Stephens - Practise Advanced Writing

Longman Group UK Limited, Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, England and Associated Companies throughout the world. © Longman Group UK...

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Longm an Group U K Limited, Longman House , Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, England and Associated Companies throughout the world.

© Longman Group UK Limited 1992 All rights reserved; no part o f this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electron mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission o f the Publishers.

First published 1992 Set in 9/10 Versailles Roman Produced by Longman Singapore Publishers (Pte) Ltd. Printed in Singapore ISBN 0582 06437 6

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS W e are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material:

Burning Review by Sean French in Marie Claire

Bantam Books a division o f Bantam, Doubleday, Dell Publishing Group, Inc for an adapted extract from a review o f T h e Exorcist7 in Movies on TV by Steven H Scheuer; BBC Enterprises Limited for an adapted article 'A Students' Guide to Exam Stress' in The Radio Times 3-9.6.89; the author's agent for extracts from 'The Landlady7, 'Parson's Pleasure' and 'The W ay Up to Heaven' by Roald Dahl from Kiss Kiss (Michael Joseph Ltd & Penguin Books Ltd) (c) 1953, 1954, 1958, 1959 Roald Dahl and 'Nunc Dimittis' by Roald Dahl from Someone Like You (Penguin Books Ltd); Andre Deutsch Ltd/Penguin Books Ltd for recipe based on 'Roast leg o f lamb' from British Cooking by Caroline Conran; Faber & Faber Ltd for adapted extract from 'The Rain Horse' from Wodwo by Ted Hughes; Gruner & Jahr (UK) for adapted extracts from articles 'Phil Collins - at face value' by William Hall, on Meryl Streep, 'TV: could you be without it?' by Jill Eckersley and Talking Point on Nuclear Power' in Best magazine, 28.10.88, 28.4.89, 31.3.89 and 9.6.89; Guardian News Service Ltd for adapted extract from article 'Ambulance Shambles' by Simon Beavis, Patrick Wintour and Gareth Parry in The Guardian 24.10.89; IPC Magazines Ltd for adapted extract from article 'W hy the Future Must be Green' by David Allsop in Options magazine February 1989; IPC Magazines Ltdi Solo Syndication & Literary Agency Ltd for adapted extract from article 'G o Green!' in Woman's Own 24.7.89; News (UK) Ltd for adapted extract from article 'Fairy tale story o f whale that thinks a ship is his mother' in Today 24.10.89; Southern Newspapers pic for adapted extract from article T e rro r o f dog attack' by Andy Martin in Evening Echo, Bournemouth June 1989; Syndication International (1986) Ltd for adapted extracts from articles '999 Shambles as Police move in' & 'Bergerac TV Horror Photos Shock Family' in Daily Mirror 24.10.89. and 30.10.89; the author, Jo Weedon, for adapted extract from her article 'A re our Zoos cruel?' in Woman's Own 14.8.89; W orld Press Network Ltd for adapted extract from Mississippi

The idea for the 'news' activity on page 89 came from 'Activity Pack Elementary' by Birt and Fletcher, pub. Edward Arnold.

magazine, May 1989.

W e are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: Barnaby's Picture Library/H. Kanus for page 52; Best magazine/Gruner & Jahr (UK) for page 109 (bottom); Camera Press Ltd for pages 9, 75, 103 (left) and 104 (left); The J Allan Cash Photolibrary for pages 103 (right) and 108; John Birdsall Photography for pages 47 (bottom) and 88; Supplied for artist's reference by Bournemouth Dept, o f Tourism & Publicity for page 35 (top); Eurocamp Travel Ltd for page 23 (top); S & R Greenhill for pages 19 (bottom) and 105; Greenpeace/Gleizes for page 95; Kobal Collection for page 61; Peter Lake for page 104 (right); Mail Newspapers PLC/Photo supplied by Solo Syndication for page 45; With permission o f Metropolitan Police for page 67 (bottom); Network for pages 19 (top), 47 (top left), 47 (top right), 84 and 109 (top); Reproduced with permission from R.D. Press a registered business name o f Reader's Digest (Aust) Pty. Ltd from the book entitled The Way Things Work by David Macaulay © Dorling Kindersley Ltd London for page 63 (top); Rex Features for page 6; Copyright RSPB, taken from an information leaflet produced by The Royal Society for the Protection o f Birds for page 81; Tim Sebastian/Simon & Schuster/Illustrator George Smith for page 62; The Spectator for pages 63 (bottom) and 102; Syndication International for page 87 (right). W e have been unable to trace the copyright holders o f the photograph on page 87 (left) and would be grateful for any information to enable us to do so. Picture Research by Sandie Huskinson-Rolfe (PHOTOSEEKERS) Illustrations by Shaun Williams

CONTENTS 5

Introduction

UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT

6

7 •

Writing a Personal Profile

2



Invitations and Refusals

11

3



Giving Personal Information

17

4



For and Against

24

5



Notes and Messages

31

6



Writing a Formal Letter o f Complaint

37

7 •

Describing Appearances

43

8



Advertisements and Notices

49

9



Writing a Letter of Advice

55

10 •

Writing a Film or Book Review

60

77

Writing a Report

66

Writing a Narrative

72

Guidelines and Instructions

78

Writing a Newspaper Report

84

15 •

Giving a Speech

91

16 •

Describing a Scene

96

77 •

Stating an Opinion

102

18 •

Summarising

108



12 • 13 14

• •

3

INTRODUCTION Practise Advanced Writing is a writing skills book designed for students at post FCE level. It follows on from Practise Writing, providing the student with practice in a wide variety o f written English, including reports, letters, narratives, descriptions and opinions. The book is divided into four and six page units, providing double page spreads for ease o f use. Each unit has a written model, usually in the form o f an authentic text, which is followed by a variety o f exercises moving from a general analysis o f the text to more specialised language exercises. Although this is a writing skills book, there is plenty o f opportunity for oral work, as students are required to engage in a good deal o f discussion/role play before they are ready to produce a written text o f their own. Emphasis is placed on learner independence and students are encouraged to work out rules for themselves. Each unit ends with a summary box which provides a check for students where necessary and a reminder o f the basic types o f language/format needed for their written tasks.

5

Writing a Personal Profile

T o Stftrt V O li

r +•

lin k in g

, — music do you like best? Ha^you'g^f ‘nPop/rock music? What sort of What do you think minht h u avourite singer/band9 - - ? Make “ % taBesof,ife A personal Nowreadthe Profile Phii Collins -*c,e below, which „ aproflle Qf rQck hen five-year-old Phil Collins was given a little tin drum for Christmas it fired a musical spark which would one day make him one 5 o f the wealthiest rock stars in Britain. As a solo artist, he made £22 million in 1985 alone, while a world tour with the group Genesis last year

W

earned him and the other members of the band £10 million each. His army o f fans include such figures as Princess Diana and Madonna. Y et despite all this wealth and success, Phil Collins remains quiet-spoken is and refresh in gly dow n-to-earth about his music, fame, fans and, o f course, his money. 10

Born on January 30th 1951, Phil seemed destined for a life on the 20 stage. W hile his father was in charge o f an insurance office, his mother managed a theatre school in London. All three o f her children had parts in films. When Phil got a part in the 25 London production o f 'O liver', he left school for a career in acting. He was now playing drums at parties and clubs and had begun to write his own songs, secretly hoping that one 30 day this would be his full-time job. Then, in 1975, something happened that changed his life. It all began when he saw an advertisement for a drummer to join 3s a rock band and found himself taken on by a fled glin g1 group called Genesis. Five years on, when singer Peter Gabriel left to go solo, Phil took over on vocals. Now, with sixteen 40 albums to their credit, Genesis are one o f the biggest money-spinning rock bands, appealing to all age groups with their music.

Phil's first marriage ended in divorce, have remained good friends and his children, Joely (16) and Simon (12), spend their summer holidays at his £1.5 million farmhouse in Surrey. He is now somarried to Jill, a former teacher from California, whom he met in a Los Angeles bar. The problems with his first marriage taught him valuable lessons and he no longer lets the 5 5 strains o f showbusiness affect his personal life.

45 but he and his ex-wife

Nowadays, as well as his family, Phil has a num ber o f com mitments outside Genesis. These include his 6 0 solo career, recording with other artists like Eric Clapton, and working to help underprivileged young people w ith P rin c e C h a rle s 's T ru st Committee. In 1988 he launched his 65acting career, starring in the film 'Buster' to critical acclaim. Despite all this success, Phil has not changed. He remains as insecure as most o f us, and takes care not to 7osquander2 his money, fearing that hard times may be just down the road. Y e t it is hard to imagine what could ever touch the Collins magic carpet o f success.

Format

With your partner, decide what you think is the topic o f each o f the paragraphs in the model text. Complete the plan below. I

W hy do you think the writer has arranged the paragraphs in this particular order?

Linking ideas

A paragraph often has a key idea/sentence which is developed in the rest o f the paragraph. The writer may want to give more details, supply quotations, etc. The final sentence often serves as a 'lead in' to the next paragraph. 1 Can you pick out the key sentence in paragraph 2 o f the model text? 2 H ow does the final sentence o f paragraph 2 lead in to the following paragraph? 3 Underline any words/phrases in the model text which help to link the paragraphs together. 4 Do you think that the final paragraph "rounds o ff' the whole text? Give reasons for your answer.

Using a One o f the difficulties o f this type o f biography writing Variety of sentence Structure, for example: structures He was born in 1951•

is lack o f variety

He went to school. He joined a rock band, etc.

W orking in groups, discuss how you would change the following sentences by starting each with one o f the words/phrases provided in the box below, for example: He remains down-to-earth in spite o f the fact that he is successful. a) Despite his success, he remains down-to-earth. b) Although he is successful, he remains down-to-earth.

As a result o f ...

It was through ...

A fte r ...

As well a s ...

H avin g...

B y ...

Not o n ly...

1 He left school when he got a part in 'Oliver'. a) H a vin g_________________ b) A ft e r _________________ 2 He got his chance with Genesis because he answered an advertisement. a) ---------------------b) _________________ 7

3 He took over vocals when singer Peter Gabriel left to go solo. a) ---------------------b) _________________ 4 He now has a variety o f projects, including playing with Genesis. a) b)

Vocabulary

He is quiet and refresh in gly down-to-earth. W riting a personal profile usually involves describing personal qualities. 1 Can you match the opposites in the following list o f adjectives. Use your dictionary to check any words you are unfamiliar with before you begin. a) outspoken i) excitable b) shy/unsure ii) serious/dour c) calm iii) vulnerable d) impulsive iv) reticent v) self-conscious e) fun-loving vi) thick-skinned f) guarded vii) out-going g) sensitive viii) forbidding h) tough ix) controlled i) approachable x) open j) poised/self-confident 2 Tick the adjectives above which can be transformed into nouns. Give the noun form for these adjectives, for example: calm - calmness 3 Which o f the above qualities do you think apply to you? Which qualities do you personally find most attractive in other people? Which do you dislike? Can you add more words to your list?

Tenses

Present perfect o r simple past? These two tenses are usually needed when writing about someone's life. 1 Study the sentences below and, with your partner, work out the rule for when to use each tense. a) b) c) d)

His first marriage ended in divorce. Genesis was formed in the 1960s. He has helped raise millions for charity. He and his ex-wife have remained good friends since their divorce.

2 Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using the simple past or present perfect tense o f the verbs in the box. to learn to be formed

to take part to be

to have to work

to become to go

a) The young Phil Collins_________________ a small part in the old Beatles film 'A Hard Day's Night'. b) Genesis_________________ one o f the richest rock bands in Britain today. c) Phil's chauffeur says, 'Out o f all the stars I _________________ with, he's top o f the list!' d) The rock g ro u p _________________ at Charterhouse public school in the mid '60s. e) H e _________________ remarkable success as a singer/songwriter and now as an actor. 8

f) Princess D iana_________________ a fan some years ago and _________________ to see him 'live' several times. g) H e _________________ in the 'Live Aid' concert which raised money for famine victims in Africa. h) P h il_________________ in show business almost from the time he could walk, so h e _________________ to handle the pressure with ease.

Discussion

Discuss the following questions in groups. 1 If you could have dinner tonight with a world-famous person, who would you choose, and why? 2 What would you say are the outstanding personal qualities o f the person you have chosen? 3 What do you know about the following areas o f their life: a) childhood?

b) career?

c) family life?

4 What questions would you like to ask them? 5 Which person in your life do you think has influenced you most up to now? Why? Talk to your partner about them.

Writing

Sentence jumble 1 a) The sentences below form the first two paragraphs o f a profile of actress Meryl Streep. W ork with your partner to put them into the correct order and then write the text out again in two paragraphs. (You may like to copy and cut the text into strips to do this reordering exercise.)

i)

With them she can chuckle at appearing in some o f the 'worst-dressed' lists that designers put out when they're looking for cheap publicity.

ii)

Yet, she says: 'I don't believe any o f the stuff that people write and say about me, not any o f it.'

iii)

'W ell', she laughs, 'I can look dreadful! I don't normally wear make-up, anyway.'

iv)

On film, her eyes change colour from blue to green depending on her mood and she can convey a wealth o f meaning with just a sideways glance.

v)

H owever she shuns the spotlight, preferring a quiet evening at home with her family to the Hollywood hype.

vi)

She has, too, a radiant smile that lights up the screen.

vii)

Celebrating her 40th birthday this week, Meryl Streep is one o f the screen's most enigmatic and least-known properties.

viii)

This whole look, and the enormous talent that goes with it, have made her a box-office success time after time in films like 'Kramer versus Kramer', 'The French Lieutenant's W oman', and 'Out o f Africa' in which she starred beside Robert Redford.

b) Underline any words or phrases which help you to link particular sentences together.

□ □ □ □ n □ □ □

2 Before articles can go into a magazine they are checked by the editor for length and for possible errors. When you have written the first draft o f your text, get others in your group to check your script in the same way. 3 You have been asked to give a talk to your class entitled 'The person I most admire'. W rite down what you would say. Look at the Summary box below before you begin to write.

SUMMARY BOX Format

Paragraphing

Tenses Linking ideas Vocabulary

It is a good idea to keep a time sequence in mind when writing a profile, so that you work from the early life o f the person up to the present. Remember the plan used in the model:

Remember that a complete change o f topic needs a new paragraph. The topic should then be well developed within that paragraph. Do not make each sentence into a new paragraph! The simple past and present perfect tenses are usually needed in this type o f text. Remember to link your paragraphs together. Look back to the 'Sentence jumble' exercise on page 9 for examples o f how this is done. Try to use some o f the words you practised in this unit for describing personal qualities (see page 8). Remember also to use a variety o f structures to make your text interesting.

U N IT TWO

Invitations and Refusals Layout 1 Read the informal letter below, in which the writer is inviting a friend to stay. The letter contains basic mistakes in layout, spelling and punctuation (especially the use o f the apostrophe!). W ork with your partner to correct the errors, then write out the letter correctly, in three paragraphs.

' Coastguard cottages' Scotland

sue smith ebury road 16

vuctoTua

LcmoLcmec6 Ipr

monday /£September heUo pojuLa /

many thank* -fur you're Latter and apology's for Vue cbelcuy in replying but Iue been up to my eye's preparing for our holiday next week anyusay the reason Im writing now i* to uuuite you to a party out our home on new years' eve as you know its Jims’ birthday on the 1st jarujuary so we tfvought wed make it a double celebration we wondered, whether youd Like to stay for the whole weekend then we could show you round the city it would be really good to huwe you here so do try and make, it weJU. Id better stop now and get back to the packing I suppose I shall need a hujiidLay just to recover from the preparations Love from u& both yours faithfully, Sue,

2 With your partner, check that you know the answers to the following: a) When writing an informal letter in English, where do you normally put your own name? b) H ow can you begin and end a friendly letter? H ow would this be different in a formal letter? c) 'I'd better stop now7 is a typical way to sign o ff an informal letter. Do you know any similar alternatives? H ow do you sign o ff a formal letter? 11

Functional language

In your corrected version o f the model letter, pick out the phrase(s) used for the following: a) b) c) d) e)

thanking inviting apologising persuading bringing the letter to a conclusion

Can you suggest alternatives for each?

Tenses

Present perfect I've been up to my eyes preparing for our holiday next week. 1 Can you explain why the present perfect is used in the sentence above? 2 Make questions from the follow ing prompts to interview your neighbour, using the present perfect (simple or continuous) or the past simple. a) b) c) d) e)

Punctuation

What / you / up to / lately? H ow much free time / you / have / recently? H ow long / you / work / your present job? H ow / you / spend / your time / during / last / few weeks? H ow / you / spend / last weekend?

Apostrophes 1 Study the use o f the apostrophe in the sentences below. Can you work out any rules? W hy is there no apostrophe in f)? a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

She's gone! She's not coming back. John's car has been stolen. That girl's face is familiar. The policeman took down the boys' names. The dog has lost its collar. You wifi find ties in the men's department, downstairs.

2 In the follow ing sentences, the apostrophe has been used incorrectly. Can you spot the mistakes? Check your answers with others in your group. a) b) c) d) e)

Its been a long time since Ive been to Toms' flat. All the boy's wallets had been stolen so they had to walk home. Ive got my umbrella, but have you got your's? W e go to a womens' aerobic class on Tuesday's. People are flocking to the aquarium to see the dolphin and i f s new baby. f) Have you seen the dog? Its' got i f s lead completely twisted.

Sentence ju m b le ^

This is the letter which Paula sent after staying with Sue and Jim for the weekend. W ork with your partner to put Paula's letter into the correct order. Coastguard Cottages, Dunmore, Skye, Scotland Wednesday, 5th January

Dear Sue,

1punch: drink made of wine or spirits mixed with sugar, lemons spice, etc.

Format

a)

I think you'd like it up here - the cottage is miles from anywhere so you'd have real peace and quiet.

b)

Living in the country is wonderful but it is good to get back to civilisation once in a while.

c)

That punch1 certainly lived up to its name - no wonder w e all had hangovers the next day!

d)

I'm mentioning it now so that you can keep your diary free fo r that time.

e)

Just a quick line to thank you again for the lovely weekend in London.

f)

Well, that7s all for now.

g)

There's plenty o f fishing for Jim, too - he can even go shark-fishing if he's feeling ambitious!

h)

Anyway, it certainly got everyone into the party spirit quickly, which is what you want at N ew Year, after all.

i)

It was such a nice change from my usual surroundings.

j)

Now, what about you coming up to see me during the Easter holidays?

k)

I hope Jim has recovered from his party by now!

1)

Drop me a line as soon as you can.

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

Love, Paula

Paula's letter (above) could be divided into three paragraphs. W rite a summary o f the three main parts o f the letter in the boxes below.

13

Register

Remember that in letter-writing, as elsewhere, it is important to adapt your language to your audience. Mistakes in style may make your letter look odd or just plain silly! Some o f the phrases below are more formal than others. Tick those you think are suitable for a friend. | |Thanks f o r ... □

I am writing to thank you f o r ...

| | M y wife and I request the pleasure o f your company a t... | | H ow about coming t o ... □

I would like to apologise most sincerely on behalf o f ...



I'm afraid I can't make it t o ...

| | Apologies f o r ... □

I'm writing to inform you that...



I'm writing to inquire about...

| | I just had to write and tell you about... | | Must rush now an d... | | Do write so on ... □

Refusing invitations/ Making excuses

I look forward to your prompt rep ly...

In Britain, if you have to turn down an invitation, it is usual to provide an excuse, otherwise you may appear rude or off-hand, for example: A: Do you fancy coming to the cinema on Friday? B: Oh dear! What a shame. I'm afraid I've got something on that night. What about Sunday? 1 Can you think o f any other ways o f refusing an invitation politely? 2 Use the prompts below to invite your partner out. They should turn down your invitation politely, giving an excuse and suggesting an alternative where appropriate. a) W e / have / party / Friday. H ow / about / come? b) M y parents / rent / cottage / seaside / week. You / like / come / stay / us? c) Fancy / come / restaurant / tonight? It / my birthday. d) You / do / anything / weekend? I / think / about / have / few people / over / dinner. e) H ow / you / feel / come / holiday / me / this year? 3 N ow write a short note inviting someone in your class out for the evening, or away for a weekend. W hen you are ready, exchange notes (your teacher will deliver them) and write a note refusing the invitation. Remember to give an excuse, and maybe suggest an alternative.

Writing 1 This is the letter which Sue sent to Paula, replying to the invitation to spend Easter in Scotland. W orking with your partner, build up the letter from the prompts given. London 13th January Dear Paula, It / be / lovely / hear / you / so / soon. I / be / glad / you / enjoy / weekend / us. W e / certainly / love / have / you / here. I / be / afraid / w e A not able / make it / Scotland / Easter. Jim / already / book / us / holiday / Crete / that time / and / it /. be / too late / cancel / now. It / be / real shame / as / w e / love / come up / otherwise. W hat about / you / come / here again, though? W e be able / show you / all / things w e / not / have / time see / N ew Year. W e / get / three weeks holiday / August / so / that / be / good time, / unless / you / have / other plans / o f course. Anyway, / let / me / know / what / you / think / either way. Have to / rush / now / if / I / be / to / catch / last / post. Jim / send / love. W rite soon! Sue

etpectaJfy d i T h a d n 't J e e n jn ii * #

ages'

Anyway the rteU reaA
apologies for any delay in replying (and an excuse!) news o f yourself/what you have been doing recently thanks for the invitation polite refusal (and reason) alternative suggestions: a) could you change the dates in September? b) could your friend visit you instead? c) would it be best to leave the holiday until Christmas, or the follow ing year? • 'signing o ff' phrase • suitable ending Look at the Summary box at the end o f the unit before you begin writing. 15

3 You are spending a few months in a foreign country. W rite a letter to an English-speaking friend describing where you are and what you have been doing. Include an invitation to your friend to spend a few days with you and suggest how you could spend the time together.

SUMMARY BOX Layout Paragraphing Register Tenses

16

Check with the model letters that you remember how to lay out your letter correctly. Group your ideas together into definite topic areas - avoid writing a series o f one-sentence paragraphs. You are writing to friends - make sure your language is not too stiff and formal. Remember that the present perfect (simple or continuous) is useful for describing recent activities.

U N IT THREE

Giving Personal Information To Start you talkinCf ^

Do students in your country usually take on jobs for the summer holidays? Do/Did you? W hat is the most unusual or enjoyable job you've done?

Answering 1 Read the job

advertisement below. What sort o f qualities do you think are looking for from prospective candidates?

a d v e r tis e m e n ts

L

'crew: the people working on a ship 2disadvantaged-, not having the same opportunities as others

CREW1WANTED! Can you sail? We are looking for active and enthusiastic recruits to crew our sailing vessel ’The Skylark1, s Along with their norm al sailing duties, the crew w ill be working with disadvantaged2young people and helping to provide an active programme for them. Job description and application form from: io Activities Centre 8, Drake Street London EC11PQ

2 Here is one o f the letters sent to the Activities Centre, asking for information. Can you spot any mistakes?

a cW n e-i ce~ U e

T W

- v w r

% d ra te

G r ^ b y S W t , 2? I E C U P &

JCJUNJL 1*3^0

d e ^ r sir-/ rAAJlcLrvv., X a j ^ w r t W j -\o y o u

tk iL lx ^ e s'

areio

if

V>€

o^d u

trrr "

stu^LcLrk.". X ooouil^

y o u se/ v t *vul
-VK^ 'MCesSauri^ OupAjLcadb-cYv Qjvrv^ .

