

2

Complete the description of hO\ an FOR's locator beacon \ orks. of one of the words in each pair for each gap. activate/deactivate attach/detach manually/automatically release/fasten sink/float winch up / lower

.

I I

I I

se the correct form

rece iveltransmit

The circular memory units with the flight data are tored in a large rigid cylinder that is (1) fa stened onto the base of the f DR. The fDR is usually mounted in the tail section of the plane. In an accident, it becomes (2) from i mounL There is a submergence sensor on the side of the FOR· beacon. \ nen water touches the the beacon (4) The beacon can sensor, this (3) (5) . signals under water and above ground. Because or the ,.eigh of the FOR, it does not (6) on the surface of the water. but comes 0 res on the seabed. Nter a diver has located the FOR on the seabed. it· C) _____ and transported to the computer lab for analysis.

<

~'

3

Join these pairs of sentences into single sentences. to replace the words in italics.

se who. U:hich. u ere. from u:here

Example: I .. . TWA Flight 800, which crashed ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A serious air disaster occurred with TWA Flight 800. It crashed into the . in 1996. The accident was caused by a build-up of fuel vapours in a fuel tank.. It exploded.. Twelve minutes after take-off, the last radio transmission was recefi·ed at 80s OIL Here the weather was fine. The explosion was seen by another pilot. He was flying in the area at the time. The other pilot landed at Boston airport. From here he contacted the air crash investigators. An air and sea rescue was conducted in the area. This lies off the coast of New York State. The FOR was recovered a week later by divers. They \ ere guided to it by an emergency beacon. The wreckage was transported to the shore. From here it \ as taken away for examination.

S\slemS

1

3 Operation 1

Describe the procedure for evacuating an aircraft. Complete the instructions, using the verbs in the box. Then match the instructions to the pictures. ensure

fasten

inflate

place

pull

push

release

remove

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

slide

BEFORE CRASH-LANDING 1

Place

2 3 4

Do not

your life vest over the head. ~ the straps around the waist. _ the life vest while still in the aircraft. _ high heels and sharp objects. _

5 6 7 8

your seat belt. _ that there is no fire outside the emergency exit. _ down the red door lever, and the door outwards. _ When the slide is inflated, jump onto it and down. _

2 &.jW Usten to a demonstration of a life raft and underline the correct details. 1 Capacity: 4 18. 112 people 2 Inflation: automatic 1 manual 3 Storage: in vinyl bag 1 in rigid container

3 . ..jW 1

2

3

4

6

~.

;

AITER CRASH-LANDING

4 Stability: can 1 cannot turn upside down 5 Stability: can 1 cannot right itself

Usten again and complete the notes about the life raft. Construction: inffated canopy (to keep out the water); _ _ _ _ _ floor and canopy (to keep the occupants warm); waterlights on canopy; s stem for collecting _ _ _ __ Inflation: inflation triggered _ _ _ _ _ buoyancy chambers of the raft; inflation forces the inflated, to make the carrying bag; inflation time: _ _ _ __ Stabilisation: chambers fill with water; upper chamber fills through portholes in the chamber chamber fills through a _ _ _ _ _ valve, which water in, but not out. Survival: people in Hfe rafts have survived hurricane conditions without capsizing (\ aves of > metres, winds of > kph). If capsizing occurs hle raft selfimmediately.

4 Word list NOUNS (rescue)

NOUNS

I

VERBS

ADJECTIVES

(transmission) antenna / antennas (plural)

activate

free-floating

carry out

geostationary

flare

data (no plural)

convert

polar

life raft

emergency

detach

unseen

survivor

ground station

eject

visible

vessel

hydrostatic release unit (HRU)

ensure

ADVERBS

float

automatically

lever ann

inflate

manually

beacon coastguard

1

.

.,F

:

magnet

locate

PREPOSITIONAL

megahertz

process

PHRASE

radio beacon

release

out of range

tab

submerge

wavelength

winch

Underline the one word which makes a compound noun with each word in bold. 1 satellite beacon signal wavelength 2 low-altitude centre orbit station 3 radio data power frequenc 4 operating range length pov er 5 air-sea range beacon rescue 6 safety device antenna centre 7 rescue beacon team signal

2 Complete this paragraph, using the compound nouns in the box. rescue centre ground station national centre rescue team radio signal satellite signals

emergency beacon

When the (1) emergency beacon switches itself on a signal is sent to one or more satellites. A (2) is then transmitted back to Earth 0 the n (3) . The (4) are processed at the ground _ and converted into useful data. This data is then passed on to a (5) _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The information about the location is forwarded to the nearest (6) _______--, where a (7) is sent out to look for the crashed hip or plane..

3 Label the pictures with nouns from the Word list. 2

3

5

6

antenna 4

1 Future shapes 1 Complete this crossword. 1 2

I 3 4

5 6 7

8 9

I 10 11

a mix-ture of two types of material 2 3 4 ;)

the industry that designs and builds planes and space vehicles a plastic composite (2 words) the main part or body of a plane a plane or other vehicle that can fly

6 the material that is the topic of this unit

7 8

the horizontal part of a bridge a written document on a particular subject 9 to build lOa structure built over a river, road or rail track 11 a skilled person who designs, builds or maintains machines, engines, railways, etc.

ertical w ord: to make

2

Rew rite these sentences to give the same meaning, using the words in brackets. Example: I The government will definitely cancel the manned space exploration programme. 1 It's certain that the government will cancel the manned space exploration programme. (definitely) 2 They will probably provide more money for robotic exploration of the solar system. (likely) 3 It's unlikely that scientists will develop new heavy-lift rockets in the near future. (probably) 4 It's definite that they will extend the life of the International Space Station beyond 2020. (certainly) 5 It's likely that they will ask commercial firms to playa bigger part in future. (probably) 6 It's possible that space travel to low-Earth orbit will become more affordable. (possibly)

2

.. -- -

.~

. 1

2 Solid shapes 1

Match the parts 1-7 used during the injection moulding process with the descriptions a-g. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2

-L pellets _ _ _ _ _ _

melt heater rotation nozzle mould cavity

a) an electric- or steam-heated device \J hich warms the cylinder b) turning with a circular motion around a central point c) to change from a solid to a liquid state d) an empty space e) a small hole through which soft plastic is pushed f) small pieces of dry plastic used in the proces g) a hollow container in two halves used to shape a material

Read the text below about the process of rotational moulding. Put the pictures in the correct order. Complete the text, using the active or passive fonn of the \'erb in brackets. One gap can be filled with the active or passive of the verb.

AO

.

F "

Removal

DO

C

Cooling

E[JJ

~o0 Melting

MooIo

Plastic Loading

Rotational moulding is a high-temperature, low -pressure plastic forming process. 1 (1) uses (use) heat and rotation (along two axes) to produce hollow. one-piece parts. The process is simple, but slow. It (2) (use) or making large, hollow objects like oil tanks. A quantity of plastic raw material, usually in powder form, (3) _ _ _ _ _ _ __ (heat) in an m-en wtrue it (load) into the mould. The mould (4) (5) (rotate). The plastic raw material (6) _ _ _ _ _ __ (melt) and (7) (coat) the inside surface of the mould_ When the inside of the mould (8) (coat), it (9) _ _ _ _ _ __ (coo!), usually by a fan. The cooling process takes between 10 and 20 minutes. depending on the size of the part and the thickness of the coating. As it (10) (cool), the moulded object (11) ( hrink) and comes away from the sides of the mould. This makes it easier to take out the object at the end of the cooling process. At the end, the object (12) cool enough to handle.

(remove). By this stage, the object i

3 Hollow shapes 1 Change these verbs to nouns and write them in the table. blow cast close cool eject expand extrude inflate melt move roll rotate transfer -ing:

heat

blowing,

-ion:

2

-ment:

-er:

-ure:

no change:

-

I ·

Listen to this talk about vacuum forming. Tick the objects that are used in the

process.

D hopper D powder D cylinder D mould with holes D solid mould D heater D pellets D thermoplastic sheet D air pump

3 Listen again. How does the speaker describe the four stages of the process? Write the names of the stages for each illustration. Label the parts a-d with the things that you ticked in 2. 2 _ _ _ __

3 _ _ _ __

4 _ _ _ __

.~

. ;

4

]0

Listen to the talk again and complete the notes.

4 Word list VERBS (moulding)

NOUNS (moulding)

I

: VERBS

COMPOUND

~

NOUNS

close

closure

adjust

blow moulding

compress

compression

construct

injection moulding

eject

ejection

cool

metal-rolling

expand

expansion

design

pressure-die casting

extrude

extrusion

manufacture

NOUNS

heat

heater

melt

fi breg lass

inflate

inflation

propel

fuselage

inject

injection

shape

ADJECTIVES

mould

mould

soften

molten

rotate

rotation

protective

transfer

transfer

specified unspecified PHRASE under pressure

1

Rewrite these sentences in the passive . Replace the active verbs in italics with the passive form of technical verbs fro m the Word lisL Example: 1 The polymer pellets are transferred from the hopper to the cylinder.

.

Extrusion moulding 1 We move the polymer pellets from the hopper to the qiinder. 2 An electric motor turns the screw in the extrusion moulder. 3 The cold polymer pellets move along the cylinder. 4 Heaters warm the polymer pellets and tum them into a liquid 5 The warm, soft molten polymer moves along the cylinder. 6 The machine pushes the molten polymer out into a mould.



"

Blow moulding 7 We shut the two halves of the mould with the molten polymer inside. 8 Compressed air blows up the molten polymer in the mould and makes it bigger. 9 The plastic bottle shape gets colder. 10 The machine pushes out the plastic bottle from the open mould.

2

& ·9

Listen to and repeat the verbs and nouns in columns 1 and 2 of the ~ord lisL Underline the main stress on the words of more than one syllab le .

Examples: closure, compress.

3 Label the pictures with nouns from 1. 2

3

5

6

hopper 4

11

Section 1 1 Complete this report of a plane crash. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple, and fill in each of the other gaps with one word . 00 JuJy L.5th 2000. a Concorde airc raft (I) crashed (crash) near Paris. (2) _ _. . It :."----__ was travelling on a flight to . "ew York. Emergency crew (3) _ _ _ _ _ (race) to the area (4) the crash happened to deal with the fire and search for suni\·OfS. TIle Coocorde ( -) down in flames just before 16.45 local time. Four hours after the accident, two Flight Dara Recorders were found at the ite of the crash. (6) were taken to a laboratory for examination. The official ·dent repon. C ) was published in 2004, blamed the accident on a piece of metal, (8) _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ (fall ) from another plane just before the Concorde (10) (take) off. TIle supersoni airliner (1 1) (hit) this piece of metal and one of (12) tyres (13) _ _ _ __ . As a resuJt. piece of rubber (14) (fly) up and damaged a fuel tank. The fuel from the tank then 1 - _ _ _ _ _ (ignite . causing the fue and consequent crash.

2

3

Read some facts and figures about the Hubble Space Telescope. Match the information 1-12 with a-I. a) near-circular low Earth orbit I ~ Launch date b) May 2009 2 _ Launch vehicle c) 8 km per second 3 _ Mass d) Greenbelt, Maryland, USA 4 _ Type of orbit e) Space Shuttle Discovery 5 _ Orbit height f) 11,110 kg 6 _ Orbit time g) 6 x 57 kg nickel-hydrogen 7 _ Orbit speed h) 4 8 _ Telescope diameter i) 97 minutes 9 _ Servicing Mission 4 date j) 2.4 metres 10 _ Batteries k) 24th April 1990 11 umber of radio antennas I) 569km 12 _ Goddard Space Flight Center (location) Complete this description of how the Hubble Space Telescope works, using the present simple active or passive of the verbs in the box. avoid

capture

complete

convert

discover

receive

study

transmit

E ,e 97 minutes, the Hubble Space Telescope (1) completes an orbit of the Earth. As it travels, its mirror light and directs it into its scientific instruments. Because the Earth's atmosphere partly blocks and 2 -:o--;s ligh , scientists (3) these problems by placing their most advanced telescope 569 km above the :=a 's s rface, in a satellit e. ~E ~ ,'est i rument on the satellit e, W ide Field Camera 3, (4) the formation of individual stars and _ _ __ _ new, extremely distant stars. ~-=,...., .~..,."...~ ~Of the telescope (6) from the ground station in the USA via a data relay satellite. These signals _ _ _ _ _ by an ennas on the Hubble and (8) into signals that point the telescope in the required aaiva-e e instruments. Data goes from Hubble via the data relay satellite to the ground station.

A

I ~~. "...

.~

. 1

Section 2 1

Which of these processes do the sentences below describe? Write the process letters A-O next to the sentences.

A

B

Injection moulding

Pressure-die casting

Metal-rolling

Blow moulding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

_ The metal plate is first heated. _ The object, e.g. plastic bottle, cools and is then ejected from the mould. ~ The warm softened polymer is moved along the cylinder b a rotating sere\'\". _ The molten metal is forced into the cavity between the 1\<\10 hal es of the mould. _ Compressed air is blown into the molten polymer and inflates it. _ The mould opens and the hard solid plastic object is ejected. _ After the metal cools, the mould is opened and the metal component i ejected. _ The metal sheet comes out from the rollers and is then cooled. _ The molten polymer expands to fit the mould which ma be in the shape of a bottle. 10 - The molten metal is pushed along the chamber under pressure by the injection piston. 11 _ The metal plate is then pushed between the rollers. which compress il 12 _ The molten polymer is pushed by the ram through the nozzle into the mould, and becomes hard.

. " •

2 Write the three steps for each process in 1 in the correct order. Injection moulding: _ Pressure-die casting: _

3

_ _

_ _

Metal-rolling: __ _ Blow moulding: _ _ _

Find the words in the puzzle and write them next to the definitions bela \'.

III

p

0

L

Y

M

E

R

A

C

Y

F

G

X W

J

Z

F

Y

R

0

L

L

E

R

U

Z

0

C

H

A

M

B

E

R

L

G

C

I I

0

c

X

0

J

0

I

X

L

G

C

U

C

0

M

P

R

E

S

S

J

p

Z

I

F

E

X

P

A

N

S

I

0

N

I

Y

W

G

X

F

T

E I

E

W

A

J

C

A

R

B

0

N

F

I

B

R

E

C

A

Z

U

0

C

L

IQ

0

F

T

E

JD

F

K

U

Y

J

C

0

M

P

0

N

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to make something soft _ _ _s-,-o_ft_e_n_ __ 2 an increase in size _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 3 a plastic composite

I P

_l

T

I I J

8 one of several parts that make up a machine

4 a cylinder used to flatten a material

9 to move something in one direction, e.g. along a cylinder _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 10 to press something so that it takes up less space

5 a disc that is pushed along a cylinder

11 to push something inside through a small hole

6 an enclosed space inside a machine

12 a chemical compound used for making plastics

7 to throw something out of a mould or machine 13

1 Conditions 1 Complete these dialogues using the present perfect or past simple of the verbs in brackets. I

2

3

A: You can't fly into the military airport. They (1)

have closed (close) it. B: Really? (2) (there / be) an accident? A: Yes. Two fighters (3) (collide) on the runway in the fog last night. C: Have you heard? One of our cargo ships (4) (catch) fire in the Indian Ocean. 0 : When (5) (this / happen)? C: Yesterday. The office (6) (receive) a message early this morning. E: How's the exploration going? (7) (you / discover) any oil yet? F: 0 , we (8) (not / have) any luck yet. E: How many wells (9) (you / drill)? F: (1 0) (we / drill) three so far and now we're drilling the fourth.

2 Complete this article about space exploration. Use the second conditional of the verbs in brackets. Are manned space mi ion to Mars a real possibility? At the moment , the don 't eem likely and naturally we

( I )

would only u n d ertake ( only I undertake)

mi ions if we (2)

(can / be) sure of

geuing the astronauts to Mar and back safely. But C) (the go emment / want) to provide mone for the research if it (4) (not / knm ) what the chance of success might be? And C) (it / choo e) to spend millions ion to Mars even if there on manned _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (be) plenty of money available?

On a manned mission, it (7) (take) a long time for radio signals to reach the spacecraft from Earth, and so the crew (8) (be) responsible for touchdown on the planet and for lift-off at the end of their research programme. There (9) (be) no chance of a rescue mi ssion if a disaster (10) (strike) the crew while they were on Mars. And we (11 ) (only / plan) further manned missions if our fust mission (12) _ _ _ _ _ __ (be) successful.

3 Write questions and answers to explain the procedure for take-off from an aircraft carrier. Use the first conditional. I Bad weather - what happens? Pilot cancels take-off What will happen if the weather is bad? The pilot will cancel the take-off.

l-l

2

Launching device fails to function - what happens? Jet fighter remains on flight deck

3

Jet engine fails after take-off - pilot does what? Pilot activates ejection system

4

Pilot ejects after take-off - what happens? Parachute opens automatically

5

Pilot lands in sea after ejection - what happens? Helicopter winches pilot to safety

. ,

2 Sequence (1) 1

Read the text about the launch abort system in 6 Section 2 of the Course Book, page 23, and answer these questions. 1 Up to what altitude does the LAS operate? 2

In what situation is the LAS activated?

3

How is the LAS separated from the rocket?

4

How is the LAS controlled after it separa tes fro m the rocket?

5

With what kind of fIXings is the crew ca psule attached to the LAS?

6

What must happen in order to thrust the crew capsule away from the LAS?

7

What is the purpose of the parachutes of the crew capsule?

8

At what stage are the parachutes deployed?

2 Underline the correct linkers for describing the launch of the space shuttle. (1) Now / Once the astronauts are in the space capsule, the access gantry is disengaged and swings away from the top of the rocket . (2) Then / When the fuel tank is filled with a mixture of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. (3) Afterwards / When the countdown approaches zero, the ignition sequence is started. (4) Then / As soon as the rocket burners are ignited, the explosive bolts that hold the rocket in place on the launch pad are detonated and the rocket begins to lift off. (5) After / While ascending

very slowly for the first ten seconds, the rocket accelerates. (6) However / After the three sol id booster rockets have burnt out, they are j ettisoned . Parach utes are deplo yed

to slow the ir fall and they are recovered from the ocean and used again. (7) Then / However t he extern al fu el tank, wh ich burns out later, is not recovered for reuse. It burns up as it falls t hrough the Earth's atmosphere. (8) Now / When the spacecraft is stab il ised and o ri ented by thrusters, and sent into orbit.

3 Describe the re-entry of the space shuttle, using the word (s) in brackets. Example: 1 After giving the order for re-entry, the pilot fires the thrusters and turns the shuttle tail first.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

pilot gives order for re-entry ~ fires thrusters + turns the shuttle tail first (After giving) shuttle reaches upper atmosphere ~ pilot fires thrusters again + turns the s huttle nose first (Once) shuttle enters upper atmosphere ~ hot gases surrounding the shuttle cause radio blackout (When) fully re-enters Earth's atmosphere ~ shuttle able to fly like an aircraft (As soon as) picks up radio beacon at end of runw ay ~ pilot takes over control from the onboard computers (After) pilot lands ~ deploys parachute from rear to slow the shuttle (After) shuttle lands ~ crew follows procedure to shut down the shuttle (Once) crew leaves shuttle ~ ground crew begin servi cing it (As soon as)

]5

3 Sequence (2) 1 Replace the more general verbs in italics with the' correct form of the more technical verbs in the box. deploy

detonate

eject

jettison

orient

propel

restrain

stabilise

Ships are steadied in rough seas by horizontal underwater bars.

~

are

stabilised

4

A skydiver falls freely through the sky before opening a parachute. ~ _ _ _ __ Sailors and pilots can find their position by looking at the stars. ~ _ _ _ __ themselves In an emergency, a safety system throws out the pilot through the top of the plane.

5

Plastic explosives are usually set off by an electrical current and a primer.

6

A jet plane is pushed forward by the backwards thrust from the jet engine.

7

Seat belts serve the purpose of securing drivers in their seats in the event of a crash.

8

If a ship is in danger of sinking, cargo can be thrown off from the side of the ship.

2 3

~-----

~ ----~ ----~ ----~ -----

2 &jttiJ Listen to a talk about ejector seats and number these events in the correct order. a) The pilot lands.

0

OJ c) The drogue steadies the pilot's seat. 0 b) The pilot tries to control the aircraft.

d) The canopy over the cockpit is jettisoned.

0

3

0 g) The pilot pulls the ejection handle. 0

f) The pilot's main parachute opens.

h) The pilot separates from his seat.

0

Listen again and complete these notes, by underlining the correct alternative or filling in the gaps.

Pilot stays in seat L i

16

e) The system ejects the pilot in his seat. O

..

4 Word list PHRASAL VERBS

COMPOUND NOUNS

activate

burnout

abort engine

ascend

touch down

NOUNS

VERBS

activation astronaut canopy

collapse

ADJECTIVES

attitude-control engine

capsule

collide

explosive

crew capsule

catapult

deploy

medical

ejection system

cockpit

descend

professional

jet fighter

countdown

detect

world-class

jettison engine

deployment

detonate

ADVERB

ejection

disable

automatically

launch abort system (LAS)

orientation

eject

parachute

focus

restraint

orient

stabilisation

propel

thrust

restrain

oil rig

separate spin stabilise thrust

1

Complete these definitions with compound nouns from the ord lisL 1 The function of an oil rig is to extract crude oil from the ground, 2 A is a type of military aircraft that attacks enemy aircrafl 3 The is the part of a spacecraft in ""tuch the ere, ' ua\'eL 4 The forms part of the nose or tip of a rockeL and detaches itself if the rocket fails to launch successfull , 5 The function of the is to thrust the LAS together \ith Ihe crew capsule, away from the failed rocket. 6 The serves to stabilise the LAS (together \.vith the crew capsule) and point it in the right direction. 7 The purpose of the is to push the cre capsule away from the LAS, 8 An serves to throw the pilot out of the cockpit if there i an emergency.

2 Check and write the past simple forms of these verbs from the unit. break burn

3

sink _ _ _ _ _ _ __

broke

or

spin

fly

strike

focus

take

propel

thrust

&1:'i

Listen to and repeat the compound nouns in column 4 of the

ord list.

1 Engineer 1

Read the blog and complete the profile.

My name's Martha Bari and I live in Ottawa, Canada. I'm Italian and I've lived in Ottawa for seven years. I carne to Ottawa to study at the university. In my fourth year, I got my Masters in Bio-medical Engineering, after doing a degree in Mechanical Engineering for three years . I love my work. I speak French as well as Italian , which is useful in Canada. Right now, I'm working for a bio-medical company in Ottawa called Robotico. I'm a Research & Development Technician and I'm developing new devices for artificial arms and legs. My ambition is to become the Head of R&D, but don't tell my boss that!

By the way, are any other graduates from my university out there (University of Ottawa, 2004- 2008, particularly anyone from the Department of Mechanical Engineering)? Please post a message.

