Speakout Advanced Students Book

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Advanced Students' Book with ActiveBook

significance of names; read a personal profile describing present and past habits

personality adjectives; idioms for describing people

sentence stress for emphasis

read and answer a questionnaire about language learning; read about different personality profiles


images; vague language

linking in connected speech

read responses to paintings

conditionals and regrets: mixed conditionals. hod I. but (or. i( only,

I wish verb patterns: verb + -ing/infinitive with to; passive infinitive/ -ing. perfect infinitive / -ing. negative infinitive / -ing


introducing opinions

idioms of opinion

read a discursive essay about homeless ness

intonation on modifiers

read an article about the most and least trusted professions

talent; phrases for stages of a debate

holiday moments; read a city guide relative clauses

descriptive adjectives/ adjectives ending in -y; prefixes

making a proposal

city life: problems and solutions

long and short vowel sounds read a report about solutions to urban problems

phrases for describing aspects of life in your country

Truth or myth?

the perfect aspect

social issues

stress on two-word collocations

read a problem-solution essay about gun control

expressing hypothetical preferences


intonation for emphasising

read an article about a have-a-go hero

the passive

truth or myth; multi-word verbs

read about some everyday myths

making a point


read an article about investigative journalism and WikiLeaks

page S9

Tell me no lies

phrases for introducing informati on






talk about names

write a personal profile; learn to plan your writing

listen to a radio programme about a personality test

talk about ways to improve your language learning; discuss the results of a personality test

listen to a discussion about portraits of famous people

speculate about people based on their portraits; learn to use vague language


describe a treasured possession


Francesco's Venice: watch an extract from a programme about Venice

write a description of an object

talk about words of wisdom

listen to people talking about their experiences of a living library

discuss controversial statements

listen to people discussing whether we can trust the news we read; learn to express doubt

debate how to deal with untrustworthy employees

II ooc

The Making of Me: Vanessa -Mae: watch an extract from a documentary about a famous violinist

plan and take part in a panel discussion

write a summary of an opinion

talk about special holiday memories

write a description of a place for a guidebook; learn to add detail

listen to people describing the space where they work

discuss work spaces; describe your ideal space to work/ study

listen to a proposal for a scheme to improve a city

plan and present a proposal to improve your local area; learn to suggest modifications


talk about your country; develop a documentary proposal


0 C

An African Journey: watch an extract from a travel programme about Africa

write a discursive essay; learn to use linking devices

write a proposal for a documentary about your country

listen to and read film synopses

talk about issues related to crime and punishment

listen to people talking about someone they admire

discuss social issues and solutions

listen to people discussing what they would do if they witnessed a crime; learn to add emphasis

talk about how to deal with different moral dilemmas


present the arguments for the defence and the prosecution in a court case

write a summary of a court case

talk about secrets

write a narrative; learn to use time phrases


0 C

Blackadder: watch an extract from a comedy set during the First World War

listen to a radio programme about when and how you shou ld reveal a secret

write a problem-solution essay; learn to use parallelism

debunk a myth listen to a conversation about WikiLeaks

discuss questions related to freedom of information; learn to manage a conversation


describe seven secrets about yourself


0 C

North and South: watch an extract from a drama set in 19th century England



write personal facts people don't know about you

Future gazing page 68

A global language?

concession clauses


describing cause and effect

phrases to describe fashions

read a report about languages on the internet

page 71

Trendsetters page 74

the -ally ending in connected speech

read an article about how trends spread

syllable and word stress in idioms

read a promotional leaflet

phrases for describing a recent period in history

History of Now page 76

participle clauses

idioms for relaxing

exchanging opinions


read an article about how much freedom children should be given

phrases for narrating a story

time expressions: at the dawn of, the outset, on the verge of, was about to, for the foreseeable future, in years to come; proverbs

I remember ...

ellipsis and substitution


discussing ideas

collocations with time

read a personal story

word stress in questions

read tips for how to save time

phrases for describing decisions

read an article about living statues in London's Trafalgar Square adverbials of time, manner, frequency, probability and purpose


page 107

read a review of a television programme

Love it or hate it

ranting and raving

express yourself

read an extract from a review website

Feeling inspired

page 110 phrases for describing a place of interest

Tate Modern is 10! page 112

Dreams come true?

comparative structures


stress on modifiers; rhythm of double comparatives

read a 'for and against' essay about celebrity culture



intonation for stal ling for time

read tips for successful negotiations


phrases for describing skills, qualifications and experience






evaluate possible inventions of the future

listen to a radio programme about English around the world

discuss different trends in language learning

listen to people describing how trends started; learn to summarise your views

talk about the causes and effects of recent changes in your country


talk about a decade you remember

•• e

History of Now: The Story of The Noughties: watch an extract from a documentary about the first decade of the 21 st century

write a report based on statistics; learn to describe trends

write a review of a decade

plan your escape from an island

listen to people describing what they do to relax

talk about activities which help you escape your routine

listen to people discussing whether children are over-protected

discuss personal choice and the role of the state; learn to convince someone


develop a plot and tell a story

Little Dorrit: watch an extract from a drama based

write a promotional leaflet; learn to use subheadings

write a story

• • e on a Charles Dickens novel

choose objects to represent you in a 'Museum of Me'

listen to a radio programme about smells that evoke memories

talk about memories from a particular stage of your life

listen to people brainstorming ideas

discuss ways to save time; learn to solicit more information


Wonders of the Universe: watch an extract from a

talk about a turning point in your life

write a personal story for a magazine ; learn to improve descriptive writing

write a description of a major decision

• • e documentary about the history of the universe

choose sculptures to suit different clients' needs

listen to people talking about where they get their ideas

ask and answer creative questions

listen to people ranting and raving

rant or rave about a given topic; learn to use comment adverbials


recommend a cultural place for a visitor

The Culture Show: Tate Modern is 1O!: watch an

• • e extract from a programme about an art gallery

write a review of an exhibition; learn to use a range of vocabulary

write a recommendation for a travel forum

plan your dream adventure holiday

listen to an author read ing from his memoir Teacher Man

talk about the consequences of sudden success; talk about dreams and ambitions

listen to an expert talking about the stages of a negotiation; learn to stal l for time

negotiate a plan for a film festival


talk about the skills and experience you have for your dream job

Wildest Dreams: watch an extract from a reality

• • e show about wildlife film -makers



write a 'for and against' essay; learn to describe pros and cons

write an application for your dream job


Complete the text with the

words/phrases in the box.

according to forget remembering changed Interestingly It's being suggested get hold of might on the

Has Google made us stupid? The rise of Google and other search engines has 1_ _ _ the way we remember information, 2_ _ _ to research. Because we now have access to all 3_ _ _ information we could possibly want at the touch of a button, we no longer need to store so much information in our heads. 4_ _ _ that this is actually changing the way our brains store and recall information. We're quite likely 5_ __ information which we believe we can find online and more likely to remember something which we 6_ __ not be able to access on the internet. We are now better at remembering where we can 7_ _ _ the information than we are at 8_ _ _ the information itself. 9_ _ _ , the brain is a malleable organ, which changes according to our circumstances. So, it's not just Google that can change the way we remember things. We have always looked to 'experts' to remember things for us. And even in more informal ways, long-term couples also learn to rely 10_ _ _ each other for remembering information. Now, where did I put my keys?



Correct the mistakes. There is

one mistake in each sentence.

One of the most interesting of things about my job is the people I meet.

2 I haven't seen my parents since five

I present participle

4 adverb 5 definite article

4 I haven't told nobody about my hobby.

look carry

work make

get watch come


3 search for information, e.g. in a dictionary

6 I've been to Spain many times in last few years.

4 invent, e.g. a story

7 Do you think it's enough warm for me to go without a coat?


8 I adore to live by the sea.

5 continue

B Find one example of each mistake

b) incorrect word order

7 be careful 8 calculate something 7 8

c) incorrect pronoun d) incorrect preposition e) incorrect punctuation f) incorrect verb pattern

B Work in pairs. What should you

g) missing word

do when you hear a new multi-

h) extra word

word verb? Write advice using some

C Rewrite three of the sentences to make them true for you. Compare your sentences in pairs.

Work in pairs. Which underlined

sound is the odd one out?




2 bought



3 silll



4 c.aim




6 wait 6

a) incorrect tense

7 modal verb



in sentences 1-8 above.



2 meet/find by chance

5 Its difficult to find work these days.

6 multi-word verb

L.1 Listen and check.

® L.2 Listen and tick the words

of the multi-word verbs above.

When you come across a new multiword verb . ..


Read sentences a)-f). Answer

questions 1-3 for each sentence.

a) All guests must be signed in by a member. b) A bunch of people turned up at his place well after midnight. c) The committee reached an affirmative decision with regard to termination of his contract.

8 passive

you hear. Then read the pairs of

d) Are you gonna be at the game on Saturday?

9 gerund

words aloud.

e) Great food, this.

10 dependent preposition


words in the box.

communicate your message clearly

3 I studied geography at university so I'm knowing a lot about different countries.

2 past participle 3 infinitive with to

4A Read the definitions. Complete the multi-word verbs with the


PRONUNCIATION B Match the words in the box above with parts of speech 1-10_




2 thistle


f) Payment shall be subject to the fulfilment of clause 5.3.

3 of


4 vision


Is the sentence formal or informal? How do you know?