D o ooribs S»oor\ . V jOV^Wg S T W A

17

3 Jane Ellis, a nurse, saw the advertisement in the newspaper and decided to write o ff for further details. Below you can see the information Jane filled in on her application form, but the headings have been removed. Can you supply suitable headings for each entry?

Job application form Personal

(1) Full name (2 ) (3) (4) (5) (6 ) (7) (8 )

(9)

(10) Education 1 9 7 3 - 1978 1978 - 1985 (11 ) --------

Jane Rachel Ellis The Cottage, 2 West Street, Southampton, SW4 2AA Southampton 842796 Totton General Hospital, 26 Staines Road, Totton, Hampshire Southampton 842968 26th June 1968 Single Excellent Photography; member of camera club Sports; member of local gymnastics, tennis and sailing clubs Glenn House Primary, Isleworth, Middlesex West Park Comprehensive, Hounslow, Middlesex G.C.E. ‘O ’ levels: Mathematics, English Language, History, French, Spanish, Biology G.C.E. ‘A ’ levels: English, Human Biology

(12)

1988 to present (still employed) Period Covered Employer Totton General Hospital Staff Nurse (RGN) Position Totton General is a busy modern hospital with 600 beds. At present I am in charge of the intensive care ward, with a staff of eight under my supervision. My responsibilities include dealing with administration, training student nurses, and of course the day to day running of the ward. (13) --------------------------1985 - 1988 Period Covered Employer Malham General Hospital, Yorkshire Position Nurse

Describing your job

Notice the following useful expressions used on the form: At present... I am in charge o f ... (I have) a staff o f ... under my supervision M y responsibilities include... and the running o f th e...

1 Look back at the paragraph in which Jane summarises her current responsibilities. Check any problems with your teacher. Then look at the pictures below and write a one paragraph summary for each, using the prompts provided. a) The Royal / five-star hotel / 300 bedrooms / situated / centre / town. At present / I / charge / catering / have / staff / twelve / my supervision. My responsibilities / include / make up menus, / purchase / and / course / day-today running / kitchen. b) Kings Park / large, mixed comprehensive / outskirts / town. Present / I / charge / English department / have / six teachers / supervision. Responsibilities / check timetables / teacher-training / and / day-today running / department.

2 W rite a similar one paragraph summary o f your job, or o f that o f a relative or friend.

Filling in fo r m s

Imagine you work in an employment agency. Interview another person 'n y ° ur class an<^ fill in the application form for him/her. JO B APPLICATION FORM Personal:

Full name: Home address: Telephone: Work address: Telephone: Date of birth: Status: Health: Interests:

Education: Qualifications: Languages: Present employment: Previous employment: Note: Sometimes you are asked to send a curriculum vitae (CV) with your letter o f application. In a CV, you are expected to supply the same type o f information as above, using your own headings. 19

Read the job description below, which Jane received with her application form.

JOB DESCRIPTION The 'Skylark' venture is part of our Inner Cities programme designed to help young people to explore new challenges and develop their potential. The youngsters range from the ages of twelve to eighteen and come from multi­ ethnic backgrounds. The courses last for four weeks. are looking for fit, energetic helpers who will be sympathetic to the needs of young people. Experience in crewing large sailing ships is essential and applicants must be ready to 'muck in ' and help with every aspect of life board ship. Helpers are also expected to assist with the following:

5 We

10

• organising games and competitions • giving tuition in sailing and other sports • general supervisory duties A knowledge of First Aid would be useful.

Vocabulary

Find words or phrases in the text which mean the same as the following: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Discussion

course o f action in which result is uncertain young people o f different racial groups to help sail a ship aspects o f character/abilities which can be developed to join in with the work instruction actions which test the abilities o f a person

Discuss the follow ing questions: 1 Would this sort o f job appeal to you? Why/Why not? 2 Have you ever done a similar sort o f job or been a participant on a similar sort o f course? 3 Look at the job description again. Do you think the job will suit Jane? Why/Why not? 4 Look back to Jane's application form. Which aspects o f her life/ experience should she make the most o f in her letter o f application?

20

Letter jumble 1 Here is the letter o f application which Jane wrote to

send with her form. W orking with your partner, put the sentences into a logical order. You may like to photocopy and cut the text into strips to do this exercise. The Cottage, 2, W est Street, Southampton SW4 2A A Activities Centre, Drake Street, London EC1 1PQ

1st July, 1989

Dear Sir/Madam, a)

As a nurse, I have to be prepared to take on any job in the ward, no matter how menial or unpleasant.

b)

During this time I gained a great deal o f experience in dealing with teenagers from all sorts o f backgrounds.

c)

Needless to say, I'd also be happy to be in charge o f First Aid and health problems.

d)

As my application form shows, I have been a nurse for five years, two o f which were spent on a children's ward.

e)

I am also a member o f the Southampton sailing club and have crewed all sorts o f ships; I have even sailed to America as one o f the crew delivering a yacht to its new owner there.

f)

I look forward to hearing from you.

g)

Consequently I very much hope that my application will be successful.

h)

I would therefore be quite happy to 'muck in' and tackle any tasks required on the boat.

i)

I am writing to apply for the post o f crew member on 'The Skylark'.

j)

I loved looking after young people and I feel I would have no problems entertaining them, or being firm when necessary!

k)

To sum up, the post you advertise would give me the break from nursing which I am looking for and would give me the chance to work with young people, which I would really enjoy.

1)

As regards fitness, I belong to the local gymnastics and tennis club and am a regular participant.

□ □ □ □ □ □ n □ □ □ □ □

Yours faithfully, Jane Ellis 2 N ow group the sentences into five paragraphs and decide on the correct order for the paragraph summaries below.

1

3

2 a) b) c) d) e)

4

5

summary o f reasons why she is suitable for the post sports/sailing activities reason for writing nursing experience her willingness to 'muck in' 21

C o n n e c to rs

In the jumbled letter, the connectors are in italics. Look back to check how the following words are used. needless to say

consequently

no matter

as regards

to sum up

Use one o f these to fill each blank below. 1 I have visited many countries; I _________________ have useful experience o f different cultures and customs. 2 I can swim, ski and sail__________________ , I think I have the necessary qualities for the job. 3 _________________ qualifications, I have a post-graduate degree from a British university. 4 He was one hour late for the interview______________ ,___ , he didn't get the job. how early I get up in the morning, I still can't get to work on time.

Useful language

Complete the following sentences in a logical way. 1 She is very brave; she'll tackle any challenge, no matter. 2 As a psychologist he has a great deal o f experience in 3 He's interested in doing all sorts o f 'do it yourself' jobs; these include __________________ 4 This post would give me a chance to travel, which ____________ 5 I'd like to sum up this letter b y ---------------------N ow make up your own sentences using the words in italics.

Writing 1 You are looking for a summer job

and see this advertisement in the

local paper.

COURIERS NEEDED!! To guide parties of British and American tourists around places of interest in your region. Applicants should have a good command of English and a pleasant, confident manner. Write with CV (in English, please!) to our London headquarters: Intertours, 16 Charles Street, Balham, London NE61PT

W rite a letter o f about 250 words in reply to the advertisement. You may like to include some o f the follow ing points: • your work experience, past and present/how your experience fits you for the job • your character/ability to work with groups o f people • your knowledge o f your own countryside/places o f interest • your knowledge o f English/other languages Read the Summary box at the end o f this unit before you begin.

Looking for a summer job in 1990? Join Eurocamp as a Children's Courier and put your skills to use organising fun and games for children aged 5-14 at one of our campsites in Europe. You'll be working from mid-May to mid-September. Write to: Gail Bradshawe, Courier Department, Ref G3, Eurocamp Travel Ltd, Edmundson House, Tatton Street, Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 6BG

( E lir o c a m p You are interested in the above advertisement and decide to send a CV (curriculum vitae) and accompanying letter. W rite the letter o f application which you will send with your CV. Look at the Summary box below before you begin to write. 3 You are interested in the job advertised here and decide to write for details, enclosing a brief letter o f application. W rite the letter you would send.

WANTED! Volunteers for the summer to help run hostels for international groups. Duties include cooking, cleaning and entertaining! Further details from: Economy Holidays, 16 Binsey Lane, Taunton TX132R

SUMMARY BOX Layout Form at

Reason for writing

Do you remember how to lay out a formal letter? Look back to the letter on page 21, if you are not sure. Follow the basic format for letters o f application illustrated in this unit, including the follow ing stages:

Relevant job experience

R eg ister

—>

Hobbies and interests where relevant

W hy you want the job

Closing remarks

As a letter o f application is a formal letter, make sure that your language is appropriate and not too 'chatty7. 23

U N IT FOUR

For and Against To start you tWnking

Get into groups to discuss these questions. 1 Have you got a TV in your home? If so, what sort o f programmes do you like/dislike watching? Do you only turn on for a programme you particularly want to see or do you leave the television on as a 'background'? 2 Is there too much 'sex and violence' on TV in your opinion? Do you think these kinds o f programmes can influence the children and adults who watch them? Give examples. 3 What do families who watch too much TV miss out on? What did people do in the days before the TV became a household object?

Brainstorming

W hat are the advantages and the disadvantages o f owning a TV? Note down as many points as you can think o f below. Then compare your ideas with those o f youf partner. Can you extend the list between you? Owning a TV — for and against Disadvantages 1

Advantages 1

2

2

3 4 5

3 4 5

N ow read the text on page 25 and find out if the writer covers similar arguments to the ones you have thought of.

Vocabulary

Match the follow ing words which come from the text with their correct definition. Use your dictionary to check your answers. 1 controversy

a) at fault

2 glued to

b) uninteresting

3 to blame

c) person who pays rent to stay in someone's house

4 lodger

d) pattern o f behaviour caused by disorder o f the mind

5 syndrome

e) (informal) continually close to

6 flop

f) confined to the house e.g. through ill health

7 housebound 8 blessing

g) collapse, sit down heavily h) strong impression or effect

9 impact

i)

a gift from God, something one is glad o f

j)

prolonged argument, especially over social, moral or political matters

10 banal

24

TV: coufcf you be without it? N in ety-eigh t per cent o f us in B ritain have a T V set in our hom es and, according to the experts, we rarely turn it off. In fact, the average view er watches as m uch 5 as 25% hours a week. Yet television still provokes controversy. T V does undoubtedly have its b a d side. W h ilst any links between on and o f f screen violence have yet to be proved, few 10 could deny that seeing too m uch fictional brutality can desensitise us to real-life horrors. Furtherm ore, even when program m es contain neither sex nor violence, it's not is really a good thing for so m an y fam ilies to spend w hole evenings glued to the box. S o m e p r im a r y sch o o l teach ers a re com plain ing o f youngsters' inability to concentrate and their need to be constantly 20 entertained. It w ou ld seem that too m uch T V is to blam e. O f course, it's not only children whose happiness can be affected by television. It can lead to the 'lodger' syndrom e, 25 where som e husbands com e hom e, flop dow n in front o f the T V and sim ply don't com m unicate w ith their fam ilies at all. In som e homes, soap operas have becom e a substitute for real life. 30 Yet there is another side to the picture. F or the lonely, elderly or housebound,

television can be a blessing, being a cheap and c o n v e n ie n t fo rm of entertainm ent and a 'frien dly face' in the *s house. It can be an ideal w ay to relax, without necessarily turning you into a square-eyed addict. T elevision doesn't just entertain, o f course. T h e re are tim es w hen it can be 40 inform ative and can provide a source o f good fam ily conversation. T h ere is no evidence that other hobbies and interests have lost out, either. In fact, it seem s that television has helped to popularise som e 4s gam es, like snooker and darts. A n d a final point. O v er the past few years, television has played a crucial role in disaster relief. D u rin g the Ethiopian fam in e in 1984, the huge fu n d -raisin g so efforts o f B an d Aid m igh t have had little im pact without the heart-rending pictures we saw on our screens, or the w o rld -w id e link up o f m illions o f viewers who donated m oney to the cause. 55 Inform ative, useful, entertaining and relaxin g - and yes, ban al and borin g television is all o f these. B u t i f w e're not selective, surely w e have only ourselves to blam e. T V can be part o f fa m ily life, 60 but when it becom es all o f it, m aybe that's the tim e to reach for the 'o f f switch. □

25

P a r a q r a p h in c r

l Did the first paragraph o f the model text make you want to read on? Why/Why not? 2 What is the topic o f each o f the paragraphs in the model? 3 Do you think the writer gives a balanced view o f the pros and cons o f TV? Explain why/why not. 4 Does the final paragraph form a good conclusion to the text? Why/Why not?

Linking words

The words in italics in the model text help to link the text together. Each refers back to a w ord used earlier. Find the original w ord and draw a circle round it.

Format

The text you have just read falls into four basic steps and thus follows a typical format for this type o f 'fo r and against7 writing. W ork with your partner to complete the basic plan o f the text below.

Check your answer with the Summary box on page 30.

Listing points

These are the points made for and against TV in the model text. Tick o ff the ones you noted down yourself at the beginning o f the unit. For TV

A gain st T V

1 Can be a blessing for the old and lonely

1 Too much violence can desensitise us to real-life horrors

2 Cheap and convenient

2 Can make children unable to concentrate

3 Can be an ideal way to relax

3 Children become dependent on laid-on entertainment

4 Can be informative and thought-provoking

4 Can lead to lack o f communication in home

5 Has helped to popularise some games

5 Can become substitute for real life

6 Has helped in disaster relief Did you think o f any different points from the ones in the text? What w ere they?

Planning

W hen writing a 'fo r and against7 composition, it is especially important that you make a clear plan before you begin to write. It is a good idea to note down the pros and cons as you think o f them, in tw o separate lists. Later in this unit you will be asked to write for and against single sex education. To gather some ideas, go round the class and find out: a) which types o f education other members o f the class have experienced since starting school - single sex, coeducation or both. b) what most people preferred/would have preferred, and why.

26

Now, from the information you have collected, note down at least three pros and cons o f single-sex education.

Writing first 1 Look at the follow ing opening paragraphs o f four different 'fo r and n a ra rrro n V tc against7 texts and, with your partner, decide which are the most/least paragraphs in teresting Canyou saywhy? A ‘Working mothers mean neglected children’. No doubt a sizeable section of the population would like to rise up and lynch the gentleman who made this claim the other day. Yet there are many, too, who would agree with him. So who is right - the mother who chooses (or is forced) to go out to earn a living or the one who stays at home?

C Package holidays can be a good idea but it depends. Let us look at the pros and cons of the situation.

B There are two sides to every question. This applies to the necessity for military service as well as everything else.

D ‘Speak roughly to your little child. And beat him when he sneezes. . . ’ This verse comes from the children’s book ‘Alice in Wonderland’ and is, of course, not intended to be taken seriously. But the question of how we should discipline our children is very much in the news. It is now against the law in Britain for a teacher to smack a child in school and it is suggested that the same law should be extended to parents. So what are the rights and wrongs of smacking your child?

2 It is extremely important to make your opening paragraph interesting. You may want to give some surprising facts or statistics, to make a controversial statement or even to begin with a quotation - the important thing is to persuade your reader that you have something interesting to say. W rite suitable opening paragraphs on the fo llow in g 'fo r and against' topics. You have been given help with the first one, which you should write out in full. W hen you have finished the second one, exchange papers with your neighbour. Does their opening paragraph make you want to read on? a) Frozen embryos, genetic engineering... A re scientists going too far? Scientists / make / amazing advances / past few decades. Test tube babies / become / familiar phenomenon / and / techniques / store / frozen embryos / future use / evolve. Genetic engineering / soon / give / means / control / make-up / offspring. Yet / question / arise: / 'W e / go / too / far?' b) Single-sex schools - are they good for our children?

Linking contradictory facts

Whilst any links between on and off screen violence have yet to be proved, few could deny that seeing too much fictional brutality can desensitise us to real life horrors. W e often want to mention both sides o f the question in one sentence, as in the example above. Other words used to make contrasting points are: although yet how ever nevertheless in spite o f on the other hand 1 Rework the example sentence, using each o f the words in the box above. 27

2 N ow work with your partner to complete the follow ing sentences. a) Travelling by air is still one o f the safest ways to travel, in spite o f _________________ b) It seems terrible that w e should use animals for experiments. Y e t_________________ c) Nuclear pow er would seem to be the answer to the world's fuel crisis. On the other hand_________________ d) In Britain the number o f women who smoke is increasing despite_________________ e) Whilst genetic engineering opens exciting prospects for scientists_________________

Making your text l0Wr

Connectors 'fo r and against7 composition should not just consist o f a list o f ideas. Sentences need to be linked by suitable words (Firstly, Moreover•, In conclusion, etc.). Ideas within individual sentences need to be moulded too, and the correct and varied use o f connectors is important in giving your writing style. In the text below, the writer is outlining the disadvantages o f a career in acting. First read Text A, which is really just a list o f points. Then use connectors to improve the style o f the text (B) by choosing suitable words to fill the blanks. Text A You should realise that acting is a risky career. Every year thousands of young hopefuls leave drama school. Few achieve the fame and glamour they seek. It is a fact that anyone who does make it into an acting company has got to be prepared for hard work and unsociable hours. Many companies expect you to rehearse all day but also to ‘give your all’ on stage in the evening. No place here for the lazy. It is a fact that much of an actor’s life is spent touring. You will have to be prepared for uncomfortable nights in cheap boarding-houses. Most actors spend a lot of time ‘resting’ (that is, waiting for employment). They have to be prepared to take on extremely menial jobs just to make ends meet. A career in acting should only be considered by those with energy, enthusiasm, resilience - and, of course, talent! Text B (1) ________________ , you should realise that acting is a risky career. Every year, thousands o f young hopefuls leave drama school (2 ) ________________ few achieve the fame and glamour they seek. (3 ) ________________ , it is a fact that anyone who does make it into an acting company has got to be prepared for hard work and unsociable hours; (4 )_________________ many companies expect you (5) _________________ to rehearse all day but also to 'give your all' on stage in the evening. No place here for the lazy. It is (6 ) ________________ a fact that much o f an actor's life is spent touring, (7 ) ________________ you will have to be prepared for uncomfortable nights in cheap boarding houses. (8 )---------------------- most actors spend a lot o f time 'resting7 (that is, waiting for employment), they have to be prepared to take on extremely menial jobs just to make ends meet. (9 )_________________ , a career in acting should only be considered by those with energy, enthusiasm, resilience - and, o f course, talent!

28

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Writing

a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a)

A t first yet Secondly so not only in addition as a result Due to Finally

b) b) b) b) b) b) b) b) b)

To begin with only A s well in fact in addition too therefore Besides To sum up

c) c) c) c) c) c) c) c) c)

A t the beginning except M oreover as furthermore also so Since In total

1 Textjum ble Here is a 'fo r and against7 text about using animals for experiments. W orking with your partner, put the sentences into a logical order. You may like to copy and cut the text into strips to do this exercise.

a)

This is because drugs which are tested and found safe for animals can have a completely different effect on humans.

b)

And, finally, when animals suffer purely for our fashion and beauty industries, surely this is the time to draw the line.

c)

The elimination o f polio and the discovery o f penicillin each depended on animal testing and there was no satisfactory alternative.

d)

Bombs have been placed in fur departments o f shops and food contaminated with poisons before it leaves the factory.

e)

To begin with, over 90,000 animals die every week in British laboratories, yet many researchers admit that experiments can be ineffective.

f)

Secondly, it must always be remembered that if drugs weren't tested on animals first, children could die as a result o f taking untested drugs.

g) h)

This would surely be an indefensible situation.

i)

Yet although w e may violently disapprove o f such actions, have Animal Rights groups got a valid point to make?

j)

All in all, it would seem that the use o f animals in experiments is essential in promoting medical advances.

k)

People in Britain have been shocked by the acts o f terrorism carried out by Animal Liberation groups over the past few years.

1)

First o f all, it is a fact that the major discoveries in medicine have come from experiments on animals.

H ow ever this medical use needs to be strictly limited and alternative techniques - like cell-culture - should be used whenever possible.

m) There is another side to the question, however.

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

N ow group your text into at least four clear paragraphs. 2 W rite an article o f about 300 words for the class magazine on the topic 'Single-sex schools - are they good fo r our children?' Use the paragraph you w rote in the 'W riting first paragraphs' exercise on page 27 as your introduction. Read the Summary box at the end o f this unit before you begin to write.

29

3 W rite an article o f about 300 words in answer to one o f the questions below, outlining both sides o f the question. a) Medical advances - are doctors and scientists going too far? b) Is life better now than it was 100 years ago? Read the Summary box below before you begin to write.

SUMMARY BOX Planning

Paragraphing

Remember to make a clear plan before you start writing. Jot down your ideas in two separate columns, pros and cons. If you find you're short o f ideas, go and ask your family and friends for their opinions! Make sure you have at least four paragraphs, as in the format below:

Try to make your opening paragraph interesting and original in the ways outlined earlier in this unit. Answ ering the question

Linking ideas

Remember that you are asked to give arguments for and against the topic you have chosen. Try to give equal weight to both, if possible, and make sure that your final decision is a well-balanced consideration o f the points you have outlined. Remember to use suitable connectors to link the points in your argument, e.g. firstly, to begin with, secondly, moreover, besides, furthermore, all in all, finally. Can you remember how to link contradictory facts in your argument?

30

U N IT FIVE

Notes and Messages Short notes

Look at the notes and messages below and decide with your partner what you would say if you w ere actually speaking to the person. What sort o f words do you need to supply?

Being brief

The following messages are too long. With a partner, shorten them to approximately the number o f words given in brackets, by deleting unnecessary words. Then write your version in the appropriate boxes. You may use abbreviations where appropriate. For example:

Gill, J-havergone to lunch. MU-be' back at 2 p.m. Tony.

Pete, This is urgent! I have lost my front door key somewhere so I have gone next door till you get back Jan (10 words approx.)

1

I've got something for sale. It's a gentleman's bicycle, it7s practically unused and it's got 5 gears. I'm only asking £30 for it. (10 words approx.)

3

4

Dear Bob, The travel company you booked your holiday with rang at 10 a.m. this morning. The girl said can you ring them back as soon as possible. Ron (10 words approx.)

Dear M r Smith, Your wife rang at 12 a.m. this morning to say that she's working late tonight so could you pick your son up from school at 4 p.m.? (15 words approx.)

-M E M O -

Analysis

From the examples you have seen and worked through, would you say that the follow ing statements are true or false? 1 In informal notes and messages: a) b) c) d) e) f)

You needn't always use pronouns (I, my, your, etc.) You must always use a verb You can use abbreviations {a.m., a.s.a.p., phone no.) Definite articles (a, the) can be left out It isn't always necessary to write complete sentences You should always use connectors {and, so, because, etc.)

2 There is no difference between messages to friends and the sort o f messages you write at work. 3 The language used in 'business-type' messages is usually more polite and formal than that used in messages to friends. 32

Abbreviations

Abbreviations are often used in notes and messages. Check that you know what each o f the follow ing mean. If you are not sure, look in an English-English dictionary such as the Longman Dictionary o f Contemporary English. 1 2 3 4 5

Writing notes

info. & re. etc. v. imp.

6 N.B. 7 IOU 8 max. 9 a.s.a.p. 10 no.

11 PTO 12 s.a.e. 13 i.e. 14 c/o 15 incl.

16 17 18 19 20

encl. St. Rd. doz. P.O.