1

Name

2

Nationality

3

Employer

4

Current position

5

Responsibilities

Martha Bari

6 Qualifications 7

. .,

Institution

8 Skills and competences

2 Complete these blogs with the verbs in brackets, using the present simple , present continuous, or going to future . There may be more than one possible answer. I name's Kees. Right now 1(1)

am working (work) at a manufacturing company in Rotterdam . (specialise) in robotics. I normally (3) (spend) our days a week with my employer, and one day at college. At the moment I (4) (do) an apprenticeship in engineering . After I (5) (complete) my apprenticeship in July, I (6) (have) a short holiday, probably somewhere in the sun! I (7) _ _ _ _ _ __ (no have) any further career plans at present.

The company (2)

2 My name's Pedro and I (1) (work) for a pharmaceutical company in Madrid. Most days I (2) (work) from 8.30 until 17.00, but on some days I (3) (stay) late in order 0 finish a job. At the moment I (4) (develop) a new line of over-the-counter drugs. We (5) (start) our first series of trials in two months ' time, so there's a lot of last-minute work. I already (6) (have) a Bachelor of Sciences degree in Biochemistry, and I (7) (start) a Masters course next autumn.

18

Career"

....

2 Inventor 1 Comple te the description of a line-thrower, using the words in the box. barrel

bullet

device

hand-held

pulse

recoil (x2) roughly

A pneumatic line-thrower is a (1) device used fo r throwing a long line, either between a pair of boats, or from a boat to the shore. It is also used for rescue purposes. It is a (2) device, (3) 75 cm in length, and uses compressed air as a propellant. The standard pneumatic line-thrower consists of a reservoir of compressed air, a long (4) and a trigger. The sudden release of a (5) of compressed air propels the projectile, which may be shaped like a ball or a (6) . When fired, the pneumatic line-thrower causes a (7) in the opposit e direction t o the line of f ire: the bigger the device, the greater the (8) . The line is stored in a separate box and follows the projectile when it is fired.

2 Write questions about the MoorLine 230.

2 3 4

5 6

MoorLine 230

Line-thrower 75

1

Line length

240 m

100 m

2

Line thickness

3.2mm

5 mm

3

Line breaking strength

2000 N (newtons)

1500 N

4

Projectile

cylindrical project ile

plastic ball

5

Range

230 m

gOm

6

Recoil

5400 N (newtons) (max)

5200 N (max)

How How How What How What

long is the line?

3 Write sentences comparing the two products in 2, using these prompts. I 2

line / 230 / long / 75 The line on the 230 model is longer than the one on the 75 model. line / 230 / thick / 75

3

breaking strength / 230 / while / 75

4

230 / have / projectile / w hereas / 75 / ball

5

75 / short / range / 230

6

230 / great / recoil / 75 Careers

"

19

3 Interview 1

" -D

Read part of a CV and then listen to an interview. Complete the missing sections and update some of the information.

JuniorTechnician

arn e and address of employer

Horton Engineering, Cleveland

Machining, finishing and some _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ arn e and add ress of employer

Farley Marine, Long Creek Marine engineering: manufacture of engines and pumps

~~--------------~======~======~----------------------~ .~ ~~~~:----+==============-----------J ~. and

Albany College of Engineering, Albany

2 " .j!ij

Write the questions from the interview, using the prompts. Then listen again and check. I which / job / interested Which job are you interested in? 2 long / work / there _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ 3 responsibilities / current / job _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 4 exactly / kind / business / your company _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 5 long / work / Farley Marine _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 6 what / description / there _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 7 long / course / last _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 8 why / leave / Horton Engineering _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __

3

Write the time words and phrases in the box on the correct lines. 2011 three weeks yesterday seven years a week last week January six months 8 o 'clock Monday a month two hours 20 minutes 12th May five days lunchtime a long time

for: three weeks, smce:~ 2~ OJ~J~,

20

____________________________

4 Word list NOUNS

I

NOUNS

, ADJECTIVES

NOUNS (careers)

accuracy

prototype

accurate

ambition

barrel

pulse

external

apprentice

blog page

recoil

genetic

apprenticeship

brain cell

robotics

high-pressure

benefit

brass

software

inaccurate

bonus

breakthrough

spacer

interpersonal

competence

bullet

target

minimum

institution

cell

tissue

optimum

role

DNA

VERBS

organisational

technician

gene gun

insert

pharmaceutical

NOUNS

helium

modify

previous

(qualifications)

inaccuracy

power

social

Bachelor of Sciences

leisure activity

ADVERB

standard

machine gun

roughly

certificate

degree

mechatronics

d iploma

membrane

Masters

1 Complete this description of a gene gun, using the correct form of words from the Word list. A (1) machine gun is a weapon that fires (2) down a towards a (4) Holes in its cylindrical (3) barrel allow air to escape and this reduces the weapon's (5) i.e. the thrust of the weapon in the opposite direction to the line of fire. (6) are tools which fire D A into a cell. They are powered by (7) gas. A (8) of the gas pushes the (9) bullet through the cell (10) and into the (11) itself. The first (12) gene gun was unsatisfactory. It \ as too (13) and caused (14) damage to the cell. The (15) gene gun worked much better. It had a narrower barrel and fired the DNA with greater (16) _ _ _ __ __

2

KiU Write the words in the box in the correct column. Then listen and check. ambition apprentice apprenticeship benefit certificate competence diploma engineering institution interpersonal previous technician

1 st syllable stressed

2nd syllable stressed

3rd syllable stressed

ambition

21

Section 1 1

Identify which five paragraphs below relate to take-off from an aircraft carrier, and which five relate to landing. Then put the paragraphs in the correct order. Take-off: _ _ _ _ ...fL

Landing: _ _ _ _ _ a) If everything goes well, the aircraft has enough lift to get airborne. However, if there is a mishap, the pilot can activate the ejector seat to exit the cockpit before the plane crashes in 0 the sea. b) After this, the plane is pulled off the landing strip and fastened securely with metal chains. c) A this stage, the plane does not move, because the shuttle . restrained by a holdback bar. Finally, the catapult officer releases the holdback system and the catapults propel the fighter plane forwards. At the end of the catapult run, the tow bar is released automatically, allowing the plane to rise into the air a ay from the flight deck. d) The catapults consist of a small shuttle, which is attached o two pistons. These pistons are inside two parallel cylinders that run belo the flight deck. When preparing for flight, the tow bar on the plane's nose gear is attached to the shuttle. e) To come to a stop on a short flight deck, an aircraft must decelerate very quickly.

n

eend 0 thecountdown, the catapult officer opens the va es, which fill the catapu lt cyli nders with high-pressure steam. This steam will provide sufficient pressure to propel the shuttle forwards. At the same time, the pilot increases the jet engines to maximum thrust

2

Use the w ords printed in bold in 1 to label the diagrams.

TAKE-OFF

Rt'\

ie\\

g) One final deta il: as soon as the plane strikes the flight deck, the pilot increases the engine thrust to full power. As a result, if the plane does not engage one of the arresti ng wires, it will have enough thrust to lift off into the air again at the end of the flight deck. h) For this reason, it has a tail hook, which is an extended hook attached to the tail. When approaching the fl ight deck, the pilot must engage the tail hook with one of four arresting wires. These are steel cables that are stretched across the width of the flight deck. i) To get airborne from an aircraft carrier, a jet fighter needs extra acceleration. This is provided by catapults, which are fixed into the flight deck. j) If everything goes perfectly, the pilot is guided along the correct descent path by coloured lights on the aircraft carrier. He also visually lines up the runway centre line painted on the flight deck, and the vertical drop line painted on the ship's stern below the end of the flight deck. When he touches down, the tail hook engages with one of the arresting wires connected to a hydraulic cyli nder. The hydraulic system slows the plane and brings it to a standstill within 100 metres.

LANDING

. ,~

..

Section 2 1 Make compound nouns using the words in the box. There rna be more than one possible answer. activity car degree technician vitae

apprentice 2 blog 3 business 4 career 5 company

description

experience

technician

page

plan

qualification

curriculum engineering job leisure 10 work

6 7 8 9

2 Complete this dialogue between two HR managers. Use all the w ords in the box or the correct form of the words in brackets where given. for (x2)

since (x2)

ago

but (x3)

while

whereas

A:

.. ~.

What did you think of those two candidates, Enrico and Manuel? more confident (confident) than Manuel. B: Well, Enrico seemed (1) Yes, (2) Manuel is much (3) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A: (old) and (4) (experienced). B: True, but I think Enrico would pick up the job (5) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (fast) than Manuel. He asked lots of good questions and showed (6) (great) knowledge of our compan . Let's look at their relative work experience . Enrico (7) _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ (work) in his first company (8) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ three ears and (9) (work) in his present compan (10) the last four years. B: But Manuel (11) (be) out of work (12) January. He (13) _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ (leave) his last job ten months (14) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and he (15) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (not work) (16) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ then. I

A:

A: B: A: B: A: B:

A: B:

wonder why. He said he had been ill, (17) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ou can t be sure. By the way, (18) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (you / receive) their references? Yes, Enrico has (19) (positive) references than . lanueL. So, would you consider Enrico to be the (20) (good) candidate? Yes, he showed more ambition. Anyway, let's look at their qualifications. Enrico did a four-year apprenticeship, (21) !l.anuelonly did three years. I wonder why. Enrico has a degree in Mechanical Engineering, (22) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Manuel only has a diploma. (23) (you / check) their documentation? Yes, Manuel studied for the diploma, (24) he left before the end of the course and didn't take the final exams. So his qualifications are not just (25) (irnpressi\·e) they're non-existent!

Rp\ 1(,\\

23

1 Warnings 1 ....jU Listen to five phone conversations between a customer and a manufacturer's helpline. umber the problems in the order in which you hear them. No.

1

2

Problem

Remedial action required

a) oil

continue to monitor / change oil/top up with oil

blABS

stop driving and seek immediate assistance / consult main dealer

c) fuel

empty contaminated fuel from tank / fill up with fuel

d) tyres

check tyre sensors / deflate tyre / inflate tyre

e) doors

check all doors are shut / check electrical contact / replace warning bulb

Listen again and underline the remedial action required for the problems in 1.

3 ....jfJ Complete the questions and answers from 1. Then listen again and check. 1

2

3

'How is the car handling? Do you need to take any corrective action w hen you brake?' 'Yes. When I _ _ __ _ _ ____ , I have to _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ is the warning light and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _1' 'It's in the middle of the _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and it's 'Is it on _ __ _ __ __ _ __ _ _?' •

4 5

0 ,

I've b een - -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _

all day. It just comes on

'And w hat _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is _ __ __ _ __ _ _ _ __ 1' 'I'm getting _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 'Is it a _ _ __ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ , or both?' when I turn on the _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ 'There's a

4 ...U

Underline the most suitable discussion markers in this conversation about safety devices. Then listen and check. A I sent you a proposal about a new in-car warning system that would warn drivers when they get too close to the vehicle in front. (1) Anyway / For example, this could be a tactile or audible warning. B (2) In other words / By the way, you're suggesting a beep or something that makes the steering wheel vibrate. C (3) I don't think so / I agree with that. I think we're on the right lines here. (4) Alternatively / By the way, talking of lines, I was late today because of a pile-up in the fog. I think a lorry had gone off the road and ... A Yes, yes. (5) By the way / Anyway, you're here now, so let's get back to the subject. (6) In other words / Alternatively, we could have a visual warning sign, (7) or / for instance one that was flashed onto the inside of the driver's windscreen. B (8) I don 't think that 's a good idea / You have a point. There are too many flashing lights already when you're driving. A Well, what about a system based on different sensors, to monitor things like the distance from the vehicle in front, your speed, the road conditions and the external te mperature? Then we 're combining different factors. C (9) I don't think that 's a good idea / That sounds good. (10) So / Or, an audible or tactile warning system related to different factors .

24

.~

..

2 Instructions 1

Complete the descriptions of drum brakes and a hand brake using the labels in the diagrams. One label is used twice.

Shoes

Rear drum brakes

Drum

mechanical hand brake

drum brakes

Drum brakes consist of two (1) shoes , which are fixed to a (2) , which is flxed to an (3) _ _ _ _ _ __ (4) are riveted to the outer faces of each shoe. When the brake pedal is depressed, this increases the hydraulic pressure in the (5) _ _ _ _ _ _ __ into that runs from the master cylinder. This forces the two (6) contact with a rotating (7) , which is fixed to the \I heel hub b the wheel nuts. The inner surface of the drum is ground smooth so that the shoe linings can rub against it.

A handbrake must be fitted to every car. This holds the vehicle stationaT) while it i left unattended. It can also function as an emergency brake if there is a failure of the main and braking system. Normally, the hand brake operates on the (8) is linked to them via a (9) . The hand brake mechanism is operated by a (10) , which is held in the 'on' position by a ratchet and pawl mechanism.

2 Write sentences for a car manual using the checklist below. Use should

need to and don 't have to with the verbs in the box, and the active or passi e as appropriate . orne

verbs are used more than once. adjust

change

check

refill

replace

top up

Examples: 1 The oil and the filter need to be changed. ... 4 You need to check the screen wash system.

:fobs for 9arage

:fobs for

10U

Nue5Sary oil and filter change; radiator - antiQf going to a wunir1 where people dr'

freeLe; wind5creen replacement (if badli cracKed) good idea air bag replacement after ten iear5

7-

p."

?

Not nue55arl wind5creen replacement Qf in

different 5ide of the road) 'j

good wndition)

p."

good idea: oil level; res (preS5Ure I tread

de.pth); ureen wa5h; lights d1U\: (side Ii

5,

headlights, indi(.ators) ("

Not nUe5f>art (wnh improve
Sale!\

3 Rules 1 Read this news story about a near miss and label the diagram with the names of the two aircraft.

Air traffic control procedures have been changed after a near miss by two aircraft at a nlllitary airfield last June. The incident im-oh-ed a H awk trainingjet and a twi.nengine turboprop Reims-Ce na aircraft. The Hawk was about to land ,,-hen the Ce na fle,,- across the runwa\-at a \-e~-Iow a1tirude. The air rraffic conaoller in the conaol tower had giyen the pilot of the C a permission to fh ' norrhnorrn-east low O\'er the airfield shonly before the incident. The air rraffic controller was dealin \\i.th a high \\'orlJoad at the time, and was contrOllin the mO\-emems of 2 fi\-e different aircraft on four different radio frequencie .

A report by the Civil Aviation Authority concluded that the controller was unable to handle this large workload, thus endangering aircraft in the area. There had also been a breakdovm in the monitoring of flight levels around the airfield, and of radio communications. Neither pilot was informed that other aircraft were flying N in the same area, the report added. Neither pilot had time to take evasive action, and a ~U!'B---!~.--"""- Control collision was avoided by pure tower luck. At their closest distance, the two aircraft were about 150 metres apart. Staffing rotas for air traffic controllers at the airfield have now been modified to ensure that this does not happen again.

.-

r

2 Are these statements about the text in I true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false ones. I 2 3

4 5

Air traffic control procedures at the airfield are likely to be modified in future . The turboprop aircraft had permission to cross the airfield at low altitude. The danger of a collision was caused by poor communications alone. The air traffic controller intervened to warn the pilots about other aircraft. ew staffing rotas are likely to endanger aircraft at the airfield in future.

.:t.

3 Rewrite these instructions to give a similar meaning, using the words in brackets. Do not use the words in italics. Example: I. Pilots who are unfamiliar with the layout of this airport must order a 'Follow-Me ' car before they have landed.

ARRIVALS Pilots who are unfamiliar with the layout of this airport should not order a 'FollowMe' car after they land. (must / before) 2 You should only ask for priority landing if you have mechanical problems, a medical emergency or are dangerously short of fuel. (not / unless) 3 Do not order mobility buggies and wheelchairs before you have landed. (only / after) 4 Pilots should only shut down the engines when the ground staff have indicated that the aircraft is correctly positioned at the gate. (must not / until) DEPARTURES 5 You must only embark onto your plane after filing a flight plan, with details of your route and destination. (not / before) 6 Do not take off before ensuring that you have sufficient fuel for the flight + 10%. (only / after) 7 In snowy weather, aircraft should only attempt take-off after de-icing in the holding area. (must not / without) 8 Do not move onto the runway unless you have received permission from the control tower. (only / if)

26

4 Word list

..

NOUNS (cars)

VERBS (driving)

VERBS

ADJECTIVES

brake line

accelerate

devise

apart

brake pad

counter-steer

drain

audible

brake pedal

cruise

endanger

corrective

cable

depart

ensure

evasive

calliper

drift

evacuate

even-numbered

disc (brake)

overtake

grind

mandatory

drum (brake)

NOUNS

intervene

odd-numbered

fluid level

altitude

maintain

prohibited

handbrake

collision

modify

remedial

hydraulic fluid

flight level

monitor

spongy

indicator

heading

process

tactile

master cylinder

helicopter

regain

visible

piston

scrape

ADVERBS

reservoir

high-visibility clothing

squeal

intentionally

sensor

image

steering wheel

incident

torque

maintenance

windscreen

naked flame

unintentionally

softness vibration

1 Label this diagram with words and phrases from the Word list.

3

5

6

Saleh

2

1 Schedules 1 & .jij Listen to part of an interview about climate change and energy sources. Complete the table.

2

Predictions and targets

Change in °C or %

By date

Carbon emissions to cause rise in global temperatures

a) +~ oC

b) already

(75 % possibility)

c) + ___ oC

d) by 2060

(50% possibility)

e) + ___ oC

f)by_-

Need to stabilise carbon emissions Need to reduce carbon emissions

g) + __ O_% i)by ___ %

h)by _ _ j) after _ __

Percentage of energy output from non-carbon-based fuels

k) ___ %

I)by _ _

European targets: reduce carbon emissions

m)by ___ % o)by ___ %

n) by 2020 p)by _ _

KrD

Complete the questions, using the phrases in the box. Then listen to the interview again and check your answers. will that reduce could we avoid your views could happen

you th ink

Do

will push up

you think

in the long term

."-

that carbon emissions

global temperatures?

2 Is this the worst that 3 4

5

So how What are So

in the future? this? on switching energy sources? carbon emissions

?

3 Complete these sentences of agreement or disagreement. 1

A:

S:

2

A: S:

3 4

28

PI"llIlill~

I think we should restrict all travel that uses carbon-based fuels, including flying. I don't agree with you at all. I just can' t go _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ that. There are cost and environmental benefits in switching to electrically powered vehicles. You have _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ there. I'm happy

CCS is surely the way forward , both in the short te rm and medium term. I'm not that. Let's think again about it. Can we agree that we can achieve a 10 percent reduction in carbon-based fuels next year? S: That right. Yes, that's _____________ me.

A: S: A:

2 Causes 1 Rewrite each sentence to give a similar meaning, making the following changes. • replace because with the phrase in brackets. Example: because ~ owing to • replace the verbs in italics with related nouns. Example: reacts ~ reaction • replace the adverbs in italics with adjectives. Example: completely ~ complete Example: I Phosphorus (used in the manufacture of detergents) is stored in water owing to the reaction of phosphorus with air. I Phosphorus (used in the manufacture of detergents) is stored in water because phosphorus reacts with air. (owing to) 2 The reaction happens because calcium carbonate is added together with water. to the gas. (due to) 3 The gas is purified because polluting particles are completely removed from the gas by the collection plates. (as a result of) 4 Emissions from power plants are lower with clean coal technology because the coal is totally purified before it is burnt. (as a result of) 5 Port installation costs are high because the L G is liquefied at a temperature of - 1,620 Celsius before it is loaded onboard. (owing to) 6 Greater crop yields are ensured because the growing sheds are automatically humidified. (as a result of) 7 The emergency rescue teams had problems because the olcanic ash rapidly solidified after cooling. ( caused by) 8 The coal used in the power plant is a fine dust because it is pulverised in the coal mill nearby. (due to)

2

1 2

Complete this crossword with words from

41

1

1 5

6

1 1

1 7

8

1

1 1 1 9

10 11 12 1 13

-

J.

1 very small pieces of matter

1 1 1

1 1 1 3

Section 2 of the Cour e Book pages

I I I I

Vertical word: these remove small particulates from flue gas

2 a common element (S) found in carbonbased fuels 3 a piece of metal that cau es particles to become negati el charged 4 a general word for substances u ed in or obtained by chemistry 5 containing salt 6 to remove or separate sulphur from something 7 a layer of rock that can hold water 8 an _ dust precipitator i a type of du t filter 9 a mistake, mark or eakness that makes something imperfect lOa colourless, odourless flammable gas (CH 4) II to form ions, or make them form 12 substances in another sub tance that make it of poor quality 13 the process of converting into a gas

Pldnllln~

3 Systems 1 Match the signpost phrases a- j with the notes for a presentation about geothermal energy in Iceland. a) OK, let's move on to production wells. b) I'd like to conclude by showing this slide. c)

ow let's look at transmission pipelines.

d) Thanks, Ed. Now let's look at generating electricity. e)

f

30

PI,ulllmg

The aim of my talk is to tell you about ...

g) Thank you all for coming. Any questions? h) Now I'd like to hand over to Ed, who will look into the question of district heating.

i)

Next, let's look at different field types.

j)

Let's start with the underground rock layers.

ow I'd like to move on to the power plant. Phrase

2

0

Presentation notes geothermal power in Iceland: electricity generation, space heating, etc.

2

hot rock layers from a volcanic system; fissures join together to create an underground reservoir; becomes an aquifer of hot water, extracted through production wells

3

low-temperature fields: yield water at below 150 °C for space heating high-temperature fields: yield water at above 200 °C for electricity generation and heating cold water for space heating

4

13 production wells at Nesjavellir, in operation since 1972, to supply the capital Reykjavik: thermal production for space heating, with generation of electricity

5

show slide: transmission pipeline. Distance from Nesjavellir to Reykjavik: ; 27 km. Pipeline diameter: 90 cm. Water temperature: 96 °C. Temperature loss iii transit: 1-2 °C •

6

first stage of the process: central separation station: steam is piped through moisture separators to steam heat exchangers inside the building

7

steam from the production wells can't be used for space heating; problem of mineral-rich saline solution which blocks pipes. Instead, heat exchangers are used to heat cold water, which is then distributed

8

power plant capacity: 120 MW of electrical power (started production 1990)

9

show PP slide: Statistics: Iceland's energy requirements geothermal energy: 24.5% hydro-electric: 75.4% fossil fuels: 0.1 % geothermal energy: provides heating and hot water for 87% of buildings

10

invite audience to ask questions

Answer these questions, using the notes in 1. Example: I Because hot water can be extracted from the underground reservoirs . 1 Why is Iceland such a good location for geothermal energy? 2 Where does Reykjavik get some of its geothermal energy from? 3 How does the hot water get from Nesjavellir to Reykjavik? 4 Why isn't steam from the extraction wells used directly for space heating? 5 How does Iceland get most of its energy requirements?