5 rise


2 Where might you see/hear it?

6 pig


3 Can you rephrase the sentence to change the register?


GRAMMAR I the continuous aspect


I names

'" HOWTO I talk about your background

SPEAKING , A Read the questions and think about your answers. What are the origins of your first name? 2 How much do you know about your family name? 3 Do you have any nicknames? How did you get them? 4 Do people ever confuse your name or make mistakes with it? 5 Why do you think some names become fashionable/ unfashionable?

B Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions

KOROS \ CSOM \ S\ DOR 17 4 -\S·C

in Exercise lA.




Read sentences 1-8 and answer questions a)-f) about the words/phrases in bold. I My given name is Stephen but I have a Greek surname - Theodorakopoulos - and a Spanish middle name - Gonzalo! 2 My maiden name is Popova but my married name is Edelstein. 3 I was named after my grandmother.

READING 3A Work in pairs and discuss the questions. What do you think are the w orld 's most common first names? 2 What are the most common family names in your country? 3 Why do you think people change their names?


Read the article and complete the sentence.

4 I'm from a famous family and it's not easy to live up to my name.

The main idea of the text is that ...

5 I worked hard for twenty years and made a name for myself in film.


6 He used to be a household name but young people don't know him.

2 Who is Pamela Satran?

7 I put my name forward for class president.

8 Even though she was innocent, it took her years to clear her name. a) Which are on your passport/identity document? b) Which might change in your lifetime?

Answer the questions.

I What do the results of Mehrabian's research show us? 3 What does Angela Baron think of employers who give people jobs on the basis of names? 4 According to Satran, what influences the way people name their children?


Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

I Who do you agree with more: Mehrabian or Satran?

c) Which are related to reputation?

2 How has your name affected you in life?

d) Which is in honour of someone else?

3 Why do you think certain names are associated with success?

e) W hich means 'volunteered'? ') Which means 'famous'?

4 The research for this article was done in the US. Do you think the same is true of names in your country?

B Work in pairs. Complete the sentences in any way you choose.

B What do you think words/phrases 1-8 mean? Use a dictionary to help you if necessary.

O ne . en name that I really like is .. .


ace/ would like to make a name for

- ._:= I z.s a . .. : ~:::_ :: JE

I frumpy (paragraph I) 2 get lumped with (paragraph I) 3 reach the top of the tree (paragraph 4)

a ousehold name because he/

4 cut and dried (paragraph 5) 5 call-backs (paragraph 6)

m name forward for is s s:: :a-o_s --a: e.eryo e knows him/her

6 take a ... dim view of (paragraph 7) 7 celebrities are leading the field in the bizarre forename stakes (paragraph 8) 8 outlandish (paragraph 9)

THE NAME GAME We've all got one - the friend with the impossibly glamorous name that leaves the Peters, Katherines and Margarets among us feeling somewhat, well, frumpy. Sometimes life (or in this case parents) isn't fair. But it's not as if the first name you get lumped with at birth actually has an impact on your success in later life. Is it? 2 Albert Mehrabian, professor emeritus of psychology at the University of California, certainly thinks so . ' Names generate impressions, just like a person's appearance can generate a positive or negative impression: he says. ' But names also have an impact when you're not physically present, such as when you send in a CV.' 3 Mehrabian has researched people's instinctive reactions to hundreds of first names. It's striking how many positive associations some names carry, and how negative the connotations of others turn out to be - particularly when it comes to linking names with 'success', which Mehrabian takes to include ambition, intelligence, confidence and other such valuable workplace attributes. 4 So what kind of name does it take to reach the top of the tree career-wise? Based on research in the US, Mehrabian says that Alexander scores 100 percent for 'success'. Wi II iam gets 99 percent and John 98 percent. For the girls, Jacqueline rates very highly, as do Diana, Danielle and Cathe ri ne. Although Katherine, Mehrabian points out, does sl ightly bette r than Catheri ne.

5 But can the impact of a first name rea lly be that cut and dried? Pamela Satran, co-author of eight baby-nam ing books, is less convinced that the power of a name can be quantified. 6 'There isn't that much hard evidence that's absolutely conclusive: says Satran . She recalls one American study where researchers submitted identical CVs to a number of employers. The forename on half of the CVs was Lashanda, 'seen as a stereotypical AfricanAmerican name: says Satran . The name on the other half was Lauren - seen as much more white and middle class. In one study, Lauren got five times more call-backs than Lashanda, says Satran, but in another study the rate was similar for both names. 'I've seen similarly conflicting studies: Satran adds. 7 Angela Baron, an adviser at the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, takes an understandably dim view of employers who make decisions on the basis of first names. 'People do make emotive judgements: she says, but 'we shouldn 't be recruiting people on that basis. Good interviewers will be aware that what they need to look for are skills, experience and what [the interviewee) can do for the business.' 8 Celebrities are leading the field in the bizarre forename stakes, with Jordan (a British model) calling her daughter Princess Tiaamii and Jermaine Jackson (Michael Jackson 's brother) lumbering his son with ... wait for it ... Jermajesty. But non-celebrity parents aren't far behind . 9 ' My pupils have increasingly outlandish names: says one secondary school teacher from north London. She cites 'poorly spelt names' such as Amba, Jordon, Charlee and Moniqua, and what she calls 'absurd names' like Shaliqua and Sharday. How will such names affect her students when they go out to get a job? 'I think it's a serious disadvantage: she says. 10 Albert Mehrabian agrees that 'deliberately misspelt names are disastrous.' But Pamela Satran has a more relaxed take: ' How these names are perceived is something that's changing very rapidly: she says . 'Celebrity culture and ethnic diversity have made people much more eager to look for a wide range of names of their own. The thinking is if you have a special name, that makes you a special person.'

GRAMMAR the continuous aspect SA Check what you know. Why is the continuous form used in these sentences? These days it 's getting easier and easier to change your name. 2 She's always talking as if she's a household name, but she's only been on TV once! 3 I'm considering naming my dog after my hero: Che Guevara. 4 The author of the book has been trying to think of a good name for months. S My partn er was readi ng a book about babies' names w hen I got home. 6 I was hoping to borrow your car, if that 's OK.

B Check your answers. Match uses a)-f) with sentences 1-6 above. a) to descri be a background action that was in progress w hen another (shorter) action happened 5 b) to talk about something that's incomplete, temporary, or still in progress (often em phasising the length of time) c) to talk about situations that are in the process of changing d) to emphasise repeated actions (that may be annoying) e) for plans that may not be definite f ) to sound tentative and less direct when we make proposals, inquiries, suggestions, etc. III' "



Which underlined verbs would be better in the continuous form? Why? Change them as necessary. I John 's not in the office. He might have lunch.

'Have' should be in the continuous form because the action is still in progress. 2 I'm fed up. W e've waited for an hour! 3 She owns a small house by the river. 4 Can you be quiet? I

m to work.

S T he letter arrived today. She had eXRect ed news since Monday. 6 That chicken dish tasted great. 7 W ho do these keys belong to? 8 By next September, we w ill have lived here for twe nty-five years. 9 I work on a project at the moment.

10 My partn er made dinner w hen I got home so I helped.

7 Complete the sentences to make them true for you. Make the verbs negative if necessary. I I work ... / I've been working .. . 2 I study ... / At the moment I'm studying ... 3 I usually write . .. / I've been writing ...


a personal profile

Read the personal proflle. Where do you think it will appear?


Hello, everyone. My name is Danny Garcia. I'm a lifelong resident of London, UK - born and bred here. I'm working to achieve my dream of getting a master's degree, and I'm delighted to be in BLED 514, Multicultural Education. The area of multicultural education has been a long-term interest of mine. It began when I got my job as an English teacher at a school in London, where I have worked for ten years. I hope to deepen my understanding of the subject

Danny Garcia .... -e:

February 27,

during this term. This is not my first foray into higher education. I have a bachelor's degree in


English which I finished in 2000. It's quite a shock to go back to university and jump right into master's level courses! My passion is basketball. I used to play every day but I don't have time now. I have two great kids who are my world and keep me going. Lily, who's five, is the oldest and Justin, who's three, is the baby of the family. My wife is a paediatrician and she's also from London. We met ten years ago when we were hiking separately and I got lost and she rescued me! I'm looking forward to participating in this class. Good luck, everyone!

B Read the guidelines for writing a personal proflle. To what extent does Danny Garcia's profile follow them?

LEARN TO plan your writing

I Share positive things.

10A Discuss. Which of the following things do you do when you write? What does it depend on?

2 Keep it short: condense rather than using very long sentences.

I Brainstorm ideas.

3 Choose specific details and examples, not generalisations.

2 Write notes.

4 Don 't lie, boast or exaggerate.

3 Write an outline.

S Keep it informal and friendly.

4 Discuss your ideas with someone before writing.


S Visualise your readers and imagine how they will react to your piece .

Which information in the box would you include in a profile for: a blog, a social networking site, ajob application? where you're from family information likes / dislikes hobbies talents and skills education/ grades/ qualifications goals and plans favourite music/food religious or spiritual beliefs address pet peeves groups you belong to job trips and unusual experiences

When you write, always remember your audience. Who w ill read your work? What do they expect (think about conten t, length, tone and formality)? What do they know about the topic? Think of writing as a conversation that takes place through space and time.

6 Write the first draft quickly and roughly.

B Look at the outline of a personal profile for a job application. What job might it be?