W ork with a partner to write notes/messages for the follow ing situations: 1 W rite a note to someone in your class, suggesting a date for this evening. State where/when, etc. Your teacher will deliver them. W rite a note to accept or refuse with a good excuse when you receive a note yourself. 2 You've lost your watch while staying in a country cottage in Scotland. W rite a note for the next tenants, asking them to send it on to you if they find it. 3 You've broken the alarm clock in your room while on a holiday in England. W rite a note for your landlady, explaining what's happened and what you're doing about it.

Detailed notes: information sheets

Sometimes w e need to write rather longer notes than those illustrated at the beginning o f this unit. M ore detailed notes contain the same basic features as w e have already seen (abbreviated sentences, omission o f pronouns, articles, etc.). In the notes below, the owner o f a seaside cottage has left information for a holiday tenant about the cottage. Read through the text with your partner, and think about the sort o f words which would be needed to make complete sentences. Then do the Comprehension Check exercise below.

Kaya Key w ith copper w ir e - f r o n t d oo r. S im ila r key back d o o r. T h ird key f o r c e l l a r d oor down s tep s o u ts id e back d oor - con tain s wood & c o a l f o r f i r e s . Winrfnw lo c k s K itch en windows w i l l be lo c k e d when you a r r iv e & need t o be r e ­ lo c k e d when you le a v e (in su ran ce r e g u la t io n s ). Key is in draw er n ea r f r i d g e . 5 Tmmamim hnat-j»r o p e ra te s on n ig h t s to ra g e & w i l l b e on when you a r r i v e p le a s e tu rn o f f b e fo r e you g o . I f you need more h o t w a te r th e r e i s a b o o s te r system which ta k e s ' an hour. In s tru c tio n s f o r use w i l l be on ch est o f drawers b e s id e h e a te r cupboard in f r o n t rig h t-h a n d bedroom. Vmatnrs o p e ra te /jbn n ig h t s to ra g e . 2 in l i v i n g room and 1 in k itc h e n . 1 10 o r 2 w i l l b e on a ccord in g t o th e w eather. ( I f i t ' s r e a l l y warm sw itch them off!) r*ig+Kin» c o l l e c t e d F r id a y morning. Rubbish in p l a s t i c sack t o be put out la t e Thursday e v e on ro a d s id e a t to p o f path le a d in g down t o c o t ta g e . Any rubbish you le a v e a f t e r t h i s w i l l b e taken by c a re ta k e r. P la s tic sacks in cupboard is under s in k . F rid y a /Frrtornr w i l l be on when you a r r iv e p le a s e sw itch o f f b e fo r e you le a v e .

20

There a re b a s ic e s s e n t ia ls e . g . s a lt , pepper, T-bags, t . r o l l s , in th e c o t ta g e . You a r e welcome t o use them but p le a s e r e p la c e an yth in g th a t you use th e l a s t o f . The shop in th e Cove i s open th e 2 shops in Ruan Minor even l a t e r . A l l a ls o open on Sundays

washing-up l i q u i d e t c . o r le a v e a n o te of 6-7 pm in summer & in th e season.

33

Comprehension

The following notes come from the model text. Can you build them into complete sentences by completing the blanks? You may need to supply articles (a, the), verbs (is, are), pronouns, or even complete phrases, for example: ____ Key w ith ____copper w ir e ______________________ front door. The key with the copper wire is for the frontdoor. 1 ____Third k e y _____f o r ______ cellar d o o r ,_______________d o w n -- steps outside____back door. 2 (H E A TE R )____ Instructions will be o n ____ chest o f drawers beside ____ heater cupboard in ____ bedroom. 3 ____ Key is in ____ drawer n e a r------fridge. 4 Dustbins____collected____ Friday mornings. 5 ____ Rubbish in ____ plastic sack____ to be put out la te------Thursday evening o n ____ roadside a t ____ top o f ____ path leading down t o -----cottage. 6 ______ Plastic sacks

Format

in _cupboard under-----------------sink.

Detailed notes need to be clear, precise and easy to read. It is often useful to divide them into topic areas, under separate headings, as in the model. Notice that the writer takes care to be polite when leaving orders: Please switch o f f . .., Please don't bother her, etc.

Tenses

Passive forms Photocopier jammed Chair to be cleaned now ready for collection In notes we are often more interested in the action itself than in the person performing the action. The use o f the passive can also give a neutral, formal style to a note or message. Complete the following using the passive. 1 You'll need to relock the windows before you leave. The w in d ow s_________________ 2 The form er tenants should have unplugged the heater. The heater_________________ 3 You are to put out the rubbish every night. The rubbish_________________ 4 You'll have to tip the caretaker. The caretaker_________________ 5 Probably nobody will have watered the garden. The ga rd en _________________

Detailed notes: Giving directions

34

The owner o f the cottage also sent some directions to her tenant, explaining how to find the w ay to the place. Read the directions (on page 35) aloud to your partner, filling in the missing words. Can you say which form o f the verb is used for giving directions?

to Lizard

Trevelyan H o lid a y H om es

How t o

get

th e re

from Helston

Watch out for sign for Trevelyan Holiday Homes, on R, about 3 mis from Lizard. Signpost indicates left-hand turning marked Cadgwith/ Ruan Minor. Drive until you come to the Cherry Tree Garage & go straight over crossroads (do not take right-hand turn to Cadgwith 5 marked 'Heavy Vehicles Route1). Go through Ruan village, past church & P.O. then take left turn at general store. Go down steep very narrow lane & Tregwyn is the first thatched cottage on the right at the bottom, Opp. on the left is a space marked 'Private Car Park' . Do not put car too far forward on fire hydrant or io flowers (will explain this later) .

Writing

1 W rite

notes or messages for the following situations:

a) An English-speaking friend is coming round to see you this evening but you've been asked to go and babysit at short notice. Leave a message for your friend telling her where you are and inviting her to go round. b) You're on a language course in Britain but one day you are ill and can't attend school. W rite a note for the teacher which a friend can take for you. c) You work for a British company. Your boss is out when someone calls to make an appointment for the secretarial job advertised in the paper. W rite a memo for your boss, telling him what arrangements you have made. d) The TV isn't working. You've phoned the repair man and he's coming this afternoon while you're out. Leave a note for your English-speaking flatmate, asking her to stay in for his call. 2 While you are away on holiday, some English-speaking friends are coming to stay in your house. W rite the notes you would leave. Remember that these are just notes so you do not need to write whole sentences. Also, they are for a friend, so they needn't be too formal but they must be clear! The following suggestions may help you to decide on the sections o f your notes: • Do your friends need instructions on using equipment, e.g. the dishwasher, washing machine, cooker, microwave? Remember to use the polite imperative (Please switch o ff . ..). • Does anything need doing in the garden? Have you left any pets? If so, what do they need? • Is there a milkman, newspaper boy, etc. to be paid? • What are the arrangements for paying gas, electricity, the telephone? • What is there to do/see in the area? H ow is it best to get about? • What other information might be o f use to them? Look at the Summary box at the end o f the unit before you begin to write. 35

3 With a partner, write down some directions which you could send to an English-speaking visitor to your school. She will be travelling from the centre o f town by car, on foot or by public transport (you decide which). You should write your directions in note form, as in the model text, but make sure they are clear. Start by sketching a map o f the route. You may find the following language useful: Bear left/right Watch out f o r ... Take the left/right-hand turn/ turning into (Grange Road) It7s the first/second, etc. on the right Drive until you come t o ... Go straight on as far a s... Go straight over the crossroads/ roundabout Go down the road/lane Look for signs t o ... Look for a road m arked...

Go on past/over/across a crossroads a T-junction a subway a pedestrian crossing a turning a slip road a roundabout a side street

SUMMARY BOX Style

Remember that when writing notes w e frequently leave out pronouns, articles, prepositions, and occasionally verbs. W e can also use abbreviations. Notes must always be clear and unambiguous. Do not shorten a note/ message so much that the meaning is lost. As a check, give your note to a friend and see if the meaning is plain to them.

Register

Detailed notes

36

A message to a friend will probably look different - and sound different - from a note to the boss. Always keep in mind the audience you are writing for. Long notes need to be clearly laid out. Remember to group different topics in sections, with a clear heading for each.

U N IT SIX

Writing a Formal Letter of Complaint To start you thinking

1 H ow often have you been abroad on holiday? W here? When? With whom? 2 What has been a) your best and b) .your worst holiday till now? Describe them in detail. 3 Have you ever written a letter to complain about a holiday? If so, what was the result?

A letter of C o m p la in t

Revision: layout

N ow read the model letter on page 38 and underline the words/phrases w r^ter uses f ° r complaining. Quickly check with your partner that you can answer the following questions: 1 W here should you write your own address in an English letter? 2 W ould you normally include your name with the address? 3 In what kind o f letter should you write the name and address o f the recipient? W here? 4 Can you remember how to begin and end a formal letter? H ow does this differ when you know the name o f the recipient? 5 H ow would you begin and end a letter to a close friend?

P a r a g r a p h in g

It is important to write well-planned and fully developed paragraphs in any type o f formal text. (Take care not to write each sentence on a new line.) Most paragraphs contain one topic sentence, often at the beginning, but sometimes elsewhere in the paragraph. Can you pick out the topic sentence in the example below? The plane was late and we had to spend six hours in the airport lounge with no refreshments. When we finally got on the plane we had to wait yet another forty minutes for flight clearance, without a single word o f apology from the pilot. A n d when we got to our destination there was nobody to meet us and we had to find our own way to the hotel by public transport. A s an example o f how not to organise a holiday, this trip could have won a prize!

What is the topic o f each o f the paragraphs in the model letter on page 38? Can you pick out the key sentence in paragraphs 2 and 3? Do the other sentences in each o f these paragraphs contribute to the key sentence? Make a list o f all the words and phrases you can find which: a) link the sentences in each paragraph b) link the paragraphs together

37

Bedford Tours, 118 Eastcliff Road, Bournemouth, Dorset BQ8 4NZ Dear

16 Stratton Road, Throop, Bournemouth, Dorset B P 9 3HQ 27th April,

1990

Sir/Madam,

My family and I have just returned from one of your 'weekend b r e a k s ’ in Paris (April 23-26) and I am writing to express my strong dissatisfaction at the holiday we were given. s To begin with, the hotel was not at all as we had been led to expect from your brochure. As the bar was open to non-residents, the foyer was permanently noisy and dirty. In fact, the noise from the disco was so bad that getting to sleep before 2 am on any night was virtually io impossible. The bedrooms, too, were not up to standard: in our room, the walls were damp, the basin was cracked and the windows were caked with grime1 and did not open. As for m y daughter's bedroom, the heating did not work and the bed had not been changed since the last is o c c u p a n t . Added to all this, the 'fully-trained and experienced courier' we had been promised turned out to be a university student on a vacation job. Mr Johnson's hold on the French l a n g u a g e 2 was, to say the least, tenuous3 20 and one of our party had to step in and act as interpreter on many occasions. Not only did Mr Johnson have problems on this s c o r e 4 but he was obviously totally unfamiliar with our route.This was evident on the second day when he turned up, late, for our coach is trip around the capital, examining a large map. When we got going, it became clear that he was having great difficulty in following this map and we consequently spent much of our day kneeling on our seats peering out of the back window of the coach at the places we had 30 just missed! As you will realise, we are thoroughly disgusted with the holiday your company provided. I trust you will agree that at the very least we deserve a letter of explanation from you and a substantial refund of our 3s money. Unless this is forthcoming, we shall have to take matters a step further. Yours

faithfully,

1caked with grime: covered (Mr M C Clark)

with a coating of dirt

2his hold on the language-. his knowledge of the language 3tenuous: uncertain 4on this score: as far as this was concerned

38

Format

Useful language

The letter from M r Clark falls into four basic steps. W ork with your partner to complete the basic plan o f the text below:

Tick o ff the complaint language which you have already underlined in the model letter. □

I am writing to express my strong dissatisfaction a t...



I am writing to complain about...



W e were extremely disappointed w ith ...



.. .was not what w e had been led to expect

□ T h e ... was so bad that...

R e g is te r



It was not up to standard



It didn't work/was out o f use



W e were appalled to fin d ...



W e w ere thoroughly disgusted w ith ...



W e expect (a letter o f explanation / a substantial refund)



Unless..., we shall take matters further



I should warn you that...

When M r Clark was telling his neighbour about his holiday he used very direct language. Look in the model text to find formal equivalents o f these words and phrases: e) M r Johnson was really lousy at speaking French. f) He hadn't a clue where we w ere going.

h) W e'll sue them, if they don't pay up.

Register is obviously extremely important in letters. In a formal letter, be careful not to use colloquial words or expressions which are out o f keeping with the tone o f the text. 39

Linking words

In the exercise on 'Paragraphing7 (page 37) you looked at how sentences/paragraphs can be linked. Now, work with your partner to choose the best w ord or phrase to fill the blanks in the following text. More than one answer may sometimes be possible.

Dear M r Temple, I have just had my house decorated by your company and I am writing to complain about the totally unsatisfactory standard o f work done.

( I ) __________________________________________________________________________________________ , (2 )____ I had 1st o f this month, nobody turned up (3 )_________________ , (4 )__________________ , the w rong date had been entered in your diary. (5 )_________________ I was forced to take another day's leave (6 )_________________be at home when the painters arrived. (7 )____________________ my holiday entitlement is limited to only three weeks a year, I could (8 )__________________ little afford to do this. (9 )_________________ , had anything like a decent job been performed by your men, I would have had no more to say about this. (1 0 )_________________ , this was not the case. I was, ( I I ) _________________ , appalled when I arrived home to find such a shoddy job done. The wallpaper, (1 2 )_________________ , was already peeling o ff the walls in places and was (1 3 )_________________ quite noticeably ripped in two places. (1 4 )__________________ , the paintwork had (1 5 )_________________ not been sanded down and the new paint was cracked and blotchy. (1 6 )---------------------- , cupboard doors had been painted closed and were (1 7 )_________________ impossible to open once the paint had dried. (1 8 )___________________ I had to use a chisel to prize them open again. I telephoned your company first thing yesterday about this matter and they promised you would ring me back before 1 p.m. (1 9 )_________________ this assurance, I have heard nothing and I should warn you that (2 0 )_________________ I do so in the very near future I intend to take the matter further. (2 1 )_________________ I already have an appointment with my solicitor for this Friday. I look forward to your prompt reply, D. Smith 1 a d 2 a 3 a 4 a 5 a 6 a 7 a 8 a' 9 a 10 a 11 a 12 a 13 a 14 a 15 a 16 a d 17 a 18 a 19 a 20 a 21 a 40

First o f all b) In the beginning c) A t the beginning To start with in spite o f b) despite c) although d) even although b) though c) thus d) as seemingly b) however c) nevertheless d) apparently So b) Consequently c) And d) Thus so as b) for to c) so as to d) in order to Because b) As c) Although d) Considering nevertheless b) thus c) obviously d) indeed Nonetheless b) Frankly c) H owever d) But Indeed b) Unfortunately c) Conversely d) On the other hand therefore, b) thus c) frankly d) in fact actually b) for instance c) for example d) on the one hand too b) also c) m oreover d) furthermore Secondly, b) Added to this, c) Next, d) Not only clearly b) obviously c) evidently d) hardly On the other hand b) To make matters worse c) Furthermore And for that reason b) hardly c) therefore d) consequently A t least b) A t last c) A t the end d) In the end Despite o f b) Although c) In spite o f d) Notwithstanding except b) without c) until d) unless Indeed b) Thus c) For that d) In fact

Text correction

Nicole

W ork with your partner to find mistakes in the letter o f complaint below. (These include grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, paragraphing and layout.)

Bournemouth 19th January 1990

Flury

Blarney Hotel Cork Dear

Sir,

I am writing to inform you of my gross dissatisfaction with your hotel, where I have just spent 10 days. It was an absolute nightmare. For the sunshine you guaranteed we waited in vain, it rained non-stop. The staff was surly, moved as s slow as a snile and worked frightful. As if this wasn't enough the food left much to be desired, the portions were microscopic and wouldn't have satisfied a mouse. The "heated outdoor swimming pool" was stone cold and paradise of flora and fauna so nobody was particularly fond of taking the bath. 10 The only thing which left was playing golf and tennis, fishing and horseriding but because of the bad weather conditions it wasn't possible to enjoy it. I hope you take this letter seriously and change these bad conditions or at least the brochure. isY o u r s

Nicole

faithfully

Flury

Brainstorming

What sort o f things can spoil a holiday? Make a list. The pictures below may help you.

Writing 1 You have just returned from

a two-week package holiday which was a disaster from start to finish. W rite a letter o f about 250 words to the travel company outlining what went w rong and stating what you expect the company to do about it. You may like to use the plan given below to help you. Look at the Summary box at the end o f this unit before you begin to write. Introduction Development Conclusion

Reason for writing. Exact details o f holiday (time, place, etc.) Details o f problems. You may need to deal with each major problem in a new paragraph. What you expect from the company.

2 You have just spent a month at the school advertised below and were not at all satisfied with several aspects o f your stay. W rite a letter to the director o f the school giving reasons for your dissatisfaction, based on the notes you have made and encircled. Look at the Summary box at the end o f this unit before you begin to write.

RIPOFF COLLEGE CENTRE FOR ENGLISH

Courses for juniors (aged 6-1 Tfand adults (18+) 4 hours tuition mornings Sports + excursions in afternoons aximum class size -10 students Highly qualified staff Wide range of teaching techniques Excellent family accommodation Exciting range of cultural activities Specialist courses on request Adventure training and camping C

w a A 'to M

-teacher waA flvvay on Wolufatj

J. AndrewspTCtrareh-Str Norwich, NR310B L . ____________________ _________________ I

3 You ordered a music system some weeks ago and when it finally arrived, after a long delay, you discovered it did not work properly. Although the firm has sent repairmen out to you on two occasions you are still not satisfied. W rite a letter o f about 250 words to the manager o f the firm explaining what has happened and saying what you want him to do next.

SUMMARY BOX Layout

42

Check with the model letter that you remember how to lay out a formal letter correctly.

Paragraphing

Group your ideas into definite topic areas. Make sure you back statements with plenty o f examples/illustrations. Try to link your paragraphs with suitable connectors, e.g. to begin with, added to all this, etc.

Register

You are writing a formal letter - make sure your language is not too direct!

U N IT SEVEN

Describing Appearances Text correction 1

Look at the description below, which was written by a student. With your partner, see how many mistakes you can find in grammar, vocabulary and style. 2 Look at the way the student has divided the text into paragraphs. H ow do you think these paragraphs could be improved?

'fo u r years ago I beyaM wterfc in a s p o rt shop to wm a b it o f n^oneij. Buery Saturdays T w a s anxious because X uiasnt on e x p e r t on ~this ftefd. Soon one o C 4 * managers o f th e shop accosted me. 1 was worsted -that he has been an^ry with me b u t m -fz c t he was very h-elpfui. Joday I Czm say t h a t T know h im Very weU and -th a t he is probably m y best -friend. tits na.wie is Jean - 'Pierre.. ~fhe 'first 'thing 'that impressed me was hiz m oustaches. T have always been impressed by moustaches hecouuse -they m ake senous. -He is a ta i(, -tkin, Swiss man in his early -twenty's, tie has green eyes and his sIctn is 4.1ways sunburned. On his free tim e, he is used to practistrt^ s p o rt: euery ki^d o f sport and he's an expert on tvery d iscipline. -He is used to w tanny -fashionable shirts and trousers. Nevertheless he I ikes-fa be dressed in bluejeans. Although he is very reliable a t his work, h\es a pleasant boy who We can speak and iauqh.-He has an incomparable 5ense o f humour b u t he needs to have a big -friendship to prove it. -Me is a shy, down-to- e a rth w\ar\ b u t he isn't always very weU m his skucn. Jean-Vierre isn't ready an adventurous man although the quality to rvlake us enjoy -them too. 1 hope ts keep -this p a r t i c u l a r fr ie n d s h ip u/ttil m y d e a ih .

F o rm a t

In spite o f the errors, the student obviously made a basic plan o f the text before beginning to write. What is the format? Complete the boxes below.

43

Making a description vivid

Physical descriptions often occur as thumbnail sketches in a piece o f writing rather than as an extended composition. Read the three descriptions below. W hy do you think they are so effective? Is it because: a) b) c) d) e)

adjectives are well-chosen? adjectives are often used in an original way? the description is divided into short, manageable sentences? the writer keeps his feelings out o f the description? any other reasons?

M r Boggis strode briskly up the drive. H e was a small, fat-legged m an with a belly. His face was round and rosy and two large brown eyes bulged out at you. H e was dressed in a black suit with a dog-collar round his neck and on his head a soft black hat. H e carried an old oak walking stick which lent him. in his opinion, a rather rustic, easy-going air.

A t the appointed tim e, M r R oydon was shown in to my library and I got up to m eet him. H e was a small neat m an with a slightly ginger goatee beard. H e wore a black velvet jacket, a rustbrown tie, a red pullover and black suede shoes. I shook his small, neat hand.

(Roald Dahl)

(Roald Dahl)

She had been only five feet tall even before she becam e b ent from age and toil. H er broad strong face is deeply lined and she has taken on the wispy, papery look of the old. But she is, nevertheless, comm anding. H er blue eyes are steady, authoritative but kind. H er hands and feet are large, knobbly, with big joints the hands and feet of an old working person who has scrubbed many a floor. (Reader's Digest)

Descriptive a d ie c tiv e S ^

Notice how many descriptive adjectives the writers use in each o f the texts. Good descriptions often contain a wide range o f adjectives and adverbs, although it is quality rather than quantity which counts. One adjective used in an original and imaginative way can be more effective than a list o f everyday ones. 1 Make a list o f the adjectives used in the three texts above and check that you understand them. 2 W ork with your partner to put the following adjectives into three columns: Size, Personality, Physical appearance. Put a tick ( /) by those which are definitely positive and a cross (x ) by those which are definitely negative. Use your dictionary to help you, when necessary. bubbly plump astute mousy slender balding freckled huge easy-going tiny bouncy skinny spotty tallish chubby short-sighted bossy pasty round-shouldered pushy bright tattooed mischievous minute tousled Are there any which are used more frequently for women than for men (and vice versa?)

Describing ap p earan ces

clothes * Identify the following in the picture on the next page: a) b) c) d)

44

curls a lace collar a frock socks

e) laces f) Wellington boots g) track suit bottoms h) trainers

i) a fringe j) pu ff sleeves k) a crew cut

2 Can you guess what material the clothes are made of? Choose from the list below, for example: a cotton dress canvas suede

silk plastic

nylon cotton

leather acrylic

fur w ool

velvet rubber

Can you add any more materials to the list? Physical appearance H ow observant are you? Close your eyes and describe your teacher to the person sitting next to you. They will correct you if you get things wrong. When you have finished, get your partner to close their eyes and describe one other member of the class whom you have chosen. General physical descriptions 1 Look at the paragraph below, in which the writer describes her first meeting with one o f the children in the photo above. Which child do you think she is describing? W ork with your partner to fill the blanks - you may need more than one w ord to do this. Try and make your description as vivid as possible!