4 Word list NOUNS

NOUNS (energy)

VERBS (energy)

COMPOUND NOUNS

deadline

flaw

condense

biofuel

timeline

gasification

consume

NOUNS

geothermal energy

convert

(chemicals)

humidification

desulphurise

carbon capture and storage (CCS)

calcium carbonate

impurity

emit

carbon dioxide (C0 2)

injection

gasify

clean coal technology

methane (CHJ

insertion

humidify

collection plate

ionisation

ionise

flue gas

nitrous oxide

(Np>

ozone (0)

liquefaction

liquefy

iron filing

sulphur

magnet particle

pressurise

power plant

NOUNS

particulate

pulverise

ADJECTIVES

(energy)

precipitator

purify

electrostatic

aquifer

pulverisation

recover

harmless

desulphurisation

purification

solidify

saline

electrode

reaction

sulphurise

volcanic

emission

reservoir

switch

extraction

solidification

finalise

fissure

sulphurisation

obtain

VERBS

scan

1 Match 1-8 with a-h to describe causes and effects. 1 --.!L Electrostatic precipitators remove 2 _ CO 2 can be stored

a)

3 _

b) c) d) e) t) g) h)

4 _ 5 _

6 _ 7 _ 8 _

2

Complete the sentences with the correct form of energy verbs from the Word list. 1 To stop power plants emitting harmful gases, they should be _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to CCS. 2 3 4

3

Methane can be recovered Pressure from the CO 2 A chemical reaction results in Polluting particles are attracted The collection plates get The iron filings move because

the desulphurisation of the flue gas. from underground coalfields. by the collection plates. in underground saline aquifers. small particles from flue gas. the magnet attracts them. forces the oil to rise to the surface. a negative electric charge from the electrodes.

To make coal cleaner, you can ________ it into small particles and ________ it before burning. After going through the separator, the steam ________ and is then returned to the reservoir. Gas can and to L G by cooling it to a very low temperature.

KiD

Listen to and repeat the verbs in column 3 of the Word list and the compound nouns in column 4.

Planning

31

Section 1 1

Match each language function 1-9 with one example in column 2 (a-i) and another in column 3 U- r) . Function

Examples (a-i)

Examples (i-r)

1 agree ~ -..!i. 2 give an example _ _ 3 approve of an idea

a) b) c) d) e)

j) k) I) m) n) 0) p)

--

4 change the subject

-5 give another possibility

-6 disagree _ _ 7 suggest _ _ 8 go back to the main

in other words, Alternatively, I think we should use .. . I agree with that. I don't think that's a good idea. f} I like that. g) But to return to the subject, h) By the way, i) for instance,

I can't go along with that. That sounds good. that is, Anyway, Why don't we have a ... ? such as To change the subject for a moment, q) You have a point there. r) Or, to consider a different possibility,

subject _ _ 9 say the same thing differently _ _

2

Match these signs to the prompts below.

A~

..

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3

staff / not / enter / building (A) doors / lock / night (P) fork-lift trucks / not / drive / this part / warehouse (P) workers / not / eat / drink / this area (A) all visitors / report / reception (A) pedestrians / not / walk / red zone (A) machine guards / use / all times (P) ear protection / wear / when / machinery / operation (P)

Use the prompts in 2 to write a sentence about each of the signs. Use must or must not and the active (A) or passive (P). Example: I Staff must not enter the building.

32

II

Section 2 1 Complete the sentences for a presentation about incineration, using prepositions. 1 The aim ~ my talk this morning is to explain _ __ incineration. 2 First _ __ all, let's discuss the problem of waste. 3 Now I'd like to move ______ the main elements of the incinerator. 4 So now I'm going to talk you ___ the process of modem incineration. S Now I'd like to hand _ _ _ _ Jan. 6 Jan will look _ _ the question of pollution. 7 Thanks, Jan. Finally, I'd like to conclude _ _ showing this slide. 8 Thank you all _ _ coming. Any questions?

2

't

,{

Read this email enquiry. Write a reply, using the presentation notes below to help you answer the questions.

Hi Karl, It was great to meet up with you at the conference last weekend. I'm interes ed in what you were saying about incineration as a way of dealing with waste. I have some questions for you. Please could you email me some brief answers? 1 Why is waste such a big problem? 2 What benefits does incineration bring? 3 Aren 't people worried about pollution from incinerators? 4 What does the process of incineration involve? 5 Why do you say that it's an advantage to site incinerators in cities? Best wishes , Bullent

Presentation notes Incineration converts waste materials -7 bottom ash , flue gases, particulates and heat. Heat used for space heating and/or electricity generation. Waste is bulky; incineration reduces mass of waste by 80-85%. Show slide: moving grate incinerator. Continuous process: waste enters at one end; ash leaves at the other end. Heat transformed into steam -7 drives the turbine. Flue gases are cooled -7 pass through the flue gas cleaning system. Bottom ash from the incinerator - non-hazardous. People worried about pollution from incinerators. Improved emission control: pollutants in the flue gas reduced by particle filtration, using electrostatic precipitators. Heavy metals, e.g. mercury, lead, chromium, removed by acid gas scrubbers. Show slide: Incinerator in city centre. Emission control better in modem inc inerators. Convenient for reception of waste, and for output of space heating and electricity. Can increase electricity generation in summer or space heating in winter.

Hi Bullent, Many thanks for your email asking about incinerators. I'll try to answer ...

RE'\ IE'\\

33

1 Statements 1

Underline the correct phrases. There may be more than one possible answer. I I said the official / to the official / (NO WORD) that I had a metal plate in my hip. 2 He told me / to me / (NO WORD) the airport had put in new security procedures. 3 I informed the clerk / to the clerk / (NO WORD) that I had packed my case myself. 4 She reported me / to me / (NO WORD) that there had been a security breach. 5 She explained him / to him / (NO WORD) that the X-ray machine didn't harm laptops. 6 She promised him / to him / (NO WORD) she would phone as soon as she arrived. 7 He confirmed me / to me / (NO WORD) that he had orders to carry out a manual search. 8 He assured them / to them / (NO WORD) that there would be a full investigation.

2 Complete the table below with the reporting verbs in the box. say tell

infonn

report

explain

1 verb + object

promise

confinn

assure

tell

2 verb + to + object OR with out object

3 verb + object OR with out object

3 Write what the security inspector actually said, using direct speech. Example: 1 'The airport has introduced a new scanning system. ' . . 1' 1 The security inspector reported that the airport had introduced a new scanning syste{il. 2

He said the device was able to produce X-ray images of plaster casts.

3

He confirmed that it would be installed at all airports in the following six months.

4

He informed us that criminals had been able to transport knives inside plaster casts.

5

The security inspector told his assistant to conceal a knife inside the demonstration cast.

6

He said the body part being examined was placed next to the device, not in it.

7

He explained that the device uses a new system called 'backscatter imaging'.

8

He assured us that backscatter imaging could be used safely on all passengers.

9

He told us that the first group of operators was already undergoing training.

10 He ordered us to read the user manual before the following day.

34

2 Incidents 1 Match the words and phrases in the box with their definitions 1-8. audio circuit coil detection zone direct current magnetic field pulse-induction technology reflected pulse resistor

2 3

a horizontal space in which objects can be detected _ _....:d:.:.::ete :..::.::.=. cti ..:.:.=. ·o.:..: n ....:w::.::.:..:.=. e __ an area around an object that has magnetic power _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ a short electrical current caused by the collapse of the magnetic field in the coil

4 5 6 7

a flow of electricity that moves in one direction only _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ a wire arranged in a continuous spiral _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ an electrical circuit which creates an audible sound _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ a wire or object that stops or slows down the flow of electric current through it

8

a system which uses a coil or coils as both transmitter and receiver

2

Read the product review in 2, Section 2 of the Course Book, page 54. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false ones. 1 The metal detector can operate at a distance of 65 m from the passenger s body. 2 The display screen shows where a metal object is located on the operator. 3 The WfMD is based upon eight linked coils of wire, arranged horizontally. 4 An electrical current is sent through each of the eight coils in pulses. 5 The presence of a metal object creates a magnetic field around it. 6 A reflected pulse disappears faster after a metal object is detected. 7 A metal object is present on a passenger if a reflected pulse last:> longer than expected. 8 The audio output sounds deeper and quieter as the metal object approaches the coil.

3

Underline the correct alternative in these sentences. There may be more than one possible answer. 1 As / While the pilot was preparing to land, a mobile signal interfered v.ith the radio. 2 The plane was flying while / when the mobile phone was seeking the nearest ground station. 3 The pilot approached the runway w hile / as the mobile phone was cau ing interference. 4 While / When the plane was waiting on the runway, a warning signal sounded. 5 Another plane w as taking off when / as the stick-shaker signal in the cock.-pit tarted to operate. 6 When / While the Boeing 737 was flying, a passenger was using his mobile phone.

4

Use these notes to make sentences similar to those in 3.

..

~

Example: I While the passengers were checking in, the ground crew was refuelling the Airbus. 1 07.35-07.52: passengers check in / 07.35-07.52: ground crew refuels Airbus 2 07.55-08.15: ground crew loads luggage into Airbus / 08.10: starts to ·snm 3 08.27: 747 lands / 8.20-8.31 : ground crew de-ices Airbus 4 08.31: 747 slides off runway / 08.28-08.31: 747 taxis towards terminal building 5 08.15-08.45: Airbus passengers wait in departure lounge / 08.40: hear that flight is cancelled 6 08.55-09.15: Airbus passengers ask for information / 747 passengers were waiting to leave their aircraft

Repons

35

3 Progress 1 . . . . Listen to a dialogue about iris scanning. Number the topics in the order in which you hear them. A

."'" .... accuracy

B[j]

Q

__ a

•.--~

.... 0.0''''

~

~

biometrics

E

FO

flexible

image

non-contact

database size (scalability)

VM ~

biometric stability

speed

2 . ..jl:) Put the words in the correct order to make sentences from the dialogue. Then listen again and check your answers. I you on how getting are? How are you getting on? 2 you have systems with up what come? 3

what system we that about that other about spoke ?

4

that have looked into you ?

5

you see what I mean yes

S

more

7

the how so operate system does ?

8

you catch after I'll weekend with the up

on

me

go

tell

,

3 Complete this text, using the words and phrases in the box. 8 and 35 cm activated converted scanning digital iris identity PIN numbers security door video camera technology database

Iris recognition technology provides accurate identity security without (1) _--.:...P.:,:IN...:....:..:n=u:..:.m,:.:b-=e.:. .rs = --_ passwords or cards. Verification takes less than two seconds. Although the term 'iris scanning' is commonly used, there is no (2) (3)

, in fact. The methodology is based on

For registration, the person is positioned between (4) _ _ _ __ __ _

from the auto-focus camera. Then a (5)

video is taken of the iris. Individual images

are taken from the video. The patterns of the iris are (6) template. This is stored in a (7)

into a 512-byte digital

and is accessed by the Identification Control Unit.

When a person approaches a Remote Optical Unit (ROU), it is (8)

by proximity

sensors. The ROU uses the same video and image capture technology to compare the present-time image with the (9)

stored at the time of registration. As soon as the iris is matched,

a direct signal is sent to open a (10) ________ , or otherwise confirm the person's identity.

36

7

Rep()lt -

.

4 Word list NOUNS

NOUNS

!

ADJECTIVES

COMPOUND baggage X-ray machine

(electronics)

NOUNS

amplifier

breach

hand-held

cspacifance

criminal

innocent

capacitor

fingerprint

manual

capacitor plate

investigation

non-conductive

capacitive scanning

charge circuit

jaw

VERBS

CCTV camera

coil

official

affect

detection zone

conductor

password

beep

conductor plate

pin number

convict

fingerprint scanning

dielectric

procedure

detect

discharge circuit

ridge

discharge

hand-held metal detector (HHMD)

magnetic field

security

disguise

iris scanning

scan

optical scanning

magnetism

source

microchip

surgeon

reflected pulse

surgery

remote display unit

resistor

valley

voice recognition

pulse-induction

walk-through metal detector

sensor

terminal

(WTMD)

1 Complete the descriptions of these diagrams vvith the \'Yords in itali cs in COh_llTlfl

1 of the

Word list. One word is used twice. A

B

capacitor 1

~~'

conductor

thinner dielectric = increased capacitance

r 'l

capacitor 2

--{] ~ thicker dielectric = decreased capacitance

capaCitor consists of two A (1) (2) made of metal, separated by a (3) , made of nonconductive material. If the distance between the (4) is greater, the (5) will be lower.

This diagram shows a (6) A switch disconnects the battery from the (7) It connects it to the (8) The capacitor discharges its load to the resistor.

2 & .tJlij Listen to and repeat the highlighted nouns in column I. nderline the syllable with the main stress in each word.

Reports

37

1 Spar 1

Label the parts of this illustration using the w ords in the box. crude oil pipeline power plant pipeline network mooring line pumping station seabed tank farm tug boat (for towing tankers)

5

...~--

4 - - --=-..... 25 m

2

I

2

3

Look at the GANTT chart for a fire detection and suppression project at a new m arine terminal. Write short dialogues, usi ng already, ago , yet and not yet. It is now the end of the third week of February. Example: 1 A: Have the foundatiom; for the pumping 5tation been laid yet? B: Ye5, they were laid in January. four week5 ago. A: What; about; the pump5? Have they been in5talled? B: o. That job ha5 already been 5taned, but it ha5n't been fini5hed yet.

Task Pumping station

Lay foundations Install pumps

2

Constru ct site roads Install pipeline ri ng main Water storage tanks

3

Drill test boreholes

Lay foundations

4

Order tank sections Assemble tank sections

5

Deliver fire guns Use fire guns in training

38

:~

2 Platform 1

&9

Listen to a recorded talk at the Visitors Centre of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) in China. Tick the visitors' questions that are answered in the talk. 1 Did people use to die because of flooding in the area? [Z] 2 Does the Yangtze River still flood? 3 How many power plants are there? 4 In what year was the TGP completed? 5 Did some of the displaced population decide to move to other areas? 6 Has any new housing been provided for the displaced population? 7 When was the project started? 8 Could the dam be in danger if there was an earthquake in the area?

D D D

D

2 Listen again and answer the questions in 1 that you ticked. 3 aD Listen to further details about the TGP and complete the table.

4

Earth and rock excavation

a)

Earth and rock fill

b)

Concrete Rebar

103 million m3

Construction period

e)

m3

People employed on site

f)

c)

tonnes

Reservoir area

g)

kJn2

d)

tonnes

Reservoir length

h)

kin

2009

I

Complete the sentences using b y means of, to or by and the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1 The Yangtze River was diverted during the project to allow (allow) dam construction to proceed. 2 The first stage of river diversion was achieved (construct) a 550 m long embankment. 3 The embankment was constructed (dump) rock into ..vater 60 m deep. 4 Shipping up to 10,000 tonnes can proceed upstream or downstream a 5-step ship-lock. 5 A ship elevator was constructed (pass) smaller vessels (up to 3.000 tonnes) through the dam more quickly. 6 Electricity is generated hydro turbines and gene rator units . 7 22 spillway openings are installed along the top of the dam (allow) extra discharge outlets. 8 The reservoir level is lowered during May and June each year _ _ __ _ (provide) extra storage during the flood season from June to September.

Projech

39

3 Drilling 1

Match the sentence halves 1-7 with a- g, and 8-14 with h-n. Pay particular attention to the words in bold .

....L The derrick is

_ _ _ _ _ 7 _

The derrick stands The crown block is fixed The winch pulls in The travelling block is attached to A hook is fixed to the bottom The hook below the travelling block

a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

on the drilling platform. the cable, and moves up or down. or releases the cable. of the travelling block. to the top of the derrick, and rotates. the tower (the top part) of the oil rig. is attached to a swivel.

8 _ 9 _

The top part of the swivel can 't rotate, The lower part of the swivel is attached The kelly fits into and goes The kelly is attached below A diesel engine drives the turntable The drill bit is attached to A drill collar is fitted over the

h) i) j) k) I) m) n)

through a turntable. and makes it rotate. bottom of the drill pipe above the drill bit. but the bottom part can . the bottom of the drill pipe. to a 4-sided or 6-sided kelly. the turntable to the drill pipe.

1 2 3 4 5 6

10 _ 11 _ 12 _ 13 _ 14 _

2 Describe the stages of a horizontal directional drilling project. Complete the sentences below, using the verbs in the box in the past simple passive. award

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

choose

drill

drive

enlarge

lay

miss

pull

push

rotate

take

A 904-metre-long steel gas pipeline _ _ -,-,iA.(..:.C:l..:..s-,,'C:l:..c:i.d:. :._ _ by LMR pic at the end of2010. The horizontal borehole ________ 19 metres below the M5 highway and 7 metres below a gas main. Great care to achieve a smooth borehole as a 120-cm steel pipeline is very inflexible. The contract in 2008. During the planning stage, vertical boreholes to determine the soil characteristics. Once drilling started, the pilot hole forward a t a rate of over 100 m per day. The planned exit point by onlyl8 cm, well within the allowed margin of error. In the next stage, the pilot hole to the final diameter of 150 cm. For this project, rock-reamer-style hole-openers, mounted with mill-tooth cutters

10 As the hole-openers ________ back from the exit point towards the drill rig, they , cutting away the rock. 40

II Projects

4 Word list NOUNS (spar)

NOUNS (drilling)

COMPOUND

VERBS

NOUNS barrel

drilling platform

continuous pour

deploy

mooring line

hook

hydraulic cylinder

embed

pipeline

kelly

oil rig

range

pumping station

matrix

secure

riser

mud hose

recoverable reserves

seabed

mud pump

tow

spar

obstruction

reinforced concrete

topside

pilot hole

reinforcing steel

withstand

tree

rebar

rock layer

ADVERB

NOUNS (drilling)

rotary table

ADJECTIVES

continuously

borehole

slip-forming

complex

brace

stability

directional

crown block

swivel

offshore

derrick

t ravelling block

sub-sea

drill bit

terminal

sufficient

drill collar

turntable

drill pipe

winch

stabilise

tri p in

drill string

1 Complete this description of the drilling process, using nouns from The (1) (3) (5)

is the tower of the (2) oil rig . At the top of the derrick is the (4) pulls or releases the cable.

derrick

VVord lisL , and stand on the This rotates when the the

Below the crown block is the (6) , w hich mo es up and dOVVIl and raises or lowers the (7) with the drilling equipment. The hook is at the bottom of the travelling block and is attached to a (8) _ _ _ __ the top part of which can' t rotate, while the bottom part can. The lower part of the swivel is attached to a (9) , w hich fits into and goes through a (10) . Below this, the kelly is attached to the (1 1) _ _ _ __ At the bottom of the oil w ell, a heavy (12) fits over the drill pipe just at)()\'e the drill bit and helps to weigh it down. When the diesel engines are running the turntable , the kelly and the drill pipe rotate , making the drill bit tum and cut in to the rock.

2

&ifS

Write the words in the box on the correct lines. Then listen and check.

continuously cylinder directional drilling hydraulic stabilise stability sufficient travelling turntable 1st syllable stressed

obstruction

pipeline

2nd syllable stressed

continuous ly

PrOjects

41

Section 1 1 Change these sentences to reported speech or reported instructions. Use a different reporting verb from the box for each sentence. tell

infonn

order

instruct

assure

confinn

explain

promise

Example: 1 She informed him that he had to buy three seats together because of his broken leg. She said to him, 'Sorry, sir. You must buy three seats together because of your broken leg.' 2 The steward said to the passenger, 'Please don't smoke in the departure lounge.' 3 The helpline said to us, 'Oh, yes, you can carry 10 kg of medical equipment free of charge.' 4 The airline official said to her, 'Don't worry, the plane will not leave without you.' 5 The check-in clerk said to us, 'I'll book you on the next possible flight.' 6 The clerk said to him, 'Folding wheelchairs are carried free of charge.' 7 The steward said to the children, 'Don't sit in the emergency exit row.' 8 The pilot said to the crew, 'Evacuate the aircraft immediately.'

2

Use the words and phrases from the diagram and the box to complete the description of an AC generator. coil

commutator

electromagnet

north pole

south pole

'.

ends of this armature are connected to two (6) , which rotate along with the coi l. These are made of metal and are insulated from each other. There are two fixed steel (7) . One end of each of these is in contact with one of the rotating slip rings , and the other end is connected to the (8) _ _ _ _ __ Shaft

An electrical generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energ . An AC generator, or altemator, is used in a power tation to create AC current. A generator consists of a ( I ) per anent magnet . with concave cylindrical (_) \ hich produce a radial magnetic field: and an (3) . ~ ith a solid steel bar, which i called an (4) and which has a ( -) of copper \ ound around it. The

42

As the (9) rotates , the armature rotates about its axis and cuts across the force lines of the magnetic field. If the outer terminals of the armature are connected to an external power circuit , an electric current flows through it. During the first half tum, the coil cuts across the field near the magnet 's (10) and the lower slip ring becomes positively charged . When the coil cuts near the (11 ) during the second half turn , the lower slip ring becomes negatively charged . Thus in one rotation of the coil, the current changes its direction twice (alternating current). The faster the coil turns , the greater the frequency (in Hertz) of the current produced by the generator. In a direct current (DC) generator (not illustrated), a split-ring (12) is used to produce a unidirectional current.

Section 2 1

Label items 1-6 in the diagIam w ith the words in the box. kelly

swivel

d

stnlg drill collar

drill bit

casing

The mud circulation system

2 Read this text and label items A-F in the diagram in I , using the w ords in italics. An oil well is cleaned out by means of a special Jiquid called 'drilling mud' w hich i

pumped down the drill string into the well hole. This liquid cools the drill bit, pick up pieces of rock (rock cuttings) and carries them up the weB hole to the top. The mud pump sucks the drilling mud from large open tanks (called 'mud pits') and pumps it through a hose, through the kelly and then down the drill string to the drill bit. There the mud collects the rock cuttings and carries them up through the space between the drill string and the casing. At the top of the well, the mud and cutting are carried away through the mud return line. Now the mud flows into the shaker, w hich separates the mud from the rock cu . a The mud goes back into the mud pits and is reused . The rock cuttings go into the

'!

reserve pit.

3 Write the general words in the box unde r the illustrations to make technical compound nouns. arm face field head reaction shoe sleeve

jacket sock

moulding

pad

plant

plate

pulse

o

-

.l.~

--

,

reflected pulse

well

rock

chemical

reflected

J

K

.

lever

protective

insulating

,- ,

~.

D I

1 In entions 1 Compare the differences between these two sports cars. Modify comparisons 1-4 below in a gene ral way and comparisons 5-8 in a specific way, using the prompts. Roadster

GT Sport

1 Acceleration (0-100 kph / sees)

7.9

5.9

2 Fuel economy (kilometres per litre)

15.8

11.6

3 Stability

****

*****

4 Suspension

*****

****

5 Top speed (kph)

177

248

6 Power (brake horsepower)

157

246

7 Storage space (Iitres)

150

290

8 Price (€)

23,809

34,182

Examples: I S

The GT Sport accelerates a great deal faster than the Roadster. The maximum speed of the GT Sport is 71 kph faster than the Roadster's.