Introduct/on: name and where I'm from Interests: love chl1t/ren, music, dance skt!ls: playJudar t'.7'piano, dmwinJ' costume-makinJ EXferience: worked as a summer volunteer in Boumemouth chl1t/rens Centre, 2010 {foals (or the ,future: run a nursery(or 2 -4year-oMs


Write a personal proflle as part of a class profile. Follow stages 1-4 below. I Think about your audience and what you need to include. Make notes. 2 Write an outline for your profile. 3 Write your profile (200 words). Check it and make any corrections. 4 Share your profile with other students. What common features are there in your class, e.g. professions, goals and plans, where you're from, etc.?

• GRAMMAR I describing habits


VOCABULARY I personality

SPEAKING 1A Look at the questionnaire. Do statements 1-12 apply to you? Mark each statement: ././ strongly agree ./ agree

X disagree

XX strongly disagree

B Work in pairs and compare your answers. Are you a good language learner? What could you do to improve?

GRAMMAR describing habits 2A Look at the questionnaire again and underline verbs/ expressions used to describe present or past habits. Add examples to complete the table. present habit

past habit

I will + infinitive without to

8 would + infinitive without to

I' II look for clues that will help me. 2 is always + -ing

9 was always

+ -ing I was always looking for new

ways to . .. 10 kept (on) + -ing

3 keep (on) + -ing She keeps on calling me.

Are you a good

language learner? Good language learners find a style of learning that suits them.


I'm always watching videos or reading articles in English and that helps me a lot. I'm quite analytical, so I have a tendency to focus on the grammar and on being accurate. I'm an extrovert and I enjoy talking to people. I learn a lot just by speaking and listening.

Good language learners are actively involved in the language learning process.

mand I'm always looking for opportunities to use learn the language outside class. E As a rule, I'm happy to take risks with

language and experiment with new ways of learning. I can usually identify where I have problems, so generally I focus on improving those areas.

other phrases to describe a present habit

other phrases to describe a past habit


4 I have an inclination toll'm

II I was forever making mistakes. 12 I was prone to

Good language learners try to figure out how the language works.



to S I'm prone toll tend toll have to 6 As a 7 Nine times


B 1.1 Listen and write sentences 1-3. Check your answers in the audio script on page 164. C 1.2 Listen to the sentences being said in two different ways. What effect does the change in pronunciation have on the meaning? 1111.



1$;tMitill 3A to

Add the words in the box to sentences 1-8. as








Good language learners try to overcome their feelings of frustration or lack of confidence.



I I have! tendency to sleep In late. 2 My mother prone to worrying about everything.


3 He failing his driving test. 4 I'm not inclined be very laid-back. S I'm always for new things to learn.

6 A rule, I try not to work at the weekend . 7 Nine times out ten I'll be right about my first impressions.

8 As a child I spend hours reading. B Make two or three of the sentences in Exercise 3A true for you. Compare your ideas in pairs.

I'm inclined to be very analytical. Like a detective, I'll look for clues that will help me understand how language works. I have a good ear for language, so nine times out of ten I'll just know if something is wrong. I use my instinct and when I don't know, I guess. I'm prone to making mistakes with grammar , so I'll often compare what I say with what others say. This helps me to check that I'm using correct grammar and vocabulary.


When I started, I tended to get frustrated because I kept making mistakes. Now, I've learnt not to be embarrassed. At first, I would spend hours studying grammar rules, but I didn't have the confidence to speak. So I set myself goals to improve my pronunciation and speak as much as possible. I realise that learning a language takes time and dedication, and I just need to keep practising.

VOCABULARY personality 4A Work in pairs. Brainstorm adjectives for describing people's

from the programme mean? I sweeping generalisers

persona lities.

2 detail-obsessed nit-pickers

B Look at the words in the box. Give examples of how people with these qualities might behave.

3 obsessive planners

Someone who is open-minded likes to consider different points of view. thoughtful perceptive obsessive inspirational over-ambitious conscientious obstinate neurotic open-minded prejudiced mature inquisitive apathetic insensitive solitary rebellious C Find a word in the box above to describe someone who: notices things quickly and understands situations and people's feelings well.

4 last-minute deadline junkies 5 recharge your batteries

6 fl at-pack furn iture B listen again. Choose the option, a), b) or c), which best describes Mariella's answer to the question. I How do you like to recharge your batteries at the end of the day?

2 has an unreasonable dislike of a thing or a group of people.

a) She goes out fo r a nice meal.

3 is not interested or willing to make the effort to do anything.

b) She stays at home and reads a book.

4 is determined not to change their ideas, behaviour or opinions.

c) She watches TV and goes to bed.

5 deliberately disobeys people in authority or rules of behaviour.

6 spends a lot of time alone because they like being alone. 7 is unreasonably anxious or afraid. 8 is willing to consider or accept other people's ideas or opinions.

o Work in pairs and write definitions for the other words in Exercise 4B. Choose three words your friends would/wouldn't use to describe you. 111. -



Read the radio programme listing below and answer the questions.

I What does the Myers-Briggs Test Indicator do? 2 Who uses it? 3 Do you think this type of test can be useful? Why/Why not? B

1.3 listen to the programme and answer the questions. According to the programme, what is one of the biggest stressors at work?

2 What kinds of people do the MBTI test? 3 What kinds of questions does the interviewer ask Mariella?

How Myers-Briggs Conquered the Office It was created by a mother and daughter team, neither of whom were trained as psychologists, yet today it is the world's most widely used personality indicator, used by leading companies like Shell, Procter and Gamble, Vodafone and the BBC. In this BBC radio programme, Mariella Frostrup tells the story of The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), created by Katherine Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers. Participants are asked a series of questions intended to reveal information about their thinking, problem-solving and communication styles. At the end of the process each participant is handed one of sixteen four-letter acronyms which describes their 'type'. ENTPs are extrovert inventors, ISTJs are meticulous nit-pickers. Mariella finds out what type she is - will it change the way she works?


6A What do the following expressions

2 If you have ever had the opportunity to put together any flat-pack furn iture, how did you go about it? a) She always follows the instructions carefully. b) She finds the whole process infuriating, so she doesn't buy flat-pack furniture. c) She tends to lose the instructions and the parts. 3 If you imagine that a friend of yours gives you a call and says, 'I've just been burgled.' What would you do? What would your reaction be? a) First, she would ask her friend how she was feeling. b) First, she would be concerned about the practicalities, then she would ask about feelings. c) She would only ask about the practical details. 4 How do you go about doing the food shopping? a) She generally keeps a careful list of all the things she needs. Then she buys it all online. b) She hates internet shopping, so she goes to the supermarket once a week. c) She buys most of her food on the internet, but she doesn't use a list so she forgets things. C Work in pairs. Answer the questions in Exercise 6B for you and compare your answers.


PLUS idioms for people




Read about the different types of people in the Myers-Briggs test below. Mark your position on each scale to work out your profile, e.g. ENTJ.

Look at the idioms in bold and try to work out the meanings.

B Turn to page 158 to read more about your profile. Do you agree with the description? C Compare your profiles with other students. Are they similar or different?



Enjoys spending time alone. Tends to think first, act later.

f················ Extrovert


Finds being with others relaxing. Tends to act first, think later.

t N

Intuition ..............

Likes to change things and find their own solutions to problems. Looks to the future and tends towards idealism .

He's a bit of a yes-man . He agrees with anything the boss says. 2 Apparently, the new engineer knows what he's doing. He's a real whiz kid. 3 She knows everything about everyone. She's the office busybody. 4 There is never a quiet moment with Kate. She's a real chatterbox. S It was very annoying of him. Sometimes Joe could be a real pain in the neck. 6 She is a dark horse. I didn't know she had written a novel. 7 He's had plenty of experience. He's an old hand at the job . 8 My grandmother has the same routine every day. She's very set in her ways. 9 Jack has always been a bit of a rebel. He's the black sheep of the family.

·t .... ·............ ·

10 I'm glad we've invited Sinead. She's always the life and soul ofthe party. senSing S

Uses the practical information around them to solve problems. Enjoys the present and tends towards realism.

B Work in pairs. Which of the idioms in Exercise 8A would you use in the following situations? I You have suggested a new way of working, but your colleague is reluctant to change the way he does things. 2 You feel sure that you can trust the person you have asked to do a job because he has a lot of experience. 3 Your friend loves talking. 4 You discover that your colleague is the lead singer in a successful band. She has never mentioned it. S You have to complete your tax return by tomorrow. You hate doing it.


Thinker ••••••••••••••••• f ................... Feeler

Makes decisions using objectivity and logic.


Judging ..................

pproaches life in a structured way, making plans and organising things.


Decides by listening to their own and others' feelings.




Finds structure limiting , likes to keep their options open and go with the flow.

6 Your young nephew shows you how to playa new computer game . He has already applied to work as a games developer with Nintendo. 7 Your postman is always asking questions about your private life. 8 You always invite your sister when you're having a party, because she makes people laugh.