I opened the door and there stood the most (1 )________________ boy I could have imagined. He was wearing a (2 )________________ , (3 )_________________ shirt, already (4 )__________________ and (5 ) _________________ (we soon found out that nothing stayed (6 ) _________________ on Michael), (7 )___________________________ , (8 )_________________ trousers and (9 )___________________ trainers. His (10)_________________ hair was cut (11)__________________ in a crewcut which gave him rather the appearance o f (12)___________________ But it was his eyes which really caught my attention. They w ere (13)_________________ , (14)__________________ and full o f (15)__________________ I realised life was going to be (16)_________________ but (17)__________________ with this (18)_________________ member o f the household. 2 Look at the other children in the photo. What sort o f personalities do you think they have? Tell your partner. 3 N ow imagine that one o f the other children in the photograph has come to stay in your house for a few days while their mother is in hospital. W rite a paragraph similar to the one above. Include details o f where you first met, what they were wearing, general physical appearance and character. W hen you have finished, compare your text with your partner's. Which one is the most vivid? Why? 45

Describing personal qualities

1 What sort o f person would your ideal partner be? Choose eight adjectives from the list and number them according to their importance to you. Discuss your choice with your neighbour. Do their answers surprise you? even-tempered sensitive witty ambitious self-reliant dependable good fun passionate loyal down-to-earth creative impulsive self-confident generous easy-going caring intelligent 2 Can you think o f any more words you would like to add to your own list? 3 What sort o f person would you hate your partner to become? Make a similar list o f eight personal adjectives (e.g. bossy, selfish, etc).

C l l O O S i n g th e

riCfht W O rd ^

A djective, adverb o r noun? ^ t^ie 9aP s *n t^ie sentences With the correct form o f the words in the box (you may need to use the negative form). decisive confident

lazy beautiful

impatient resolute

strong ambitious

assertive elegant

1 She was a clever woman but she lacked_________________ and never took the trouble to put herself forward for promotion.

2 He stretched o u t_________________ on the sand, enjoying the stillness o f the afternoon. 3

The woman w a s ---------------------- dressed in a twin-set and pearls.

4 People who find it hard to stand up for their rights need training in __________________ 5 He was a little o v e r-_________________ o f his abilities and was shocked to find his boss had demoted him. 6 She was one o f the g re a t_________________ o f that decade. 7 They tried to persuade her not to marry him, but she was absolutely 8 He was respected for h is_________________ o f character. 9 Despite h is_________________ he was a kind man. 10 William was certainly easy-going but, being rather_______________ by nature, he could never bring himself to give a firm opinion on any course o f action.

Order of adjectives

Put the following in the correct order. Can you work out a rule for the P ° sition o f adjectives? 1 Tom was a little/rather aggressive/fat/child. 2 She had blue/enormous/bright/eyes. 3 Her hair was a mass o f red/long/curls. 4 He was wearing a leather/black/very pricey/jacket. 5 On her head she had a(n) black/little/feather/amazing/hat. 6 He was wearing tight/velvet/trendy trousers. 7 He was carrying a(n) walking/old/lovely stick. N ow check your answers with the 'Order o f adjectives' diagram on page 48.

46

DiSCUSSion

Look at the pictures below and discuss the following questions with your neighbour. 1 2 3 4 5 6

W hat does the person look like? What are they wearing? W hat are they doing in the picture? What sort o f person do you imagine they are? Why? H ow are they feeling now? Why? What are they doing in this place? What else can you say about them?

Writing 1 a)

Use the prompts given to write a paragraph describing the girl in the picture. When / I / first / meet / Karen / she / sit / verandah / motel / bottle / lemonade / front / her. / She / outstandingly attractive / woman / mid-twenties / blond / wispy hair. She / wear / rather elegant / blue / silk / dress, / sleeveless / with / low back / short skirt. / Spite / obvious youth / she / look / tired / defeated. As / I / approach / she / look / up / and / give / me / small smile / welcome.

47

b) W rite a paragraph o f about 80 words describing your first meeting with one o f the people in the photos on page 47. Begin your paragraph with the words: 'W hen I first m et. . . .

USEFUL LANGUAGE They were/looked/ appeared/seemed.. They w ere wearing/ dressed in ... in their teens/middleaged/elderly in their early-/mid-/ late-thirties They w ere short­ sighted/round­ shouldered/ well-dressed

2 W rite a paragraph describing your first meeting with a boyfriend/ girlfriend/best friend. Use the description in question 1 as a model. Before you begin to write, look at the Summary box at the end o f this unit. The 'useful language' will also help you. 3 W rite a description in about 300 words o f an interesting person you met once. (It could be a pop-singer, an actor, a TV personality, etc).

SUMMARY BOX Form at

Style

Remember to set out your description in clear paragraphs as in the plan below:

Before you begin to write, ask yourself the follow ing questions about the person you are describing: W here did you first see them? What did you notice about their appearance? Describe their face/hair eyes/body, etc. What w ere they wearing? What struck you about their personality? H ow was this revealed? Did they say or do anything which confirmed your impressions? Remember, you need an imaginative and varied use o f adjectives and vocabulary to write a good description.

O rd er o f adjectives

Adjectives often (but not always!) occur in the follow ing positions in a sentence:

1

2

3

4

JUDGEMENT

INTELLIGENCE

SIZE

AGE

( beautiful)

{clever)

(big)

SHAPE

COLOUR

M ATER IAL

If there is no difference between the adjectives, w e put the shorter one first, for example: a large> heavy book, she's a quiet, hard­ working student Look back to your sentences. Have you followed a similar order?

48

U N IT E I G H T !

Advertisements and

Notices N ew spaper

Answer the follow ing questions in groups.

announcements 1 Read through these advertisements and announcements which

come from a newspaper and decide which column they come from. Choose from the list below. Holidays Obituaries Articles for sale Lost and found

Births Accommodation to let Personal Forthcoming events

b)

Tree C o

Birthdays Entertainments Engagements Property for sale

t t a g e

° u «» hotoHd. 3 m l t o . t — are* J L

parte of

UK. Seeks fo(**e a r,

-------------

..

kSSSS?5 * -'w js —

sssk v

c)

kttten. Red ^

Tel: 297 458

The m a r r i a g e has been ar™ “8ed between Richard Taylor, son of M r & M rs Taylor of Christchurch, New Zealand and Anne, younger daughter of Major Robert and Mrs Wilson, of Wimborne, Dorset

f)

--------- Many happy returns. Hope you like the present U v e from us both. Mwn & Dad x x

h) ^M B LE sale

MiroSSPSmSSil™

>DOORS o p w 7 ? M a v

»«-L CaSk

49

Abbreviations

Advertisements often involve the use o f abbreviations. These can be quite specialised, as in the area o f property and accommodation. Do you know what is meant by the following? W ork in pairs and, when you have finished, check your answers with another pair. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Format

mod cons. incl. c/h p.w. eves. Box no.

7 8 9 10 11 12

furn. h&c d. glazed lux. tel. mins.

13 14 15 16 17 18

grnd fir flat spac. kit. det. house mod. bath. attrac. gdns. g.f. cloaks.

1 What, in your opinion, are the two most important considerations to bear in mind when writing an advertisement for a newspaper? 2 Look again at the advertisements and announcements on page 49. Which o f the follow ing have sometimes been omitted? Find examples o f each. a) b) c) d) e) f)

pronouns (I, my, he, his, etc.) articles (a, the) verbs prepositions whole phrases connectors (and, but, etc.)

3 Look at announcement c) on page 49. It has not been abbreviated in any way. Why?

What to leave out

Read the full description below o f a hotel, and then look at how it was shortened for a newspaper advertisement. The writer had to pay for every w ord printed, so naturally he removed as many unnecessary words as possible. Queen’s Lynn Hotel JpriSjaartraditional 16th century village innjsatff 11 en-suite bedrooms includin^a'4-poster. J t # $1x6 g&C log fires prtf full central heating. Ji>£jj 0 Ca/reputation for fine food and wine. Jhg seajz'opfty 20 minutes aw^y. y o b parf jje f weekend breaks from £30 per night. Queen’s Lynn, Summerton, Norfolk. Telephone (068) 72174.

W orking in pairs, decide which words you could leave out when writing advertisements for the following. Remember that the text must remain clear to the reader. 1 Isle o f Jura, Scotland. W e have a comfortable holiday bungalow to let. It sleeps 6 and has a lovely large living room and a fully equipped kitchen. It really is ideally situated for birdwatching, fishing and walking. There are sandy beaches within easy reach o f the bungalow. Apply to: Mrs Florence, A rgyll Street, Jura. Telephone number (063) 6831.

2 FOR SALE I have a ticket for the 'Rolling Stones' concert at the Albert Hall on Monday Novem ber 26th. You'll have an excellent seat in the stalls. I only want £20 for the ticket. I've also got a train ticket for London which is available at a reduced price. Contact: John Fisher, Cypress Road, Fishguard. Telephone number (026) 75891.

50

Making sense of advertisements

Fill in the missing words in this advertisement to make complete sentences, for example: Quite isolated, 3 miles from village and shops The cottage is quite isolated and is three miles from the village and shops. C h e rry Tree Cottage

Quite isolated, 3 miles from village and shops. Beautiful views over I hills. Large garden with swimming J pool. Inside, small but cosy. All \ mod cons, IncL central heating. 3 bedrooms - one with cot. J

R ent £70 p.w.

W orking in groups, practise reading aloud the other advertisements on page 49, in the same way.

Rephrasing information

We can help you with your cleaning, washing, ironing, etc. Help offered with housework. 1 Sometimes it is easiest to rephrase information for the sake o f brevity. What do you notice about the verb form in the second sentence? Can you say w hy it is used here? 2 Shorten the follow ing by rephrasing them in the style o f an advertisement, as in the example above. Then discuss your ideas with others in your group. Try to agree on the best version. a) W e're looking for someone w ho can dance to join our troupe.

D ______________________________________________________________ b) W e have houses, bungalows and flats for sale. A ____________________________________________________________________ c) I want someone to share my flat. F ____________________________________________________________________ d) I have lost the money, cash cards and photographs which were in my wallet. C ____________________________________________________________________ e) W e want musicians, comedians, magicians, etc. for our Christmas show. E ____________________________________________________________________

Practice

Imagine you want to put an advertisement in the paper for someone to share your flat/house. 1 In groups, decide what you want to say in your advertisement. (What is your flat like? W here is it? What is the rent, and what does that include? What sort o f person do you want (and not want!)? W ill they have their own bedroom? Smoker or non-smoker? etc.) 2 W rite down a summary o f the points you have decided. 3 N ow write an advertisement for the newspaper. When you have finished, write your version o f the advertisement on the classroom board. Which o f the advertised flats would you choose? Why? 51

Writing Read the information sheet below which was being longer notices local colle9e last week-

distributed in a

HELP US TO SAVE THE RAINFORESTS ECOLOGY CLUB

BRING AND BUY SALE W e are holding a bringa n d -b u y sale to raise fu n d s fo r our tropical rainforest campaign, s The destruction of the environment is possibly the b ig g e st threat to m ankind this century. In the ecology club we io w o r k to raise p u b lic consciousness about the dangers w e face. W e are in constant need of fu n d s to back our is projects — the b rin gand-buy sale is just the first o f m any sim ilar fund-raising efforts. N e w members are always needed — w h y not make this the occasion to come and meet the group and maybe even join us? 20

PLACE — St Mary's Church Hall, Winchester TIME — 7 pm - 9 pm

W e need: • articles, n ew or secondhand, for sale on the day • refreshments — sandwiches, cakes, cans of soft drink, etc. 25 • helpers! To w ork on the stalls and to tidy up later

HELPERS Anyone w illing to help in any capacity is invited to attend a preliminary meeting at 7 pm on June 7th in St Mary's H a ll If you are not able to attend this meeting, but w ould still like to help, contact 3« M r T Watkins, 16 Shirley Drive, Winchester, Tel. 0276 5431.

Note: One o f the most important things about an information sheet is that it should be clear and easy to read. Important details like place and time should be highlighted by careful spacing or by clear headings. 52

Writing your O W n notice

Get into groups to do the next exercise. You are thinking o f starting up a Theatre Club' for English-speaking people in your area and have decided to put up a notice in the local library. As a group, make a list of the information you need to include, for example: • W ill you need costumes/scenery, etc. (or people willing to make them)? • W ill you need electricians, stagehands, musicians, or any other experts? • W ill you need actors (with experience or without), directors, make-up artists or others? • What information can you give about the club and its aims and objectives? • W here and when will you meet? • A re you having a preliminary meeting? For whom? W here and when will it be? In case o f problems, who should be contacted? When you have decided on the information to include in your notice, delegate individual members o f your group to work on different sections o f the notice. If you have an artist, they could even do some illustrations! When everyone is ready, put the pieces together to make one notice, checking for errors or discrepancies.

Writing 1 Use the information

below to write an advertisement for a local newspaper. Your advert should be as brief as possible. Personal W e are a semi-professional band and we need a male singer to join us. He must be able to sing in a variety o f styles - reggae, jazz, pop, etc. W e'll be playing at all types o f functions on the south coast. The new singer should be aged between 28 and 36. There will be auditions next week. Telephone Sue: (896) 0572

When you have written your advertisement, get together with other members o f your group and compare your version with theirs. Then as a group, write a final version containing the best o f all your efforts. 2 W rite advertisements for the following: a) You are looking for a penfriend. W rite an advertisement for the 'Personal' column o f an international magazine describing yourself7 your interests. b) You have lost something valuable. W rite an advert for the "Lost and found' column o f an English-speaking newspaper. c) You want to sell your car. W rite an advert for the newspaper describing the car (condition, mileage, reasons for selling it, etc.). When you have finished, put your advertisement on the class noticeboard/wall. A re the adverts clear? Are they concise? 3 Either a) You are thinking o f organising a trip abroad and have decided to put up a notice in your school/place o f work to see how much interest there would be in your plans. W rite out your notice in about 200 words. Or b) You have heard o f an emergency appeal from a well-known body (e.g. Red Cross, Greenpeace, etc.) and plan to organise a fund-raising event. W rite a notice outlining what you hope to do, and why, and calling for volunteers.

53

SUMMARY BOX Format

Remember that when you place an advertisement in a newspaper you pay for every word, so it is important to write as concisely as possible. You can omit pronouns, articles, verbs, prepositions - even whole verb phrases! However, while it is important to find the shortest way to say something, it is equally important to ensure that the meaning remains clear. Remember that notices and information sheets should be set out clearly, with information divided into well defined sections so that it is easy to read. Notices should also be 'eye-catching7- slogans are often useful here, together with some kind o f picture/sketch.

Rephrasing information Abbreviations

54

This is sometimes the best way o f limiting the number o f words you use while not losing the clarity o f your writing. Look back to the exercise on page 51 to remind yourself o f this technique. These are very commonly used in adverts/notices. You will find lists o f common abbreviations in an English-English dictionary such as the Longman Dictionary o f Contemporary English.

U N IT NINE

Writing a Letter of Advice To start you thinking

Discuss the follow ing questions in groups.

\ Do you ever read the 'Problem page' in magazines? W hy do you think they are so popular? W ould you ever write to a magazine? 2 What sort o f language is used to give advice in English? (e.g. If I were you, I'd ...) Make a list o f useful words/phrases.

A letter of a d v ic e

The extract below comes from a letter written by an eighteen-year-old to an elcier sister- Imagine you were the recipient. W hat advice would you give? Discuss your ideas with your partner.

1 d o n tth m k lo o n M m d

b e in g a l h o m e a n y

lo n g e r, E v e ry th in g I

w ro n g - m n c fa th & f,

d o id

m y h a ir , m y T r u n d i, e v e r y th in g 1 Y o u 'd th in k 1

am

M il/ a

lO -y e a r -r d d , th e u ra y th e y

t r e a t m e . C a n u o u b e lie v e b e in

n t

1 0 o 'c lo c k

M y s

I

a y ou

v L m id u

i/ i

M rc u g h d

o u t

-f o r

h a ve d o

w e M o u ld 'g e d

M a g

a t

J o h o o t

d a / d h e 'd lid u . M

th in k , R a c h e l ?

b e e n g o in g

id

h e x e d e o f o u r o w n . -H e

d e n t n e e d to

a n y lo n g e r -

M

a t n i g h t 7?

A n y w a y , S e a / i th in k s m a r r ie d a n d g e t a

I

d o M

w kad

a rt

d o

A t t e r a ll, w e h a v e tw o g e a r s

n o rW )

N ow read the letter o f reply on the next page and underline the language used to give advice. 55

Format 1

Which paragraph o f the letter:

a) warns against a course o f action?



b) contains an invitation?



c) contains a request?

Q

d) suggests a course o f action?



e) refers to some previous correspondence?



Do you agree with the advice? Why/Why not?

14 Stratton R o a d , R o a th "Park, C a rd iff C& qSFD S u n d a y 16th O c to ber DearGiH ,

1mortgage: money borrowed to buy a house/flat 2making ends meet:

managing financially 3compromise: take a

middle course, acceptable to both sides

56

Thanks -for y o u r le tte r a n d -for t h e p h o to s - y o u Certainly S e e m -fo have had a wonderAxI holiday. S ch o ol ■trips Weren't like ~t"hat in my day*. Well C
2 The model letter contains five main paragraphs. Complete the basic plan o f the text in the boxes below:

Revision: setting out an informal letter

Putthe number o f the house before -the road Write your address on the top right-handi \±de of-the page. ~A

(

Put the

17,

1 6th

S a n d fo r d C lo s e , M u s c lif fe P a rk , B ou rnem ou th , D orset BH9 3PQ S e p te m b e r,

Postal Code

1990

date her e f*

Note: Remember that you do not put your name at the top o f the page. 1 In which two o f the follow ing do the beginnings not match the endings?

d) Dear M r Brown,

Hello Jane,

Best wishes, b)

Lots o f love, e)

Dear Paul,

Dear Clive,

I look forw ard to your prompt reply,

Look forw ard to hearing from you, W ith love, Sue

X

c)

f) Dear Mrs Lovett,

Dear Pat,.

Yours sincerely,

g)

Yours faithfully,

Dear Graham, Regards,

2 W hich could be used in a friendly/informal letter?

57

Language of advice

Tick o ff the advice language which you listed at the beginning o f this unit or which you underlined in the model letter. □ I really think you ought t o ...

□ Have you thought about...?

□ You might consider...

□ W hy n o t...?

□ H ow about...?

□ M y advice would be t o ...

□ Your best idea would be t o ...

□ W hatever you do, d o n 't...

□ Do/Don't...

□ You could/should...

□ It might be a good idea t o ...

Phrasal/ Prepositional verbs

Notice how the follow ing verbs are used in the letter, then use an appropriate form in each o f the sentences below. let down settle down

make up for fit out

go out get through

give up think over

1 I had a terrible headache when I got up - in fact I don't know how 1_______________ the day. 2 W hen John got back from holiday, he found his office had been with a new carpet and some nice cupboards. 3 Sally says she's sorry t o _________________ y o u ___________________ but she won't be able to make the appointment today. 4 ---------------------- what I said and give me a ring if you change your mind about the deal. 5 Nothing could e v e r _________________ his loss but in time his family came to accept it. 6 Nigel and Susan have b ee n _________________ for five years now but I don't think they plan to get married. 7 Anita regrets---------------------- working as she's finding it hard to make ends meet. 8 I don't think Andrew will e v e r _________________ ; he loves the wandering life too much.

Punctuation

1 Here is a reply from the 'Problem page' o f a magazine. W orking with your partner, write out this text again in tw o paragraphs, using the correct punctuation. i feel that sixteen is far too young for you to think about marriage even if you feel you are very mature for your age i would strongly advise you not to rush things but to give yourself time before taking such an important decision you are likely have a much better relationship if you allow yourself to mature if you and david are willing to be just good friends for the time being your parents might feel differently about your seeing him if they don't dislike him as a person perhaps you could say to them that the age difference w on't seem as important when you are older if on the other hand they have something against him apart from his age you should discuss that too and listen to their point o f view 2 W hen you have finished, underline the advice language in the text. 3 With your partner, discuss what you think the original letter to the magazine said. Do you agree with the advice given?

Writing 1

Read this problem letter to a magazine. In groups, discuss the advice you would give to Yasmin, and then write a letter o f reply. Compare your letter with other groups.

■ SHOULD I OBEY MY HEART? ■ Shouldtruelovecomebeforefamily have met and iallen In lews with There is really no way they can duty? I am a student aged 19, wan Italian waiter. I realty want to agree to the match so should I studyingfashiondesigninLondon, many him although he is poor, give him up? Or should I go my My parents have always been very but I will have to choose between 2»own way and marry him? I feel so sstrict about friends and expect to ray parents and my boyfriend I unhappy and I cant discuss the choose rnyhusband for me. It is a can happily bw with no money probtemwithmyfamifyforobvious customandtraditionofourcountry isbut I cant bear the thought ofthe reasons. What do you think I and I am expected to obey. But I hurt it will cause rny parents. should do? Yasmin

PROBLEM LANGUAGE Shall I...? Should I ...? Do you think I ought t o ... ? Is it a good idea t o ...? W ould it be better if I . . . ? W hat do you think I should do? W hat would you do if you w ere in my shoes? I don't know where to turn'what to do. I'm at my wits' end. Please can you suggest some kind o f solution?

2 Get into groups to do the next exercise. You have a problem, real or imaginary, e.g. a problem with a boyfriend/girlfriend, a problem with parents or family, etc. W rite a letter to an English magazine, in a similar style to the letter above. W hen you have finished, exchange your letter with another group and write a suitable reply to the letter you have received. Remember to use advice language from the exercise on page 58. W rite only the body o f the letter, as in the models. Look at the Summary box at the end o f the unit before you begin to write. You may also find the problem language given useful. 3 A friend o f yours is fed up with his job and wants to be an air steward. Unfortunately his English is terrible and he must improve it very quickly if he is to succeed at his interview in four months' time. He has written to ask you for advice. H ow would you reply? Set out your letter in full, including the address (about 250 words). Look at the Summary box at the end o f the unit before you begin to write.

59

U N IT TEN

Writing a Film or Book Review To start you thinking

W ork in groups to discuss the follow ing questions. 1 What7s the best film you've seen in the last year or two? What was it like? W ho was in it? 2 Are there certain types o f film you would never go and see? What are they? 3 Have you read any good books in English lately? If so, what were they? What w ere they about? Would you recommend them?

Pre-reading

In the text opposite, film critic Sean French reviews 'Mississippi Burning'. The film deals with the disappearance and subsequent murder o f three young men by the Ku Klux Klan. Before you read the text: 1 Use a dictionary if necessary to find out the meanings o f these words: bribery

a riddle

slyly

culprits

gripping

2 Look at the riddle in lines 29/30 o f the text. Can you explain the pun? What is the writer trying to suggest about the inhabitants o f Mississippi? 3 Find out how much your partner has heard about the Black Civil Rights movement in the US and the Ku Klux Klan.

Comprehension

W ork in pairs to decide whether the following questions are true or false: 1 The three young men who disappeared w ere engaged in the struggle for equal rights for Blacks. 2 J.Edgar H oover was keen to open an investigation into the disappearances. 3 The FBI paid for information about the murders. 4 According to the film, Mississippi is a strange, dark, uncivilised state. 5 W ard wants to follow normal procedures o f investigation. 6 Parker portrays the FBI investigation in a rather unoriginal way.

P a r a g r a p h in g

Which paragraph in the review: 1 considers the visual aspect o f the film? 2 contains an overall criticism (positive and negative) o f the way the theme is treated? 3 describes how the film detectives tackle the case? 4 gives us the results o f the real-life investigation? 5 explains w hy the script appealed to the director? 6 describes how the real-life investigation began?