1 2 3

GT Sport / accelerate / great deal / fast / Roadster Roadster / lot / economical / GT Sport GT Sport / little / stable / Roadster Roadster's suspension / slightly / good / GT Sport's maximum speed / GT Sport / 71 kph / fast / Roadster 's Roadster's engine / two thirds / powerful / GT Sport's GT Sport's storage space / twice / large / Roadster's GT Sport / 50% / expensive / Roadster

4

5 6 7 8

..

2 Write eight more sentences about the cars in 1, using the prompts. Modify your comparisons in a general or specifi c way as appropriate. 1 acceleration / worse The Roadster's acceleration is much worse than the GTSport's.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

two thirds / fue l unstable less comfortable two thirds one and a half times half 30%

3 Write personal answers to these questions about travelling by bus, train or car, using general or specific comparisons. Example: I At weekends, I use the bus much more often. On weekdays, I use the train twice as often as the bus. 1 Which means of transport do you use more often on weekdays and at weekends? 2 In our experience, how do they compare in terms of comfort, convenience, cost

and speed?

44

Design

2 Buildings 1

&1i¥I Listen to the descriptions. Write the description number next to the



picture.

2 . . . Listen and write notes in the table about buildings A-C in 1. A Burj Khalifa

B Taipei 101

C Shanghai Wond Financial Cenb'e

1 City

Dubai

2 Country

Taiwan

3 Height 4 Dept h of foundations

80

I I

5 Storeys 6 Floor area 7 Shape

rectangular open; g

at tap 8 Use 9 Further details

3

hotel, designed ta withstand earthquakes and strong winds

highest obse mio dec

I

Check the answers for 2. Then, for each of lines 3-6 of the table write two sentences using superlative forms . Use easily or by far where appropriate. 3 Burj Khalifa is by far the tal/est bu;/d;11!J

ve -

3 4 4

5 5 6 6

3 Sites 1 Read the Com extJads from emails with descriptions of buildings. Match them with four of the buildings A-H below. Complete the descriptions, using the words in the boxes.

vertical rectangular diagrid The administration building has an angled front elevation with an angled roofiine. There is a large window of coloured glass, divided into sections by metal bars. Both sides of the window come down in a broken _ _ __ _ pattern .

The academic block is a bUilding with a tapering pOinted end, one elevation of stone and one ' elevation of glass panels. On the nearest corner, there is a ----post up to the corner of the roof, which has a - - - - - pattern along the side.

4 Picture The campus library is an irregu lar-sided building in brick, steel and glass. The ground floor elevation is glass and brick. The two have rear elevations of brick, and front elevations of glass; these wings are at right angles to each other. The front between the two wings are three-sided and are constructed of glass and steel. They towards the top, and look like part of an eastern temple.

0

. curve d Irregular inclined

The research. centre is adjacent to a park with tall trees. The bUilding is of h . ir I fl s ape, with an regu ar Oor plan. The floor areas reduce in size as you go up the three storeys. Two of the metal roofs curve down to become - - - - - side elevations. The first floor lobby, with . d I - - - - - smoked glass Win ows, ooks rather like an observation lounge.

2 Check the answers for I. Then write four similar descriptions for the remaining buildings, using the prompts. For each one, describe the plan of the building, its elevation and some visible details. A Department building: semi-circular / circular / elevation / tapering / metal / top / observation lounge C Student hostel: concrete / vertical / columns / elevation / windows E Assembly room: three storey / six-sided / rectangular / natural stone / roof terrace / stone framework / conical pyramid / linked / walkways / two levels H Research centre: rectangular / metal / perpendicular / columns / elevations / glass and brick / left / conical / bicycle racks

II

4 Word list NOUNS (products)

NO UNS (build ings)

ADJECTIVES

ADJECTIVES (shapes)

acceleration

aluminium

adjacent

c ircu lar

appliance

architect

compact

curved

consumption

beauty

extensive

curvilinear

lumen

concrete

fluorescent

diagonal

stability

elevation

hatched

d iagrid

watt

functionality

horizontal

VERBS

innovation

incandescent

doughnutshaped

bulge

storey

optional

elliptical

inspire

ADVERBS

overall

inclined

taper

approximat ely

purpose-built

oval

by far

sail-like

perpendicular

easily

stable

pointed

rough ly

structural

semi-ci rcular

virtually

vertical

tapered zigzag

1 1

Label these pictures with adjectives of shape from column 4 of the Word list.

2

4

3

L:: 0

/

,.'

U

'~~

(9

5

eointed 6

8

7

0

0

9

;j)

10

~

cg

2

Find adjectives in the Word list that are the opposite of the words in italks. 1 a compulsory check 2 a limited area 3 a very large car 4 an unstable building 5 a blunt instrument

3

&?D

and the adjectiYes Listen to and repeat the nouns in column of the \oro more than in column 4. Underline the syllable with the main stress in each \ urd one syllable. II

1 SpecuJation 1

Complete this ero s\ ord . 1

2 3 4 5

6 7

8 9

~

10

11

2 3 4 5

6 7

pressing together so that the volume is reduced the force of one object striking another removal of surface material by rubbing a break into two or more pieces temporary bending due to compression expansion or contraction because of excessive heat or cold (2 words) discovery and examination of facts about something

8 damage caused by continued loading (2 words) 9 disintegration due to a chemical reaction with water and oxygen 10 sudden falling down (of a structure) I I a pulling or stretching force .:'

Vertical word: the topic of this section

2

These statements were made after investigations into disasters. Change them into speculations made before the investigations, using the words in brackets. Do not use the words in italics. Example: I The rail crash must have been caused by a broken rail. I The rail crash was definitely caused by a broken rail. (must) 2 The rail possibly suffered thermal shock due to excessive heat. (may) 3 Maybe the aircraft did not have a mechanical failure. (might not) 4 Perhaps the flight crew feB asleep due to cabin depressurisation and lack of oxygen. (could) 5 The captain probably wanted to save time by steering close to the headland. (might) 6 He possibly did not realise that the depth of water in the channel was insufficient. (may) 7 The houses definitely didn't collapse in the earthquake because of a design error. (can't) 8 The disintegration of the bridge was probably not caused by substandard concrete. (might not)

48

2 Investigation 1

&·9

Listen to a fictional interview between an accident investigator and a maintenance employee. Write notes or underline the correct alternatives in the table.

Action

---- --

Notes

1 New system of rail network checking put in place post-1998

2 Speed restrictions put in place post-1998

-

3 Safety valued as a priority over punctuality post-1998 4 Date of inspection: rail first identified for repair

5 Company responsible for replacing rail

own / other company

======-=

~

Yes !

0

I

I

- ><1I 0

><1

><1 1>< 1><

rail replacement / preventative grinding

>< >-<::

9 Countries that use preventative grinding

10 Number of grinding machines ordered 11

Yes !

I

7 Length of delay

.,

0

Yes !

6 Reason for delay

8 Previous system for dealing with gauge corner cracking

Yes !

Total cost

><

£

2 kiD

Complete part of the interview in 1, using the word s in the box. Then listen again and check your answers. been

should

have

hadn't

wouldn't

A: Another matter, now. Records show that your company identified the rail for repair 21 months before the crash. B: Yes, we noted the problem. A: So the faulty rail was discovered 21 months before the crash. But nothing was done? B Not exactly A: Why wasn't the job completed? B: There was a backlog of essential m aintenance work, which was waiting to be done. Also, this job (I) carried out by another contractor, who had agreed to do the " ork. But they didn t do it. A: Was anything done? B: Yes, they delivered a replacement rail and left it alongside the track adjacent to the faulty rail. A: And how long was the replacement rail lying there? B: I believe it was there for six months. A: Six months! So if the company that was responsible for the maintenance (2) delayed for s o long, the accident (3) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ happened. B: That's right. The faulty rail caused the train crash. It {-o _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ repaired, but it w asn t.

-

~,,<-'- 110 ,

49

3 Reports 1

Complete this abstract of a report into a serious fire at a fuel depot. Put the verbs in brackets into the active or passive, using must and should, plus the infinitive or perfect infinitr,e. Conclusions The main cause of the fire (3) - - - - - - - (be) the overflowing of around 6,500 barrels of unleaded petrol, after too much fuel was pumped into a storage tank. The investigation team is unable to conclude whether it (4) (place) the blame either on

This report presents the resutts of the ' estigation into the fire at the BuncefieId fuel depot. It describes the method of investigation. including CCTV footage, wreckage on site, photos, interviews and examination of pipeline pumping data, both upstream and downstream of the Buncefield depot. Findings 1 An alarm (1) should have sounded (sound) when the liquid in the tank reached its maximum level. 2 The automatic shut·off system (2) - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (fail) to stop unleaded petrol

the design of the alarm system or the operators who were on duty. Recommendations 1 Back·up sensors that monitor fuel levels and temperatures in the storage tanks (5) - - - - - - - (check) monthly. 2 A new automatic shut·off system (6) - - - - - _ _ __ _ _ _ _ (install) at similar sites.

being discharged into th e ta nk once it had been filled. 3 Petrol spilled unnoticed from Tank 912 for 40 minutes, generating a cloud of explosive vapour.

3 The Health and Safety Authority (7) - - - - - (inspect) similar fuel depots immediately to check whether separation distances between fuel tanks are adequate or (8) - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (increase) .

2

Decide w hich sections of the fire investigation report would contain the sentences below. Match the sentences to these section headings. Introduction Conclusions

DD DD

Findings Method

~

D DD

Background Recommendations

DD DD

. ,<

a) There must have been a malfunction of the fuel shut-off system, causing unleaded petrol to continue to be discharged into the full tank. b) In order to carry out a full investigation, the team used a full range of procedures, including interviews with site personnel and examination of CCTV footage. c) At 06.01 on Sunday, 11 th December 2005, the first of a series of explosions started a fire that burned for five days and destroyed almost the entire depot. d) It is clear that if the second independent alarm linked to warning lights in the control room had functioned, the overflow of fuel would have been detected. e) During the investigation, it was discovered that automatic shutdown of the pipeline did not take place. f) The purpose of this document is to present the preliminary results of the investigation into the fire at the Buncefield fuel depot on 11 th December 2005. g) Training courses for control room operatives should be updated. h) After studying all the evidence, it is not clear whether the source of ignition might have been a spark from an electricity generator or a passing car. i) An immediate investigation into the causes of the fire was ordered and was formally established by the Health and Safety Authority. j) Because of the destruction of the control room, it was not possible to study recorded data from site instruments. k) Tests on all site alarm systems should be carried out weekly. \) As a result of the fire, fuel supplies to the south of England, including Heathrow airport, w ere severely disrupted.

50

II

4 Word list NOUNS (general)

NOUNS (structural)

COMPOUND

VERBS

I NOUNS abstract

bearing

deck truss

buckle

bomb

buckling

design error

collapse

portion

collapse

gusset plate

compress

procedure

compression

metal fatigue

contract

wreckage

corrosion

support strut

corrode

ADJECTIVES

deck

thermal shock

disintegrate

catastrophic

disintegration

expand

compressive

fracture

fracture

excessive

friction

load

faulty

girder

rust

inadequate

impact

snap

non-destructive

load

spread

significant

node

temporary

pier

tensile

rust

undersized

seal tension walkway

1 Comple te the table with words from the Word list. NOUNS catastrophe compression

-- ---

VERBS

excess

exceed

destruction

destroy

ADJECTIVES

---- ----

======

buckling collapse

------- --

corrosive disintegrate fracture

~

rusty

2

Match the verbs 1-8 with their definitions a-h.

A. buckle 2 _ contract 3 _ corrode 4 _ disintegrate 5 _ expand 6 _ fracture 7 _ rust 8 _snap

a) b) c) d) e)

to break suddenly with a sharp noise to break up into small pieces to be covered by a reddish-brown ubstance to become bent, e.g. from pressure to become bigger, e.g. from heating 0 to be slowly destroyed, e.g. by a chemical g) to break or crack h) to become smaller, e.g. from cooling

3 &ifS

Listen to and repeat the adjectives in column 1 of the Word . L nderline the syllable with the main stress in each adjective. 51

Section 1 1 Write six comparative sentences about the two stadium floodlights in columns 1 (RS 90) and 2 (AX 210). Use the information in rows 1-6. Modify the comparisons in a general way, using far, much , a great deal, a lot, slightly and a little. Example: 1 The AX 21 0 lamp has a far higher wattage than the RS 90.

2

RS 90

AX210

KH 240

1 Lamp wattage

1 kW

2kW

2kW

2 Lamp lumen output

90,000

210,000

240,000

3 Weight

11.2 kg

18 kg

20 kg

4 Dimensions in mm (length x width)

491 x 276

622 x 520

700 x 420

5 Beam

narrow

medium

wide

6 Control over aiming point

*****

***

*

Write six comparative sentences about the stadium floodlights in 1, using the information in rows 1-6. Modify the comparisons in a more specific way, using the prompts. Example: 1 The wattage of the AX 2 10 is exactly twice as powerful as the wattage of the RS 90.

3

1

wattage / AX 210 / exactly / powerful / RS 90

2

lumen output / KH 240 / approximately / 10% / AX 210

3

RS 90 / roughly / half / heavy / KH 240

4

AX 210 / 100 mm / wide / KH 240

5

beam / KH 240 / about / ten times / wide / RS 90

6

RS 90 / five times / control / KH 240

.:-..

Make six. statements about the stadium floodlights, using the information in rows 1-6. Use superlative adjectives and easily or by far. Example: 1 The RS 90 has by far the least powerful wattage.

4

Write the adjectives in the box on the correct line. circular conical curved curvilinear cylindrical diagonal diagrid doughnut-shaped elliptical oval perpendicular pointed semi-circular tapered zigzag

Shapes with curved lines:

~c:!..C ir:~c~u/~a!..l.r; _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

..:::d:.:!: ia::.::qJ.:::.o:.:.:n~a.:.!../, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

2

Shapes with straight lines:

3

Shapes with curved and straight lines:

...::c~o.:..: n.:.:::ic~ a.:.!.. /, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

_ __

7

Section 2 1 Match the sections of the investigation report A-F with these heading Introduction Findings

D D

D D

Background Conclusions

A------~ ~--~--~

The foreman and the surviv ing members of the main~enance crew were interviewed , as was the stores manager.. TIlDe 'ned Photos of the vessel's intenor were sheets were examl . taken , and the maintenance equipment and tools were

Recommendation

D

E~------~----~----~----~

At about 11.55 am on Berth C in Ponsmouth dockyard. there was a catastrophic flash fue on the \'e sel SS Marianna . As a result , three maintenance workers were fatally injured. and two more workers recei"ed serious bums . The ves el did not catch fue follo\\'ing the blaze and was not structurally damaged. although some internal fittings were blackened. An immediate inve tioation into the cause of the [ue was ordered . ~

examined and photographed .

After studying all the evidence, the investigating team has decided that ( 1) the fire happened because of a build-up of flammable gases below decks. The piping of oxygen below decks ~ad Increased the percentage content of oxygen. As indicated earlier, (2) the accident happened because Worker A did not receive clear instructions and was not properly supervised by the foreman.

Method

F During the in estigation . the following evidence was discovered :



The foreman told a temporary worker '\-orker A) to attach an airline to the dockyard ring main for compressed air. and ( 3 ) then went on a meal break

c

without upervi ing'\ orker A . . Worker A was unable to ana h the airline to the nng main. because the manifold was nO( compatible- He went to the store and (4) obtained a suitable fitting, connected the airline to the ring main, rumed on the supply and returned belo'...• dec '. _ _ Worker B. \ ho was uninjured, e ) III a Cl arene (which \ as again t afet)' regulations), ~ cigarette flared up unusually. About fi ·c lTIlD la~er. he reported feeling un'....ell. so ( - wen . above deck to get orne fre h air. and th perl

• The purpose of this report is to present the results of the investIgatIOn into the fatal fire at Portsmouth dockyard on 30th September 2003, in which three maintenance workers were killed.



D~--~~------~~~~~ .

d

(a) Temporary mamtenance an re

pair workers must

receive training before starting work. . d air workers must be (b) Temporary mamtenance an rep properly supervised. . (c) All dockyard gas ring mains (compressed aIr, oxygen , acetylene) must be securely labelled and colour-coded next to junction points and taps. . , (d) Bulk o.rygen should be treated at the supplier s depot before delivery so that its smell can be detected.





the fire. A few minutes later. there was a major fire below deck. which burnt itself out within a minute. Fire officers disco ered that the airline had been connected in error to the ox gen ring main. instead of to the compre sed air ring main.

2

Rewrite the underlined parts of the report (1-5) as sentences using the third conditional. Example: I The fire would not have happened if there had not been a build-up of flammable gases.

3

Rewrite the italicised parts of the report (a-e) as sentences using should (not) and the perfect infiniti e. Example: aJ Temporary maintenance and repair workers should have received training before starting work.

RE'\ ,(,\\

II

53

1 Equipment 1

Look at the information about different materials and their properties. Write sentences about them in the table below, using the appropriate language. burn

bend

aramid fibre carbon fibre

stretch

break

a little

no

shoes

yes

nylon synthetic fibre yes

yes

metal

yes

rubber

yes

Language

Sentences

present simple active

1 (aramid fibre)

can / can 't +

3 (carbon fibre)

the rm oplasti c p~ane : makes the shoe str ong 'dnd fl exibl e . "

4 (rubber)

can / can 't +

5 (aramid fibre)

passive

6 (TPU)

Foam-blo wn po lyu reth-af\e f o r extra comfo rt: ti ny a i r bubbles provi de cush ion in g a nd absorb shoc ks.

active with passive meaning

8 (wood)

M esh ad ded to the upper part of the shoe : a ll ows th e foot to b reath e . Incr ea se d su pport and elasticity a rou nd the heels and un der th e soles: a ll ows runn e r s to run long distances with o ut tirin g .

Unit price: US$49.50 (per pair) Package / Delivery free Delivery max 2 weeks after receipt of order

Offer open 28 days from

recetpt of proposal

yes

no

a little

no

no no yes

no

Aramid fibre resists imeact.

2 (polyurethane foam)

active

Lightweight, durable, flexible

yes

yes

thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)

wood

resist impact

no

yes

polyurethane foam

Plym running

absorb impact

.

7 (nylon synthetic fibre)

2 Write a letter of proposal to Mr Ali Said, Manager of the Muscat Athletics Club, offering to supply his club with Plym running shoes. Use the information on the left and these prompts. Thank you / inviting / proposal / supply club / running shoes Presentation / last week / demonstrated ... you / invite d / send proposal As explained, our running shoes / designed ... Shoes combine .. . + mesh / upper / foo t / breathe Shoes give ... allowing ... Details / all materials used / attachment / letter Company proposes / supply / price ... Package and delivery ... delivery dates ... Offer / open ... I look forward / order

. .

2 Properties (1) 1 Read sentences 1-5 about things that Kevlru4 is used for. Match them to the properties of Kevla~ a-e that m ake it uitable for these things.

2 3 4 5 .; a) b) c) d) e)

2

~ Kevl~ is used for ice hockey masks ; it protects the faces of ice hockey players from the flying puck (rubber disc). _ Fire officers' gloves contain Kevl ~, which protect their hands from cuts and fire. _ In oil production, Kevlru4 is',uSe01Q reinforce the risers, the pipes that carry the oil from the ocean floor back up to the production platform. _ Aircraft cabin floors are built with lightweight, honeycomb-core Kevlar paper which is fire-resistant and does easily transmit noise. Snowboard manufacturers use kevl~ to increase board stability and reduce vibration and weight.

Iilil

It provides lightweight rigidity. It has high impact resistance . It is non-flammable and soundproof. It is heat-resistant and abrasion-resistant. It is flexible and waterproof.

Complete the test descriptions using the nouns in the box. absorbency

2

3

4

5

6

ductility

durability

malleability

flammability

rigidity

The flammabilit y test determines the ability of materials to catch fire, to release heat, and to develop smoke under test conditions. In the test, pieces of different materials were eighed before and after the test. Water was added and the volumes of w ater taken in by the material were calculated from the weight increase. In the test, the plastic laminate is rubbed continuously by an abrasive wheel. The material is examined every 10 hours, and the deterioration of the material is measured. This testing provides an estimate of the plastic product' lifetime span. The test was carried out by means of a tensile test. A ."vire was stretched to breaking point, and the percent of elongation (lengthening) was calculated. After the test, the wire retained its changed shape when the load was removed. The test is similar to a flexibility test. A material is placed repeatedly under increased loads. The test determines whether an bending can be measured. and if so, how much. [n a test of , a sheet of the test material is placed on a doming block and is hit repeatedly with a metal punch. The test determines, hether the material can be permanently deformed by compression into a new shape .",ithou! cracking or tearing . 55

3 Properties (2) 1

a ·t il

2

Listen again and complete the suggestions. 1 I would s uggest t hat we turn our attention to the manufacture of snowboards. 2 carry out some specific market research into local, national and international markets. 3 start an R&D programme that could run concurrently? 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ hiring an R&D specialist with expertise in manufacturing snowboards? 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ finding someone with the right kind of expertise. 6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ meet again in a week's time to check on progress.

3

Listen to h 0 people discussing plans to manufacture a new product. Answer these questions. 1 What product are they thinking of manufacturing? 2 What do the need a t the same time as a product specification? 3 When is their next meeting going to be?

a·s

Listen to a technical presentation about snowboards. Underline the correct alternatives or write notes in the table about the (recommended) options, and the properties.