Understanding and using English idioms is particularly important for Advanced learners. Here are four ideas to help you try to reme.mber idioms. I Translation - are any of the idioms in Exercise 8A the same in your language? 2 Group by topiC - do you know any other idioms for describing personality? 3 Visualise - can you think of images to help you remember the idioms in Exercise 8A? 4 Personalise - can you use the idioms in 8A to tal k about people you know? C Use the expressions in Exercise 8A to talk about people in your own life, or people in the news/film/television/ politics. III . page



FUNCTION I speculating



1 A Look at the portraits from the National Portrait Gallery, London. Read what the sitters said about their portraits and match quotations 1-3 with portraits A-C. Were they happy w ith t heir portraits? Why/ Why not? I'd ra ther be thought of as it were thro ugh what I've w ri tten than my own p hysical presen ce because I think it's such a dismal physical presence most of the time. But he doesn't make me look so .. . you know ... the usual take on me is that I'm this monkish recluse and he doesn't quite endorse that view of me. - A lal1. Bennett 2

I think it's a wonderful pi cture. I know it doe n'r ma "e me look particularly good- looking, bur I"m nor _oodlooking so that's alright. I don't feel a rhough I ha\'e been caricatured or anyrhing. bur \\·har I dun" ir do look li ke, it looks like a portrair of lI1relligence. k got this incredible flicker about it. of ener~: which i, her energy more than mine. bur ir', ... my una_ e is in\"l:sred in her ... her power and her concentrarion. - Gerlllaille Greer


Ir's \'ery hard to ee your elf in the pi cture or any image of your-elf. Bur when I look at that now, yo u see rhar wa · done a few yea rs ago and when I first posed for Peter I must have been thirty-eight or thirty-nine. It was unveiled when I was forty. And that this whole process of having a portrait done, paradoxically because you know a portrait is supposed to in some way preserve yo u, it suddenly made me very awa re of my mortality and [ mean I'm approachin g fo rty; yes it's a great hono ur and ve ry flatterin g . But they say they are going to do a portrait for the N ational Portrait Gallery. But of course I inunediately think, oh but that's where all these dead people are hung up. - Kazllo Ishiguro

B Work in pa irs. Check you understand the meaning of the words in bold . Can you use other words to explain them?

dismal - dull, depressing

C In which portrait do they say the person: has a kind of intensity to their face? 2 looks like he's in a world of his own?

3 is trying to make a statement: 'this is the sort of person I am'? 4 looks intellectual or thoughtful? 5 has something knowing in their eyes, as if they've got a secret? 6 is trying to make a point about how ridiculous or absurd his life is? D Listen aga in to check your ideas.

3 Look at the language used for speculating. Read audio script 1.4 on page 164 and nnd some examples of this language. I su ppose/ guess/reckon he's about . . . I'd say he/she looks/doesn't look .. .


I wonder what he/she . . .

speculati ng

2A Look at each portrait more carefully. Work in pairs and discuss the questions. I What can you say about the person 's character from the picture?

I'd hazard a guess (that) .. . If I had to make a guess, I'd say (that) ... I'm pretty sure he/ she .. . There's something . .. about him / her. He/ she gives the impression of being ...

2 What job do you think they do?

He/ she could be . ..

B 1.4 Listen to people discussing the portraits and make notes. What do they say about each person's:

It seems like he/ she ... / It seems to me .. . It looks to me as if he/ she ...

• character/ appearance?

It makes me think (that) maybe he/ she .. .

• possible job?

It might suggest (that) ... III.,





To sound fluent in English, avoid long pauses in your speech by using fillers like er and erm. Vague language (sort off kind of/you know) and hedges (I suppose/ probably/ I guess I'd) are also used as fillers. Read audio script 1.4 on page 164 and find examples of fillers.


Correct the mistakes in the sentences.

I I'll be there soon. I just have a couple things to do.


Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.

I I guess she's a bit lonely. (It / seems / me) 2 It looks as though he's angry. (gives / impression) 3 I think she's probably an actress. (reckon) 4 If you asked me, I'd say she was happy with her life. (had / make / guess) S I'd definitely say that he's not telling us everything. (pretty) 6 I think she could be an only child . (hazard / guess)

2 Why don 't we meet at exactly 8-ish? 3 I left a lot of stuffs at the hotel, but I can pick it up later. 4 Don't worry. We've got a plenty of time. S We've sort finished the accounts. 6 There'll be about forty and so people attending.


B 1.5 Listen to the corrected sentences. Find examples of the following: I linking between words which end in a consonant sound and words which begin with a vowel sound .

I just ha~


things to do.

LEARN TO use vague language

2 elision (when a sound disappears) between two consonant sounds, e.g. must~be / ffiAshi: / .

5 Look at the examples of vague language. Some are from the conversation in Exercise 2B. Why do the speakers use vague language? Does it sound formal or casual?

Why don't...we meet at about eight-ish? C Mark the links between words in the following examples. Try saying the phrases. I It looks as if he's got a lot of work to do.

Vague nouns: thing, stuff, bit

There's something knowing in his eyes. Quantifiers: one or two, a few, a couple of, a lot of, plenty of, loads of, a bit (of)

She looks a bit puzzled to me. Vague numbers: around, about fifty, more or less, fifty or so

Would you say he's in his sixties? Generalisers: sort of, kind of, you know

This guy looks kind of

... intellectual.

List completers: and stuff, and so on, or something (like that)

He could be a novelist or a playwright, or something like that.

2 She looks about fifty or so. 3 It's a bit dark, isn't it? 4 I've got a couple of things to ask.

o ® 1.6

Listen and check. Then listen and repeat.

SPEAKING 7 A Work in pairs. Look at the portraits on page 158 and follow the instructions. B If you had a portrait painted of you, where would you be? What kind of portrait would you like to have? Compare your ideas with other students.



Work in groups. Look at the photo and discuss the questions.

4 Watch the DVD. Number the scenes in the order they appear.

I What do you know about this city? Think about its geography and history.

a) Francesco stands on the balcony and looks across the canal.

2 Have you been there? Would you like to go?

b) He sails a small boat and looks at the house.

3 What would it be like to live in Venice? How might it be different from where you live now?

c) He walks through the house.


Read the programme information. Why do you think Francesco is a good person to host the programme?

d) He imagines his ancestors and other people inside the house.


Answer the questions.

I Why does the story of his ancestors' home break Francesco's heart? 2 When did his ancestors build the house? 3 What happened to the house in 1603? 4 Apart from living there, what did his ancestors use the house for? B Watch the DVD again to check.


Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

I What did you think of Francesco's house? 2 What did you find interesting about his story? 3 Does your personal family history involve any particular countries or cities? Which ones?

3 Complete the sentences about Francesco's house with the words in the box. warehouse storeys modest showroom

bequeathed rotting

The house is damp and in terrible condition. and the woodis _ _ __ the house to another family 2 Chiara da Mosto after falling out with her relatives. 3 This room was a before selling them.

. They used it to store goods

4 It served as a ____ . They used it to show goods to clients. 5 It used to be a more beautifully decorated as now. 6 The house was two

building. not as big or high. The living room was


a possession

7A 1.7 listen to someone talking about a treasured family possession. What is the object? What does she say about the points below? • Background: the history of the o bject. • Physical description: what it looks/feels/sounds / smells like.

• Value: why it is so important. • Memories: w hat feelings or stories are associated with it .

B listen again and tick the key phrases you hear.

keyphrases (It) has been in my family for four generations. My grandmother inherited it. It has sentimental value. (It) was bequeathed to me. I should repair it. I wi ll always treasure it.


Now think about a treasured possession of your own or a place that is special to your family. Make notes on the points in Exercise 7A.

B Work in groups and take turns. Tell each other about your possession/place.


a description of an object


Read a description of an object. Why is the object special to the writer? I own an antique gramophone player that belonged to my grandfather and then my father. It was made in Germany in the 1920S and has a heavy base made of pine wood and a large brass horn. In the days before cassette players, CDs and iPods, this is how people listened to music at home. The gramophone reminds me of my childhood because when we went to my grandfather's house in Essex, near London, he used to play records on it. While his grandchildren were running and bellowing all over the house, he would be sitting there drinking tea and listening to a scratchy recording of a Bach sonata or Faure's Requiem . When he died, the gramophone was handed down to my father. It sat in the corner of the living room where a light skin of dust settled upon it. It was a piece of furniture, an heirloom that no one used or noticed but that just seemed to belong there, just as now it belongs in its own special corner of my living room. I don't know if many people nowadays would recognise a gramophone if they saw one, but I treasure the object because of the memories associated with it.

B Write about an object or place that is important to you. Use the key phrases help.



1 Underline the correct alternatives.


He was innocent but it took him years to live/clear/make his name.

2 I was named before/after/ofmy grandfather.

Find and correct the mistakes in sentences 1-6. There is one mistake in each sentence. I'm prone leaving things until the last minute, and then I always have to rush.


Match the sentence halves.

I reckon

2 If I had to make a guess, 3 I wonder if

4 She gives the impression

3 My married name is Kovacs but my maiden/principle/ single name is Warsawski.

2 I don 't tend needing as much sleep as I used to.

S I'd hazard

3 I keep forget people's birthdays.

7 It looks to me

4 Zara made a name for self/her/herselfas the best designer in the business.

4 My parents were always very strict and they wouldn't to let me out late at night.

8 I'm pretty

S He's a good actor but not a house/household/family name like

S I'm more inclination to phone

Brad Pitt or Johnny Depp.

6 His real name is Keanu but his nickname/friendly name/fun name is Nunu.



Complete the pairs of sentences using the same verb. Use one simple form and one continuous form. Some verbs are in the negative. I a) My friend week.

to visit next

b) Harada is Japanese. He ____ from Osaka. 2 a) I a cold for two weeks - I can't seem to get rid of it. b) 1____ tennis lessons for two years. 3 a) My office painted yesterday so I worked from home. b) The garden really beautiful when I was a child, but now it's a mess. 4 a) The children homesick at all - they love travelling. b) The economy any better so our jobs are still at risk. S a) They knew me already because I for that company before. b) I was exhausted because I ____ for sixteen hours without a break.

B Work in pairs. Discuss why we use the simple or continuous forms in the sentences above.

In 1a) it's a future plan so this uses the present continuous.

people than to send them a text.