60

F IR E IN TH E H EA R T O F A SO U TH ERN STATE IN 1964 THREE young men, two white and one b lack, w ere d rivin g around Mississippi trying to persuade local black people to vote. One night they disappeared. The case caused a sensation andthe Attorney General, Robert Kennedy, forced the head of the FBI, J. Edgar Hoover, to send a team of officers down south. is After six weeks of investigation and a little bribery, they found the bodies and discovered the truth. The young men had been arrested by Mississippi police, handed over to a local branch of the Ku Klux Klan and murdered. The film is directed by Alan Parker. What clearly fascinated him about the story of ’Mississippi Burning' was that it concerned 25 a strange, dark, uncivilised state in modern America. At the beginning of the film, two FBI agents, Anderson and Ward, are driving south to investigate the disappearance. Anderson poses a riddle: What has four 30 eyes but cannot see? The answer is Mississippi. Ward is determined to conduct his investigation by the book. Anderson is a Southerner and understands that normal 35 procedure does not apply down there. The Whites are silent and the Blacks scared to talk. Ward’s attempts at interrogation continually run up against a brick wall1while Anderson slyly wins the confidence of local 40 Whites. Gradually he convinces Ward that only by breaking the rules can the culprits 10

20

be brought to justice. Alan Parker is far more interested in images than words and 'Mississippi Burning’ 45 is an extraordinary visual experience. His version of the South is a strange, hellish world of fire, decay and darkness, and the evil of racism is conveyed, perhaps too crudely, by the fleshy ugliness of the actors SOand extras he has chosen to play the white Southerners. The film has been intensely controversial in America. Parker has represented the Mississippi Blacks as entirely passive 55 victims who can only be saved by white men from the north. He has also created his own version of the FBI investigation, turning it into standard cop drama. Fortunately, Parker has the services of Gene Hackman, in my view the finest screen actor in America, who conveys so much dignity and pain in the face of wickedness that he virtually saves the film single-handedly. 'Mississippi Burning'will cause bitter disagreement, but 65 it will grip virtually everyone who sees it. <0

up against a brick wall: meet no success

1run

61

Format

The model review contains four basic steps: a) b) c) d)

Recommendation Plot General comments Introduction/Background to the story

In the boxes above, write the steps in the order in which they occur in the text. T e ilS e S

1 In the first two paragraphs the writer paints the background to the film. Which tenses does he use? Give examples. 2 Which tenses are used to describe the plot o f the film? Why? Talk to your partner about a good TV drama you have watched in the last few weeks. Describe the plot, using the appropriate tense. 3 Which tenses are used in the final paragraph? Why? Give examples. Note: The writer o f this text moves from Past —» Present —» Future, which is often a good plan for this type o f composition.

Beginning your review

Film, book o r TV 1 The model review begins by giving the real-life background to the film. Look at the examples below o f other ways in which writers begin their reviews, whether o f films, books or TV. Read through them quickly and put them into the correct category.

LAST nig h t's B ritish dram atic offering, Som ew here to R un (ITV), was nowhere near so e n t e r t a i n in g . It dealt with the fashionable subjects of child abuse and runaway children and was about as gripping3as a bald tyre... Daily Mail— July 1989

2 Wtlic h 0f thp

a> is ru th i review s: h) ' ut^ess/v — • C) se

l

i

S

° n the

S

e

C a i?

omrr wrrte a oJPd ram m p , Slmilar

S

P

l

?

:

most? U/u s aj’e Why? etfective?

:

y C o * P z r e Z ? : a V m ,hn „ ^

63

V o c a b u la r y

Work with your partner to put the following words into the appropriate category: Book, Play, Film. Some will go into more than one category. extras characters a classic a scene the cast a best-seller the author a star a performance a thriller the plot a flop a chapter a role a script a masterpiece a box-office hit the stage an act N ow get into groups and check that your answers are the same.

Useful language

Use the language below to talk to others in your group about a book you have read or a film you have seen recently. Film The film is directed/produced b y ... It is set in ... It stars... The role o f X is played b y ... It portrays/shows... It conveys a sense o f ... X gives a superb/thrilling/ disappointing perform ance... I can thoroughly recom m end... I found the plot rather weak/ unconvincing

B ook It is extremely readable/rather heavy It is illustrated b y ... It is a beautifully written novel It is published b y ... It tells the story o f ... The plot centres o n ...

Writing 1 The

summary below comes from a book o f short reviews, aimed at those who want help in choosing home videos. Use the prompts to build up a complete text. EXO R CIST The Based / best-selling novel / William Peter Blatty / T h e Exorcist' / set o ff / scare / life / audience / and / it / certainly / succeed! Film / have / enormous success / when / first / come out / 1970s / make / it / one / top / money­ making films / history / cinema. A 12-year-old girl / prosperous town / Washington DC / become / possessed / devils. She / finally / save / when / evil spirits / exorcise / and / drive / her body. Directed / William Friedkin, / it / be / remarkably / well-written film. It / also / uniformly / well-acted / throughout / and / actress / Linda Blair / be / very convincing / deranged child. Some ways / T h e Exorcisf / be / familiar / blood and thunder / film / but / it / be / much more compelling / many / that genre. If / you / like / horror films, / you / love / T h e Exorcist7- but / not watch / alone! 2 W rite a review o f a film you have seen recently for the class noticeboard (250 words). You may like to use the ideas given on the next page, or you can use your own ideas if you prefer. Read the Summary box at the end o f the unit before you begin.

64

Introduction Was the film based on fact? If so, do you know anything about the background to the film? If the film is pure fiction, will you: • begin with a positive or negative judgement? • begin with a seemingly contradictory statement? • use another o f the styles illustrated in the 'Opening paragraphs' exercise? Plot What happens? Remember to use the present tenses. Try not to ramble or make your account so long that the reader has difficulty in following events. A gen eral consideration o f the film W ho starred in the film? W as the acting convincing? Was it well directed? Comment on as many aspects o f the film as you can. A recom m endation Do you feel the film will appeal to most people? Why/Why not? 3 Some people in your class would like help in choosing a suitable English reader novel to read in their free time. W rite a review o f a book which you have read recently and enjoyed. (Your review could be included in a class guide to British/American books.)

SUMMARY BOX Form at

Paragraph in g Tenses Vocabulary First and final paragraphs

It is a good idea to try and follow the basic plan used in both the sample reviews in this unit.

Remember to begin a new paragraph for each complete change o f topic. Do not write one-sentence paragraphs. Remember that the model moves from Past —» Present —» Future. Use the present tenses to outline the plot. Remember to consult the 'Useful language' on page 64 for suitable words/phrases. Look back to the exercise on 'Beginning your review ' for ideas on how to start your text. Your conclusion should contain a judgement/recommendation, backed up by good reasons for your comments. Try to make the writer feel that you have said all that there is to say on the topic, and not that you've just run out o f paper!

65

U N IT ELEVEN

Writing a Report To start you thinking

W ork in groups to discuss the follow ing questions. 1 Have you ever had any dealings with the police, either in Britain or in any other country? W hy? What happened? 2 Have you ever been the victim o f a crime or accident, such as a car crash? Have you ever been a witness? What do the police usually do immediately after a crime has been committed? If you are the victim or a witness, what might they ask you to do? 3 H ow many different kinds o f crime can you think of?

A police statement P oliceman :

With your partner, read through the dialogue below. It is an interview between the victim o f a burglary and a policeman sent to deal with the incident.

Right, Mrs Quick, this shouldn't take too long. If you wouldn't mind answering a few questions and I'll jot down a few notes, OK? M r s Q u ic k : Yes, o f course - only it all happened so fast, I just don't know if I can really remember that much. Policeman: Don't worry. Let7s just run through it slowly. Can you remember exactly what 5 time you got home? M r s Q uick : W ell now, let me think.. . it must have been about 7.30 p.m. I got stuck in the traffic - you know, the usual hold-ups on the M25. Anyway, I remember hearing the music for Eastenders' coming from Bill's flat - he lives under me, you know. Always has his TV blaring. I think he's a bit deaf, actually. 10 P oliceman : I see. W ell now, you went up to your flat - what happened then? M r s Q u ic k : Well, I went to put my keys in the lock - it was a bit tricky 'cause my hands w ere full o f shopping - and I suddenly realised there was something wrong. Someone had obviously had a go at it with a chisel or something. P oliceman : Uh huh. Go on! is M r s Q u ic k : Well, anyway, I gave the door a push and it swung open - then I heard a noise and I realised there was someone in my flat! P oliceman : I see. Did you actually get a look at this person? A man, was it? M r s Q u ic k : Y es,... I didn't get a very good look at him really. It was quite dark in the flat, you see. 20 P oliceman : OK. Well, don't w orry about it. Just tell me anything you can remember. M r s Q u ic k : All right, e r ... he was about five foot ten or eleven, I should think... well-built. Oh yes, and he had quite long h air... rather greasy-looking, I remember. I think he was wearing jea n s... and a dark-coloured jumper. P oliceman : Yes? Anything else? 25 M rs Q uick : No, I'm afraid not. Like I said, it was so dark, you see. P oliceman : OK - something might come back to you later. Now, what was the man doing when you saw him? M r s Q u ic k : Well, he was going through the drawers o f m y desk. O f course, there was nothing o f any value in them, thank goodness. Anyway I shouted something, 30 I forget w h a t... and ran downstairs for help. And when w e got back up, he'd cleared o ff - probably got out through the bathroom w indow - I always leave it open - and then he could have got onto the flat ro o f o f Jim's garage. That7s Jim Baker, Flat 26. P oliceman : Right. Perhaps w e could go and have a look in a minute? Now, w h a f s 35 missing? M r s Q u ic k : Well, I don't think he's taken anything actually. I must have caught him when he'd just started...

66

Vocabulary

Phrasal verbs / Verbs + prepositions 1 The verbs on the left below come from the interview on the previous page. Look at how they are used in the text and then match each verb with its correct definition: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 2 1

to to to to to to to

clear o ff have a go (at) come back get stuck run through go through get (something) down

i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii)

to return to memory to explain/describe something from beginning to end to be unable to go any further to check/search carefully to go away to write something to attack

N ow fill in the blanks with an appropriate verb from the list in above.

a) I can't remember his name now but I'm sure i t ---------------------later! b) John kept pestering her at the disco last night so in the end she told him t o ----------------------c) I didn't finish the maths paper because I ____________________ on the last question. d) Graham's father has got a black eye because someone at his factory lost his temper a n d _________________ him. e) W hen you've finished your com position,___________________it again and check you haven't made any careless mistakes.

Summarising information

1 Read the first two paragraphs o f the statement below which the policeman took down during the interview. Notice that it is written in the first person (/...).

POLICE STATEMENT STATEMENT O F: Mrs H Quick WHERE TA K E N : 16, C ourt Road, W a tfo rd D ATE: 5th O cto b er 1990 DATE OF BIRTH: 16.1.1954 OCCUPATION: A ccou n ts c le r k HOM E ADDRESS: As above BUSINESS/HOLIDAY ADDRESS: Q u ic k te l L td , TEL. NOS: H OM E: 592 6696 BUSINESS: 578 2493

23A Bond S t r e e t ,

W a tfo rd

This statement, consisting o f ..... pages each signed by me, is true to the best o f my knowledge and belief and I make it knowing that, if it is tendered in evidence, I shall be liable to prosecution if I have w ilfully stated in it anything which I know to be false or do not believe to be true. Dated the 5th day of O c to b e r, 1990 (signed) H ila r y Quick I a r r iv e d home a t a p p ro x im a te ly 7.30 pm Tuesday n ig h t, h a v in g been d e la y e d by th e usual h old-u ps on th e M25. I know i t was about 7.30 pm becau se I can remember h e a rin g th e in t r o d u c t o r y m usic f o r 'E a s te n d e r s ' coming from th e d o w n s ta irs f l a t . On re a c h in g th e d oor o f my f l a t , I s t a r t e d t o g e t out my k ey and then I n o t ic e d th a t th e lo c k on th e d oo r had been damaged. Someone had o b v io u s ly a tta c k e d i t w ith a c h i s e l o r som ethin g. I pushed th e d o o r and i t opened by i t s e l f . Then I heard a n o is e and I r e a l i s e d t h e r e was someone in my f l a t . (signed)....................... Taken b y ..................... Time.................... Date.................

67

2 W riting a report involves summarising events and/or conversations. It may also involve changing language into a rather more formal style than the original. Working with your neighbour, look at the first paragraph o f the report and compare it with the actual interview. a) Which details has the policeman left out o f his statement? Why? b) What sort o f words/phrases has he omitted or changed? Why? 3 W ith your partner, look back to the original interview and note down the important points which you think should be included in the final tw o paragraphs o f the statement. Then write out the rest o f the statement in about 120 words.

Reporting language

You are probably already familiar with reported speech forms, for example: 'I didn't do it.'

'I love you, John.'

He said he didn't do it.

She told John she loved him.

However w e can sometimes make our account more vivid by using special reporting verbs. The follow ing verbs are often used to report or to summarise speech: to to to to to to to to to to

wonder i f ... urge (someone) to ... mention that... announce (that)... rem ind... agree (that)... protest (that)... refuse (to )... state (that)... express concern that...

to to to to to to to to to

request th a t... congratulate (someone) (o n )... propose that... point out (that)... claim (that)... deny (that)... explain (that)... object (that)... express one's admiration/ surprise/relief (at) (that)...

1 Can you add any more to the list? 2 Fill in the blanks with a suitable reporting verb (there is sometimes more than one possible answer). a) 'G o on! Buy it!' He_________________ her to buy it. b) 'But I don't sing off-key! That7s just not true!' S h e___ she didn't sing off-key. c)

'I f s like this,yousee - if I give you a pay-rise everyone will want one. It's out o f the question, I'm afraid! His em ployer_________________ to give him a pay-rise.

d) 'Good news, everyone! W e're getting married.' Paul and Sally_________________ their marriage. e) 'No, I'm afraid I'm not prepared to do any overtime. It7s not in my contract.' S h e___ to doing any overtime. f) 'W ell done, Tom.' S h e_____________________ Tom. g) 'But according to you, the hotel was supposed to be 5-star!' Y o u ____ the hotel was 5-star. h)

68

'I didn't say any such thing!' H e __________________ saying it.

Reporting meetings/ discussions

i)

'Yes, I know you're disappointed. But if you'd done more work, you know, you could have passed.' His instructor---------------------- he could have passed with more hard work.

j)

'Really? G ood old Roger! I never thought he'd do it.' H e _________________ at Roger's success.

When writing reports, it is important not to include irrelevant details or comments. Here are the minutes (i.e. a written report) o f a meeting of the local youth club. The usual minute-taker is ill and another person has taken on the job. H ow ever they have included some inappropriate details. W ith your partner, look at the first part o f the minutes and cross out anything which you feel is irrelevant or inappropriate.

Youth club m eeting C hris: Right, let's get started then. First o f all, thanks for coming on such a foul evening I'm sure it was quite a struggle so thanks for making the effort! Now, w e've got to be out o f the hall by 10 o'clock prompt tonight - the vicar's got one o f his important meetings tom orrow morning and he wants everything spick and span by then. Don't hang around or you'll get roped in to help with cleaning! Anyway, keep your contributions brief, if you can please. E r ... w e've got just one apology for absence, I see. Clare Jones. (Actually I know John has taken her o ff to the theatre as a surprise 21st present, so let's hope she's enjoying it!) Anyone seen the minutes o f the last meeting? Yes? A re they going round? Great! Any comments on them? Jim : Yes, I've got a query. W hy has the coach trip to London been cancelled? C hris : Well, actually, nobody seems that interested - w e've sold very few tickets, not enough to make it worthwhile, really. R on : Well, I think i f s a real shame! I was really looking forward to going round Soho and having a real binge1.

MINUTES OF YOUTH CLUB MEETING HELD ON 5TH JANUARY 1991 The chairman (Chris) opened the meeting and thanked everyone for coming on such a cold evening. He was sure it was quite a struggle. He urged everyone to keep their contributions brief as the church hall had to be vacated by 10 p.m. prompt because the vicar needed to get in to clean it for another meeting the next morning.

A pologies for absence from Clare Jones. She had gone to the theatre for a birthday celebration with her boyfriend, John. It was a surprise for her 21st so Chris said he hoped she was enjoying it.

Minutes o f the last m eeting These were circulated.

M atters arising Jim asked why the coach trip to London had been cancelled and Chris explained that there was a lack o f interest and insufficient tickets had been sold. Ron said he thought it was a shame. He'd been looking forward to going round Soho and having a real binge. It was suggested that another trip be organised for the summer when the weather would be better (with a bit o f luck!).

Jane : Yes, it would be nice to go sometime. Perhaps we could go in the summer? The weather will be better then, with a bit o f luck!

'binge:

good time

69

Writing 1 Study the pictures below

carefully. They show events during a recent hijack. W ork with your partner. Decide first who is A and w ho is B.

A: you are one o f the hostages released from the plane B: you are from the security police - you are going to question A closely about events leading up to and during the hijack

Together, write up a report on what happened for police files. 2 In the follow ing dialogue a teacher is speaking to her primary school class. Put the dialogue into reported speech. Begin like this:

Miss Jones checked whether everyone remembered what... 'N o w everyone, do you remember what you have to bring for the school trip tom orrow?' 'Yes, miss!' 'Even you, Sammy? I'm amazed! Perhaps you could tell me again what you'll be bringing/ 'Sandwiches, Miss. And my swimming costume/ 'W ell done Sammy! Anything else?' 'M m ... M y project sheet, M iss... and a pencil and a rubber/ 'Ah, you do intend doing some work after all then, Sammy - thank goodness for that! All night then everybody, you can go now - but remember to go to bed early tonight and to be on time tomorrow. The coach leaves at 9 a.m. sharp - anyone who's not there on time, doesn't go! So be warned!' 70

3 Look at the text below. On the left you will see the actual words used in a sports club meeting. The text on the right is the first part o f the minutes. a) W ith your partner, decide which o f the reporting verbs you practised in the previous exercise could be used in the minutes. b) Complete the minutes (notice that the style is quite formal). Sports club m eeting Joe : Well, good evening everyone and thanks for coming. W e've got quite a lengthy agenda for this evening so I'd be grateful if you could keep your comments brief and to the point! Now, first o f all, last Sunday's sponsored bike-ride for Children in Need. I know you'll all be delighted to hear that w e raised £800! So, well done, all you cyclists. Sally : W o w ! That7s fantastic!

MINUTES OF MEETING iOTH M AY 1991 The chairman opened the meeting by welcoming those present and urging members to keep their comments brief as there was a lengthy agenda.

Sponsored bike-ride (Sunday 5th May) The chairman announced that £800 had been raised and congratulated all those who took part. This was seconded by other members present although Chris...

T o m : Yes, that's marvellous! C hris: Hear! hear! A great effort! E r ..., I've got one slight criticism, though. A s I see it, w e wasted a brilliant chance for raising extra money on Sunday. I mean the riders had nothing to identify them - like arm-bands or T-shirts or anything - so none o f the people around knew what the ride was for. I mean, they might have given us some money on the spot if they'd known. Sally : Yes, you've got a point there. The trouble is, w e never seem to leave ourselves enough time to do things properly! I m ean... D ick : N ow , hang on a minute! Be fair! I mean, I know everything was a bit rushed this time but that was because our last tw o meetings w ere cancelled. Surely you don't blame me for that! Joe: N ow , come along please everyone calm down. Perhaps we could move on to the next item. As you know, w e've had to postpone...

_______________________ SUMMARY BOX________________________ B eing concise

R eg ister R ep ortin g speech

Do not include irrelevant details in your report. Always check your first draft and be ready to cross out non-essential information. Remember how to summarise information. Reports and minutes tend to be very formal. Check that your language is not too colloquial or 'chatty'. Remember to use a variety o f reporting verbs. Check with the list on page 68 if you are not sure which to use.

71

I U N IT T W E L V n

Writing a Narrative To start you thinking

Get into groups to discuss the following questions. l Suspense stories and thrillers are very popular, even though they can be disturbing or frightening. W hy do you think this is? Do you like thrillers? Can you think o f a good example o f a thriller you have seen or read? What was it about? What is it in a good thriller that makes you want to watch/read on? 2 Some people have phobias about certain things. Do you? Do you have phobias about any kinds o f animals/insects? W hy do you think people have such irrational fears?

A short story

The extract below comes from a short story, The Rain Horse' by Ted Hughes, a modern British poet and writer. It is the nightmare story o f a horse which becomes attacker, as if possessed by an evil spirit. A young man revisits the countryside he has not seen for twelve years. Alone in the fields and in the driving rain, he realises that he is being w atched... 1

2

3

4

1stupor: state in which one cannot use the senses 2flank: side of horse 3scalp-. skin on the top of the head *unsettling: worrying 5abscess: swelling in or on the body 6spiteful: desiring to annoy 7queer: strange, abnormal 72

5

At the wood top, with the silvered grey light coming in behind it, the black horse was standing under the trees, its head high and alert, its ears pricked, watching him. A horse sheltering from the rain generally goes into a sort of stupor1, hangs its head and lets its eyelids droop, and so it stays as long as the rain lasts. This horse was nothing like that. It was watching him intently, standing perfectly still, its neck and flank2 shining in the hard light. He turned back. His scalp3 went icy and he shivered. What was he to do? Ridiculous to try driving it away. And to leave the wood, with the rain still coming down, was out of the question. Meanwhile the idea of being watched became more and more unsettling4 until at last he had to twist around again, to see if the horse had moved. It stood exactly as before. This was absurd. He took control of himself and turned back, determined not to give the horse one more thought. If it wanted to share the wood with him, let it. If it wanted to stare at him, let it. He was nestling firmly into these resolutions when the ground shook and he heard the crash of a heavy body coming down the wood. Like lightning his legs bounded him upright. The horse was almost on top of him, its head stretching forwards, ears flattened and lips lifted back from the long yellow teeth. He got one snapshot glimpse of the red-veined eyeball as he flung himself backwards around the tree. Then he was away up the slope, twisting between the close trees till he tripped and sprawled. He spun around, sat up and looked back, ready to scramble off in a flash to one side. He was panting from the sudden excitement and effort. The horse had disappeared. The wood was empty except for the drumming, slant grey rain. He got up, furious. Knocking the dirt and leaves from his suit as well as he could he looked around for a weapon. The horse was evidently mad, had an abscess5 on its brain or something of the sort. Or maybe it was just spiteful6. Rain sometimes puts creatures into queer7 states. Whatever it was, he was going to get away from the wood as quickly as possible, rain or no rain...

Comprehension check

1 Where, exactly, was the horse when the young man realised it was watching him? 2 H ow was its behaviour different from normal? 3 W hy did the attack take the young man by surprise? 4 H ow did he try to explain the attack to himself after the horse had disappeared?

Analysis

W ork in pairs to answer the following questions. 1 W hat is the function o f the first two paragraphs o f the extract? W hich verb tenses are used here? Why? 2 In the first tw o paragraphs, the writer convinces us o f the reality o f the horse. H ow does he do this? 3 W hich tenses are used to describe the actual attack by the horse (line 18)? Pick out the verbs used to describe the young man's rush to escape. Check that you understand them. 4 In the story, the horse returns. W hat do you imagine happens next? H ow would you finish the story? Discuss your ideas with your partner.