Component / Feature

Specification options

1 Wooden core

softwood / hardwood

2 Laminated fibreglass

2 / 4 layers

3 Other materials

carbon fibre / Kevlaf® / aluminium

4 Base

polyethylene plastic

extruded / sintered

4

Properties a) b) c)

long fibres

a) b) c)

,

.

a) b)

IJ

smoother / rougher faster / slower porous / non-porous to w greater / less surface friction higher / lower cost easier / harder to repair

/

Rewrite these sentences using the words in brackets. Example: 1 Extruded boards cannot absorb wax. 1 Extruded boards do not have the capacity to absorb wax. (cannot) 2 Fibreglass layers are capable of withstanding torsion and returning to their original shape. (able) 3 A waxed board can reduce drag over all types of snow. (capacity) 4 Sintered boards cannot reach high speeds unless they are waxed. (incapable) 5 The longer board is able to reach faster speeds in downhill races. (capacity) 6 A snowboarder can split the board into two mono-skis. (ability) 7 We have the capability to sell 18,000 units per annum within three years. (capable) 8 However, we are incapable of achieving substantial sales this year. (capability)

56

4 Word list

==~

=====1 ;;:==;;;;;:;::::;;9

durable elastic

==~

==;;;! ;;:====1

=====C ==1

====;;;!

impact-absorbent

aramid fibre

bulletproof

carbon fibre

childproof

composite

fireproof

graphite

ovenproof

Kevlar'

waterproof

nylon

cor rosion-resistant

polypropylene

impact-resistant

polyurethane foam

shock-resistant

synthetic fibre

heat-tolerant

strong in • compression

compressive strength

stain-resistant

thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)

water-resistant

NOUNS

strong in tension

tensile strength

ADJECTIVES

abrasion

torsional strength

high-performance

stud

-

-

strong in torsion

'-----.... .



heat resistant

heat resistance

responsive

VERBS

strong in shear

shear strength

ADVERB

absorb

tolerance

incredibly

stretch

tolerant



lightweight

1 Complete this table with resistance adjectives from column 3 of the W-ord list. There may be more than one possible answer. waterproof

1 2

jacket safety lock in

7 8

a car

9

jacket for

camern, or

10

fighting soldiers

on location dish for cooking foam -lined pad

5 6

door. for hotels

worktop surface

4

atch fOf wet weather

laboratory

3

boa hull

cooking po

11 12

Uppef

0

a

football boot

2 Match the adjectives 1-8 with their definitions a-h. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3

f absorbent

ductile durable elastic flammable flexible malleable rigid

a) b) c) d) e)

can stretch and go back to its original Jength can resist loads without bending can be rolled or pulled into a longer, thinner shape burns easily can be permanently forllled into a new shape f) can reduce the effect of a sudden impact g) can bend easily without breaking h) stays in good condition for a long time

Listen to and repeat the highlighted adjectives in column I of the V,ord Ii L and the highlighted nouns in column 2. Underline the syllable with the main tress in each word.

1 Threats 1 Write sentences about the two graphs, using the future perfect of the verb in brackets and by, to or at. 80 70

2000 Gt = gigatonnes

1800

..".

60

'[ 1600

(/)

c

50

c

Cii

40

£1.

S 0

ECD ON ()

(I)

30 20 10 0

1400

1200 e c

0

(/)

ppm = parts per million

,,

,

... --- .. ,,

.-:. "------- --2000 '20 '40 '60 '80 2100 Year

0

c 0 0

ON

1000 800 600

()

400 200 2000 '20 '40 '60 '80 2100 Year

In the worst case scenario is-=-ec..: n---'t-=-o_ _ _ 18 gigatonnes per year. 1 By 2040, CO 2 emissions ___--'w--"c..:. '/I_h:=-a"-l'-=-e-'-.rc.:: (rise) w ___ i/l..c.h.:.:a:.cl'-=-e--'-in'-'-c::...cr-=-e-=-a-=-s-=-ed::..:....:cb"'-y_ _ 23 gigatonnes per year. 2 By 2080, CO 2 emissions _ _--'(increase) 3 By 2080, CO 2 concentrations _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 400 parts per miIIion ~ ,," (grow) 4 By 2100, CO 2 concentrations - - - - -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 920 ppm. (climb) In the best case scenario 5 By 2080, CO 2 emissions _____________ 6 gigatonnes per annum. (stabilise) 6 By 2100, CO 2 emissions _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 gigatonnes p.a. (drop) 7 By 2080, CO 2 concentrations 520 parts per million. (increase) 8 By 2100, CO 2 concentrations _ _ __ __ _ _ _ __ _ 200 ppm. (rise)

2 Write summaries about what will have happened by the year 2060. Use the prompts, and the future perfect active or passive. A double slash W] indicates a sentence break. Example: J By 2060, the glaciers south of the Himalayas will have melted. The great rivers coming from the glaciers will have run dry. ... 1 2 3

4

58

II

Oppor1l1nitie ~

2060 I glaciers I south of Himalayas I melt II great rivers I coming from glaciers I run dry II all agriculture I river valleys I cease II entire populations I displace 2060 I ice caps I Greenland I Arctic / melt II sea level I rise I by at least 0.4 metres II low-lying areas I flood / some countries I like I Maldives I abandon 2060 I climate change I cause / extreme global warming // many areas I in tropics I as well as I Mediterranean basin / affect / by droughts and fires // many populations I these areas I force I to migrate I southwards and northwards I find I temperate climates 2060 I increased global temperatures I cause I by continued burning I forested areas II by this time I parts I frozen tundra I Siberia I start I to thaw I releasing methane I into I atmosphere 1/ many forests I northeast Asia I destroy / fires I fuelled by methane

2 Innovation 1 Complete the description of a sailboard, using the words in the box.. aerodynamic apparent wind direction drag friction inclined keel lift like polycarbonate propels relies rigid similar

(9) in the direction of the wind, so the wind lifts the mast and sailboard, thereby reducing drag over the water. This occurs when sailing at high speed at right angles to a strong wind. A sailboard (1) relies on a flexible nylon and polyester sail, (2) to a sail on a small boat. The flow of wind across the sail (3) the craft forwards. This force , combined with the very low (4) _ _ _ __ _ _ or friction , of high-performance boards, enables the craft to plane across the surface of the water. In high wi nds, aerodynamic (5) is maximised , while (6) (or drag) is minimised. A high-performance sailboard is (7) _ _ _ _ _ __ a sailing yacht, in that the wind pushes the 5ailboard in the (8) of travel. However, in 'displacement sailing' a yacht moves through the water, whereas in aquaplaning, or 'planing', a sailboard skims over the surface at high speeds. In addition, the mast is

A long sailboard is wind-powered, like a sailing boat, but instead of a (10) , it has a fixed fin at the rear, and a rigid daggerboard in the centre that can be raised or lowered . The mast is made of light but flexible (11) , and the rigid boom is made of aluminium, coated with rubber. Once a sailboard starts to move, it creates an (12) , which can be stronger and faster th an the true wind. With the smallest and lightest boards, there is very little surface area in contact with the water and so very little drag. (13) _ _ _ _ __ effi ciency combined with a ( 14) _ _ _ _ _ __

board with low drag results in high speeds, with the arid speed record currently close to 100 kph.

2 Write sentences about the similarities and differences between these pairs of \-ehicles. using the characteristics in the table below. Example: 1 A helicopter doesn't resemble a glider in any way. It uses revoLving blades to fly instead of wings. A helicopter is powered, whereas a glider is unpowered. 1 helicopter / glider 4 space shuttle / helicopter 2 submarine / submersible 5 jet ski / hovercraft 3 drone / glider 6 hovercraft / helicopter Vehicle

Characteristics

Vehicle

Characterist ics

Helicopter

flies at low altitude and can hover; carries passengers and goods; flies by means of revolving blades, not wings

Glider

piloted, unpow ered; one- or two-person versions

Space shuttle

piloted; carries out research in space; has wings and lands on a runway

Drone

pow ered , unmanned small plane, guided by remote control; used for photography and defence purposes

Submarine

manned; propels itself under water; used when submerged for defence purposes

Jet ski

travels over water, propelled by water thrust; can carry one passenger but not goods

Submersible

unmanned device; carries out underwater operations or research tests; can reach extreme ocean depths

Hovercraft

hovers on a cu shion of air, travels over land , water and marshy ground; carries passengers, good s and vehicles

Opportunitie -

59

3 Priorities 1

' '-"is Listen to a marketing meeting and complete columns A-O of the table with yes or no to indicate progress in the car manufacturing industry. Write the name of the fifth system.

A R&D

System

1 solar power

I

yes

B

C

D

E

Prototype

Manufacture

Infrastructure

Notes

testing

in progress

in place

yes

2 battery exchange (switch stati on)

><

countries currently using switch stations:

---

3 battery recharging (domestic plug-in)

units to be produced the year after next: ___ range: ___ km top speed: ___ kph recharging speed: up to ___ % in less than 30 minutes

~.

4 hydrogen fuel cell 5

cost coming down at a rate of ___ % p.a.

.

es

increase in models: from _ __ to _ __

growth in market share: from ___ to ___ %

2 Listen again and complete the notes in column E of the table in 1.

3

&» Listen and make notes on the second part of the meeting. Write the systems from 1 that the speaker preclicts w ill be best for future large-scale use. Type of energy zone

Short-term

Medium-term

A solar power

1) solar power

1) solar power

Long-term

B hydro-electric power; geothermal power c nuclear power

4 Answer these questions about the s stems in 1. Then listen again and check. Which system ... solar power 1 is the least expensive to run? 2 is the least harmful system for the environment? __________ 3 is the cheapest system to buy? _____ _ _ _ __ 4 requires an initial investment in infrastructure? ___________ 5 is the most convenient system for car drivers? ___________ 6 requires the greatest investment in infrastructure? ___________

i

2

. -

.. -

4 Word list NOUNS

NOUNS

COMPOUND

(climate change)

(innovations)

NOUNS

atmosphere

drag

aerodynam ic lift

convenient

concentration

friction

apparent wind

exceptional

cyclone

fusion

battery exchange

high-perfonnance

emission

hovercraft

battery recharging

huge

gigatonne

miracle

best-case scenario

massive

glacier

nanotechnology

hydrogen fuel cell

renewable

ice cap

surfboard

solar panel

similar

pattern

traction

wind turbine

spectacular

prediction

VERBS

worst-case scenario

trend

ADJECTIVES I

staggering

invest

technological

maximise

tremendous

minimise rely resemble smash tip

n

1

Underline the correct pre po ilion, or E if no prepo ition i requi red. 1 The compan in ested in / onto / (~'O E) a new project 2 The compan hopes to maximi e up I to I (. n, E) i profits by reducing staffing levels. 3 The manager relied in I on 1 (, OrvE) up-lo-
2

Underline the one noun that cannot be combined with each adjecm--e ' bokl 1 exceptional efficiency weather atmosphere impro\-ement 2 huge increase improvement effort prediction 3 massive force impact trend explosion 4 spectacular pattern building rise result 5 staggering speed record exchange achie ement 6 tremendous force weakness impact earthquake

3

Complete the text using nouns from column 1 in the singular or plural. Since the mid 18th century, (1) emissions of CO 2 by industrialised nations bal-e increased. Millions of (2) of CO 2 have been discharged. As a the (3) of CO 2 in the Earth's (4) has been lea~' increasing. (5) of climate change have been closely observed since !he midi t on all continents. For example, mountain (6) have been retreating and the extensive (7) of Greenland and Antarctica have reduced in size.. In addition (8) have become more frequent, due to rising ocean temperatu:res. 1llese (9) are expected to continue into the foreseeable future.

4

MliD Listen to and repeat the nouns in column I of the Word list. and the adjectiyes in column 4.

(Jpp' .rtumilt?'

II

61

Section 1 1

Write answers to these questions using the prompts in brackets, not necessarily in the same order. I What's the difference between materials of compressive strength and tensile strength? (strong / pulled / pressed)

The first material is strong when it is pressed, and the second is strong when it is pulled. 2 3 4 5

6

2

What's the difference between impact-resistant and impact-absorbent materials? (soft / rigid / return / shape / not break) _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ What's the difference between a water-resistant and a waterproof watch? (guaranteed / keep out / water / not) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What's the difference between flammable and non-flammable m aterials? (burn / notbum) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What's the difference between materials with torsional strength and materials with tensile strength? (strong / stretched / twisted material) _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ What's the difference between ductile and malleable materials? (rolled / pulled / longer, thinner / shape / new shape)

Complete the interview with the words in the box. Use each word once only. ability

able

can

can't

capable

capabilities

capacity incapable unable

,. f.

A: Are ou (1) _ _a_b_Ie_ _ to use your new electric bike to commute to work? B: Of course. These days, I (2) take the car as the streets are too congested. With my new bike, I (3) _ _ _ __ get through the traffic and arrive at work on time , without feeling tired. A: What's the new bike like? B: It's got excellent (4) _ _ _ _ _ It has the (5) to get me up hills. It's (6) of a top speed of 50 kph, and has a range of 80 km on a full charge. A: Can you tell me how you recharge it? B: The charging time is a bit slow - six to seven hours. Unfortunately, I'm (7) to recharge my batteries at work. However, the bike has enough battery (8) to get me to work and home again on a single charge. A: Would it be easy to steal? B: o! It has a steering w heel lock, and an immobiliser, with the same high-tech ke as a modem car. So I think a thief would be (9) of going off with it!

Section 2 1

Make predictions for the year 2040, using the future perfect active or passive of the verbs in brackets. 1 My prediction is that photovoltaic cell installations will have been built (build) across the Sahara from east to west. Huge extra generating capacity _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (add). High voltage DC power lines _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (install) to allow energy export to Europe with low line-losses. 2 Biometrics in general and iris recognition technology in particular _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ (establish) as the new standard security s. stem. People will use it for IT instead of passwords. In the developed world e erybody _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ (issue) with biometrical documents for tra el, banking and personal ID, e.g. passports and driving licences. 3 It's very likely that water export schemes _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ (become) common, to allow water exports from temperate countries to arid Middle Eastern countries. Glasshouse horticulture _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ __ (expand), to allow conservation and recycling of water. 4 I expect that scientists (develop) new genetically modified (GM) crops that are heat-tolerant and drought-resistant. Those countries that had previously banned GM crops (change) their policies.

2

Rewrite these paragraphs using the phrases in brackets (w hich are not in order) instead of the word phrases in italics. Example: 1 .. . is 25 metres long instead of the usual J8 metres. that it is a double-articulated truck ...

2

3

4

Another difference is

The Denby supertruck, hich is not allm ·ed on the roads in some countries is 25 metres long, unlike normal l8-metre trucks. Also it is a double-articulated truck and the rear section can be steered separately. (Another difference is that) (instead of the usual ) m etres) The Archimedes water screw is like a traditional Wa len heel JusJ as \ .-ater fIo\ .. over a waterwheel and turns a generator, the flow of water along the Archimedes screw makes it rotate and generate electricity. In contrast to a traditional hydroelectric turbine , this screw can tum and generate electricity from a small head or water, for example 1-4 metres in height. (Unlike) (In the same way as) (has exactly the same function as) An unmanned drone, or remotely piloted aircraft, resembles an ordinary aircraft. It is controlled by a pair of operators on the ground, not b a pilot. One operator moves the controls to fly the drone in the same way as a pilot flies a plane. hile the other operator checks the monitor screens and zooms in on the ground belm the drone. Gust as) (instead of) (is very similar to) Laser drilling for oil is completely unlike normal rotational drilling. A laser installation can be set up quickly and comparatively cheaply unlike a traditional derrick. Furthermore, the heat from the laser turns the water in the bedrock into steam, which results in breaking up the rock at the base of the well.. (different from) (Another difference is that) (in contrast to)

RIc'\

ie\\

63

nit 1 Systems

. -WJ = lecturer:

Il

l:

I: l:

2: l: l: I: l: I: l: l: I: l:

I: l:

l: 2: L

I = tudent I: 2 = tudent 21 ~Iy talk today is about fDRs and how they work. As you probably know. fOR stands for ftight Data Recorder, and so it's a device used for recording data during a plane's rugh t. It also helps investigators to work out what went "TOng if a plane crashes. \\ nat happens if a plane crashes into the sea and sinks? How do the im-estigators find the fOR then? fORs ha\'e an underwater locator beacon. There's a sensor on the side of the beacon. \\"hen water touches the sensor, it activates the beacon. Could you gr.·e us some details about the transmission? )es. the beacon sends out pulses at 37.5 kilohertz. Can it function at the bottom of the ocean? )es. it can transmit sound from a depth of 14,000 feel Do you have to work fast in order to find the fOR? Well as soon as the beacon starts to transmit, it \\ill continue for 30 days. And how frequently is the ignaJ transmitted? llle beacon sends out a ignaJ once per second. \\ bat kind of battery is used for the beacon? If p
a film.based technology. So the insides of the boxes had to be black to Slop any light affecting the film. O\vada} , they're painted bright orange. so thai they're easier to find.

Unit 2 Processes

WiD Good moming, everyone. This is the last in our series of short talks about the plastics industry. Last week we looked at the process of extrusion blow moulding. Today, I'm going to explain how vacuum moulding works. This is also called vacuum forming, or vacu·forming. Vacuum forming is a process of making a shape out of a thermoplastic sheet. A thermoplastic sheet is a material that becomes soft when you heat it , and later on it becomes hard after you c ool it. In vacuum forming, as in other proc esses of plastic moulding, heating and cooling are important parts of the process. As its name suggests, with vacuum forming, we have to create a vacuum in the mould in order to produce the moulded Object. As you remember, a vacuum occurs when we suck the air out of a con tainer. So sucking air out, or suction, is an important part of the process, and we use a simple air pump for this purpose. ow, I've given you a printed handout with some diagrams. As you can see in figure 2 on your handout, there are some air·exhaust holes at the bottom of the mould. These are for sucking the ai r out. But let's start with the first stage, which is heating. As Figure I on your handout illustrates, the heaters are situated above the machine and heat the thermoplastic sheet below them. The next stage is positioning. As can be seen in Figure 2, the thermoplastic sheet is moved to a position directly above the vacuum mould . The third stage is illustrated in figure 3. Here , the thermoplastic sheet is stretched over the top part of the mould. Here you can see that the plastic material is stretching and becoming thinner. This is the stretching stage. The fourth and final stage is shown in figure 4. Here the pump on the right· hand side of the machine is sucking the air out of the mOUld, and this suction is creating a vacuum. Fmally in this vacuum forming stage, as figure 4 clearly sho\ , the plastic sheet is sucked down over the mould.

& -jiij dose, closure compress compression eject, ejection expand, expansion e.~

,M lU]

extrude,

Hi e.eryone. rm going to demonstrate this self-inflating life raft. This one's

inflate, inflation

big enough for eight people. though there are bigger ones for 12 people, 01" small ones that take only four. So..lef take a closer look at this life rafl On top, you've got a canopy to keep out the \\"a\-es and the rain. This canopy inHates automatically and it's ed to 'eep the occupants warm. The Hoor of the raft is insulated, too. TIle canopy has lights on top, which are water-activated. It also has a device fOl" collecting rainwater. . 'O\\' lef ha\'e a look at the automatic inflation system . first, the two ~~. chambers are in/lated, that' s the two circular lyres that form the outer walls of the raft. This forces open the vinyl carrying bag. Then the canopy O\-ef the top is inflated. Then you can get in. The whole process of inIlalion takes 12 seconds, OK? lllat' ju t 12 seconds. . 'ext point. stability. There's a big danger with standard life rafts that the wind \\ill catch the life raft and cap ize it, or nip it over. But on this model, there are two big stabilisation chambers under the Hoor of the life raft. Both chambers quickly fill \\ ith water from the moment of inHation. They fill in \l) stages. FusL the upper chamber fills through vertical portholes in the chamber walls. At the same time. the lower chamber starts to fill. 'Nater gets ... through the bottom here, through a one·way valve which lets water in, but

nol otJl.. ~

these stabilisation chambers are full, you've got a stable life raft. You could find yourself in a hurricane. \\ith ten·metre-high waves and winds up 10 tiIometres per hour. hen in a hurricane like that, this life raft is so SIIiIbIe that if ·~· to cap ize. And if a giant wave comes along and nips raft CI'-ef. the weight of the water in the stabilisation chambers \vill raft back up again. In other words, it rights itself at o nce.

heal healer inject, injection

mould. mould rotate, rotation transfer I "erb!, transfer (noun)

Unit 3 Events

MZW My talk today is about ejecting from an aircraft. This sounds dangerous, but in fact it' \'ery simple. You only have to pull one handle in order to eject. TIle ejection S} tem does the rest. You can eject at airspeeds between zero and 1,400 kilometres per hour, and at altitudes between zero and 82,000 feel You onJy ejecl from your aircraft if it 's going to crash, so first you must try 10 sa""e your aircrafl [f you know that you cannot control your aircraft, pull the ejection handle. The ejection S} tern operates in four stages. First, the canopy over the pilot i jettisoned. It rues away from the cockpit to the rear. At the same time, the aircraft senices are disconnected, so radio contac t is lost. However, the emergency oxygen supply for the pilot comes into operation, so it's still possible to breathe. I ext, the ejector rocket fires. This ejects the pilot into the air, but the pilot is still restrained in his seat. So now we have the pilot, still strapped into his seat, in the air and starting to fall. At this point, stage two begins, and the drogue is deployed. ow a drogue is rather like a parachute. Its purpose is to stabilise and slow the fall of the pilot, who is still in his seat. This continues down to a height of 8,000 feet, w hen the drogue is released.

We now come to the third stage of the ejection procedure, when seve~a1 things happen in quick succession one after the other. As the drogue falls away, an explosive charge separates the main parachute container. Also, the main hamess that attaches the pilot to his seat is released. Small sticker clips hold the pilot in his seat for a few seconds longer. Immediately after this, the main parachute is deployed. This slows the fall of the pilot and lifts him out of his seat, pulling away the small sticker clips that kept him in his seat up until now. The pilot's seat, which is heavier than the pilot, falls to the ground separately. Now we come to stage four, the landing. The pilot is falling towards the ground at the rate of a normal parachute descent. At this point, his personal locator beacon is activated automatically and starts to send out a radio signal.

MiW abort engine attitude-control engine crew capsule ejection system jet fighter jettison engine launch abort system oil rig

Unit 4 Careers

KijW II = Interviewer ; L = Laura] I: Thank you for coming in for an interview, Ms Gallini. I've read through your CV and I'd just like to check a few details. You've applied for the post of Technician, but we currently have two technician posts vacanl Which job are you interested in? L: I'm particularly interested in the job of Technician for ew Product Development. OK. I see that you 're currently working at Horton Engineering as a I: Junior Technician . • L: ActUally, I'm now a Senior Technician, since last month_ I' I see . Good! And how long have you worked there? .. L: I joined in 2008, so I've been there since then, until now_I' m sorry, it says 2005 on my CV; but the correct date is 2008. I: And what are your responsibilities in your current job? L: Most of the time I work on quality control and product testing. But I'm currently helping develop a new product. That involves building a prototype. It's a company secret, so I can't say much about the project. I: Fair enough! Now, exactly what kind of business is your company in? L: We're involved in robotics, and medical engineering as well . So, more or less the same field as yourselves. Mmm. I see you started your career before you went to university. How I: long did you work at Farley Marine? L: I worked there for two years, from 2003 until 2005. By the way, they 've changed their name. They were taken over a couple of years ago, and now their name is BAMC pic. I: Right. What was your job description there? And what did you do every day? L: I was an Apprentice Engineer. Most of the time I did machining and finishing. But at the end I was doing some quality control work, too. I: Excellent. And then you went on to Albany College of Engineering. How long did your course last? L: Il was a three-year course. I went there in 2005 ... I: And you got your qualification at the end of it, I see, in 2008. L: That's right. I was awarded a Bachelor of Applied Sciences. The course involved all the sciences, but I specialised in Physics and Mechanical Engineering. I: And why do you want to leave Horton Engineering? L: Il's a small company, so I'd like to move to a bigger company that has a bigger R&D department and a greater product range. I'd really like to try my hand .. .

Kim 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Which job are you interested in? How long have you worked there? What are your responsibilities in your current job? Exactly what kind of business is your company in? How long did you work at Farley Marine? What was your job description there? How long did your course last? Why do you want to leave Horton Engineering?