6 I'm always tidy my house. I can't stand it when it's in a mess.

B Work in pairs. Change information in the sentences above to write three or four sentences about your partner (guess if necessary). Then compare your sentences to check. A: I guess you're prone to leaving

things until the lost minute. B: Actually, I tend to be quite organised.

a) as if Nataly has an artistic streak. b) a guess that Felix has a tendency to be a little absent-minded. c) Guido's probably obsessive about keeping his house tidy. d) of being a little apathetic about polities. e) sure that Olga is a fitness fanatic. f) I'd say that Monika is a conscientious student. g) Alex has a solitary side to his nature? h) mysteriOUS about Martha.

B Write two or three sentences speculating about things that might happen in the next year. Compare your ideas with other students.



Complete the words in sentences 1-6. We're m enough to disagree but still respect each other. 2 You're right. I hadn't noticed. That's of you. very pe 3 He was a very 0 man. He refused to do what I asked. 4 She is a c teacher. She prepares her lessons carefully. S It's important to remain o -m consider all options.

6 There's something


6 I'd have asked more questions, but I didn't want to seem too

B Work in pairs and take turns. Choose a word from Exercise 4A and describe an occasion when you can be like this. Can your partner guess the word? A: In the office, I work hard and make 'to do' lists. B: Conscientious?

If I hod to make a guess, I'd soy that the government will change within the next twelve months. I'm pretty sure this government won't get through the next elections.


GRAMMAR I conditionals and regrets



Work in pairs. Which pieces of advice a)-i) do you agree/disagree with ? Why? a) Don't worry about other people's opinions. b) If you want anything said, ask a man. If you want anything done, ask a woman.


I learning

.. HOWTO I talk about regrets

Words from the wise Everyone needs words of wisdom. When we're learning the ropes or things are going wrong, we all need help. Sometimes it's the wise words of our mentors that set us free. But we also need to watch out for advice that sounds good, but doesn't work. The trick is to know the difference between the two. 1 Rubem Alves, educator, writer

e) Don't explain. Just do what needs to be done.

In the 1960s, I was in the United States doing post-graduate work. Although I never explicitly criticised the government, I came under attack for my political sentiments. My professor then gave me the following advice : 'Rubem,' he said, 'never explain yourself. For your friends, it's unnecessary. For your enemies, it's pointless.'

f) Use every chance you get.

2 May Chen, web designer

g) If you don't like something, change it. If you can't change it, change your attitude.

When I was starting out in my twenties , I did some really boring jobs because people kept telling me, 'It'll look good on your CV.' Had I been more confident, I wouldn't have listened. I could have done more interesting things if I'd trusted my instincts. So I got a nice CV, but now I regret wasting my twenties. If only I'd known then what I know now.

c) If it looks good on your CV, it's worth doing. d) Don't mix business with family.

h) Show that you have confidence in your abilities. i) Respect everyone.

2A Read the article. Match speakers 1- 7 w ith advice a)-i) above. There are t wo extra pieces of advice. B Work in groups and d iscuss w hich pieces of advice in the article surprised you . Have you ever been in a similar position t o the people in t he t ext? What did you do?

VOCABULARY learning 3A Find expressions in the article with the following mean ings. I finding out how something is done in a particular place or situation (introduction) 2 was criticised by someone (paragraph I) 3 believed that my feelings are correct (paragraph 2) 4 use the chances you get (paragraph 3)

3 Jane Goodall, primatologist and • conservationist When I was about ten years old and dreaming of going to Africa, living with animals and writing books about them, everyone laughed at me. Africa was far away and full of dangerous animals, and only boys could expect to do those kinds of things. But my mother said, 'If you really want something and you work hard and you take advantage of opportunities - and you never, ever give up - you will find a way.' The opportunity was a letter from a friend inviting me to Kenya. The hard work was waitressing at a hotel to earn money for the trip - and spending hours reading books about Africa and animals, so I was ready when Dr Louis Leakey offered me the opportunity to study chimpanzees.

5 don't stop trying to achieve something (paragraph 3) 6 changed a person deeply, e.g. the way they understand the world (paragraph 4)

B Look at questions 1-8 and choose at least four that you are happy to answer. Compare your answers with other students.

7 feel deeply that you can succeed (paragraph 6)

I W hen were you last on a steep learning curve? W hat was the most difficult thing to learn?

8 in a position in which you quickly have to

2 In what situations do you always trust your instincts?

learn something difficult (paragraph 7)

3 W hat opportunities have you taken advantage of? 4 Have you ever told yoursel f 'never give up'? W hat was the situation? 5 Can you think of a great event or person that had a profound effect on you? 6 Do you know anyone w ho has come under attack fo r thi ngs he/she said or believed? 7 Can you think of a situation or place in which you had to learn the ropes?

8 Has anyone ever told you to 'believe in yourself? Who? When? W hy?


4 Felipe Massa, Formula 1 driver


In 2006, I became

team-mates with Michael Schumacher. I knew Schumacher as a legend, the man who had broken practically every record in Formula 1. But the most profound effect Schumacher had on me was when the great champion said, 'People will speak badly about you one day and well about you the next. Ignore them. The important thing is to do your work as well as you can.' 5 David Satcher MD, US Surgeon General When I left home to attend Morehouse College, my father - who did not even have the privilege of completing elementary school - accompanied me to the bus stop and gave me the most important advice I ever received: 'Son, when you get there, you're going to meet a lot of people that have a whole lot more than you. You may even meet some that have less than you do. But no matter who you meet, treat everybody with respect.' Those are words I still live by. 6 Stefan Orogovitz, brain surgeon A journalist once asked me, 'Why do brain surgeons have such large egos?' I told her, 'We need them. We lose ninetyfive percent of our patients.' If I'd known that statistic when I was learning the ropes, I'd be selling insurance today. How can you keep working with figures like that? There's only one way: do all you can, never apologise, believe in yourself and always tell the truth. 7 Xhang Li, businesswoman When my husband and I first began in the real estate business, we were on a steep learning curve and it caused some friction. Everyone told us, 'Marriage and business don't mix.' I wish we hadn't listened to their advice. They were so wrong! We're a great team because of our great marriage. But for our trust in each other, we would never have become so successful.

GRAMMAR conditionals and regrets 4A

Look at paragraphs 2,6 and 7 in the article above. Underline four conditional sentences and three phrases to describe regrets.

B Check what you know. Answer the questions. Instead of If + past simple, two of the conditional sentences use alternative forms. What forms are they? 2 Are these forms more or less formal than an

One day, a poor stonecutter worked chipping stone from the side of a mountain. Tired and hungry, he said, ' I wish I had 1 born a rich man.' A magic spirit heard him and transformed him into a rich man. He enjoyed his new life, but one day the sun burnt him. He said, 'The sun is more powerful than me. I 2 I was the sun instead of a rich man.' So the magical spirit transformed him into the sun. Now he shone down on the earth. But one day a cloud passed in front of him. 'The cloud is more powerful than me! 3 I known this, I would have asked to become a cloud!' The magical spirit turned him into a cloud . Now he blocked the sun and caused cold weather, but one day the wind blew the cloud away. He said, 'If I had been stronger, I could 4 stopped the wind . I wish I was the wind.' The spirit granted his wish. He blew and blew, creating dust storms and hurricanes, but when he tried to blow a mountain over, he failed. ,5 for my weakness, I would have blown that I had mountain down. If 6 been transformed into a mountain, I would be the strongest of all.' Again, the spirit helped him. Now, he stood huge and immovable. But one day he felt something chipping at him. It was a stonecutter. 'The stonecutter is the most powerful!' he said. ' If only I had known this, I7 have remained a stonecutter. I 8 making all these wishes and I want to be a stonecutter again.' And so the magic spirit turned him back into a poor stonecutter.

B Complete the moral of the story in any way you choose. Compare your ideas with other students. A wise person .. . C 2.1 Which sentences 1-8 in the story can use contractions? Listen and check. Then listen and repeat.

/n sentence 7, 'had' can be contracted: '/ wish I'd been born ." '

if clause?

3 Two of the phrases to describe regrets use the same verb tense. What tense is this?


C Look at the sentences you underlined again. Which one is a mixed conditional? Read the rules to check. Rules: Use if + past perfect and would + present continuous/ present simple to form a mixed conditional. 2 Use a mixed conditional to say that if something in the past had been different, the present would be different.

1* page 130 LANGUAGEBANK

Complete the story with one word in each gap.

Complete the sentences and make them true for you.

I If there's one thing I've learnt ... 2 One thing I'd never ... 3 One thing I wish I'd known when I was .. . 4 If I had a personal motto, it would be .. . 5 My mother/father/mentor/friend always told me ". B Work in groups and take turns. Read your sentences and give some background, explaining what you wrote. Try to use contractions.

PLUS metaphors

7 A Read the metaphor and choose the correct meaning.


Work in pairs. Student A: read the paragraph below and underline four metaphors related to ideas. Match them with meanings 1-4. Student B: turn to page 159. When I was a philosophy student at university, one day my professor said, 'OK, here's an idea. For some, this might be hard to swallow, but I have a proposal. Instead of making you take exams, in which you just regurgitate the book, at the end of term you all give a talk about something you found interesting in class.' He paused. Silence. 'It's just food for thought,' he said. 'You don't have to decide now.' None of us had done anything like this before. But, as if to prove it wasn 't just a half-baked idea, at the end of term, he made us do it. It was the best thing I did in four years at university.