Paragraphing

1 W hich phrase best summarises each paragraph in the extract? a)

the attack

Q

b)

his indecision

Q

c)

his attempts to explain the situation

Q

d)

setting the scene/the background

Q

e)

the unusual behaviour o f the horse

Q]

2 Narratives usually follow a similar time sequence.

Is this true o f the extract you have just read?

Being dramatic!

1 W e sometimes start a sentence with phrases like this when w e want to give a sense o f drama.

Like lightning, his legs bounded him upright. W ork with your partner to match the following: a) b) c) d) e)

Not daring to move, W ith hardly a sound, N ever stopping to look back, In the nick o f time, Like a bolt from the blue,

i) the thought hit him that Val must have fired the shot, ii) she stared in horror at the snake, now only feet away, iii) the fire brigade arrived and got the fire under control, iv) he crept into the silent room, v) she ran desperately through the tangled undergrowth.

2 Complete the follow ing in a suitable way. a) Quick as a flash, he b) Without stopping to think, she 73

c) Hardly daring to breathe, h e ________________ d) In barely a whisper, sh e_________________ e) Without a word o f warning, h e _________________ Can you think o f any similar phrases? 3 W e can use inversion to make sentences more dramatic. Change the sentences below, in the same way.

Hardly had he g o t his breath back, w hen the horse appeared again. a) She'd never heard a dog howl like that before. Never b e fo re _________________ b) The sound o f tapping had barely stopped when a new sound began. B arely_________________ c) I heard the footsteps again. I'd scarcely reached the corner. Scarcely_________________ d) He reached the top o f the hill. The storm broke. H ardly_________________ e) He shouldn't be told under any circumstances. Under no circumstances__________ ______

Connecting sentences

74

The sentences below come from a very different style o f text. W ork with your partner to put them into the correct order. The underlined words should help you to do this. W here do you think the story comes from: a novel, a police report, a newspaper, a letter? Give reasons for your answer. You may like to copy and cut up the text for this exercise. a)

'A ll the same, I keep wondering what would have happened if it had been a child or a pensioner instead o f me.'

b)

She ran round to the other side o f her car but, to her horror, she saw that they w ere following her.

c)

The owner voiced the same fears although she claimed that the dogs had never attacked anyone prior to this incident.

d)

He popped into some public toilets as the couple were about to drive home.

e)

'She brought them to heel very quickly and was very apologetic', said Mrs Kirtland.

f)

A terrified housewife fought o ff an attack by two Alsatians with her handbag yesterday.

g)

The nightmare finally ended when the dogs' owner - believed to be a holiday-maker - called the Alsatians off.

h)

She then hit out at them with her handbag but they went for that as well.

i)

Nevertheless, she plans to have both o f them put down in the near future, rather than risk a second and possibly more tragic occurrence.

j)

Then, out o f nowhere, two ferocious dogs appeared and went straight for her.

k)

Meanwhile, Mrs Kirtland walked on towards the car.

1)

The dogs suddenly went for Mrs Jan Kirtland (47) at Milford while she was out for a walk with her husband, Bruce.

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ n □

Text comparison ^

Before you start writing any type o f narrative, it is important to remember the sort o f audience you are writing for. An imaginative short story demands a very different kind o f style to a factual report W ith your partner, decide which text - T h e Rain Horse' or the text on page 74 - contains the following: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

a highly personalised account o f what happened very descriptive adjectives and verbs exact details o f names and places simple, straightforward language, which is easy to read a heightened sense o f suspense short, clear paragraphs short, agitated sentences a neutral tone sudden, unanswered questions

Beginnings 1 Do you a n d e n d in g s

remember the normal time sequence for a narrative? Look back to page 73 if you are not sure. 2 One o f the most difficult things to do when writing a narrative is to find a good way to begin, so that you arouse the curiosity and interest o f the reader. The picture below shows a yacht which was wrecked during a heavy storm. Imagine that you and your family/friends w ere out sailing on the yacht when the storm broke. You have been asked to write about your experiences for the newsletter o f your local club. H ow would you begin your story? W ork in groups to write a good introduction. Look at the 'ideas' below before you begin.

Ideas Avoid childish beginnings, for example: It was a nice day when we set out and the sun was sh in in g... Try to imagine you w ere really there at the start o f the trip. Ask yourself questions like: When? W here? H ow many o f you were there? What w ere your feelings/plans/expectations for the day? What previous experience did you all have? What preparations had you made? Describe the sea/the weather/the yacht. When you have finished, decide which group has written the most effective paragraph(s). Say why you have made your choice.

3 N ow discuss how you would continue your story. 4 It is very important to supply a good, well-rounded ending to your narrative so that the reader comes away satisfied that the outcome/future implications o f events have been fully explored. A disappointing ending can ruin a good story! In your groups, write an ending to the yachting disaster story, starting from the point where rescue was at hand.

Text rnrrprtion

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Writing 1 W rite the story o f the yachting disaster in full, using the ideas you have already worked with. 2 W rite a letter to a friend in about 300 words describing an event, pleasant or unpleasant, in which you w ere involved. W rite only the body o f the letter, not the address, etc. You may like to include the follow ing ideas: Introduction W here and when did this happen? W ho was involved? D evelopm ent Describe the events in sequence (be as dramatic as you can!) Conclusion W hat was the outcome o f the event? W hy has it made such a great impression on you? Before you begin to write, look at the Summary box at the end o f this unit. 3 W rite an article for a class magazine (about 300 words) entitled 'A day to remember', describing an exciting/thrilling event in your life. The story can be true or imaginary.

SUMMARY BOX Form at

Try to follow the plan you have seen in this unit: Background

B ein g dram atic

Tenses

Events

Result/Sequel

W riting a story from imagination usually requires a sense o f the dramatic. Look back to the exercise on pages 73/4 for ideas on how to make your sentences more vivid. Short, agitated sentences can heighten the sense o f drama. Remember also how important good beginnings and endings are. The past perfect (had done/had been doing ) and the past continuous (was doing ) are often used in the opening paragraph(s) o f a story for setting the scene. Remember to use the simple past tense for relating dramatic events.

77

U N IT THIRTEEN

Guidelines and Instructions To start you thinking

1 Environmental issues are very much in the news these days. How w orried are you about the environment? Can you name some o f the problems which w orry people? 2 What do you do in your own life to help protect the environment (if anything)? Do you take empty bottles to a bottle bank, buy 'green' products in the shops, etc.?

Simple guidelines

Read the guidelines on 'G oing Green' below. H ow many o f the things listed do you already do? Can you add any more ideas to the list?

** GO GREEN! So we've convinced you! You want to go green. Here are 10 simple things to help you get started.

D Have your car converted to unleaded petrol. 1 3 Leave wild flowers alone - don't dig them up.

B Take your bottles to the bottle bank. Q

Start using recycled products whenever possible.

B Start checking those aerosols, make sure they are ozone friendly. ra

Start using beauty products that haven't caused cruelty to animals.

| Q Visit your health food shop more often - they can be Aladdin's caves of chemical-free and environment-friendly goods.

B Start buying organic foods or grow your own if you can.

B Start scrutinising labels more thoroughly.

m

Start protesting. I f a particular subject gets you hot under the collar write to your M P or councillor, whichever is appropriate. The only way to get something done is to make yourself heard!

Layout 1 W hy do you think the writer o f this article has written his tips out as a numbered list rather than a connected paragraph? 2 W here do you think the article comes from? W ho is it aimed at? 78

Detailed guidelines

N ow look at the guidelines below on how to beat exam stress. W ith your Partner' decide on the appropriate heading for each section.

A S T U D E N T S ' G U ID E TO E X A M STRESS As exam fever hots up, keep your cool with tips from our health correspondent Dr Barry Lynch. a Stress is difficult to define but most of us know it when we experience it. We may have mental symptoms: panic, feeling trapped or overwhelmed. Or there may be physical symptoms: sweating palms, butterflies, headaches, breathlessness or sleeplessness.

b Stress can cause us to feel overwhelmed and powerless to tackle the very things that are causing the stress in the first place. So make a carefully written plan and the problems will seem less overwhelming. Ticking off each thing as you do it will help you feel there is light at the end of the tunnel. c When you're writing your revision plan, make sure you include some time off - exactly an hour or whatever - before you go back to • TIME OFF • ACTION KILLS WORRY

work. Look forward to your time off and do something pleasant in it. Work out little treats and rewards for yourself as you tick off each thing on your plan. The treats can be simple: an ice cream, hal f an hour listening to your pe rsonal stereo, or walking the dog.

d Easier said than done, I know, but exercise is one of the best ways of relaxing: it's the natural way to deal with adrenaline and similar hormones that are rushing around your body. A walk will help; a quick swim or half an hour of tennis or another game is even better. e Don't drink endless cups of tea or coffee: although caffeine is a stimulant it will eventually only make you more tense and nervy. Don't try to go without sleep - sleep is a natural way of relieving stress. Don 7be tempted to use alcohol or other drugs to relieve stress. They create more problems than they solve.

• RECOGNISE THE SYMPTOMS • THINGS TO AVOID

• LEARN HOW TO RELAX

Format 1 In this article the w riter has used a rather different format from

the one in the 'G o Green' article. H ow do the tw o articles differ in terms o f a) content and b) layout?

2 W ho is the w riter o f the second article? H ow does the style o f his article reflect his purpose in writing?

Useful In the next exercise you are going to write your own tips/guidelines, lancruacre ^rst w r*te down any language from the two models which you think y

y

Writing VOUT O W n J . , ,.

guidelines

may be useful for a similar text (e.g. D o n 't....... will help you t o ...). W hat do you notice about the form o f the verbs used most for giving instructions?

You have been asked to write a set o f guidelines similar to the 'Students' Guide to Exam Stress' article for your local English-speakers' magazine on one o f the topics below. Get into groups and prepare instructions fo r one o f the headings (each group should choose a different heading). Topics 1 2 3 4 5

Preparing for your foreign holiday A guide to healthy living Looking after the countryside Dealing with a difficult teenager A guide to safety in the home

W hen you have finished, get into new groups and exchange guideline sheets. Comment on the content and style o f each. 79

Instructions

Comprehension

The text on the opposite page contains some 'D o It Yourself' advice on building a garden pond for people who wish to attract wildlife to their gardens. Read the text and underline the language used to give advice/ instructions, e.g. You can ..., Remember that . . . . 1 W hy should you think carefully before deciding on the site o f your pond? 2 W hy do you need to leave space at the shallow end o f the pond? 3 W here shouldn't you take your plants from? W hy not?

Style

Notice that the writer o f this text uses a relaxed 'chatty style. He is writing for people who may not be technically minded and who need to be encouraged to feel the job (i.e. making a pond) is easy enough for them to try, for example: Inform al 'chatty' style You will need to put in a lining You will have to find a good place for the pond Plants are best collected from friends

Formal/technical style Put in a lining Find a good place for the pond

Collect plants from Mends

Can you suggest any other ways in which this text appears more informal than a typical set o f technical instructions?

Useful language

Tick o ff the language o f advice/instruction which you have already underlined in the text. I

IIf yo u ... you will

Q Don't forget t o ...

I

IYou can...

Q Make sure yo u ...

I

IRemember that...

EU Be careful to (not to )...

I

IYou will have t o ...

Q Try to avoid... otherwise...

I

|Keep in mind that/what...

Q It's a good idea t o ...

I IYou ought to (not to )... □ You win need to ... j— | j ) on't I

Q This is especially important if/when... EH Whatever you do, don't...

| You should...

Can you add any more to the list?

Giving informal instructions

Imagine that a friend has asked you for some instructions on one o f the following: 1 Making a campfire 2 Playing a party game (you choose the game) 3 Making a simple recipe Practise telling your neighbour how to carry out the task you have chosen. (You will be writing the instructions later in this unit.)

80

MAKING

A POND

Birds need water to drink and to bath in - but a pond will attract much more than just birds and will provide a home for many other creatures too. If you make your own pond, you will have extra enjoyment because you can watch it improve as plants grow and new creatures find it and move in. You can keep a record of everything as it happens.

s THINK FIRST!

10

First, you will have to find the best place for your pond. Keep in mind what might happen if it floods in winter; remember that it could be dangerous for very small children; remember that you ought not to attract birds if you have bird-hunting cats. You will also need space for the soil you dig out, which might be difficult to move later.

WHAT TO DO Mark the edges o f your pond on the ground with pegs and 15 string. Then dig it out, putting the soil well away to one

side if you can. Make the hole deep at one end and shallow at the other. Remember that you will have to put in a iining, a covering o f soil, and some plants, so leave plenty o f depth even in parts which you want to be 20

shallow in the end.

PLANT IT UP Plants are best collected from friends and neighbours who already have ponds, or from garden centres. Don't dig up wild ones. You can also find someone with a pond 25 which attracts frogs and ask for some frogspawn to start o ff a colony o f your own - don't collect it from natural sites. Friends may also provide you with some pond snails.

WAIT AND SEE! 30

Then sit back and see what happens! Keep a record of birds and other animals at your pond - and note any flowers which might grow naturally. You should have plenty to see for years to come.

Connectors 1 Time connectors (First ..., N ext ..., etc.) can be very useful for linking lists o f instructions. In the follow ing recipe the sentences have been 'jumbled', but the time connectors will help you to put them in the right order. W ork with your neighbour to reassemble the text correctly.

a)

Roast le g o f lamb When cooked remove the lamb from the oven, keep it hot and let it rest for 20 minutes.



b)

Meanwhile make the gravy.



c)

Next put the sliced onion and thyme in a roasting tin and put the leg o f lamb on top.



d)

First heat the oven to 190° C, 375° F, Gas Mark 5.



e)

When the 5 minutes is up, strain the gravy through a sieve until it is clear and serve boiling hot.



f)

To start with skim most o f the used fat from the roasting tin, then pour in wine and stock □ or water and boil for 5 minutes.

g)

Then spread butter over the lamb and pour oil over this.



h)

Put the prepared joint into the middle o f the oven and roast for Is to 2 hours.



i)

And a final point; be careful not to allow the lamb or the gravy to go cold before serving, as the fat becomes granular and hard as it cools.



2 Make a list o f the time connectors used in the text above. Can you think o f any others?

Being concise

Tenses

Compare the instructions in the recipe above with those used in the 'Making a pond' text on page 81. In what w ay are the instructions different? Which text is the more concise and technical? Why? Passive form s When giving instructions w e are usually more interested in the action than in the person carrying it out. Written instructions therefore often involve the use o f the passive, for example: You should line the pond. The pond should be lined. Put the follow ing into the passive: 1 You shouldn't build the house on that site. 2 Make sure you switch the electricity o ff before you begin. 3 You ought not to paint the surface until you have removed the old wood. 4 You will need to have prepared the sauce the night before. 5 You will have to plan the work carefully some weeks in advance.

Writing

1 You have been asked to write some guidelines (similar to those you practised on page 79) in English for new students who are coming to your school/college. W rite an advice sheet which can be handed to them on their first day. You can include guidance on areas suggested below, but include your own ideas too. punctuality homework smoking the library precautions you should take

absence from school extra-curricular activities what to do if you have a problem things to avoid

2 Either a) Jot down some informal instructions for one o f the tasks which you practised on page 80.

USEFUL LANGUAGE

or b) W rite concise instructions on 'H ow to mend a puncture' to accompany the pictures below.

a lever (to lever) inner tube wheel pump up/inflate a bicycle pump sticky patch remove a spoke adhesive press replace bubbles squeeze apply

Look at the Summary box at the end o f this unit before you begin to write. 3 Some British friends are staying in the house next door to you for a short holiday and want to make a barbecue in the garden. They have never had a barbecue before. W rite down some instructions/tips for them on how to make up the fire and how to prepare and cook the food.

SUMMARY BOX Layout

Always consider your reasons for writing and the person you are writing for when choosing the layout o f your text. If you are giving simple, undetailed tips, a numbered list may be a good idea. If you are giving longer guidelines/instructions, you may need to divide your text into clearly headed sections.

Style

Decide whether you are writing in an informal 'chatty' style or a more formal 'technical' style and use appropriate language.

Instruction language

Remember that the imperative form is most commonly used, particularly in concise, technical instructions. If you are giving tips to friends or do not want to sound too technical, remember to use some o f the phrases from the 'Useful language' section on page 80. Don't forget that the passive is also a useful verb form for giving instructions.

Connectors

Use connectors {First.. Next . .., etc.) when possible, especially when writing a set o f concise instructions. Look back to the list you made on page 82 if necessary. 83

UNIT FOURTEEN

Writing a Newspaper Report To start you thinking

Discuss the following questions in pairs. 1 Have you read a British newspaper c) this year or d) never?

a) today,

b) this month,

2 In Britain, many people buy a daily paper. H ow often do you read a national paper in your country? Do you prefer a really serious 'quality7 paper or a 'popular' one? 3 H ow many British newspapers can you name? Which ones are 'quality7 papers and which ones belong to the 'popular' press? What are the basic differences between them?

A newspaper rep ort

Now read the article below and decide whether you think it comes from a P °P u*ar or a quality newspaper.

999 SHAMBLES AS POLICE MOVE IN P o lic e a n d first-aid ers b attled to p rov id e a m akeshift am bulance service fo r Lon d on ers yesterday. A ll but nine o f the capital's while a fire engine followed 5 71 ambulance stations were with her fingers packed in closed as the pay dispute ice. escalated. 2s Last night Union Leader London's chief ambulance R o g e r P o o le a tta c k e d officer admitted the service h o s p ita l m a n a g e rs for 10 was 'a shambles'. 'showing contempt for their P o lice v e h icles and St employees'. J o h n A m b u la n c e v a n s 30 London's fire brigade said equipped w ith stretchers in ju red people cou ld be and first aid kits struggled taken to hospital b y fire 15 to keep up with 999 calls. engines i f the w aiting time Late last night police had for an a m b u la n c e w as dealt with 400 emergencies. 35considered too long. An eleven-year-oldBrixton Talks aimed at breaking girl whose hand was severed the London deadlock broke 20 in an accident was taken to down after ju st 30 minutes h o sp ital b y a n eighbour last night.

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Vocabulary

Look at how the words below are used in the text. W rite down what you think they mean, then check your answers in a dictionary. 1 battled (line 1)

5 stretcher (line 13)

2 makeshift (line 2)

6 keep up with (line 15)

3 escalated (line 7)

7 contempt (line 28)

4 shambles (line 10)

8 deadlock (line 37)

Paragraphing

W hy do you think the writer has dealt with each point in a separate one-sentence paragraph? What might this style tell you about a typical reader o f this paper?

Text comparison

Compare the style o f this article with the one below from the Guardian o f the same day.

Ambulance shambles Simon B eavls, P atrick W intour an d G arath Parry

ttempts to resolve the ambulance dispute in London failed last night as employers admitted s that the suspension of staff1 who had imposed a work-torule2had reduced services to a shambles, with all but nine of the capital's 71 ambulance 10 stations closed. Union leaders met managers of the London Ambulance Service to try to hammer out3 a deal. But the is talks broke down, with managers insisting that unions withdraw work-torule instructions, including a ban on the use of radio 20 telephones. Shop stewards meet this morning to decide their next move. Yesterday's events brought the six-week-old national

A

1suspension o f staff: w ith­ holding employment from staff for a time zwork-to-rule: form of working which causes activity to become slower because attention is paid to every point in the rules 3fo hammer out: to discuss and make a decision about 4fraught: troubled

5binding arbitration:

dispute to its most fraught4 to deal with emergencies. state since unions launched Thirty Metropolitan police an overtime ban after 55 vans were converted into refusing a 6.5 per cent pay ambulances. offer. There were indications A Scotland Yard 3« that staff outside London spokesman said the more than were considering stepping 60 casualties dealt with up their action in a number 60 ranged from heart attack victims to women in labour. of areas including A fire crew reported that a Manchester and Berkshire. police ambulance arrived an 35 Unions have called repeatedly for the dispute to hour after they had been be referred to binding 65 called to break down the door arbitration5, but Health of a Brixton flat to retrieve an 11 -year-old girl's fingers that Service managers have had been severed by a razor 40 refused. As ambulance stations sharp letter box. were shut, accident and 70 Mr Tom Crosby, Chief emergency calls were officer of the London Service, transferred from stations to Ambulance conceded at one of a series of 45 the ambulance service's central control room in press conferences yesterday Waterloo and on to the 75 that the service had been Metropolitan Police, the Red reduced to a shambles. 'It would be a fair description, Cross and St John so Ambulance services. Police something we are not very set up a special operations proud of at all on this side of room at New Scotland Yard so the table', he said.

25

judgem ent by a person or group chosen by both sides, which is compulsory 6shambles: a state of disorder

85

Which o f the following styles would you find in a) a quality paper and b) a popular paper? Q u ality p a p ers a) short, zappy style b) complex sentence structure c) high level o f vocabulary d) one-sentence paragraphs e) down-to-earth language f) well-developed paragraphs g) concise details h) detailed facts

Comprehension

1 2 3 4

P o p u la r p a p ers

What caused the ambulance dispute in London? W hy did peace talks break down? W ho is answering emergency calls? W hy were police called to the Brixton flat?

Paragraphing 1 What is the topic

o f each o f the paragraphs in the Guardian article?

2 As we have seen, the writer o f this article uses well-developed paragraphs, unlike the one-sentence paragraphs o f the M irror. W hy do they do this? What do you think the readers o f the Guardian expect from the articles they read?

Paragraph jumble

1 The article opposite concerns a popular BBC TV series 'Bergerac', in which Jersey detective Jim Bergerac solves a range o f crimes including robbery and murder. The paragraphs have been jumbled. W ork with a partner to sort out a logical order for the story. 2 The words in italics help to link the text together by referring back to words used earlier in the story. Find the original words, for example: us: Keith Boleat and his family

Format

The Bergerac article you have just read follows the same basic plan used in many popular and quality newspaper reports. Put the four basic parts o f the plan listed below into the correct boxes, following the order used in the articles in this unit. a) b) c) d)

Comments from spokesman Expansion Reference to future developments Summary o f story

Check your answer with the Summary box at the end o f the unit.

86

Murder pictures mystery 1

caused alarm. The picture — showing a body w ith a vicious head 6 The snaps were to be used wound and half buried in sand during an episode of the hit — was among a pile of murder BBC series. photos on a school playing 7 Then a bright copper solved the mystery. field. 2 Police im m ediately s They belonged to Jersey's launched an investigation into most famous detective — TV's how the photographs, Jim Bergerac, played by John apparently taken by police of Nettles. m urder victim s, had gone astray. 3 They w ere discovered by 9 M r Boleat said:"The pictures plumber Keith Boleat who was looked all too realistic. It gave out walking with his wife and us the frieht of our lives." tw o-year-old daughter, Melanie, on the holiday island of Jersey.

Fright

B O D Y BLOW: One of the 'murder' photographs

E X C LU S IV E B Y M URRAY DAVIES

4 A GRUESOME photo of a murdered man which was found by a shocked family sparked a police probe. 5

A BBC spokesman said: "We are sorry if the pictures

STAR: John Nettles

Tenses 1 Newspaper articles often

contain a wide range o f tenses. H ow many different tenses can you find in the Guardian article? With your partner, work out why those tenses are used. A ll but nine o f the capital's 71 ambulance stations w e re closed.