"21" syllable stressed: F"Irs!

benefit competence previous Second syllable stressed: ambition apprentice apprenticeship certificate diploma technician Third syllable stressed: engineering institution interpersonal

Unit 5 Safety

&!IU I C = Customer; H = Helpline] I C: Hello. I wonder if you can help me. H: I'll try! C: I've iust bought a used car - it's a Cordoba I. and it doesn't ha,-e an owner's manual. The problem is, I've got a ,-ellow warning light on the dashboard. It's shaped like a warning triangle in a circular arrow. H: I think I know what that is. It's the ABS.

C: H:

c:

ABS? \es, the Anti-lock Braking Y tern. How is the car handling' For elGllnple, do you need to take any correctiYe action when you brake' \~ When I brake hea\iIy, I ha'-e to counter-steer to the IefL

H: I see.. ThaI' the problem. You need to take it in to a dealer. C: H:

Is it safe to dm.-e? Yes, it is.. But you shot.dd. ~"e it checked out as soon as

possible..

2 C: H: C: H:

C: H: C: H:

Hello, f.-egot a problem \\ith my car and I don-t knowwbal the. ' ....arning light on mydashboanl mearlSWhere exactly is the. warninglighl and whal colour is it? It's in the middle 01 the warning paoef and ifs red. What shape is it? Well, I'm looking at it flO\ _ It's square-shaped. wilb a biI SIid:ing out. Aah! That indicates that one 01 your doofi isnl dosed. I've checked those already. What about the rear door? Ha\-e }UU ched;ed Iha(! I ~- d II:Je side doors or the rear door isn't securely closed, II:Je \\
3 C: H:

C: H: C: H:

C: H:

Hello. Can you help me ,vith a warning on ~-~ Of course. Where is it and what does it look ~ It's red and it's in the shape of an oil can Is it on aU the time? 0 , I've been monitoring it all day. It just comes on from time 10 time... Right. That's the warning light for oil pressure.. Should I change the oil? 0 , that's not necessary. But you must top up the. car \\"lIb engine oil. Don't drive anywhere until you've done !haL

4 C:

Hello. Can you help me? I've got a problem \\ith the car thai I bougbI from you last month. H: Which model? C: It's a Bari 2205. H: And what exactly is the problem? C: I'm getting vibration in the steering wheel. 1hat' when I dm-e at ~ than 80 kilometres per hour. H: Any warning signs on the dashboard? C: Yes. It's orange and shaped like a i}Te. H: I see. Do you see the LED display on your dashboard:! Scroll dcl'\~-n 10 'lyre sensors' and click. C: Aah! H: What's the display now? C: It says: 'Front nearside lyre, incorrect presstIre-' H: Scroll down a bit. C: Aah! ow it says: 'Above maximum pressure: de.llate.-· H: So that's the problem. The tyre is o...-er-inlJated so you need to lei some air out, using a reliable lyre pressure gauge.-

65

;; Hello. I may have a problem with my car. I've just bought a used car and a warning light has just lit up on the dashboard. The p roblem is, there isn't a manual in the car. H: Wllal colour is the warning light and what does it look like? C: It's red and it's shaped like a petrol pump. H: Is it a visual or an audible signal, or both? C: TIlere·s a loud audible warning when I tum on the ignition. H: \\ llat' the fuel gauge showing? C: If \~. low. The needle is pointing into the red section. H: TIlen you have less than eight litres in your petrol tanle You need to fill up at once. C:

Wi. H:

C:

How is the car handling? For example, do you need to take any corrective action when you brake? Yes. W"hen I brake heavily, I have to counter·steer to the left.

2

H: C: 3 H: C:

4 H: C:

5 H: C:

\\ "here exactly is the warning light and what colour is it? II's in the middle of the warning lights panel and it's re d. Is it on all the time? ~o.

r,·e been monitoring it all day. It just comes on from time to time.

And what exactly is the problem? r m getting 'ibration in the steering wheel. Is it a ,isua! or an audible signal, or both? lllere· a loud audible warning when I tum on the ignition.

&19 I sent you a proposal about a new in-<:ar warning system that would warn drivers when the)' get too close to the vehicle in front. For example this could be a tactile or audible warning . B: In other words, you're suggesting a beep or something that makes the steering wheel 'ibrate. C: I agree with thal I think we're on the right lines. By the way, talking of lines. I was late today because of a pile-up in the fog. I think a lorry had gone off the road and ... A: Yes. yes. Anyway, you're here now, so let's get back to the subject. Allematively, we could ha,·e a visual warning sign, for instance one that A:

.....-as f1.ashed on.lO the inside of the driver ' s '\vindscreen.

B:

E: I:

&fIL1 2

3 4 5

Verbs condense consume convert desulphurise e mit gasify humidify ionise liquefy pressurise pulverise purify recover soli
C:

1M = Manager; B = Bob j M: Hi, Bob. Welcome back. So, how are you getting on?

B: M:

B: M:

B: M: B:

M: B: M:

B:

M: B: (I = Inteniewer: E = Expe.rt j Do you think that carbon emissions will push up global te mperatures?

I: E:

I: E: I: E: I:

E: I: E:

I:

E: t

We',.-e already had an increase in global temperatures of zero point five degrees Celsius. In future, if no action is taken, we can expect a further rise in global temperatures of between two and three degrees Celsius b,,2060. Is that certain? . ·0. but it's a 75% possibility. Is this the worst that could happen in the future? By no means. There's a 50% chance that average global te mperatures could rise by five degrees Celsius, also by 2060. So how could we avoid this? Well, we need to stabilise our carbon emissions by 2030. Nte r tha t, we would need to reduce emissions by between 1% and 3%. I see. \\ llal are rour ,i ews on switching energy sources? In our opinion, irs essential to promote all the technologies for cleaner ~. and cleaner transport. We should aim to have non-<:arbon·based fuels accounting for 60% of energy output by 2050. So will that reduce carbon emissions in the long term? Yes. it " ill We need to set t\'vo new European targets: to reduce carbon emissions by 3O'l8 by 2020, and by 60% by 2050. \\llal was that 1asl1igure?

Compound nouns bio fue l carbo n capture and storage clean coal technology coUection plate nue gas iron filing power plant

Unit 7 Reports

I don'l think that'S a good idea There are too many nashing lights Well. what about a system based on different sensors, to monitor things like the distance from the vehicle in front, your speed , the road conditions and the extennal temperature? Then we' re combining differenl factors. 1lla1 sounds good. So, an audible or tactile warning system related to different factors.

Do you think that carbon emissions will push up global temperatures? Is this the worst that could happen in the future? So how could we a void this? What are your view s on switching energy sources? So will that reduce carbon emissions in the long term?

&1m

already when rou're driving. A:

Our carbon einissions in 2050 need to be 60% lower than they are now. Thank you for clarifying those parts of your report.

M:

B: M: B: M: B: M:

B: M:

B:

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I',·e made some progress since we last spoke. So. what S)'SIerns have you come up with? I',·e looked into four of the identification technologies that you suggested last month. And? As we thought, we need to look at biometrics in order to obtain the fastest and most secure system. And what I)-pes of biometrics did you look at? WeD, biometrics covers the physical measurement of a person - their "-oice, their fingers, the shape of their face, or the patterns of their irises. And !he most promising technology is iris scanning. Really? \ 'hat about that othe r system that we spoke about - capacitive scanning? Have you looked into that? Yes, fO come to that in a m oment. Remind me wily biometrics is going to be the best solution. ~eJl take the human iris. Fo r a start, every human iris is individual . TIle chances of two differe nt irises being the same are one in ten to the power of 180. I follo\ . And the iris structure doesn't change during a person's lifetime. Basically, you ",ill han! the same iris structure when you are old that you had as a one-~-ear-cld baby. Unless of course you have to have eye surgery. That might change the iris structure. So iris scanning, then. In fact, the basic iris recognition technology is known as 'image capturing', not scanning. What's !he difference? !mage capturing is video; scanning is, well, scanning. Yes, I see what you m ean. With image capturing, there's no physical contact, unlike fingerprint scanning or capacitive scanning. So no germs or bacteria are transferred. Go on, tell me more. It's accurate. And it's much more reliable than voice recognition. And we agreed that accuracy is our first priority. Agreed. Any other good points you discovered? It's nexible. If you w ant, you can combine iris scanning with other systems, like Ph numbers or swipe cards. Or you can use iris scanning as a stand-alone system . So how does the syste m operate? In stage I, the registration stage, you capture an image of the person's iris. ext, you upload all the details of the images plus the person's ID onto the compute r. Then, for identification, when the person gets to the

M: B: M: B:

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access gate, they face the iris scanner, and the computer matches the image of their iris with the details on the database. And how long does all that take? Less than two seconds. I'm impressed! Anything else? Yes, scalability. Once you have the system up and running, you can add thousands of people to the database. It has no effect on accuracy or access time at the gate. So you're saying the system could handle thousands of people. You can have a multi-million person database! This system is going to be huge , I can tell you! Good. Oh! I must go. I'll catch up with you after the weekend.

KlU I

2 3 4

5 6

7 8

How are you getting on? What systems have you come up with? What about that other system that we spoke about? Have you looked into that? Yes, I see what you mean. Go on, tell me more. So how does the system operate? I'll catch up with you after the weekend.

KlU amplifier capacitance capacitor conductor dielectric magnetism microchip resistor sensor terminal

Urnt 8 Projects

Wid Hello and welcome to the new Visitors Centre at the Three Gorges Project. The Centre was opened in 2009. Many visitors ask why the TGP was constructed, so we hope that this short talk will give you some general information. In the past, the Yangtze River used to flood every year, particularly in the flood months between May and September. These floods caused thousands of deaths every year, as well as destroying houses, businesses and farmland . So, this was one reason for constructing the TGp, which has eliminated flooding and loss of life. Since the dam was completed , this has brought a further advantage, since it's now possible to regulate the flow of water through the three gorges, and to even out the water flow during the 12 months of the year. At the earliest planning stage, an important aim of the project was the generating of electricity. Two power plants were constructed , one on each side of the river, with a combined capacity of 18,200 MW, the largest in the world. The area covered by the present reservoir once included two cities and 11 6 towns. About 1.1 million people had to be resettled as the waters of the reservoir began to rise. Many thousands of the displaced persons chose to emigrate to other cities in search of employment. Those that chose to remain in the gorges have all been re-housed, and many new towns have been built for this purpose. These new settlements have been well laid out by providing grassy open spaces around the five-storey housing blocks. The people who have moved there appreciate the quality of their new housing, which is superior to the simple houses that they had before. Finally, because this huge new dam lies close to an earthquake zone, many visitors ask questions about the safety of the TGP. In fact, the dam has been constructed to a high specification in order to withstand earthquake shocks. Thank you for listening. To hear some statistics about the Three Gorges Project, press '1' .

MdJI Here are some statistics about the Three Gorges Project. The scale of the Three Gorges Dam is enormous, and huge quantities of rock and concrete had to be moved during the c onstruction phase. 103 million cubic metres of earth and rock were excavated and moved. 32 million cubic metres of earth and rock were moved for filling. A total of 28 million tonnes of concrete was mixed , transported and poured. Massive quantities of metalwork were used on the project, including 462,300 lonnes of rebar. There was also a large requirement for general melalwork, for things like gates, beams, and so on. This totalled 256,500 lonnes. The total volume of

the dam is estimated at 12 million cubic metres. It' surprising, not that the TGP took so long to construct, but that such a huge project was compIeIed in such a short period, just 17 years. Work on this dam, the largest in the world, started in 1993 and was completed on schedule in 2009. During its construction, about 20,000 people were invol..-ed in building the dam. The dimensions of this dam are as follow'S: it has a maximum height of 18 1 metres and is 2,309 metres long; in other words, it is O\'er two kilometres in length. To build such a huge dam, it was first necessary to construct nine concrete batching plants, for the mixing of the concrete. "These had a \~' large production capacity, and when all nine plants were working, they had the capacity to produce 2,400 cubic metres of concrete per hour. In fact. in one month, these nine batching plants broke a recont they produced 553,000 cubic metres of concrete, that's over half a million cubic metres, in one month! Fmally, behind the massive Three Gorges dam lies the resenuiL "flich covers an area of 1,084 square kilometres. 1lle reSefYOO is 660 kiIomeIres long, To return to the main menu, press '0'.

a,s

rirSt syllable stressed: cylinder drilling pipeline stabilise travelling turntable

Second syllalble stressed: continuously directional hydraulic obstruction stability sufficient

Unit 9 Design

a ,u I

The base of the building is square, but for three quarters of its height it tapers to its recognisable rectangular top, an opening reduces the sIJesses 01 wind pressure. Its shape is often compared to a giant bottJe.openeL The hotel

,,,tlere

on Ihe 79Ih to 93rd Hoors is the highest in the world. 2 When this building

'"''dS COITIpleted in 2004. it """3S the highest. in the ",..."Odd....

The towers remain the tallest twin buildings in the w orld The two spines at the top of the building, which are not antennas, form part of the structure. The towers are linked by a tw
3 For a time, this was the tallest building in the w orld. It has an unusuaJ shape: eighl tapering sections rest upon a huge base or pedestal. which also tapers upwards from the ground floor, which is in the shape of a square.

4 This building is likely to remain the tallest building in the ,\urId for many years. The Y-shaped base gives the structure great stability. The lower part of the building provides 160 floors for human occupation.. 1lle top -l6 le\"E~ls of the thin, pointed spire are for maintenance and services only.

&·tiI Picture A This was called Burj Dubai - 'Dubai' because of its location here in Dubai in the United Arab Emirates - but they changed the name when it opened to Burj Khalifa. It's the tallest building in the world. at metres, with effec tively 206 fl oors, but the lOp 46 are only for maintenance. The foundations have to be deep - they go down to 50 metres. TIle Door area extends to 464,000 square metres. You probably noticed the shape of the building as you came in. If quite distinctive and elegant. In fact, it's V-shaped, which gn'es the building greater structural stability. It's a building for mixed use: there's a large hotel, and there are apartments and restaurants and an outdoor observation deck. Do you bave any questions? ... I can give you some more details, if you like. For a start, there are 25.000 windows to clean. Picture B Do you see that very tall building in the distance? lbat building is the taDest building in the city ofTaipei and in the whole of Tai\,an. Irs called Taipei 101. For a time, it was the highesl building in the world but it isn' t the highest any more. It's 509 metres high, and the foundations go da\m 80 metres under the ground. That's because it's built in an earthquake zone. So it has to be \-ery stable, both to withstand the earthquakes and also the very high "inds that you get in this area. It has 10 I storeys, plus 5 storeys under ground. And the Door area CO\-er5 412 ,000 square metres.

Audio"cripl

67

\ 00 can see it has a H!I)' recognisable shape: there are ei.g ht tapered sections of eight floors each. They rest on a tapered base, which is square. Fmallr, Taipei 10 I is a mixed-use building, consisting mainly of offices and conference centres, with some retail shops and restaurants.

I:

Pidnre C

I:

On '"OUr right is the Shanghai World Financial Centre. Althought it isn't the highest buiJding in the world, it' s the highest in Shanghai and the highest in China - -194 metres high, and the foundations go down 79 metres under ground_ The original design vvas for a tow er of 94 storeys, but the plans

were changed and this has 101 storeys, with a floor area of 381 ,600 square metres. It has an interesting shape, rather like a bottle-opener. It's square at the base. but tapers to a rectangular top. The hole at the top has a very prncticaJ purpose and reduces the wind pressure caused by high winds. It's a mixed-use building. There's a hotel near the top of the skyscraper, and there are offices. conference centres and shopping malls on the ground floors. Above the opening at the top is a public observation deck, on the I DOth Door. which is the highest in the world.

E:

E: I: E: I:

E: I:

E:

WiD

&"&1 . 'ouns (buildings) aluminium architect beauty coocrete eIe\-ation fimctionality innm-ation

Adjectives (shapes) circular curved curvilinear diagonal diagrid doughnut-shaped elliptical inclined oval perpendicular pointed semi-circular tapered zigzag

storey

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nit 10 Disasters

&2W II = I:

Eo

I:

E:

Inteni ewer: E = Employee J ._ so it looks as if the crash involved a broken raiL After the derailment in ScoIIand in 1998, which also involved a broken rail, was the rest of ~

rail

net\~;ork

in the

inspected?

llle system of routine checking and maintenance was continued.

But \\-as a new schedule of checking the whole network for gauge

comer cracking put in place? E.: I:

E.: I:

E.: I:

E.: I:

E.: I:

E.: t E.:

. .ot as far as I knOw. Does that mean 'no'? Yes. it does. I also understand that, after the crash, speed restrictions should have been ordered while the whole neJvvork was checked for cracked rails. W hy w-asn't this done? Speed restrictions would have resulted in delays, and the company didn't ,,-ant to be responsible for delayed trains. So \\-as punctuality given a greater priori ty over safety? I guess you could say thal Ano ther matter, now. Records show that your company identified the rail for repair 21 months before the crash. )es. We noted the problem. So the faulty rail w-as discovered 21 months before the crash. But nothing ,,-as done? Xot exactly W hy \\-asn't the job completed? There \\-as a backlog of essentiaJ maintenance work, which was waiting to be done. Also, this job should have been carried out by another contractor. had agreed to do the work. But they didn't do it. \ \as lITI)'fhing done? )es. they dem'ered a replacement rail and left it alongside the track adjacent to the faulty rail. And bow long "-as the replacement rail lying there? I belie\-e it ,,-as there for SLX months. Six rnoruhs! So if the company that was responsible for the maintenance hadn't delayed for so long, the accident wouldn't have happened? l11at' righl The faulty rail caused the train crash. It should have been repaired. but it wasn'l

'''00

t E.: I:

E.:

t

E:

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Let's tur.n now to gauge ""'" >he P""" 1m dealing with this in the pst? In the past, the policy has been to replace the whole rail where necessary. Are you aware of the prev~ntative mainten ce known as preventative grinding at regular intervals? Yes, I know about this syst'. m. The se it in the USA and in Sweden. But you haven't considered usmg it? No, the grinding m achines are very expensive. Is it more expensive to replace defective rails or to carry out preventative measures like grinding? I don't know. I don't have the fi gures. However, I understand that since the crash, a decision has been made to invest in three grinding machines, costing a total of £6 million. Yes, I've read that, too, though I wasn 't part of the decision-making process ...

Another matter, now. Records show that your company identified the rail for repair 21 months before the crash. Yes, we noted the problem. So the faulty rail was discovered 21 months before the crash. But nothing was done? ot exactly Why wasn't the job completed? There was a backlog of essential maintenance work, which was waiting to be done. Also, this job should have been carried out by another contractor, who had agreed to do the work. But they didn't do it. Was anything done? Yes, they delivered a replacement rail and left it alongside the track adjacent to the faulty raiL And how long was the replacement rail lying there? I believe it was there for SLX months. Six months! So if the company that was responsible for the maintenance hadn't delayed for so long, the accident wouldn't have happened That's righl The faulty rail caused the train crash. It should have been repaired, but it wasn'l

Wi2J:j catastrophic compressive excessive faulty inadequate non-destructive significant temporary tensile undersized

Unit II Materials

aD A:

B:

A:

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Our sales of skis have been very successful in the past year. As we have some cash reserves now, I would suggest that we turn our attention to the manufacture of snowboards. However, before we do anything else, we could carry out some specific market research into local, national and international JTlal'kets. We don't have a product range yet, not even a prototype. Why don't we start an R&D programme that could run concurrently? Then we should . end up with a product specification and a marketing plan at about the same time. What about hiring an R&D specialist with expertise in manufacturing snowboards? That's possible. In fact, that's a very good suggestion. Let's try finding someone \\~th the right kind of expertise. Would you like to take charge of that, to start with? OK, I'U get onto that straight away. And let's meet again in a w eek's time to check on progress.

MIS) I've been doing some research into the manufacture of snowboards and this is what I've found out. A snowboard is a laminated board, that is a board made up of several layers. The top of the board is a layer of acrylic, with the manufacturer 's logo and arJvvork, which are very important. Then

come several layers of fibreglass, above and below the hardwood core. That goes onto the base. The core of the board is hardwood because hardwood has lots of good properties. It has long fibres. That means reduced vibration, so the board shakes less as it goes over the snow. Secondly, hardwood is strong. And it's also rigid in torsion. So torsional rigidity, OK? Above and below the wooden core you put layers of laminated fibreglass. Two layers above and two layers below, making four in total. That's kind of standard. The fibreglass is light, stiff and it's strong in torsion. Some manufacturers add extra layers, for example, carbon fibre, Kevlar~, or honeycomb aluminium. Kevl~' s popular and I think that's wha t we should go for. It provides elasticity and strength. The base is made of polyethylene plastic. That's the same for all kinds of boards. Now, there are two kinds of base; one is extruded and the other is sintered, but I recommend extruded. Basically, it's a cheaper, lowm aintenance board. It's sm oother than the sintered board, but it's slower, and it doesn 't soak up wax. That means you can't put wax on an extruded base to make it go faster over the snow. So an extruded board ends up with more surface fri ction than the sintered board. But on the other hand , it's cheaper and it's easier to repair. So the charac teri stics of the si ntered base are the exact opposite of the extruded base. I think that's ab out all. To finish, I've got a video clip off the internet for you. It shows the kind of machinery you need if you decide to manufacture ...

a·u

absorbent, absorbency ductile, ductility durable, durability elastic, elasticity flammable, flammability flexible , flexibility malleable, malleability non-flammable, non-flammability ptastic, plasticity rigid , rigidity

Unit 12 Opportunities

&?is A: B:

A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

A: B:

A: B:

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Let's get started, then. There's a lot to discuss. Peter, you've got a list of four technologies that cars can use. Well , five actually, if you look at the report in front of you . First, solar power. That's an existing technology, w hich is proven . But there will be technological improvements in the future. Such as? The Chinese are developing lighter panels and also the cos t is coming down at a rate of about 5% per annum. That's good news. So companies are at the prototype stage. Has any company started mass production? No, not yet. Next, battery exchange, which takes place at switch stations. Can you remind m e? Yes. You drive into a service station with a nearly flat battery. Your battery is removed and an exchange battery, fully charged, is placed in your car. OK, so a few things to sort out, but possible. Again, the cost of the system is likely to fall, and new generations of batteries will provid e longer ranges and reduced weight. But infrastructure will be needed. And this is a chicken-and-egg situation, Sorry? Chicken-and-egg? What's that? The government won't subsidise investment in infrastructure - that is the provision of switch stations - until there are enough electric cars to use it, and .. . And people won' t buy electric cars until the infrastructure is in place. Of course. And companies won't want to make them, either. No, but one switch station scheme is already in operation in Denmark, and more are planned. Now, the third system on my list is moving ahead rapidly. That's domestic battery recharging with plug-in systems. The research and development has been done, the prototypes have been tested, and one company is already in production. So, it's up and running? And running very well, thank you. The company is planning to produce 50,000 units next year and 200,000 units worldwide the year after. It's got a range of 160 k ilometres, and a top speed of 140 kilometres per hour. A small recharging infrastructure exists, but only in a few countries .