I'm over the hill. a) I can't do something well enough because I'm too old. b) I have done the most difficult part of a task. B Discuss the questions. I Can you th ink of other exam~les of metaphors? 2 Why are metaphors used? 3 How do they help to communicate an idea?

speak Metaphors sometimes come in patterns: your

career is a journey. time is money. ideas are food; good is up and bod is down. It is useful to write these metaphors together in your notebook. This helps you to remember them. Do this with the metaphors in exercises 8 and 9. Which ones are similar in your language?


Read the paragraph and underline four metaphors related to journeys. Match them with meanings 1-4. When I graduated, everyone said, 'You'll go far.' I joined a law firm and quickly reached the peak of my profession. But then my career started to go downhill. I argued with colleagues and lost some cases. I found myself at a crossroads: either I could continue working there or I could take a risk and start my own firm. go badly

I reproduce without thinking 2 difficult to believe /accept 3 badly thought-out 4 something to thin k about B Read your paragraph to your partner twice. Which metaphors did he/she notice? Teach the four metaphors to your partner.

10 Replace the underlined phrases with metaphors and any necessary verbs. My teachers said, 'You have a great future ahead of you.' You'll go for. 2 A friend told me she was related to Albert Einstein, but I find that difficult to believe. 3 You should keep some time free to visit the National Gallery when you're in Edinburgh. 4 He had a badly thought-out plan to start a website selling cars. 5 I began my career by winning two tennis tournaments, but then things started to go wrong.

2 having to choose one thing or another

6 Our dog had been sick for years and was expected to die at any moment.

3 have a great future (You'll) go for.

7 He was at the height of his career when he decided to retire.

4 become number one

8 Someone once said 'all children are born geniuses'. That's something for us to think about.

11 A

Work in pairs and think of two:

• half-baked ideas that could change the world .

Allow all schools to be run by the students. • tips for reaching the peak of your profession. • things you can't afford (either the money or time) to do. • activities you would do if you put aside some time for yourself. • reasons why famous people's careers go downhill. • things you heard in the news that you find hard to swallow. B Explain your ideas to other students. III.



I verb patterns


I opinions

LISTENING 1A Read about living libraries. Do you think they are a good idea?

Living books: changing people's opinions by talking to them The idea of the 'living library' originated in Scandinavia. 'Readers' come to the library to borrow real people in the same way that they would normally borrow books. They can then take them away to a corner for a fifteen-minute chat, in the course of which they can ask any questions they like and hear real live answers. The idea is that by doing this, the 'reader' will start to uncover some of the preconceptions that they may have, and the 'book' is able to try and dispel a few of the typical stigmas, stereotypes and prejudices they encounter in their everyday lives.

VOCABULARY opinions 3A

B 2.2 Listen to two people talking about being in a living library. Which speaker, Alex (A) or Saba (5): I volunteered to talk about their life as a student? 2 is curious about other types of people? 3 met a woman who lost her sight due to an illness? 4 was nervous about being able to answer the questions?

Underline the correct alternatives.

Everyone has preconceptions/stereotypes about what a drug addict is. 2 They raise the stereotypeslchallenge the stereotypes that people hold about immigrants. 3 I was beginning to have second thoughts/have a second opinion about the whole idea. 4 It's important to be an open mind/keep an open mind. S His attitude is very narrow-minded/thin-minded. 6 The experience was eye-opening/eye-c/osing as we talked so directly. 7 I saw the situation from a whole new perspective/view.

S thinks that student ideologies haven't changed much since the I 960s?

8 I didn't find his argument very persuadinglconvincing.

6 learnt about the people who have inspired a blind person?

B Respond to situations 1-5 using the prompts and phrases from Exercise 3A.


Listen again and answer the questions.

You are supposed to get married next month, but you're feeling nervous about the decision.

What was written in the catalogue next to 'student'?

I'm having second thoughts about getting married.

2 How did Alex feel about this?

2 You spend a week living in a small community with a very different lifestyle to your own. It gives you a new outlook on life.

3 What did Alex expect the man to do? 4 In fact, what happened? S What was the first thing Saba noticed about Karrie? 6 What opinion is Karrie hoping to change? 7 How does being blind affect Karrie's life? 8 Why does she feel that she is a good judge of character?

It was an ... experience. It has ... 3 You meet your new father-in-law and he is a policeman. You had ideas about the kind of person he is, which you discover are wrong. I had some ... 4 Politicians are arguing that nuclear power is safe. You are not sure how true that is. I don't find ... S You used to think it would be great not to work, but then you lost your job. Losing my job ...

C Work in pairs and answer the questions. Can you think of any situations which have made you change your mind about something? 2 Have you ever had second thoughts about a decision you have made? III"


GRAMMAR verb patterns 4A

Check what you know. Underline the correct alternatives to

complete what people said about living libraries.

I It was great being able to say those things you're usually scared to say/say/saying and ask questions you're usually afraid to ask. 2 We were given the freedom to ask/ask/asking questions without having to worry about to be/be/being judged. I admit to feel/feel/ feeling a little nervous about a few of the questions. 3 I wanted to offer/offer/offering some insights into my job and I was determined to challenge/Challenge/Challenging a few misconcepti ons. 4 I enjoyed to talk/ talk/talking to different people. I learnt more about where my arguments for to be/be/being a vegan fall down. I had to apologise for not always being able to answer the question properly. 5 They advised me to be/be/being as honest as possible about my feelings.

6 To sleep/Sleep/Sleeping outside in the middle of winter isn't the problem . Coping with how people treat you is much harder


Complete the sentences with the correct form

of the verb in brackets.

I didn't expect (feel) so embarrassed, but the questions they asked were so personal. 2

(Meet) Linda and (have) the chance to talk to her about her experience was enlightening.

3 They had the opportun ity anything that they wanted. 4 It's hard with a disability.

(ask) me about

(imagine) what it's like to live

5 I wouldn't even contemplate _ _ _ _ (leave) the country. 6 She had refused (marry) the man her parents had chosen for her. 7 Somehow he seemed already. 8 He is fed up with

(lose) all the money (be) called rude names.

to deal/deal/dealing with. B Work alone and think of: B Look at Exercise 4A again. Find an example of verb + infinitive with


to for situations 1-9 below.

• one thing you would never consider doing. • something you regret doing/not doing.

after a preposition (sentence 2)

• three things you find hard to tolerate.

worry about being judged

• something you have recently been persuaded to do.

2 after an adjective (sentence I)

C Compare your ideas in pairs.

3 to express a purpose (sentence 3) 4 after certain verbs, e.g. recall, admit, keep, mention (sentence 2) 5 after a noun, often as a semi-fixed phrase (sentences 2 and 4)


6 after certain verbs, e.g. hope, wish, expect, fail, need, want (sentence 3)


7 after like, love, etc. (sentence 4) 8 when used as a noun (subject or object) (sentence 6) 9 after a verb + object, e.g. advise someone, remind someone, prefer something (sentence 5) C Which structure {verb +

-ingor infinitive with to}

is used in

each situation? Are there any situations in which both structures

Mark the statements below with a number from

1-5 {1 = strongly agree, 5 = strongly disagree}.

Medical advances will soon mean that people will live until they are 200 years old.

Individual countries do not have the right to interfere with the affairs of another country.

can be used?

1 worry about being judged


= verb + -ing

Match examples 1-3 with rules a}-c}.

Books will always exist people like the feel of paper.

I They seem to have forgotten why we came here.

St~dents, not the state, should pay UnIVersIty tuition fees.

2 Not understanding people's reasons for why they do the things they do is a big problem. 3 He is always being stopped by police just for the way he looks. Rules: a) Passive infinitive or -ing form _ __ Use the passive infinitive or -ing form to talk about actions which are done to the subject. b) Perfect infinitive or -ing form _ __ Use the perfect infinitive or -ing form to emphasise when one action happens before another. c) Negative infinitive or -ingform _ __ Negative infinitives and -ing forms can often be made the subject of a sentence, like gerunds.



Women should be promoted to top jobs in business and politics before men. B Work in groups. Discuss two of the statements and modify them until everyone in the group agrees with what they say. C Compare your new statements with the rest of the class.


a discursive essay

7 A Look at the photo. What do you think are the main reasons for homelessness? What is the best way to reduce the problem? B Read the essay. Does the writer share your ideas?

Are we doing enough to help the homeless?


omelessness is a major problem in any big city. There are regular attempts by authorities to clear the streets of th e homeless, typically in cities hosting events like the Olympics. H omelessness doesn't look good and it makes politicians feel uncomfortable. Is enough being done to resolve the problem, however?

LEARN TO use linking devices 9A

M any people assume that homeless people live on the streets as a result of drug or alcohol misuse. Consequently, th ey assume we can do little to help as drugs will continue to be a problem. Additionally, charitable organisations already help the homeless, so this may be sufficient. In my opinion, thi approach ignores the bigger picture. There is no doubt that drug abuse is a major contributing factor leading to homelessness. On the other hand, there are increasing numbers of people who are homeless because of the lack of affordable housing. In addition to this, as un employme nt increases, more people struggle to keep up with payments on their homes. A frightening number of the homeless are families w ith children. They are, in fact , the fastest growing part of the homeless population. Furthermore, it's not only the unemployed who cannot afford housing. According to a recent survey, more than a quarter of homeless people (25-40 percent) actually work. Nevertheless , they still can not afford to pay for accommodation. [n today's society, it is unacceptable that working people cannot afford to pay for a house to live in. For this reason , it's essential that governments ensure people are paid sufficient wages. Likewise , since housing prices are so high, governments should fo cus on providing accommodation for lowincome families. In conclusion , th e responsibility for homelessness should not just be left to charities, but as a society we need to help people before they find themselves on the streets.