W hy is the passive used in the sentence above? Can you find any more examples in the articles in this unit? W hy do you think the passive is found so often in newspaper articles? 87

3 Read the article b elow and w ork with your partner to put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

Fairy-tale story o f w hale that thinks a ship is his m other It 1(be) just like a classic Disney tale. Some time ago a baby whale 2(call) Little Squirt 3(find) himself lost after 4(stray) from his mother's side. For weeks he 5(swim) through the ocean alone unable to trace the school he 6(never leave) before. Then, when all hope 7(seem) lost, he 8(catch) sight o f a large black and white object. But there 9(be) a twist in the tail. For it 10(turn out) that Little Squirt 11(befriend) a ferry, 12(believe) it 13(be) his mother. N ow Squirt 14(never leave) the ship's side and 15(snuggle) up to the hull, playfully 16(spray) passengers with water. Passengers and crew 17(be) delighted with him and he 18(now become) so popular that school classes 19(buy) ferry tickets just to get a glimpse. Killer whale expert Eric Hoyt said: 'W hen whales 20(get) separated from a school even just by accident they 21(seek out) companionship. I 22(come across) a number o f cases o f really young whales which 23(befriend) boats, although it 24(be) not everyday behaviour.' No one 25(know) how long Squirt's touching relationship with the ferry 26(continue). But in the meantime, everyone concerned 27(have) a whale o f a time.

Reported speech

The verbs in the box below are often used in newspapers to report speech. claim promise

explain add

complain deny

insist confess

accuse state

admit beg

Check in your dictionary that you know the meaning o f the words, then put the sentences below into reported speech. Do not use the same verb twice. 1 'I tell you, I didn't do it!' The w om an _____________________________________ 2 'I have just come back from the cinema.' S h e_____________________________________________ 3 'All right, all right, so I did do it.' 4 T il never do it again!' 5 'I murdered him because I hate him.' 6 'He used to come home drunk and beat me up.' 7 'Please, please, can I make one last phone call?' 8 'Look, nobody is listening to what I'm saying!'

88

Group activity

Get into groups o f six to eight for the next exercise. Look at the pictures below and work out a story for each sequence, as if you were preparing for a radio news broadcast. One person in the group will be the newsreader and the others will be reporters/interviewees for each o f the stories. W hen you have rehearsed, you may like to perform your 'news broadcast' in front o f the class.

Writing 1 a)

W rite out the stories you prepared for your news broadcast as they might appear in either a) a popular or b) a serious newspaper.

b) Imagine you work for a popular newspaper like the Daily M irror. W ork with a partner to expand one o f the following stories which have just arrived in the news office. Use your imagination to fill out the details. Each article should be approximately 200 words.

i)

GOVERNM ENT RESIGNS STOP NEW ELECTION CALLED FOR JUNE 10TH STOP P.M. BLAMES STRIKES STOP TRANSPORT WORKERS STILL O UT STOP ELECTRICIANS TH REATEN TO STOP W O RK M ID NIG H T STOP ECONOM Y ON KNIFE-EDGE STOP PANIC IN STOCK EXCHANGE STOP CH ANCELLO R PLEADS FOR C ALM STOP

ii)

BO Y SAVES FRIEND FROM RIVER T R A G E D Y STOP B O A T HITS BRIDGE AND SINKS STOP 10 Y E A R OLD BO Y TRAPPED IN CABIN STOP FRIEND DIVES UNDER A G A IN TO FREE HIM STOP POSSIBLE POLICE COM M ENDATION FOR M ED AL STOP

iii)

O’K E L LY WINS W IMBLEDON STOP FIRST EVER IRISH CHAM PION STOP TH R ILLIN G M ATCH PLA Y E D TO 5 SETS STOP N A ILB ITIN G FINISH STOP O ’K E L LY 'O VER THE MOON' STOP PLANS LONG H O L ID A Y STOP 2 You are a news reporter for a popular newspaper and have been sent to cover a serious traffic accident. W rite an article (of about 250 words) for your newspaper. Before you begin to write, ask yourself the following questions: a) What happened, in brief? W rite down all the words you can think o f on the topic (e.g. crash, skid, a write-off, injured, trapped, rescue services, etc.). b) W ho was involved? W ere there any witnesses? Did you get an interview? c) Did you get a story from a spokesperson in overall charge? d) W ere there any lessons to be learnt for the future? You may find the Summary box at the end o f this unit o f help in writing your article. 3 W rite an article for a quality newspaper describing an important event (e.g. a ceremony, a demonstration, a fire). Your article should be no longer than 300 words.

SUMMARY BOX Form at Summary o f story

Remember the basic plan given earlier in this unit: Expansion

Comments from spokesman

Reference to future developments Style

Tenses

90

Decide on the style o f your article (i.e. are you writing for a popular or quality paper?) and stick to that style. Use the lists from the T ex t comparison' exercise on page 86 as a guide to what is appropriate. Remember to use the full range o f past tenses (past perfect, past continuous, past simple) to describe the incident. Remember too that the passive is very frequently used in newspaper articles. Finally, remember to use reporting verbs imaginatively, as in the 'Reported speech' exercise on page 88.

U N IT FIFTEENl

Giving a Speech To Start you Discuss the following questions with your partner. thinking 1 Have you ever had to make a speech? If so, where

and when?

2 A speech is, o f course, intended to be spoken or read aloud. A re you aware o f this when you read the speech? If so, how do you think the writer creates this sense o f an audience? 3 Do you know any phrases typically used in speeches in English? Make a list.

A Speech

Read the speech below and answer the following questions. 1 W here is the speech being made? Is it a formal or informal occasion? 2 Underline words or phrases which are typically used in speeches. “ Ladies and Gentlemen, May I have your attention please! I ’d like to take this opportunity to say a few words. As an international organisation, we don’t often have the chance to meet each other in person-which is one of the the reasons I have 5 enjoyed this gathering so much. It has been a pleasure to see old friends again and, of course, to meet new colleagues too. On the business side, this year has been a very good one for International Travel and our results have been excellent, in spite of the problems we’ve had with rates of exchange. A ll io this would not, of course, have been possible without your enthusiasm and commitment. I think I can say without boasting that we now have a worldwide reputation for reliability and quality of service. Moreover, we have made a significant contribution to raising standards throughout our 15 profession. I would like to thank each and every one of you for your efforts. I feel that we can be proud of what we have achieved.

20

As you all know, the travel business is highly competitive and no one can afford to rest on their laurels. Market conditions can change rapidly and we need to be able to adapt to future challenges. I have every confidence that with our team we will be as successful in the future as we have in the past.

Well, ladies and gentlemen, I won’t keep you from your dessert any longer. I hope that this has been a useful and 25 enjoyable conference for you and that you will go back with some fresh ideas. Finally, I would like to propose a toast to International Travel. H ere’s to International Travel!”

91

Format

W ork with your partner to answer the follow in g questions.

1 The speaker has divided her speech into four distinct paragraphs. What is the topic o f each o f the four sections? 2 Do the paragraphs flow easily one from the other, or does the text seem jerky and unconnected? Give reasons for your answer. 3 The model speech falls into three basic steps common to all speeches. What are these steps?

The language of speeches

1 Find the phrases used by the speaker to: a) b) c) d) e)

open her speech praise her audience make a modest claim thank her audience finish her speech

2 Tick o ff the phrases in the box below which you have already underlined in the model speech. Then with your partner, put a cross against the phrases which would only be suitable for a very informal occasion. ] May I have your attention please ~\ Could you all just be quiet for a moment 31 It's a great pleasure for me t o ... | Thanks for coming, everyone

n n

I'd like to take this opportunity t o ...

] On behalf o f us all I'd like t o ... Thanks ever so much f o r ...

] I'd like to wish you every happiness for the future ] I hope I haven't rambled on for too lo n g ... J I would like to thank each and every one o f you f o r ... J I would like to propose a toast t o ...

Register

The speaker in the model was addressing a business conference and therefore used very formal language. By contrast, a speech made to a small, friendly gathering may be very informal, as in the 'farewell' speech below. 1 Read the speech below and work out who you think is speaking, and where. “Ladies and gentlem en . . . ladies and g e n ts . . . I just want to say so m eth in g . . . can you just listen for a moment!

5

Right! I know you w eren’t expecting this, A lison, but we felt we couldn't see you leave w ithout having some kind of a ‘do’. W e want you to know that w e're all really sad that you're going and that w e’re going to miss you a lot so you m ust come back and see us whenever you can. Anyway, w e’ve clubbed together and got you a little ‘som ething’ it’s not much but it comes with all our love and best wishes for the future.

OK everyone, tim e for a toast! H e re ’s to Alison! All the very best for the 10 future!”

92

2 It is important to know the difference between formal and informal language and not to mix the two, otherwise your speech will sound inappropriate or could even be taken as offensive! Look at the table below and work with your partner to fill in a formal/informal equivalent where necessary. (You will find most o f the words/phrases you need in the two speeches you have just read.) F o rm a l

Beginnings and endings

a) I would like to take this opportunity to say a word

_____________________________________

b) _______________________________

Can you just listen for a moment!

c) W e would like you to k n ow ...

_____________________________________

d) _______________________________

It's been lovely meeting you all again.

e) W e've made a collection for you and would like to present you w ith ...

_____________________________________

f) a small gift

____________________________________

g) _______________________________

OK, everyone, time for a toast!

There are many different occasions when you might be required to give a speech; it could be for a wedding, a farewell, or when addressing an audience on a topic o f interest. Here are the beginnings and endings o f some speeches. Can you match the appropriate pairs? 1 As best man, it's my duty to say a few words o f congratulation to the bride and groom. 2 As it's our last day in school, I've been asked to say a few words on behalf o f the class. 3 I can't let this opportunity pass without saying a few words o f congratulation to John and May on their silver wedding anniversary today. 4 Ladies and gentlemen, I'd like to say a few words to you about our work at Dr Barnardo's. 5 I'm no good at speeches but I'd just like to congratulate Jim on his marvellous results.

Tenses

Less fo rm a l

a) Thank you for listening so patiently - and I'd be delighted to answer any questions you may have. b) I give you a toast - to John and May! c) So, well done and here's to your new career! Many years o f success! d) And now everybody, would you please raise your glasses and drink a toast to the bride and groom! e) Anyway, w e'd just like to say thank you for everything - and to give you this little gift to remember us by.

1 Look again at paragraph 2 o f the model speech on page 91. Can you work out, with your partner, why the present perfect is used in each case? 2 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, present perfect or past simple. a) I (know) Charlie since he (start) work as a porter in this hospital in 1982. b) Since she (take up) the post in December, Gwen (make) enormous improvements to the company. 93

c) You'll have to be patient with me as I (never/make) a speech before. d) W e (have) a very successful year and I would like to thank you all for the tremendous efforts you have put in. e) When I (learn) that Sam was leaving, I (feel) we just (have to) arrange this party. f) I (want) to say this ever since I (meet) my new sister-in-law.

Writing 1 This is the speech which Alison made to thank her friends for the farewell 'do' in the exercise on page 92. W ork with your partner to build up the complete exercise from prompts: 'I / just / like / say / thank you / each / every / one / you / this lovely surprise. When / Mrs Slattery / ask / me / come / down / canteen / I / have / no idea / what / go / happen. Anyway, / I / want / you / all / know / I / be / really happy / here. You /' be / great / bunch / people / and / I / miss / you / very much /. As / you / probably / know, this / be / my / first / job. I / still / remember / how / terrified / I / be / that first day / ward / but / everyone / be / so / helpful / friendly / I / soon / settle down. I / be / sure / not / everyone / has / same / easy / introduction / nursing / I / have / so / I / like / thank / you / all / very much. Well, / that / be / all / I / want / say. Thanks / again / lovely / present / and / hope / you / all / keep / touch / me /. I / know / Scotland / be / long way / here / but / if / any / you / get / chance / pop up / we / be / delighted / see you. So, / once again / thank you / everybody/ 2 One o f your best friends is marrying someone from Britain and you have been asked to say a few words in English at the reception. Write out your speech in full (about 250 words). You should: a) open your speech in the normal way b) say how much you are enjoying the function c) say a w ord or two about your friend (how long you've known them, their good qualities, etc.) d) wish the couple happiness for the future e) propose a toast You may like to use suggestions from the Summary box at the end o f this unit. 3 You have been asked to give a talk to a local English-speaking club on a subject which interests you (a hobby, a charity, an organisation like 'Amnesty International' or 'Greenpeace' for example). Instead o f finishing with a toast, you will o f course need to provide a different conclusion to your speech, for example:

G

pEEN PEA C E STANDS FOR A SAFE AND NUCLEAR-FREE W ORLD. FRESH AIR. CLEAN WATER. THE PROTECTION OF WILDLIFE AND THEIR HABITATS.

94

Well, I hope I have been able to give you some idea o f w hat... is all about. I think I should stop now but I will o f course be pleased to answer any questions you may have. Thank you for listening so patiently. Write out your talk (and be prepared to try it out in front o f the class later!).

Against all odds, Greenpeace has brought the plight o f the natural w orld to the attention o f caring people. Terrible abuses to the environment, often carried out in s remote places or far out to sea h ave b een h e a d lin e d on

subsequently called off. 25 In the North Atlantic, Greenpeace drove its turned back dum p ships carrying chemical wastes. N e w laws to protect the

television and in the press. Greenpeace began w ith a protest voyage into a nuclear 10 test zone. The test was disrupted. Today, the site at Amchitka in the Aleutian Islands is a bird sanctuary. 15

Then Greenpeace sent its tiny inflatable boats to protect the whales. They took up position between the harpoons and the

fleeing whales.Today, commercial whaling is banned. 20 On the ice floes o f N ew fou n d lan d, Greenpeace volunteers placed their bodies between the gaffs o f the seal hunters and the helpless seal pups. The hunt was

North Sea have been promised, Peaceful direct action by Greenpeace has 30 invoked the pow er ofpu blic opinion which in turn has forced changes in the la w to protect w ild life and to stop the pollution o f the natural w orld.

SUMMARY BOX Form at

A useful way to structure your speech is as follows:

Introduction/Welcome

R egister

Body o f speech

Conclusion/Best wishes for the future/Toast

H ow formal is the occasion? Look back to the 'Register7 exercise to remind yourself o f the differences between formal/informal speeches.

Paragraph in g

Remember to begin a new paragraph for each new topic o f your speech, and to develop your ideas fully before going on to the next topic/paragraph. (Do not write one-sentence paragraphs!)

Language

Check that you remember the sort o f language needed in speeches by looking back to the exercise on page 92. Remember that a speech is meant, ultimately, to be spoken to an audience. Try to refer to your audience (As you all know . ..) in your speech. 95

U N IT SIXTEEN

Describing a Scene To start you thinking

Discuss the following questions with your partner. 1 Do you go to discos much? What do you like/dislike about them? 2 Describe your favourite disco, if you have one, or a disco that you know of. W here is it? What sort o f atmosphere has it got? What sort o f people go there? What sort o f music does it play? 3 What sort o f clothes/make-up/hairdos do people have? (Look back to Unit 7: 'Describing Appearances' for help with vocabulary.)

A description of a scene

A visit to a disco The ‘Streetlife’ club was tucked away down a dingy alley at the back o f a row o f shops. As I picked my way gingerly round the piles o f rubbish waiting for collection, I couldn’t help wondering if I ’d been in my right mind when I accepted 5 the invitation. A fter all, people got knifed in alleys just like these every night, didn’t they? Eventually, however, the entrance to the club loomed up in front o f me. I rang the bell and the door was opened instantly by a rather belligerent-looking man in full evening 10 dress. He was one o f those ‘body-builder’ types - the sort who seem about to burst through their jackets at any moment, ‘Incredible Hulk’ style. This one was obviously a bouncer as well as a doorman and I reflected that nobody in their right mind would give him any trouble. is Admittance having been granted, I stepped in from the shadows and was instantly dazzled by a blaze o f lights! Multicoloured, they flickered across the dance floor so that the dancers appeared to be moving in slow motion, arrested at regular intervals by a passing beam. And the noise! The 20 whole place throbbed to the insistent, pounding beat o f rock music blaring out from loudspeakers placed strategically about the room.

25

30

96

Somewhat bewildered by this assault on my senses, I made my way through the crowd to the balcony, from where I could view the dance floor. A t first, all I could see was a mass o f bodies, bobbing and twisting to the urgent beat of the latest hit song. Then, as the music faded and couples moved towards the bar, I searched the emptying floor for a familiar face. A t last, I spotted my friends, grouped together in a happy circle. They were running through the steps o f a new dance routine - with hilarious consequences, to judge from the roar o f laughter that suddenly went up. I made my way down to them, although not without some foreboding.

Vocabulary

The words in the left-hand column below come from the model text. Match them with words o f a similar meaning from the right-hand column. Compare your answers with your partner's. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Paragraphing

dingy (line 1) a) moving up and down gingerly (line 2) b) sane knifed (line 4) c) blinded (by lights) loom ed (line 7) d) feeling o f unease belligerent (line 9) e) aggressive in their right mind (line 14) f) dark and gloom y dazzled (line 16) g) pulsated throbbed (line 20) h) with care bobbing (line 26) i) stabbed foreboding (line 33) j) appeared out o f the darkness

Answ er the follow ing questions with your partner. 1 W hat is the 'topic' o f each o f the paragraphs in the model text? 2 Pick out words at the beginning o f the second, third and fourth paragraphs which serve to link the paragraphs together. 3 In paragraph 4, pick out any words which link one sentence to the next. 4 Complete the basic plan o f the model text below.

Ten ses

Past simple / Past continuous / Past perfect 1 Find examples o f these three tenses in the model text and say why they are used. 2 In the passage below the writer is describing the scene in a large household, before the owners depart. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable tense. M r Eugene Foster, w ho 1(be) nearly seventy years old, 2(live) with his wife in a large six-storey house in New York City, on East Sixty-Second Street, and they 3(have) four servants. It 4(be) a gloom y place, and few people 5(come) to visit them. But on this particular morning in January, the house 6(come) alive and there 7(be) a great deal o f bustling about. One maid 8(distribute) bundles o f dust sheets to every room, while another 9(drape) them over the furniture. The butler ™(bring) down suitcases and 11(put) them in the hall. The cook 12(keep) popping up from the kitchen to have a w ord with the butler, and Mrs Foster herself, in an old-fashioned fur coat and with a black hat on top o f her head 13(fly) from room to room and 14(pretend) to supervise these operations. Actually, she 15(think) o f nothing at all except that she 16(go) to miss her plane if her husband 17(not come) out o f his study soon and get ready. (Roald Dahl) 97

Using descriptive adjectives

W hen writing a description o f a place, be it a disco, a street market, an examination room or wherever, it is important to make the reader feel that they are really there with you. You may want to describe the sights, the sounds or even the smell o f the place, but to do so effectively you must choose your words carefully. The wider your vocabulary, the easier your job will be. 1 W ork with your partner to group the following words into three lists: Light, Sound and M ovem ent. beat flicker dazzle weave bob glare pounding roar gloom y beam dingy blaring bustling flash drone scurry hum gesticulating feverish blaze whisper A re there any words which fit into more than one list? 2 N ow fill the blanks in the follow ing sentences with one o f the words from your list. a) As he was reading, the lig h t________________uncertainly and then went out. b) From the room next door, he heard the steady________________o f voices as the meeting dragged on. c) The market was a scene o f ________________activity as stall holders rushed to get their wares on view. d) He stood and watched the commuters________________past him, for all the world like a party o f ants on some foraging campaign. e) The radio w a s ________________ out the latest hit songs and for a moment he was deafened by the noise. f) A t first she thought she was at home in the country. Then she heard th e ________________o f the traffic and her heart sank. g) The ships w e r e _______________ up and down on the water. h) Drunkenly he weaved his way down the road, dazzled by the o f the street lights. 3 In each sentence, can you suggest alternatives for the words you have chosen which would be equally effective?

Prepositions

1 It is important to be able to use prepositions correctly when describing a scene. W orking with a partner, supply suitable prepositions for this description o f a boarding house. Green curtains were hanging (1 )________________on either side o f the window. The pussy willows looked wonderful (2 )________________ them. He went right (3 )________________ and peered (4 )-------------------- the glass (5 )________________ the room, and the first thing he saw was a bright fire burning (6 )_________________ the hearth. (7 )________________the carpet (8 )________________ the fire, a pretty little dachshund was curled up asleep (9 )_________________ its nose tucked (10)________________its belly. TTie room itself, so far as he could see (11)-------------------- the half-darkness, was filled (12 ) ------------------- pleasant furniture. There was a baby-grand piano and a big sofa and several plump armchairs; and (13 ) _______________ one corner he spotted a large parrot (14 ) _______________ a cage. All in all, it looked (15)________________ him as though it would be a pretty decent house to stay (16)

98

(Roald Dahl)

2 Get into pairs (A and B) to do the next exercise. B should look at the picture on page 101. You are each going to look at different versions o f the same picture (a living room). Without looking at each other's pictures, try to find out what the differences are, for example:

Is there a cat on the rug in front o f the fire in your picture? Picture A

Analysis

Read the extract below, which comes from "Cider W ith Rosie' by Laurie Lee. As you read, think about the questions on the next page. The kitchen

With our Mother, we made eight in that cottage. There was the huge white attic where the girls slept. The roof was so thin you could hear a bird land on the tiles. Mother and Tony shared a bedroom below; Jack, Harold and I the other. 5 But our waking life, and our growing years, were for the most part spent in the kitchen. Here we lived, not minding the little space, trod on each other like birds in a hole, all talking at once but never I think feeling overcrowded.

10

That kitchen was scruffy, warm and low. A black grate crackled with coal and beech twigs; towels toasted on the fireguard. On the floor were strips of muddy matting, the windows were choked with plants, and fungus ran over the ceilings. There were six tables of different sizes, some armchairs, boxes, stools, books and papers on every chair, a sofa for cats and a piano for dust and photographs.

we returned to the kitchen, back to its smoky comfort. 15 Indoors, our mother was cooking pancakes, her face aglow from the fire. There was a smell of sharp lemon and salty butter and the burning hiss of oil. When evening came

20

The time had come for my violin practice. I began twanging the strings; my brothers lowered their heads and sighed. I slashed away at ‘William Tell’ and when I did that, plates jumped, and mother skipped gaily round the hearthrug.

Jack had cleared some books from the table and started his homework. Tony, in his comer, began to talk to the cat and play. So, with the curtains drawn close and the pancakes coming, we settled down to the evening. ( Cider with Rosie, Laurie Lee)

Meanwhile

99

1 In the description the writer creates a convincing picture by working on our senses o f sight, smell and hearing. a) Which phrases appeal to our sense o f hearing? Underline them. Pick out individual words which imitate the w ord they are describing. b) Which phrases appeal to our sense o f smell? Underline them. c) In paragraph 2, why does the writer compare the occupants o f the kitchen with 'birds in a hole'? What type o f atmosphere is he trying to convey? 2 Notice how the writer 'zooms in' on the things he wishes to describe, rather like a film cameraman zooming in on a scene. Look at the paragraph summaries below and put them in the order they are placed in in the model. a) Evening - violin practice b) The family evening c) The evening - sounds and flavours d) The kitchen - a visual description e) The cottage f) The kitchen as communal meeting place

□ □ □ □ □ □

3 The words in italics have a special function in the text. What is this function? 4 A good description often evokes memories o f something in your own experience. H ow far does the writer awaken your memories o f childhood?