A: B:

A: B:

A: B: A: B:

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Well, that's better than nothing. Anything new and fancy, -e noncontact recharging? 0, it's simple plug-in recharging. But listen to this: ~""'e go! the recharging speed down_It charges to 80% of capacity in under 30 minutes. I'm impressed! ext system, the hydrogen fuel cell car. Now this systern hasn't made much progress since we last discussed il TIle R&D has been done and prototypes exist, but nobody has any plans to manufacture And of course the same problems with putting an infJastructure in place. ExacUy. That won' t happen for a long time, that' my guess. So, what's the fifth system, then? It's the hybrid petrol-eJectric engine that we all knowaboul All the big manufacturers have got a hybrid in their range. and the number of different hybrid models on sale is expected to rise from II to:.2 ,~. soon. 52 hybrid models to choose from ' TIlat's a huge change. And the market share of hybrids is predicted to rise from 2...5 to -t.2"I. in the next two years. So, everything's in place for servicing and repairs thelL But if no! a zero-emission car, is it? It still pumps out emissions. But it's a low-emission car. And until we've got good zero emi.ssioo systems up and running and have got the infrastructure in place to keep them running, we're going to need those hybrids for a few years longer. It's intermediate low-emissions technology. but it works.

&D A: B:

Peter, will you give us a presentation of your predictions for the shortterm, medium-term and long-term use of these cars. please? Sure. If you look at this slide, you'll see I\'e got predictions for three different types of economy, depending on the types of energy thai are readily available in that WIle- Firsl we ha,'e solar power, which is the energy of choice in the tropics. of course. lllen in the next row down, we have countries \\ith an abundan

supply 0( cheap electricity

generated by hydro-electric or geoIhennal schemes. or a combinaIion These are countries like ..-uzerland.. . 'Ofway and 1ce1and.. And of course, there are AfJican COUI1IJ1eS \\illll>ig Il}UIo-eIeCUiC sdlefnes.. too. FmaJJy, we ha'-e countries \\ith a de.-eIoped nudeaI PCI'\-ef industry, which c:unently include France, the liSA and Russia. In the tropics, we expect thai solar PCI'\-eT \\ continue as the prirnar\system in the short medium and long eon. is.. ol COUJSe..the cheapest system to run, and it's the best system for the emironmenl..loO! In the second group of countries, there is - ; to be a Iapid \ - ell in the short-term to battery rechaJging, which is the least expensi\-,:, system to buy. This will initially be \\ith domestic plug-in _ ems, but we may get non-contact systems. too. 1llis .'iIcb w1l place because no additional infrastructure is required.. J-b,-e'Ii'el:. in the medium and long term, we can expect a S\\itcb to bal1~- eu::hange systems as the infrastructure required for this is buill and extended.. It's probably the most convenient system forcaI dm-eJS.. as "d.. Finally, in the nuclear countries I expect a similar paHem, in oIherwords, a rapid switch in the short-term to batter)' rectldJgillg. in the medium term, there is likely to be a S\\itch 10 batt~· exchange systems. However, in the long term, there could be a S\\itch 0 hydrogen fuel-cell systems. because of the ~-pe of energy ouIput from nuclear power stations. This is not a finn prediction, but a ~-, But the major disadvantage of this S} tern is thai it requires the greatest investment in infrastructure.

-&-''''2-0 111

Nouns (climate change) atmosphere concentration cyclone emission gigatonne glacier ice cap pattern prediction trend

Adjectives convenient exceptional high-performance huge massive renewable similar spectacular staggering technological tremendous

/'

A udl( b lOPI

69

1 Systems 1 1

h

I 2 3 4

3

5

2

3 g

4

6c

7d

8b

emergency beacon coastguard emergency signal satellite

I an emergency beacon

5 6 7 8

e

flares inflate life raft winch

2 a sinking fishing

3

3 .5 kilohertz 14,000 feet once per second 30 days 6 years in a container of water cylindrical orange

2

I

3

I

2 3

1 1

4 ~

6 7

3

Operation

1 2 3

-t

2

I 4

3 2

3

4

Place C

5 Release G

Fasten F inflate A Remove H

6 7 8

Ensure 0 Pull, push B slide E

people 2 automatic 3 in vin yl bag can turn upside down 5 can right itself inflated canop ; insulated floor and canopy; water-activated lights on canopy; system for collecting rainwater inflation triggered automatically; two buoyancy chambers inflated to make the walls; inflation forces open the carrying bag; inflation time : 12 seconds two chambers fill \vith water; upper chamber fills through portholes in the chamber walls; lower chamber fills through a one-way valve, which lets water in but not oUL waves of > ten metres, winds of > 300 kph; life raft self-rights

4

Word list

1

I satellite ignal 2 low-altitude orbit 3 rad io frequency 4 operating range 5 air-sea rescue 6 safety device 7 rescue team

antenna 2 HRU 3 beacon lever arm 5 magnet 6 flare

Future shapes I composite 2 aerospace 3 carbon fibre 4 fuselage 5 aircraft 6 plastic 7 deck report 9 construct 10 engineer Vertical word: manufacture

8

bridge

II

2 2

fastened 2 detached 3 activates automatically 5 transmit 6 float \\inched up .. . lVVA Flight 800, which crashed ... ... in a fuel tank, which exploded. ... at Boston where the weather was fine. ... by another pilot, who was flying ... ... at Boston airport, from where he contacted ... ... in the area, which lies off the coast ... ... by divers, who were guided to it .. . ... to the shore, from where it was taken away .. .

emergency beacon 2 radio signal ground station 4 satellite signals national centre 6 rescue centre 7 rescue team

2 Processes

2 Transmission 1

I 4

boat 3 the fishermen's 4 a signal 5 a helicopter 6 one of the red flares 7 the fishermen 8 the coastguard station

4

I 3

Rescue 5a

2

2

3 4

5 6

The government will definitely cancel the manned space exploration programme. It's likely that they will provide more money for robotic exploration of the solar system. Scientists will probably not / probably won't develop new heavy-lift rockets in the near future. They will certainly extend the life of the International Space Station beyond 2020. They will probably ask commercial firms to playa bigger part in future. Space travel to low -Earth orbit will possibly become more affordable.

2 Solid shapes 1

2

1 5

e

2c 6 g

3a 7 d

4b

I E 2 C 3 0 4 B 5 A 1 uses 2 is used 3 is loaded 4 is heated 5 rotates 6 melts 7 coats 8 is coated / has been coated 9 is cooled 10 cools / is cooled 11 shrinks 12 is removed

3

Hollow shapes

1

-ing: blowing, casting, cooling, heating, melting -ion: ejection, expansion, extrusion, inflation, rotation -ment: movement -er: roller -ure: closure no change: transfer

2

air pump heater mould with holes thermoplastic sheet

3 2

4

1

2 3

heating a) heater b) thermoplastic sheet positioning c) mould with holes

3 4

stretching vacuum forming d) air pump

soft, hard air-exhaust holes below, above

4 5

thinner vacuum

4

Word list

1

Suggested answers 1 The polymer pellets are transferred from the hopper to the cylinder.

2

The screw in the extrusion moulder is rotated by an electric motor. 3 The cold polymer pellets are propelled along the cylinder. 4 The polymer pellets are heated and melted by heaters. 5 The warm, soft molten polymer is propelled along the cylinder. 6 The molten polymer is extruded into a mould by the machine. 7 The two halves of the mould are closed with the molten polymer inside. 8 The molten polymer in the mould is inflated and expanded by compressed air. 9 The plastic bottle shape is cooled. 10 The plastic bottle is ejected from the open mould (by the machine) .

2

3 2 3

4

5

2 Sequence (1) 1 I up to a maximum altitude of 100,000 metres 2 if there is a problem with the launch 3 the abort engine thrusts the LAS (and the crew cap uJe) away from the rocket 4 by the attitude control engine ;) \\ith explosive bolts 6 the jettison engine must fire 7 to allow the capsule to float down into the ocean 8 once the capsule has reached a safe altitude

close, closure; compress, compression; e~, eroon; expand, eXPilllsion; extrude, extrusion; heat, heater; inflate, inflation; in~, inifftion; mould, mould; rotate, rotation; transfer [verb], transfer [noun]

3

hopper

2 screw

3

mould

4

electric motor

5 cylinder 6 polymer pellets

2

2 It 3 raced 4 where 5 went 6 These!They 7 which 8 which 9 fell 10 took 11 hit 12 its/ the 13 burst 14 flew 15 ignited

3

2

5 9

I b

6

1 2 3 4

completes captures avoid studies

3

e

f 7 c 11 h

10 g

5

6 7 8

3

4 5

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Injection moulding: 3 12 6 Pressure-die casting: 10 4 7 Metal-rolling: 1 I I 8 Blow mOUlding: 5 9 2

1 2 3 4 5 6

SOFTEN EXPANSION CARBON FIBRE ROLLER PISTON CHAMBER

7 8 9 10 11 12

7

8

EJECT COMPONENT PROPEL COMPRESS INJECT POLYMER

1

3

4 5 6

7 8 9

would take would be would be 10 struck 11 would only plan 12 was/were

I

After gi\ing the order for re~ntry. the pilot fires the thrusters and turns the shuttle tail first. Once the huttle reaches I has reached the upper atmosphere, the pilot fires the thrusters again and When the huttle enters has entered the upper atmosphere hot gases surrounding the shuttle cause a radio blackout. As soon as it fully re-enters has fully re-entered the Earth's atmosphere, the shuttle is able to IJy -·e an aircraft. After picking up the radio beaCOll at the end of the runway, the pilot takes on!T control from the onboard computers. After landing, the pilot deplo} the paIaChute from the rear to slow the shuttle. Once the shuttle lands I has 1anded the crew foDo\\ the procedure to shut dOv\l1 the shuttleAs soon as the crew leaves I has left the huttle. the ground crew begin servicing it.

4

are stabilised deploying orient ejects

1 5

b c

2 3

1 Conditions 1 1 have closed

2 Has there been 3 collided 4 has caught 5 did this happen 6 received 7 Have you discovered 8 have not had 9 have you drilled 10 We have drilled

After After However ow

3 Sequence (2)

2

would only undertake could be would the government want did not know would it choose was/were

Once

turns the shuttle nose fusL

4 a 8 j 12 d

discovers are transmitted are received (are) converted

A B C D

1 2 3

8

2

3 Events

2

4 Assoonas

3

Section 2 1 and 2

3

When

5 6 7

3

Section 1 crashed 1

1 k

I

2 Then

Review Unit A

2

What will happen if the weather is bad? The pilot will cancel the take-off. What will happen if the launching device fails to function? The jet fighter will remain on the flight deck What will the pilot do if the jet engine fail after take-off? The pilot will activate the ejection system. What will happen if the pilot ejects after take-off? His/Her parachute will open automatically. What will happen if the pilot lands in the ea after ejection? A helicopter will winch the pilot to safety.

2 6

5 6

7 8 g f

detonated propelled restraining jettisoned

3 d 7 h

4

8

e a

Ejection possible at speed: zero - 1,400 kph Ejection possible at altitude: zero - 82 000 feet Stage I Ejection Pilot loses radio contact Pilot has emergency oxygen supply Pilot stays in seat Stage 2 Drogue parachute Purpose: I) stabilises and 2) slows the fall of the pilot Released at 8,000 reet Stage 3 Main parachute Pilot is lifted out of seat Stage 4 Landing .ub\\ er

ke\

71

Radio signal sent from personal locator b eacon Activated automatically

4 1

2

ord list 1 2 3 4

oil rig jet fighter crew capsule launch abort system

5 6 7 8

abort engine attitude-control engine jettison engine ejection system

broke burnt, burned flew focused propelled sank pun struck took thrust

4 Careers 1

Engineer I Martha Sari 2 Italian 3 Robotico 4 Research & Development Technician ;) Developing ne\ devices for artificial arms and legs 6 Degree in Mechanical Engineering; Masters in Bio-medical Engineering 7 University of Ottawa Speaks French and Italian

2

Position

Apprentice Engineer

Responsibilities

Machining, finishing and some quality control

Name and address of employer

BAMC pic (was Farley Marine, Long Creek)

Type of business

Marine engineering : manufacture of engines and pumps

Dates

2005-2008

Qualification

Bachelor of Applied Sciences

Subjects / Skills covered Physics and Mechanical Engineering Name of instituti on

1 5 I 2 3 4

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3

for : three weeks, seven years, a week, six months, a month, two hours, 20 minutes, five days, a long time since: 20 I I , yesterday, last week, January, 8 o'clock, Monday, 12th May, lunchtime

device 2 hand-held 3 roughly 4 barrel pul e 6 bullet 7 recoil 8 recoil How long is the line? Hov thick is the line? How strong is the line? What shape is the projectile? / What is the shape of the projectile?

;.

Ho"", far ca.n. it send the projectile?

6

What is the maximum recoil?

3 2 3 4 ;) 6

The line on the 230 model is longer than the one on the 75 model. The line on the 230 model is less thick than the one on the 75 model. The breaking strength of the 230 model's line is 2000 . .. while on the 75 model it is 1500 . The 230 model has a cylindrical projectile, whereas the 75 model has a plastic ball. The 75 model has a shorter range than the 230 model. The 230 model has a greater recoil than the 75 model.

Interview

4 Word list 1

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2

1st syllable stressed: benefit, competence, ~vious 2nd syllable stressed: amQition, apprentice, apprenticeship, certjficate, diplQma, technician 3rd syllable stressed: engineering, insti1!!tion, interp§:sonal

machine gun bullets barrel target recoil Gene guns helium pulse

GALLlNI , Laura

Section 1 1 Take-off: i d f c a

Position applied for

Technician f o r New Product

2

Dates

2008 (not 2005) - now/present Senior Technician (was Junior Technician)

Responsibilities

Quality control; product t esting; building a prot otype for a new product

Name and address of employer

Horton Engineering , Cleveland

Type of business

Roboti cs; medical engineering

9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16

genetic membrane cell prototype inaccurate tissue modified accuracy

Review Unit B

Developm ent

I 2 3 4 5

Landing: e h j b g

catapults shuttle tow bar vertical drop line runway centre line

6 7 8 9

coloured lights flight deck tail hook arresting wires

Section 2 1 apprentice technician

2 blog activity / page 3 business activity / degree / experience / plan / qualification 4 career plan 5 company car 6 curriculum vitae 7 engineering degree / experience / qualification 8 job description 9 leisure activity 10 work experience / plan

2

72

Which job are you interested in? How long have you worked there? What are your responsibilities in your current job? Exactly what kind of business is your company in? How long did you work at Farley Marine? What was your job description there? How long did your course last? Why do you want to leave Horton Engineering?

Surname / First name(s)

Position

Albany College of Engineering, Albany

2

\".-ork 2 work 3 stay 4 am developing 5 are starting / are going to start 6 have 7 am going to start / am starting

2 In entor

3

2003-2005

I am working 2 specialises 3 spend 4 am doing 5 complete 6 am going to have / am having 7 don't have

2

2

Dates

more confident

2 but

3

older

4 more

experienced 5 faster 6 greater 7 worked 8 for 9 has worked 10 for 11 has been 12 since 13 left 14 ago 15 hasn't worked 16 since 17 but 18 have you received 19 more positive 20 better 21 while!whereas 22 whereas/while 23 Have you checked 24 but 25 less impressive

3 2

3 4

5 Safety 1 Warnings 1 and 2 1 2 3 4 5

3 2 3 4 5

4

any corrective action, brake heavily, counter-steer to the left Where exactly, what colour is it, warning lights panel, red all the time, monitoring it, from time to time exactly, the problem, vibration in the steering w he el visual or an audible signal, loud audible warning, ignition

2' Instructions

1

shoes 2 back-plate 3 axle tube 4 Friction linings 5 brake line 6 shoes 7 drum 8 rear drum brakes 9 cable 10 lever

2

Suggested answers 1 The oil and the filter need to be changed . The radia tor needs to be refilled with anti-freeze . The windscreen needs to be replaced if it is badly cracked. 2 The air bags should be replaced after ten years. 3 The windscreen doesn't have to be re placed if it's in good condition. 4 You need to check the screen wash system. You need to adjust the headlamps (if you are going to a country where people drive on a different side of the road) . 5 You should check the oil level and top up if necessary. You should check the tyres, both the pressure and the tread depth. You should top up the screen wash. You should check all the lights (side lights, headlights and indicators) . 6 These days, with improved technology, you don't have to check the battery or top up the radiator.

3 Rules 1 Hawk 2 (Reims-)Cessna 2 False. Air traffic control procedures at the airfield have

4 5

6

b, consult main dealer e , check all doors are shut a, top up with oil d, deflate tyre c, fill up with fuel

For example 2 In other words 3 I agree with that 4 By the way 5 Anyway 6 Alternatively 7 for instance 8 I don't think that's a good idea. 9 That sounds good. 10 So

2 3

5

already been modified. True. False. The danger of a collision was caused by several factors : 1) the air traffic controller was unable to handle the large workload 2) the breakdown in the monitoring of flight levels 3) the breakdown of radio communications. False. The air traffic controller did not intervene to warn the pilots of the presence of other aircraft. False. New staffing rotas are likely to reduce the danger of near misses at the airfield in future.

7 8

Pilots who are unfamiliar ...'lith the layout of tru airport must order a 'Follow-Me' car before they land. Do not as k fo r priority landing unless you ha\-e mechanical problems, a medical emergency or are dangerously short of fuel. Only order mobility buggies and \ heelchairs after you have landed. Pilots must not shut down the engines until the ground staff have in dicated that the aircraft i correctly positioned at the gate. Do not embark onto your plane before filing a flight plan, wi th details of your route and destination. Only take off after ensuring that you have sufficient fue l for the flight + 10%. In snowy weather, aircraft must not attempt take-off wi thout de-icing in the holding area Only move onto the runway if you have received permission from the control tower.

4 World list 1 1 cable 2 3 4 5

handbrake steering w heel brake pedal disc brake

6 7 8 9 10

brake line indicator reservoir brake line master cyiinder

6 Planning 1

Schedules

1

a) b) c) d) e)

2

0.5 °C already 2- 3 °C 2060 +5 °C f) 2060 g) 0% h) 2030

1 2 3 4 5

3 2 3 4

i)

\-3%

j)

2030

k)

60%

2050 m)30% n) 2020

I)

0) 60%

p) 2050

you trunk, will push up could happen could w e avoid your views will that re duce, in the long term I don't agree with you at all. I just can t go along with thaI. You have a point / a good point there. I m happy with thaI. I'm not sure about thaI. Let's trunk again about it. That sounds all right / about right. Yes, that' fine by rne.

2 Causes 1 Phosphorus (used in the manufacture of detergents) 2 3

4

5 6

is stored in wate r owing to the reaction of phosphorus with air. The reaction happens due to the addition of calcium carbonate, together with water to the gas. The gas is purified as a result of the complete removal of polluting particles from the gas by the collection plates. Emissions from power plants are lower \\ilh dean coal technology as a result of the total p urification of the coal before it is burnt. Port installation costs are high owing to the liquefaction of the L G at a temperature of - 1.620 Celsius before it is loaded onboard. Greater crop yields are ensured as a result of the automatic humidification of the growing heds.

13

The emergency rescue teams had problems caused by the rapid solidification of the volcanic ash after cooling. The coal used in the power plant is a fine dust due to its pillverisation in the coal mill nearby.

2

particles 2 sulphur 3 electrode 4 chemicals 5 saline 6 desulphurise 7 aquifer 8 electrostatic 9 flaw 10 methane II ionise 12 impurities 13 gasification ertical word: precipitators

3 Systems 1 5 9

2 2 3 4

5

4 1

c b

2

3 i

4 a

6 e

7

8

h

3 b 7 h

d

6 c

2

3

Section 1

A

d,q

2

i, o

3

b, r

6

e, j

7 c,n

8

B F

3 6

C 8 G 4

H

5

E

3

f, k

4

h, p g, m

5

2

D 7 2

Suggested answers I Staff must not enter the building. 2 Doors must be locked at night. 3 Fork-lift trucks must not be driven in this part of the warehouse. 4 Workers must not eat or drink in this area. 5 All visitors must report to reception. 6 Pedestrians must not wal k in the red zone. 7 "lachine guards must be used at all times. 8 Ear protection must be worn when machinery is in operation.

Section 2 1 oLabout o\"erto

2 6

of into

3 onto 7 by

4

8

through for

~odel answer Hi Bullen!.,

\'any thanks for your email asking about incinerators. I'll try to answer your questions. Give me a ring, or email me, if you need more information. I Waste is very bulky. Fortunately, incineration reduces the mass of waste by 80-85%. 2 Incineration converts waste materials into heat, which can be used for space heating as well as e lectricity generation.

74

tell, inform, assure say, report, explain, confirm promise

'The airport has introduced a new scanning system.' 'The device can / is able to produce X-ray images 0(· plaster casts.' • 3 'It will be installed at all airports in the next sjx months.' 4 'Criminals have been able to transport knives inside plaster casts.' 5 'Conceal a knife inside the/this demonstration cast.' 6 'The body part being examined was/ is placed next to the device, not in it.' 7 'The device uses a new system called 'backscatter imaging'.' 8 'Backscatter imaging can be used safely on all passengers. ' 9 'The first group of operators is already undergoing training.' 10 'Read the user manual before tomorrow.' I

2

9 aI

2

I

2 3

Review Unit C 5

to the official, NO WORD 2 me 3 the clerk to me, NO WORD 5 to him, NO WORD 6 him, NO WORD 7 to me, NO WORD 8 the m I

4

f

I emitting, converted 2 pulverise , purify is condensed 4 be liquefied, conve rted

e mission control is much better these days, and pollutants in the flue gas is reduced by particle filtra tion, using electrostatic precipitators. In addition, heavy metals such as mercury, lead and chromium are removed by acid gas scrubbers. By the way, the bottom ash from the incinerator is non-hazardous. Incineration is a continuous process. In a moving grate incinerator, waste enters at one end and ash leaves at the other end. The heat is transformed into steam, which drives the turbine. The flue gases are cooled and then pass through the flue gas Cleaning system. This surprises some people, but there aren't the same concerns about pollution now that emission control is better. It is convenient for the reception of waste to site incinerators in cities. Also the heat can be utilised locally for space heating and electricity generation. Moreover, the heat can be used for increased electricity generation, for air-conditioning in summer or space heating in winter. I hope this helps. Best, Karl

1 Statements

4 g 8

Of course, people are worried about pollution, but

7 Reports 1

2

3

1

5

d

Because hot water can be extracted from the underground reservoirs. It comes from 13 production wells at Nesjavellir. It travels in a transmission pipe (27 km long with a diameter of 90 cm). It contains a mineral-rich saline solution which blocks the pipes. (So instead, heat exchangers are use d to heat cold ~ ater, which is then distributed.) Most of it (75.4%) comes from hydro-electric power. (24.5% comes from geothermal energy, and fossil fuels provide 0.1 %.)

e a

4

109

Word list 5

2

3

2 Incidents 1

detection zone 2 magnetic field 3 reflected pulse 4 direct current 5 coil 6 audio circuit 7 resistor 8 pulse-induction technology

2 2

3 4 5 6 7

False. The hand-held remote display screen can operate at a distance of 65 m from the metal detector. False. The display screen shows where a metal object is located on the passenger. False. The WTMD is based upon eight separate coils of wire, arranged vertically. True. True. False. A reflected pulse disappears more slowly after a metal object is detected. True.