Complete the table with phrases in bold from the essay.

introduce additional information (meaning 'and') what is more, another (problem / issue/point, etc.) , _ __ indicate a contrast with what has come before (meaning 'but') in contrast, on the contrary, conversely, _ _ _ __ _ -

follow a logical argument (meaning 'therefore') thus, hence, accordingly, as a result, prove your point evidently, obviously, indeed, to conclude/

Most linking words come at the beginning of a sentence (followed by a comma), or in the middle of the sentence (usually with a comma before and after the linker). Some linkers can be used at the end of clauses. Underline an example in the essay of where the linker appears at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of a sentence. B Delete the incorrect alternative in each sentence. Most computer users have, in conclusion /evidently/in fact, never received any formal keyboard training. As a result,/Howe ver,/So their keyboard skills are inefficient. 2 H e is old and unpopular. On the contrary/ Furthermore/In addition to this, he has at best only two more years of political life left. 3 Some of the laws were contradictory. Measures were taken to clarify them, accordingly/as a result/ hence. 4 What he said was true. It was, nevertheless/thus/however, unkind. 5 I don't mind at all. Indeed/ In fact / To conclude, I was pleased .


6 Many employees enjoy music in the workplace. However/ Conversely/ In addition to this , some people find it distracting or, indeed/in fact/obviously, annoying.

I Include an introductory paragraph.

10A Work in groups. Choose a statement from Exercise 6A and discuss the arguments for and against it.

Look at the guidelines for writing a discursive essay. How far does the essay in Exercise 7B follow the guidelines? 2 Divide your essay into for and against sections. 3 Use linking words and phrases.

B Plan an essay about your statement. Write a few key sentences using linking words.

4 Write a concluding paragraph.

C Write a discursive essay (250-300 words).





2A Work in pairs. Underline two idioms in the article and check you understand them.

Work in groups and discuss the questions.

I Which professions are the most/least trusted by the public? 2 Do you think public trust in certain professions has changed over the years? Why/Why not?

B Read the article about the most and least trusted professions in the UK. Would the results be the same in your country?

n a recent UK poll to find th e most trustworthy professions, doctors came first. Ninety-two percent of people trust th em. Other highly trusted professions included teachers, judges and clergy. N ear the bottom of the list were business leaders and journalists, but politicians came last. Only thirteen percent of people trust them.


T hree of the most trusted professions gave us their conU11ents.

Dr David Bailey, doctor ' I qualified when 1 was twenty-three yea rs old. I've every intention of working until I' m sixty-five, so 1've got a real vested interest in making sure that my patients think 1 am trustwo rthy. You do that by th e way you behave towards people.'

idioms of opinion

B Work in pairs. Underline the idioms in sentences 1-4 and choose the best definitions. I'm going to play devil's advocate. Let's imagine the company goes bankrupt. What happens to the employees? a) give a very negative opinion about someone or something b) say something unlikely or unpopular so people will think about the issue more carefully 2 I'm going to speak my mind. I think this situation is absolutely terrible and we have to find a solution. a) change your opinion after reconsidering something b) say what you really believe 3 If you have to make a decision, it's no use sitting on the fence. You must choose one or the other. a) being unable to commit yourself to one opinion or one side

Mary Davis, teacher

b) asking lots of people to help you make a difficult decision

'We make every effort to get to know each individual pupil and we also try very hard to be part of the C011U11Unity. As well a knowing the pupils, we get to know their fa milies.'

4 Let's not beat about the bush. You have committed a serious crime, and now you must pay for it. a) give an opinion based on false evidence

Professor Justin Lewis, university professor 'We do n Or have an axe to grind . Our business is doing research; teaching. In good fa ith , we try and produce things that are of \"alue to ociety in general.'

b) talk a lot, but avoid directly addressing the most important point

C Which idioms in Exercise 28 can be used to introduce opinions or knowledge?


Underline the correct alternatives.

In / Of/ By reality, all the recent political and business scandals have eroded people's trust in these professions.

2 From what I can learn/gather/get, nurses are extremely trustworthy. They were voted the most trusted professionals in the USA from 2004- 2008. 3 As far as I'm opinionated/concern/concerned, postal workers are the most trustworthy profession. 4 To my knowledge / view/ opinion, there are no professions that are 'squeaky clean '; all of them have 'bad apples' . S If you tell/inquire/ask me, librarians are the most trustworthy people; they have no reason to lie. 6 If you want my truest/ honest/ perfect opinion, I'd say trust nobody, ever.

B Do you agree with opinions 1-6 above? Why/Why not?


express doubt



2.4 Listen to three extracts from the debate in Exercise 3A. Tick the phrases you hear for expressing doubt.

introducing opinions


2.3 Listen to a debate. What issue are the speakers discussing and what conclusion do they reach? B Listen again and tick the ideas that are mentioned. I Journalists have an axe to grind , 2 Most journalists are truly impartial. 3 Some journalists are there to sell newspapers. 4 A journalist's job is to get proof and ask for evidence.

I I find that highly unlikely. 2 I'm really not sure about that. 3 That's debatable. 4 I don't know about that.

B Which expression above shows the most doubt?



2.5 Listen to four sentences using the expressions above. Notice the intonation on the modifiers really and highly. Listen again and repeat.

S Journalists want the truth . 6 Good journalists make the case for both sides. 7 There are many libel trials because people don't like what is written about them. 8 Some journalists 'give others a bad name'.

4A What words do you think complete the expressions for introducing opinions? Which do you know? Which do you use? If you want my honest 1_ _ _ _ __ Quite 2_ _ _ _ __ The reality is ... /In reality, ... According

(the statistics/the facts/her), ...


From what I can

4_ _ _ _ __

As far as I'm 5- - - - - To my knowledge, ... Look at it this way. If you

6_ _ _ _ _ _

7 A Read about three real cases of untrustworthy behaviour at work. If you were the boss in these cases, what would you do? What would it depend on? Think of some ideas and make notes. CASE 1 Someone in your company has been stealing pens and other supplies from the office.Yo ll discover that it's one of your best workers.

CASE 2 One of the teachers at your school frequently calls in sick on M ondays. You notice holiday photos on his Facebook page which were taken on one of the days he was 'off sick'.

CASE 3 me, ...

B Read audio script 2.3 on page 166. Which of the expressions above can you find? 11111.



An employee at your advertising agency has used her company credit card to pay for expensive meals and tickets to events.You know that she wasn't with clients on those days. B Compare your ideas with other students. If you were the boss, what options would you have? Debate the issue. C What do you think the bosses really did? Turn to page 159 to find out. Do you think they did the right thing?


Work in groups. Check you understand the words/phrases in bold. I Do you thin k musicians like Beethoven or artists like Picasso are born with an innate talent, or would you put their success down to a lifelong passion or intensive training? 2 Do you agree that any parent can train their child to become world-class at something or does the child need to be born academically/artistically gifted? 3 If you can inherit eye and hair colour from a parent, do you think it is possible to also inherit personality traits? 4 How much do you think a parent is able to shape their child 's future and success?

B Discuss the questions in Exercise lA.


Read the programme information and answer the questions. What is Vanessa's special talent? 2 Who was influential in helping Vanessa to become a professional musician? 3 What does Vanessa hope to learn from taking part in the programme?


Watch the DVD and answer the questions. In what way was Vanessa's relationship with her mother unusual?

2 Does Vanessa feel that she was born with her musical gift, or that she developed her talent purely through the amount of practice she did? What does she say about this? 3 Is Vanessa happy about her childhood? Why/Why not?

4A Complete the extracts. I With a fortune in excess of _ _ _ , Vanessa-Mae is one of Britain 's most successful young musicians. 2 This beautiful instrument has given me so much and in my life . It has _ _ _ and basically my life . 3 I was always made to appreciate that the love my mother had for me was _ _ _ 4 To help Vanessa find the answer, science will test her body and her . She'll be observed by _ __ . .. and be pushed to the limit. S Emotionally, I may have become the person I became because of the in my life. 6 It was my blood, my sweat and my brought me here today.


B Watch the DVD again to check.


Work in pairs and discuss the questions. Do you think Vanessa's mother made the right decisions about how to bring up her daughter? Why/ Why not?

2 Are your own successes a result of your natural ability (inherited from your parents) , your own hard work, or just pure luck? 3 Do you think your parents' interests and achievements have shaped your own? Have you inherited personality traits from members of your family?

speakout a panel discussion


6A 2.6 Listen to someone debating the role of nature versus nurture. Which side of the argument does she present? What examples does she give to justify her ideas? B Listen again and tick the key phrases you hear. k


I'd like to begin by stating that . . . As I see it ... / What I think is .. . I would say it depends on .. . What you need to consider is .. . I think it's ridiculous to suggest .. . I absolutely reject the idea that .. . So, to conclude I would have to argue that .. . Does anyone have a question . .. ? / Are there any other questions? That's a good question because .. .

C Which key phrases are used to: • introduce the argument? • justify an opinion? • conclude? • invite questions? • respond to questions?

7 A Work in groups. Think of points 'for' and 'against' the following statement. Children should start school younger than they do now.