Writing USEFUL LANGUAGE to bustle to bawl to shout at the top o f your voice a stall a stall holder wares/goods shoddy second-hand a reject top quality a bargain to bargain (with someone) f o r ... to reduce to outdo someone to compete (with someone) f o r ... bric-a-brac to be taken in by someone/ something

100

1 Describe a visit to a street market. Discuss the questions below with your partner and make notes before you begin to write. Use the 'W riting plan' to help you if you wish. Discussion a) Do you like markets? A re there any in your local village/town? What sort o f things do they sell? b) What time do markets usually open? What sort o f preparations go on before they open? c) What sort o f people work in a market? Is there anything special about their dress or their speech? Do you get any rogues? What sort o f tricks can they pull (e.g. do they substitute coloured water for perfume or cheat the customer in some other way?) Have you ever fallen for one o f these tricks? d) What are the sights and sounds o f a busy market? H ow do customers usually behave? A re there any 'typical' customers? e) H ow does the atmosphere o f the market change as the day finishes? What do the stalls/square look like when the rush is over? Introductory Background to visit (where the market was/why you paragraph w ere going) Paragraph 2 Early morning - stall holders prepare for the day Paragraph 3 The market in full swing - sights and sounds Paragraph 4 Character types - stall holders and customers Concluding paragraph

The end o f the day - the market at closing time

USEFUL LANGUAGE bride bridegroom best man bridesmaid in-laws a registry office a churchi/civil wedding a wedding dress a veil marriage vows

2 Describe a ceremony you have attended, such as a wedding. You should write approximately 250-300 words. Look at the Summary box below before you begin. 3 Describe a visit to a hospital. You should write approximately 250-300 words.

SUMMARY BOX Form at

Once you have set the scene in your introduction, you may like to develop your text in the ways suggested below.

Remember that it is sometimes a useful technique to 'zoom in' on a scene, moving from the general to the particular, as in the 'Cider with Rosie' text. Tenses Vocabulary

The past simple, past continuous and past perfect are very useful tenses for painting a background to scenes and events. It is sometimes a good idea to 'brainstorm' vocabulary on the topic as a first step to writing. Try to be adventurous with words - do not settle for adjectives like nice and good all the time!

UNIT SEVENTEEN

Stating an Opinion

7 f e e l so s o rr y f o r them p a c in g up a n d dow n like th a t .'

To start you thinking

W ork in groups to discuss the following questions. 1 Have you been to a zoo a) as a child and/or b) more recently? If so, what was your overall impression? 2 If you have never been to a zoo, for what reason - because you haven't had the opportunity or because you don't like the idea? 3 In what ways do you think zoos might be cruel? Make a list.

An opinion text Paragraphing

Now read the text opposite, which comes from a popular magazine. H ow many o f the writer's arguments against zoos did you anticipate? When writing your opinion, it is obviously very important to have a clear and ordered plan in your head or on paper before you write. Each new aspect o f your argument should be set out in a separate paragraph. A well-written paragraph frequently contains a key sentence which the writer goes on to explore in more detail in the rest o f the paragraph. 1 What is the topic o f each o f the six paragraphs in the model? 2 Can you pick out a key sentence in each? 3 Look at paragraph 2 and decide how the other sentences expand the information given in the key sentence. Do they: a) b) c) d) e)

give examples? give a further explanation? give a judgement? do a mixture o f the above? do something else?

Examine paragraphs 3 and 4 in the same way. 102

ARE OUR ZOOS CRUEL TO WILD ANIMALS? 1 Many of us have enjoyed a visit to thing they'd encounter in their together in packs. Zoos may try the zoo and regard it as a fun day natural habitat. As I see it, this hard to promote education and con­ out. Seeing real tigers and ele­ isolation can amount to cruelty. In servation to get themselves a bet­ phants, especially if it isforthe first some zoos you see cages with no ter image, but few have a genuine time, can be an interesting, even trees or foliage1 - I've even seen education programme. thrilling experience. Yet howmany cages for burrowing2 animals like s Anotherclaim often made is that, people stop and wonder whether rabbits which haveconcrete floors. if we didn't have animals in zoos, the pleasure the animals give to us Cruelty doesn't just mean starving we wouldn't see them at all. Butwe meansthattheanimalsthemselves or physical abuse3 - it can be much aren't living in Victorian times. Most are suffering unnecessarily? less obvious than that. of us have television and go to the 2 It seems to me that no zoo has 3 Big predators4 are designed to cinema so we know what wildlife enough money to provide even chase and hunt, and by depriving looks like. If an animal is suffering basic habitats or environments for them of hunting, I believe you are by being kept in captivity, isn't it all the species they keep. Most depriving them of one of the main kinder to see it on a film ? animalsare putin a totally artificial reaso ns fo r w hich they have 6 I appreciate that it would be un­ environment, isolated from every­ evolved5. The big cats lie about in a realistic to be against captivity of zoo because there is nothing else some kind, if that's the only way we for them to do. Their food is pro­ can save some animals. But I'm vided forthem. And the problem is convinced thatthere are better ways not just with big cats. Animals like of protecting endangered species polar bears and chimpanzees too than putting them in zoos. In my may become very frustrated in a view, the focus6 should be on con­ zoo. They are highly intelligent, serving animals in the wild. If the curious animals and need a chal­ conventional zoo were to give way lenging environment. Imprisoning to special, protected sanctuaries in them in an often totally inadequate the wild, our concern for animals amount of space cannot be right. would indeed be demonstrated. 4 Zoo supporters ar­ gue that zoos provide an educational service, but often the captive environment can be 1foliage: leaves of a tree m isleading. For ex­ or plant 2to burrow: to dig ample, tigers are soli­ 3abuse: ill-treatm ent tary animals which like 4predators: anim als w hich kill o th ers fo r food develop from sim pler species 6focus: aim, objective

5evolve:

Format

A good argumentative text usually includes four basic steps. Step 1 is the introduction. Fill in the other steps in the boxes below in the order in which they occur in the model text. • Conclusion/Restatement o f your views • Other people's arguments and why they are w rong • Your personal opinion and the reasons for it

103

Discussion

Do you agree with the writer's arguments against zoos? Why/Why not? Make a list o f the arguments you would use against the writer, and in favour o f zoos. 1 __________________________________________________________________________________________

2 3 _______________________________________________________ 4 ________________________________________________________ Keep your list, as you may need to use these ideas later.

Giving a personal opinion

1 Look again at the model and decide whether you think the writer is being firm or tentative about their opinions. Can you pick out phrases/ sentences which demonstrate this? 2 Which o f the following are a) the strongest and b) the most tentative ways o f giving opinions? O pinion language I believe/think... It strikes me that... As I see it, / In my opinion / To my mind I feel very strongly that... I'm inclined to believe that... I am absolutely convinced that... I tend to think that... On balance, I'd say that... I would suggest that... I am totally opposed to/in favour o f ... It seems to me that... 3 Tick o ff the phrases which you underlined in the model earlier. Did you find any which are not in the list above?

4 Is it a good idea for a couple to live together? What should be done with football hooligans?

104

Should military service be compulsory for women as well as for men? Is it w rong to eat meat?

What do you feel about these questions? Talk about them in groups and then write one or two sentences summarising your personal opinion. Remember to use an appropriate phrase from the list o f 'opinion language' to show how strongly you hold your views. When everyone has finished, read out your sentences round the class to get an idea how others feel.

Contradicting other people's opinions

When writing your views on a topic it is a good idea to consider arguments people often use against your case and show why you think they are wrong. The following phrases are useful: It's popularly believed that..., but... People often claim that..., b u t... It is often alleged that..., b u t... People argue that..., but what they don't realise is ... People think that..., but they couldn't be further from the truth. Contrary to popular belief, it is a fact that... With your partner, write sentences using the language in the box above, for the follow ing topics. 1 A re w e too hard on smokers? 2 Should murderers and terrorists be executed? 3 Should military service be compulsory for women as well as for men?

105

Tenses

Conditionals If the conventional zoo w ere to give way to special sanctuaries in the wild, our concern for animals would be demonstrated. W e often use the conditional tense to envisage what would happen if our line o f argument w ere or w ere not to be followed. Complete the sentences below, using the conditional. 1 Football hooligans aren't treated harshly enough so they continue to disrupt matches. But w e r e _________________________________________________________________ 2 People are continuing to smoke so the incidence o f lung cancer is still high. But i f _____________________________________________________________________ 3 The government w on't raise their salaries so the teachers are on strike. But i f _____________________________________________________________________ 4 W e don't have capital punishment in this country so nobody is executed in error. But supposing___________________________________________________________ 5 W e burn too many fossil fuels. The hole in the ozone layer is growing. But w e r e _________________________________________________________________

Text 1 The student who wrote the follow ing composition has made some c o r r e c tio n

mistakes with vocabulary, tenses, articles, etc. W ith your partner, see how many mistakes you can find. 2 What do you think are the good points about the composition? Should m arried women with children be discouraged from going out to work?

Today the public opinion looks to be against women with children who work. The people think that a woman can work when she hasn’t children but that she must give up her job after the birth of her first child. This opinion is really frequent and particularly shared by men. Nevertheless, a job can be as important for a woman as for a man. If a woman has reached her professional aim, it must be difficult for her to give it up. Why is this the woman who must chose between her job and have a child? Our century will prove that men and women have the equal rights and we can notice that as much girls as boys attend universities and statistics demonstrate that females have the same, even better qualities in some fields. Personally, I think that women need to have professional aims to be and keep a certain independence and to feel themselves useful. I ’m not studying to give up my job later. I want to have children and that day I will share my job between my life and my family. In my opinion, it’s possible to work a bit little - for instance only in the morning - and to bring up children. Finally, I think that people who say that these kind of women don’t love their children have a false opinion because I ’m sure that their children are the most important in their life and I would be proud to be one of them!

106

Writing

1 'Is it a good idea for a couple to live together before they marry?' W rite an article for a magazine/newspaper giving your views in about 250-300 words. Check with the Summary box at the end o f the unit before you begin. 2 'W hat should be done about football hooliganism?' W rite an article outlining your views in about 250-300 words. Look at the Summary box below before you begin. 3 W rite an article in favour o f zoos, using the notes you made earlier in the unit.

SUMMARY BOX Format Introduction/ Stating the problem

Remember the basic format fo r an opinion essay. Your personal opinion and the reasons for it

—>

Other people's arguments and why they are w rong

Conclusion/ Restatement o f your views

Planning

Make a quick plan before you begin to write - and stick to it as far as possible. If you get confused, your reader will very quickly give up on you!

Paragraphing

Group your ideas together in paragraphs. W here possible, link the sentences in your paragraph. W ords like to begin with, added to this, in conclusion, etc. are useftil here.

Language

Decide whether you feel strongly or tentatively about the problem, and use appropriate language. Look back to the exercise 'Giving a personal opinion' on page 104 if you need a reminder.

107

UNIT EIGHTEEN

Summarising To start you thinking

1 Are there any nuclear pow er stations near your city/town? If so, how do you feel about them? 2 What are the disadvantages o f using fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas? Is nuclear pow er a good alternative? Why/Why not?

Vocabulary

You are going to read an article about nuclear pow er and its possible dangers. Look at the list below o f words connected with the topic and write down what you think they mean. Then use your dictionary to check whether your definition is correct. 1 2 3 4

leukaemia nuclear reprocessing plant toxic waste the 'greenhouse effect'

5 radioactive fall-out 6 a nuclear reactor 7 a leak

N ow read the article on page 109.

Comprehension

Say whether the following statements are true or false, according to the article you have just read. 1 It has been proved that children who live near nuclear pow er stations are more likely to get leukaemia. 2 The government believes nuclear pow er could be the answer to dwindling fuel supplies. 3 Everyone agrees that leaks from nuclear pow er stations are dangerous. 4 Susan D 'Arcy believes that the nearby nuclear power plant was the sole source o f her daughter's cancer. 5 Susan is fighting British Nuclear Fuels for compensation. 6 BNFL are paying for research into the causes o f child leukaemia.

Paragraphing

108

W ork with your partner to match the summary with the correct paragraph number. Paragraph

a) A group o f parents are trying to sue BNFL.

Paragraph

b) Child leukaemia is higher than expected in areas near some nuclear plants.

Paragraph

c) Only the next generation will know who is right.

Paragraph

d) There have been leaks from pow er plants but the danger is controversial.

Paragraph 5

e) The CEGB and Friends o f the Earth disagree about nuclear power.

Paragraph

f) BNFL don't accept any liability.

Paragraph

g) An 18-year-old girl believes she has leukaemia partly because she lives near a nuclear plant.

Paragraph 8

h) People are asking if nuclear stations are safe.

Paragraph 9i) The government is increasing the use o f nuclear pow er for important reasons. Paragraph 10j)

Only 1% o f the radiation most people receive comes from the nuclear industry.

TALKING POINT N

v

c

l

e

c

i

r

pow er

With our other fuel sources disappearing, do we have any choice about it? 1 ■■ or the pupils at Thurso m High School, the visit to the nearby Dounreay atomic energy plant in Scotland, was simply part of their course. But to 18-year-old Sharon Coghill, it was much more. Nine years ago, Sharon, who lives 12 miles from the sta­ tion, discovered she had leu­ kaemia. Shebelievesthatthe proximity of her home to Dounreay may be a contribu­ tory factor to her cancer. There is no medical evidence to support her claim - in­ deed, two independent in­ quiries have failed to find any connection whatsoever. 2 But five years ago this week, a government commit­ tee found that in the area surrounding some, but not all, nuclear power stations, levels of childhood leukae­ mia were higher than ex­ pected. Today, as then, no one is any closer to estab­ lishing why this is so. But says Sharon, "I feel that there is no way we can dismiss the idea of a link and I would like the see more investiga­ tion." 3 At presentaround 15% of the energy we use comes from nuclear power. The Govern­ ment will probably want that figure to increase to about 20% in the future because gas, coal and oil supplies are dwindling fast - the world's oil supplies may well run out within 100 years. And

burning oil and coal releases carbon dioxide into the at­ mosphere creating the 'green­ house effect', the heating up of the earth's atmosphere causing long-term changesin climate. 4 Only 0.1% of the radiation received by most people is the result of discharges from the nuclear power industry. We get five times that from television sets, air travel and watches with luminous dials. 11.5% comes from medical sources like X-rays, and 87% from environmental sources like naturally radioactive rocks and gases. s Butthequestionthatmost people still want to be an­ swered - whether they live five or 500 miles from a nuclear power station - is: are they really safe? 6 There have been leaks from various nuclear installations - including sites dealing with highly radioactive matter and whether or not these are dangerous is a point of bitter controversy. 7 Parents of children suffer-

Only a bone marrow transplant can save Gemma

ing from leukaemia are con­ eral are providing financial vinced of their case. Two aid for this work," says their years ago, Susan D'Arcy's spokesman. daughter, Gemma, who is 9 So what'sthe answer? The now five, was diagnosed as Central Electricity Generat­ suffering from leukaemia. ing Board (CEGB) says that They live near Sellafield, a nuclear power is essential in nuclear reprocessing plant supplying our energy needs. near Cumbria, and Susan Butthe environmental group believes the plant to be a Friends of the Earth regards contributory cause of the nuclear power as: "A totally cancer. She has joined the unnecessary and extremely 28-strong group of parents expensive way of dealing trying to sue British Nuclear with the greenhouse effect Fuels (BNFL), which runs with untold safety prob­ the plant, for compensation. lems." It says the solution is Twelve oftheir children have to reduce demand by apply­ leukaemia, and six have died ing more efficient technol­ of the illness. The case is ogylikely to take between two io As the argument rages the and three years to come to stakes get higher, with more court. radioactive waste being pro­ 8 BNFL remains adamant duced all the time. Only the that the parents have no generations to come wTill cause for complaint. "A know who was right. The number of possible causes, question is, will they thank including viruses, are being us for our decisions? investigated and BNFL and the nuclear industry in gen­ ■ Lindsay Nicholson

109

Making notes

You have been asked to write a short summary o f the article you have just read under the following headings. Note down relevant information from the text under each heading, as shown in the first section. 1 The cause fo r concern Sharon - 18 - lives near reprocessing plant. Has leukaemia (9 yrs.) Believes plant is a contributory cause. No medical evidence, but govt, committee (5 yrs ago) found levels o f child leuk. higher than expected in some areas (not all) 2 W h y nuclear p o w e r is im portant 3 A r e radiation levels too high? 4 Parents versus B N FL 5 B N FL versus 'F rien ds o f the Earth' When you have finished, check your notes with your partner. If there are any big differences, decide if you or your partner should add or cut out anything.

Writing up notes

Read the first paragraph o f the summary below and fill in the blanks with appropriate words or phrases. Sharon (1 )________________ 18-year-old schoolgirl (2 )________________ nuclear reprocessing plant. She (3 )________________leukaemia (4 )________________ years and she believes the plant is (5 )________________ (6 )________________medical evidence (7 )________________ this but a government committee (8 )__________________levels o f child leukaemia are (9 )________________near (10)_________________________________ but not (11)_, nuclear plants.

Reducing the number of words

1 Each o f the next two paragraphs o f the summary is too long. With your partner, decide on one sentence in each which you could leave out without robbing the text o f any essential facts. The government wants to increase the amount o f nuclear power we use to about 20% in the future because o f dwindling fossil fuels such as coal and oil. In fact, around 15% o f our energy comes from nuclear power at present. It is also a fact that the burning o f coal and oil may be contributing to the greenhouse effect, i.e. the heating up o f the earth’s atmosphere, which could cause long term changes in climate. The amount o f radiation people get from nuclear power is much, much less than comes from other sources. Televisions and watches, for example, give o ff more radiation than the power industry. Y e t leaks do occur from time to time and people still wonder if plants are really very safe.

2 The summary is still about 30 words too long. Underline any words/ phrases which you think could be cut without changing the nature o f the text.

Writing your own summary

1 N ow write the last two paragraphs o f the summary, using the notes you made earlier to help you. You should use about 60 words for each paragraph. 2 W hen you have finished, ask your partner to check whether they think that you have a) remembered the important points, b) left out any unnecessary details. If you cannot agree, ask other members o f your group what they think. 3 Finally, check through your text and make sure you have written complete sentences, including articles, verbs, etc.

110

Writing *

^ eac* t^ie column on T h e Ozone Layer7 in the follow ing article.

WHY THE FUTURE MUST BE GREEN Worldpollution and Britain's contribution 1

Pollution is a catch-all phrase for industrial processes and waste materials which cause damage to the environment and is the greatest threat the world faces. It might be defined simply as 'something in the wrong place', but it is a problem which affects us all. The ozone layer

Ozone is very damaging at ground level, but in the atmosphere it is absolutely critical1 for maintaining life on earth. The ozone layer encircles the world and protects us from the sun's rays.If the ultra-violet light which reachesus is not filtered in this way, itcan cause serious eye disease and skin cancer. Recent evidence has shown that the ozone layer has been depleted2 by pollutants particularly chlorofluorocarbons. CFC's are the propellants which force liquids and sprays from aerosol cans. They are also used extensively in the fast food industry in the insulating foam used to package food. 3 It is an extraordinary thought that something as 2

seemingly harmless as a but not out. Carbon dioxide climatic factors, but today it is hairspray or a hamburger emissions4 from vehicle almost exclusively the result cartoncan pose sucha serious exhaustsalone have increased of interference with the threattoour environment, but nearly three-fold in the last 30 natural order by man. the link has been conclusively years, and the increased use * Species are now being lost proved. of fossil fuels such as coal, oil at an unprecedented rate 4 CFCs float upwards and and gas exacerbates5 the more than 400 times faster remain in the atmosphere for problem further. A fewsimple than at any other time in decades, gradually eating economy measures, such as history. Between 50 and 100 away at the ozone layer. cutting back on the amount of species become extinct every Scientists have recently fuel we use and insulating our day. It is estimated that in 50 discovered a huge hole in homes better, would help years time more than a quarter ozone concentrations above slow the process and save us of all species will have become the Arctic ice-cap, and levels money. extinct. That is assuming that elsewhere have dropped by 7 The situation is not helped the destruction of the world's up to 40 per cent. by the destruction of the rain-forests is arrested7 now; world's rain forests (currently if not, we could lose more than The greenhouse effect at the rate of 150 acres per a third. s The temperature of the planet minute) because trees play an it Examples are readily has risen only about 3 "Csince essential role in absorbing available of species already the last ice age; in the next 50 carbon dioxide. under threat: 90 per cent of years it is expected to rise by the world's population of up to 3*C if the present rate of Endangered species-therate African elephants has been 'global warming’is continued. of extinction lost in the last 10 years due to The result will becatastrophic, * Species of living things have poaching; approximately 10 with a partial melting of the become extinct6for one reason million dolphins have been polar caps and a rise in sea or another throughout the killed needlessly in the last20 levels sufficient to submerge3 course of history. Dinosaurs years by tuna fishermen; only the greater part of cities like endured as thedominantclass • 27Califomiancondorsareleft London, New York and for over 100 million years, and in existence - all in captivity. Tokyo, and change the world although the reason for their The rate and threat of extinction is not definitely extinction has so alarmed map for ever. known, it is generally London Zoo that it has begun t This warming process is known as the 'Greenhouse assumed to be the result of a gathering and freezing eggs Effect' - a build-up of carbon change in climate. Extinction and sperm from endangered dioxide in the atmosphere of species has until the last species so that they can be which lets the sun's heat in. century been largely due to regenerated* in the future.

1critical: essential 2depleted: made smaller 3submerge: cover with water 4emissions: gases given off by vehicles

5exacerbate : make worse 6extinct: no longer in existence 7arrested; stopped 8regenerated: brought back to life

N ow write a summary based on the notes in the box below, in not more than 60 words. Ozone - critical fo r life on earth. Ozone layer protects us from ultra-violet rays (cause eye disease + skin cancer). CFCs from aerosol cans + packaging —» reduction ozone layer. Hole in ozone layer above Arctic ice-cap discovered. Levels elsewhere dropped 40%.

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2 In the summary below (based on T h e Greenhouse Effect' column on page 111) this student has exceeded the 100 w ord limit. Can you reduce the text to 100 words without losing the basic message o f the text? I f the temperature o f the planet rises by 3°C expected in the next 50 years the result will certainly be catastrophic. A s the polar ice melts, cities like London, Tokyo and N ew Y ork could disappear under water, which would change the world map for ever. The greenhouse effect is, in fact, a build-up o f carbon dioxide which lets the sun in but not out. The increase in C 0 2 from cars, nearly three times greater than 30 years ago, and the use o f fossil fuels has made problems worse, as well. W e could, the article says, slow the process by economising on the energy we use, for example by cutting back on fuel and insulating our homes. W e also need to stop the destruction o f the rainforests (which happens at the rate o f 150 acres per minute) as trees absorb carbon dioxide as part o f their life cycle.

3 W rite a summary o f the final column 'Endangered Species' in about 90 words.

SUMMARY BOX R ephrasing

W ritin g up notes

When writing out your notes in full, make sure you have used complete sentences with pronouns, verbs, articles, etc. as appropriate. Check the number o f words, and if you have too many, see if you can delete words which are not essential to the basic meaning o f the text. (You may also be able to rephrase a sentence and reduce the number o f words in that way).

Linking ideas

Use connectors, (e.g. Firstly, Secondly, Added to this, N ot only) to link your sentences where appropriate.

Checking

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You should always make your own notes from the text when writing a summary - do not just 'lift' whole sentences from the text! Leave out unneccessary details like lists o f examples, names, places, etc.

Give your summary a final check, looking for possible mistakes in spelling, punctuation, etc.

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