8

False. The audio output sounds higher and louder as the metal object approaches the coil.

3

1 As , While 2 4 While, When

4

1 2 3 4 5

6

2 6

H

F

G

4 8

A

1 2 3

How are you getting on? What systems have you come up with? What about that other system that we spoke about? Have you looked into that? Yes, 1see what you mean. Go on, tell me more. So how does the system operate? I'll catch up with you after the weekend.

C

2 3 4

conductor plates dielectric capacitor plates

5 6 7 8

4

5

capacitance discharge circuit capacitor resistor

amplifier caJ2ill;.itance caJ2ill;.itor conductor dielectric magnetism microchip resistor sensor terminal

1

All the questions are answ ered, except 4 and

2

1 4 7

3 4

2 3 4

2

tug boat (for towing tankers) seabed crude oil pipeline

1 3 4

tank farm pipeline network power plant pumping station

Suggested answers 1 A Have the foundations for the pumping station been laid yet? B Yes, they were laid in January, four w eeks ago. A What about the pumps? Have they been installed? B No. That job has already been started, but it hasn't been finished yet. 2 A Have the site roads been constructed yet? B Yes, they 've already been constructed. They were constructed three weeks ago. A What about the pipeline ring main? Has it been installed? B Not completely. That job has alread been started, but it hasn't been finished yet.

2

5 8

no yes no

3 6

2

res

to allow by constructing by dumping by means of

5

to pass by m eans of toaUow to provide

6

7 8

3 Drilling 1

1

f

2

5

b k

6 d 9 m 13 I

8 12

2

a

3

10 h 14 j

4 Word Hst 1 1 derrick 2 3

2

e

4

c

7 g II n

1 was laid 2 was driYen 3 was taken 4 was awarded 5 were drilled 6 was pushed 7 was missed 8 was enlarged 9 w ere cho5en 10 w ere pulled, " ere rotated

4 5 6

5 6 7 8

yes (not given) (not given)

a) 103 million b) 32 million c) 28 million d) 462,300 e) 1993 f) 20,000 g) 1.084 h) 660

2

8 Projects 1 Spar 1 1 mooring line

A Have the test boreholes been drilled yet? B Yes, they were drilled in January, m'e w eeks ago. A What about the foundations for the w ater storage tanks? Have they been laid? B Yes, that job was finis hed t\ 0 w eeks ago. A Have the tank sections for the water torage tanks been ordered yet? B Yes, they've already been ordered. They were ordered in January, four weeks ago. A Have they been assembled yet? B 0 , that job hasn't been tarted yel. A Have the fire guns been deli...ered yet? B Yes, they were deli ered one week ago. A Have they been used in training? B 0 , not yet. Training is planned for next week. and for two more weeks in ~1arch.

2 Platform

0

PIN numbers 2 scanning 3 video camera technology 4 8 and 35 cm 5 digital 6 converted 7 database 8 activated 9 iris identity 10 security door

4 Word list 1 1 capacitor

2

3 7

E

5

4 5 6 7 8

3

w hile, as 6 While

While the passengers were checking in, the ground crew was refuelling the Airbus. While the ground crew was loading the luggage into the Airbus, it started to snow. A 747 landed while the ground crew was de-icing the Airbus. The 747 slid off the runway while it was taxiing towards the terminal building. While the Airbus passengers were waiting in the departure lounge, they heard that their flight w as cancelled. While the Airbus passengers w ere asking for information, the 747 passengers were w aiting to leave their aircraft.

3 Progress 1 1 B

2

while 3 5 when

3

oil rig drilling platform crown block winch travelling block

hoo '

8 9

swr..e1

kelly 10 turntable 11 drill pipe 12 drill collar

First syllable stressed: cvlinder drilling ~line stabilise travelling turntable Second syllable stressed: continuou ly directional hydraulic obstruction stability sufficient

Review Unit D Section 1 1 Suggested answers 2 3 4 5

She informed him that he had to buy three seats together because of his broken leg. The stew ard told the passenger no to moke in the departure lounge. The help line confirmed that we could carry 10 kg of medical equipm ent free of charge. The airline official assured her that the plane would not leave wi thout her. The check-in clerk promised he "vouJd book us on the next possible flight.

75

6

2

The check-in derk explained to him that folding \vheelchairs were carried free of charge. The steward instructed the children not to sit in the emergency exit row. The pilot ordered the crew to evacua te the aircraft immediately.

I

permanent magnet

2 3

magnetic poles electromagnet armature coil slip rings

4 5 6

7 brushes 8 external power circuit 9 shaft 10 north pole II south pole 12 commutator

Buses are a great deal more crowded in the rush hour than trains. For me , the car is far more convenient than the train and a little more convenient than the bus. Parking a car is less convenient at busy times than getting off a bus. A train ticke t is five times more expensive than a bus ticket for a similar bus journey.

2 Buildings 1 C 2 0

2

2 3

drill string

5 drill collar 6 drill bit

A rock cuttings B reserve pit C mud return line

o shaker

injection moulding B power plant C chemical reaction o reflected pulse E collection plate F brake pad G magnetic field

H I J K

A

E F

hose mud pump

well head rock face lever arm protective sleeve L insulating jacke t M wind sock brake shoe

9 Design 1 1

Inventions uggested answers The GT Sport accelerates a great deal faster than the Roadster. 2 The Roadster is a lot more economical than the GT port 3 The GT SPOrt is a little more stable than the Roadster. 4 The Roadster's suspension is slightly better than the I

GTSport's, ;) 6 7

2

The maximum speed of the GT Sport is 71 kph fas ter than the Roadster's. The Roadster 's engine is two thirds as powerful as the GT Sport's. The GT Sport's storage space is twice as large as the Roadster's. The GT Sport is 50% more expensive than the Roadster.

uggested answers The Roadster's acceleration is much worse than the GT port's. 2 The Roadster uses tw'O thirds as much fue l as the GT Sport 3 The Roadster is slightly more unsta ble than the GT Sport 4 The GT Sport's suspension is a little less comfortable than the Roadster's. 5 The Roadster s top speed is two thirds as fast as the GT Sport's. 6 The GT Sport's engine is one and a half times more powerful than the Roadster's. 7 The Roadster has half as much storage space as the GTSport The Roadster is 30% cheaper than the GT Sport.

3

I

3 . lodel an5\-vers I

2

76

At \ eekends, I use the bus much more often. On weekdays, I use the train twice as often as the bus. The car is much more comfortable than eithe r the bus or the train.

-\! ,-. \\ t'l

h.t>\

B

4

A

United Arab Emirates 3 828 m 4 50 m 5 206 6 464,000 sq m 7 Y-shaped 8 hotel, apartments, restaurants, outdoor observation deck 9 25,000 windows Taipei 101 I Taipei 2 Taiwan 3 509 m 4 80m 5 101 + 5 = 106 6 412 ,000 sq m 7 8 ta pered sections of 8 floors each, on square, tapered base 8 offices, confe rence centres, retail shops, restaurants 9 designed to withstand earthquakes and strong winds Shanghai World Financial Centre I Shanghai 2 China 3 494m 4 79 5 101 6 381 ,600 sq m 7 square at the base, tapers to rectangular top 8 hotel, offices, conference centres, shopping malls 9 public observation deck on 100th floor

Section 2 1 I swivel 2 kelly 3 casing 4

3

8urj Khalifa I Dubai 2

Suggested answers 3 Burj Khalifa is by far the tallest building of the three. 3 Shanghai World Financial Centre is the shortest building of the three. 4 Taipei 101 has the deepest foundations . 4 Burj Khalifa has the least deep foundations of the three buildings. 5 Burj Khalifa has by far the greatest total number of storeys. 5 Shanghai World Financial Centre has the least number of storeys. 6 Burj Khalifa has by far the greatest floor area. 6 Shanghai World Financial Centre has the least extensive floor area of the three buildings.

3 Sites 1 I Picture F; elevation, perpendicular, zigzag 2 3 4

2

Picture 0 ; rectangular, vertical, diagrid Picture B; wings, storeys, taper Picture G; irre gular, inclined, curved

Model answers A

The department building has a semi-circular floor plan, with the circular front elevation made of glass and stone. The building rises in thre e tapering storeys, with metal roofs. The top storey looks like an observation lounge. C The student hostel is constructed of white concrete and glass. Some solid vertical concrete columns are placed a t intervals along the front elevation. All the windows are e ither square or rectangular.

E The assembly room is a three-storey six sided building. The windows on the ground and first floor are rectangular, surrounded by elevations of natural stone. The third storey is a roof terrace. A six-sided stone framework surrounds a six-sided conical pyramid constructed of glass with aluminum strips. The assembly room is linked to the main building by enclosed walkways on two levels.

2 3 1

4 Word list 1 1 pointed 2

3 4 5

2

circular elliptical curved 9 tapered 10 diagonal

6 7 8

doughnut-shaped inclined zigzag perpendicular

1 optional 2 extensive stable 5 pointed

3

4 6

7 8

1

Nouns (buildings)

Adjectives (shapes) circular curved [one syllable] curvilinear diggonal Qiagrid doughnut-shaped inclined Qval perpendicular" pointed semi-circular @Dered

10 Disasters

2

1 1

3

Speculation 1 compression 2 impact 3 wear 4 fracture 5 buckling 6 thermal shock 7 investigation 8 metal fatigue 9 corrosion 10 collapse 11 tension Vertical word: speculation 1

2 3 4

5 6 7 8

2 1

wouldn't have should ha\-e been

Introduction: f, i Background: c, I Method: b, j

Findings: a, e Conclusions: d, h Recommendations:g k

NOUNS

ADJECTIVES

VERBS

><

The rail crash must have been caused by a broken rail. The rail may have suffered thermal shock due to excessive heat. The aircraft might not have had a mechanical failure. The flight crew could have fallen asleep due to cabin depressurisation and lack of oxygen. The captain might have wanted to save time by steering close to the headland. He may not have realised that the depth of water in the channel was insufficient. The houses can't have collapsed in the earthquake because of a design error. The disintegration of the bridge might not have been caused by substandard concrete.

Investigation 1 No 2 No 3 No 4 21 months before crash 5 other company 6 backlog of essential maintenance work 7 6 months 8 rail replacement 9 USA, Sweden 10 3 11 £6 million

catastrophic

compression

compress

compressive

excess

exceed

excessive

destruction

destroy

destructive

buckling

buckle

collapse

collapse

~

corrosion

corrode

disintegration

disintegrate

fracture

fracture

rust

rust

::><:

~ llilltical

~zag

2

4

should have sounded must have failed must have been should place should be checked should be installed should inspect should be increased

catastrophe

compact

aluminium architect beauty concrete elevation functionillity innovation storey

3

4 Word list

4

3

1

5

2

should have been hadn't

Reports 2 3

H The research centre has a rectangular floor plan. It has a flat metal roof, supported at the edges by perpendicular steel columns. The front and side elevations are constructed of glass and brick. On the left you can see some irregular conical roofs, which cover the bicycle racks.

1

2

d

2

5 e

6

1

h g

corrosive

>< :=?< I

rusty

3 7

4

c

b

8 a

catastrophic compressive excessr.e faulty inadequate non-destructiye significant temporary tensile undersized

Review Unit E Section 1 1 Suggested answers 1 2

3 4 5 6

2

The AX 210 lamp has a far higher wattage than the RS90. The lamp lumen output of the AX 210 is much greater than the lumen output of the RS 90. The RS 90 weighs a great deal less than the AX 210. The AX 210 is a lot longer than the RS 90. The beam of the RS 90 is slightly narrower than the beam of the AX 210. The RS 90 has a little more control m -er the aiming point than the AX 210.

Suggested answers 1 The wattage of the AX 210 is exactly ",ice as pm\-erful as the wattage of the RS 90. 2 The lumen output of the KH 240 is approximately 1()Ilv greater than the lumen output of the A.X 210.

3 4

The RS 90 is roughly half as heavy as the KH 240. The AX 210 is 100 mm "vider than the KH 240.

S

6

3

The beam of the KH 240 is about ten times wider than the beam of the RS 90. The RS 90 has five times as much control over the aiming point as the KH 240.

At the presentation last week, I demonstrated our Plym running shoes and you then kindly invited me to send you a proposal.

Suggested answers I The RS 90 has by far the least powerful wattage. 2 The KH 240 has easily the greatest lumen output. 3

The RS 90 is by far the lightest lamp of the three.

4 S 6

The RS 90 is easily the narrowest lamp of the three. The KH 240 lamp has by far the widest beam. The RS 90 lamp has easily the greatest control over the aiming point.

4 2

3

Background E Method A

2 2

3 4 S

As I explained, our running shoes are designed to give lightness, durability and flexibility. The shoes combine the strength and flexibility of thermoplastic polyurethane with the cushioning and shock absorbent qualities of foamblown polyurethane. In addition, mesh is added to the upper part of the shoe, allowing the foot to breathe.

circular curved curvilinear doughnut-shaped elliptical 0 aI diagonal diagrid perpendicular pointed tapered zigzag conical cylindrical semi-circular

Section 2 "1 Introduction C

3

Dear Mr Said, Thank you very much for inviting me to make a proposal to supply your club with running shoes.

The shoes give increased support and elasticity around the heels and under the soles, allowing the runner to run long distances without tiring. Details of all the materials used in the shoes can be found in the attachment to this letter. My company proposes to supply these shoes at the unit price (per pair) of US$49.50. Package and delivery is free of charge, and delivery dates are a maximum of two weeks after receipt of order. This offer is open for 28 days from your receipt of this proposal.

Findings F Conclusions B Recommendations D

The fire would not have happened if there had not been a build-up of flammable gases. The accident \ ould not have happened if Worker A had received clear instructions. If the foreman had not gone on a meal break, he would have supervised Worker A. If he had not obtained a suitable fitting, he would not have connected the airline to the ring main. If Worker B had not gone above deck to get some fresh air, he would not have escaped the fire.

(a) Temporary maintenance and repair workers should have received training before starting work. (b) Temporary maintenance and repair workers should have been properly supervised. ( c ) All dockyard gas ring ITlains should have been

I look forward to hearing from you with a firm order in due course. Yours sincerely,

2 Properties (l) "1 I b 2 d 3 2 I flammability 2

3

3 1

ecurely labelled and colour-coded. supplier's depot before delivery. (e) Worker B should not have lit a cigarette.

11 Materials 1 "1

2

78

1

3

2 3

Model answer Ali Said . tanager Muscat Athletics Club

2 3 4

4

c

5

a

ductility rigidity malleability

snowboards a marketing plan in a week's time

1 I would suggest that 2 We could 3 Why don't we 4 What about 5 Let's try 6 Let's

Eqwpment uggested aJ1S\'\'ers I Aramid fibre resists impact. 2 Polyurethane foam absorbs impact. 3 You can bend carbon fibre , but you can't break it. 4 You can bend and stretch rubber, but you can' t break it. 5 Aramid fibre can be stretched a little, but it can't be broken. 6 TPU can be bent and stretched, but it can' t be broken. 7 ylon synthetic fibre stretches a little, but it doesn't break. 8 Wood bums and bends, but it doesn't stretch.

4 4 5 6

Properties (2) 2

Cd) Bulk oxygen should have been treated at the

absorbency durability

e

hardwood a) long fibres b) strength c) torsional rigidity 4 layers a) lightness b) stiffness c) torsional strength Kevlar® a) elasticity b) strength extruded smoother, slower, non-porous, greater surface friction, lower cost, easier to repair

Suggested answers 1 Extruded boards carmot absorb wax. 2 Fibreglass layers are able to withstand torsion and return to their original shape. 3 A waxed board has the capacity to reduce drag over all types of snow. 4 Sintered boards are incapable of reaching high speeds unless they are waxed. 5 The longer board has the capacity to reach faster speeds in downhill races. 6 A snowboarder has the ability to split the board into two mono-skis.

7 8

We are capable of selling 18,000 units per annum within three years. However, we do not have the capability to achieve / of achieving substantial sales this year.

4

4 Word list 1 Suggested answers I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12

2

3

waterproof childproof stain-resistant / heat-tolerant bulletproof ovenproof impact-absorbent corrosion-resistant / impact-resistant water-resistant fireproof shock-resistant / waterproof heat-tolerant / ovenprooof impact-resistant

2 c

5 d 6 g

3 4

7 8

I

h a

2 Innovation 1 I relies 2 3 4 5 6 7

2

e b

absorbent, absorbency ductile, ductility durable, durability elastic, elasticity flammable , flammability flexible, flexibility malleable, malleability non-flammable, non-flammability plastic, plasticity

Suggested answers I A helicopter doesn't resemble a glider in any way. It uses revolving blades to fly instead of '''ings. A helicopter is powered whereas a glider i unpowered _ 2 A submarine propels itself under water, in the same way as a submersible does. But a submarine i manned, whereas a submersible is unmanned. 3 A drone resembles a glider, but a glider i piloted. whereas a drone is remote controlled. 4 A space shutUe is completely unlike a helicopter. The former uses wings instead of revolving blades and travels into space, whereas the latter flies at low altitudes only. 5 A jet ski is a little like a hovercraft· both can travel across water but a jet ki can't travel aero marshy 6

12 Opportunities 1 Threats 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2

By 2040, CO 2 emissions will have risen to 18 gigatonnes per year. By 2080, CO 2 emissions will have increased by 23 gigatonnes per year. By 2080, CO 2 concentrations will have grown by 400 parts per million. By 2100, CO 2 concentrations will have climbed to 920 ppm. By 2080, CO 2 emissions will have stabilised at 6 gigatonnes per annum. By 2100, CO 2 emissions will have dropped by 2 gigatonnes p.a. By 2080, CO 2 concentrations will have increased to 520 parts per million. By 2100, CO 2 concentrations will have risen by 200 ppm.

Suggested answers I By 2060, the glaciers south of the Himalayas will have melted. The great rivers coming from the glaciers will have run dry. All agriculture in the river valleys will have ceased. Entire populations will have been displaced. 2 By 2060, the ice caps of Greenland and the Arctic will have melted. The sea level will have risen by at least 0.4 metres. Low-lying areas will have (been) flooded, and some countries like the Maldives will have been abandoned. 3 By 2060, climate change will have caused extreme global warming. Many areas in the tropics as well as in the Mediterranean basin will have been affected by droughts and fires. Many populations in these areas

8 direction 9 inclined 10 keel II polycarbonate 12 apparent wind 13 Aerodynamic 14 rigid

similar propels drag lift friction like

g round.

rigid, rigillity

1

will have been forced to migrate southwards and northwards to find more temperate climates_ By 2060, increased global temperatures \\ill ha\-e been caused by continued burning of forested areas_ By this time, parts of the frozen tundra of iberia \\ill have started to thaw, releasing methane into the atmosphere. Many forests of northeast Asia will ha\-e been destroyed by fires fuelled by methane.

A hovercraft resembles a helicopter in one way only_ Both hover above the ground. Howeyer. a hovercraft hovers on a cushion of air instead of using revol\ing blades.

3 Priorities 1 and 2 A yes B yes C no D _ E 5% p.a 2 A yes B yes C no D no E Denmark 3 A yes B yes C yes D yes E 200_000 units: 160 km; 140 kph; up to 80% in under 30 minutes 4 A yes B yes C no D no E _ 5 hybrid petrol-electric engine A yes B yes C yes D yes E from II to 52; from 2.5 to 4.2%

3

A all: 1) solar power B short-term: 3) battery recharging; medjum- and longterm: 2) battery exchange C short-term: 3) battery recharging; medium-term: 2) battery exchange; long-term: 4) hydrogen fuel-<:ell

4

I solar power 2 solar power 3 battery recharging 4 battery exchange 5 batten· exchange 6 hydrogen fuel-<:ell technology

4 Word list 1 I in 2

2

3 on

4

°

E 5

onto

I

atmosphere prediction trend

4 5 6

pattern exchange weaknes

emissions gigatonnes concentration atmosphere Patterns

6 7 8 9

glaciers ice cap cyclones trends

2 3

3

°E

6

I

2 3 4 5

into

19

Review Unit F Section 1 1 uggested answers I 2 3 4 ;) 6

The first material is strong when it is pressed, and the second is strong ""hen it is pulled. The first material is rigid and doesn't break, and the econd is soft and returns to its shape after an impact. A waterproof watch is guaranteed to keep out all water. but a water-resistant watch may not be. Flammable materials bum, and non-flammable materials don't bum. The fu t material is strong when it is twisted and the second is strong when it is stretched. Ductile materials can be pulled into a longer, thinner hape, and malleable materials can be rolled into a new shape.

2

I 5 9

able 2 can't 3 can 4 capabilities ability 6 capable 7 unable 8 capacity incapable

Section 2 1 will have been buill, will have been added, 2

3 4

2 2

3

4

will have been installed will have been established, will have been issued will have become, will have expanded will have developed, will have changed

... is 25 metres long, instead of the usual 18 metres. Another difference is that it is a double-articulated truck .. . The Archimedes water screw has exactly the same function as a traditional waterwheel. In the same way as ... Unlike a traditional hydro-electric turbine, ... An unmanned drone, or remotely piloted aircraft, is very similar to ... .. . instead of a pilot. ... just as a pilot flies a plane, .. . Laser drilling for oil is completely different from normal rotational drilling .... in contrast to a traditional derrick. Another difference is that the heat from the laser ...

Technical English is a four-level course for students in technical or vocational education, and for company employees in training at, ork. It covers the core language and skills that students need to communicate successfully in all technical and industrial specialisations.

Levell: Level 2: Level 3: Level 4:

Elementary (CEF AI-A2) Pre-intermediate (CEF A2 -BI ) Intermediate (CEF BI-B2) Upper Intermediate (CEF B2-CI )

• Technical concepts are clearly presented using motivating texts and clear illustrations • Topics reflect the latest developments in technology and are relevant to students' needs • The course uses core language common to a range of specialisations • Grammar is regularly practised and there is a comprehensive • gram mar summary sectlOn • The Companion Website has further industry-specific material to support the Course Book and the Workbook Components • Course Book • Course Book Audio CD • Workbook with Audio CD • Teacher's Book with Test Master CD-ROM • Companion Website: wvvw. pearsonlongman.comltechnicalenglish

COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK

ISBN

Level 3

978- 1 ~08 2-6798 -

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