B Prepare to argue either 'for' or 'against' the statement. Follow the instructions. • Choose a speaker for your group. • Help them to prepare their argument. • Make notes on how to introduce the argument, justify the opinion and conclude. Use the key phrases. C The speakers take turns to present their arguments. Listen and ask questions at the end. Which case was argued the most clearly?

writeback a summary SA Read the summary. What are the key points? Do you agree with the writer's opinion? Should your child learn a musical instrument? Anna: Music in a child's life has many benefits. Some even claim that early exposure to classical music for very young children (even before they are born) helps them to become more intelligent, the so-called 'Mozart Effect'. The claims are unsubstantiated , but there is no question that classical music is soothing to the soul. They may not become musical prodigies, but exposing your children to songs and nursery rhymes from a young age will give them a feel for rhythm and language, and encourage them to appreciate the beauty of music as they grow. At school, children who learn musical instruments are generally more successful and perform better in tests . It may be that learning music also helps children to develop their reasoning skills, learn about problem-solving and decision-making. It can also be great for confidence-building and is a valuable experience which helps to broaden their understanding and appreciation of the world around them. Obviously, there are costs and commitments involved with teaching a child a musical instrument. But, if you ask me, it's one of the most precious gifts you can offer a child and one which he or she will appreciate for a lifetime.

B Write a summary (200-220 words) of your opinion about one of the issues in Exercises 6A or 7 A .




1 Find and correct the mistakes in sentences 1-8. There are five mistakes.

3A Work alone. Prepare to talk about some of the following topics.

SA Use a word from each box to complete the conversations.

I've only been working here for two weeks so I'm still learning the chains.

2 You are so talented, you should believe on yourself.

3 He came under attack for his political beliefs.

4 I decided to make advantage of the opportunity.

5 David didn't need to think because he trusted on his instincts.

6 That film had a profound effect on me at an early age.

7 If you really want to be the best, never give up.

8 It's a difficult course and Frank's on a steep learning curb.


2A Choose one of the scenarios below. Write as many sentences as you can, using past conditionals and regrets. • Several years ago you had a great idea for a book, but you were too busy to write it. The story involved a schoolboy magician and his two friends who fight against evil by using magic. Then the Harry Potter books appeared. • You have a safe, steady job, but you are totally bored. As a teenager you were a really good dancer and had the opportunity to go to the best dance school in the country. You gave it up because the profession seemed too risky. • A few years ago you saw a wonderful house for sale. You thought about buying it, but hesitated because of the long commute to work. By the time you decided to make an offer, it was already sold. You frequently dream about living in that house.

B Compare your ideas with other students.

I Describe the national stereotype for your country. Do you think it is an accurate description?


2 Name three kinds of prejudice or stereotype people are trying to challenge in your country.


3 Describe a person you had a preconception about, who turned out to be very different. 4 What do you think leads to people becoming narrow-minded / openminded about an issue? 5 What is the best way to change someone's perspective about a topic? 6 Talk about something you decided to do, but then had second thoughts about. 7 Describe a film/book which you would consider eye-opening. Why? 8 Can you think of any convincing/ unconvincing arguments in the media at the moment?

B Work in pairs. Talk about as many of the topics as you can in five minutes.


4A Complete the sentence stems so they are true for you.


can real ity


if my I'm quite

to gather frankly you is

knowledge I A: If you want my honest she should apologise.

opinion ,

B: _ _ _ _ , I agree. 2 A: _ _ _ _ the statistics, we're the industry's most successful company. B: As far as _ _ _ _ , statistics are worthless. 3 A: To _ _ _ _ , the painting hasn't been sold yet. B: _ _ _ _ ask me, the price is too high. 4 A: From what I _ _ _ _ , there's a lot of corruption in sport. B: The _ _ _ _ , there's corruption everywhere, not only in sport.

B Play devil's advocate. Choose three of the topics below and write sentences using the expressions in Exercise SA. Read your sentences to other students. Say what you think of their ideas.

I I would never expect . ..

• politics and politicians

2 In my school, we were required ...

As for as I'm concerned. taxpayers should never pay for politicians to have a second home in the capital.

3 I've always been interested in ... 4 I'd love to have the chance ... 5 Recently, I've been making plans 6 It's impossible .. . 7 I don 't mind .. . 8 I'd advise you .. .

B Compare your ideas in pairs.

• • • •

sport technology a film or TV programme classical music


I noun phrases



1 A Work in pairs. Mat ch the words in the box with synonyms 1-8. Use a dictionary to help you . picturesque tranquil bustling magnificent ancient deserted run down unspoilt shabby, dilapidated, in a bad state


2 calm, quiet, peaceful 3 stunning, breathtaking 4 old, historic 5 unchanged, not altered by tourism 6 busy, full of people and noise 7 beautiful, lovely, pretty, attractive , pleasant

8 empty, uninhabited B Complete the sentences with adjectives from Exercise lA. The fl ower market was ___ with shoppers. 2 The view from the tower was 3 W e wandered arou nd th e ___ walled city. Life there hadn 't changed for centuries. 4 Tourists haven't discovered the area yet, so the beaches are completely _ __ . C Look at the photos. Use the vocabulary to describe the scenes.

READING 2A Read the introduction to the article. Who took the photos? Can you guess where they were taken? B Read the article and match stories 1-3 with photos

A- C. C Read t he article aga in and answer the questions. How did Alistair arrive at the scene? 2 What example (s) of spontaneity does he mention? 3 W hat is the Malecon and what happens there? 4 Which things in the photo and the text capture the essence of Havana for Anthony? 5 What is special about the houses in Matera? 6 How did Greg feel when he left the town?

1 Sangkhlaburi, Thailand: Taking the plunge 'We were in a long-tail boat crossing the Khao Laem reservoir in Sangkhlaburi, close to th e Burmese border in Western Thailand, w hen our driver took us on a detour to T hailand 's lo ngest wooden bridge. As he cut the engin e and we idl ed up to th e bridge for a closer look, some local boys were enj oying a bombing (diving) competition. Wh en th ey saw us, they seized th e moment to showcase some of their diving and one after the other plunged into the water. We were only there for a few minu tes but this impro mptu performance remains o ne of the highlights of my time in Thailand. This shot embodies the spontaneity of th e country, and its people's vibrancy.' AJistair McD onald was on a two-week holiday in T hailand.

2 Havana, Cuba: Seeing the light 'Th e Malecon is a fi ve-mile-long. six-lane sea road, laid out by US Marines from 1901 and fronted by nineteenth-century buildin gs in vario us states of disrepair. It is where H abaneros* hang out and party at the weekends and is the unique fi ngerprint of H ava na. When I got th ere, the sun was starting to set. T here was a wa rm breeze blowing and a strong sea swell, with waves cras hin g against the sea wall . T he sun was barely peeping through the clouds when I noticed a 1950s Pontiac approac hing in th e di stance. I waited until it drew closer before pressing the shutter. For me this photo captures the essence of H avana: a uniquely ph otogenic city fro zen in time for fifty years.' Anthony M cE voy was in C uba fo r work and a short holiday.

* Haballeros -

people born in H avana, C uba

3 Matera, southern Italy: Time stands still

SPEAKING 3A Th ink of a 'snapshot' moment of a special holiday. Thin k about where you were, what kind of holiday it was, how you felt at the time and why the memory is important to you . B Compare you r 'snapshot moments' with other students. Who has the best description/story?

'N othing could have prepared m e for my first sight of the Sassi di M atera. I wasn't sure what to expect from a cave town where th e locals live in the same houses as their ancestors did 9,000 years ago. I felt like I'd wa ndered onto a film set. The jumble of stac ked cave ho uses appeared to tumble down a ravine. Adding to the magic of the place was the fac t that I was the only person th ere and it felt like a ghost town. I left feeling slightly humbled - maybe it was knowing that my hotel room 'Yas once a cave dwelling for a family of ten and their livestock!' Greg Jac kson spent his summer holiday last year in Italy.

5 Put the words/phrases in t he correct order to make sentences. home-made / a slice of / chocola e delicious / on top / cherri es / wi h cake 2 a / mountain bike / bright red / with fifteen gears / heavy-duty / brand new 3 Greek / seafood / it 's a / of the best / fresh / restaurant / some / small / in the area / which serves 4 cashmere / very expensive / black / with extra-long sleeves / a / jumper S with / a / soup / traditional / freshl ybaked / bean / Tuscan / bread . 6 a / medieval / castle / ancient / steep / on top of a very / hill / fascinating


Look at the extra detail added to the noun phrases below. What parts of speech in Exercise 4 have been added each t ime?

The shop serves tarts and coffee. I The shop serves custard tarts and good coffee .

GRAMMAR noun ph rases


Look at the ways in which noun phrases can be mod ified . Ad d the underlined sections in the t ext to the appropriate category below. Rules: A noun phrase is a group of words which functions as a unit to describe the noun. Information can be added before or after the noun in different ways. 1 Compound nouns A noun can be used to modify a noun. Sometimes these are written as two words, sometimes as one word, and sometimes t hey are hyphenated. cave houses



2 Compound adjectives Adjectives can be used to modify the noun, using hyphens. long-tail boat (a boat with a long tail)

custard tarts = compound noun; good coffee =adjective + noun 2 T he shop serves delicious hand-m ad e cu stard tarts and extraordinarily good strong black espresso coffee. 3 The shop serves deliciou s hand - mad e custard tarts with a sprinkle of cinnamon on t op and t iny cups of extraord inarily good strong black espresso coffee. 4 The old pastry shop in central Lisbon serves delicious hand- made custard ta rts with a sprinkle of cinnamon on top and tiny cups of extraordinarily good strong black espresso coffee.

When the noun part is plural, it becomes singular in a compound .

B Work in pairs. Add more detail t o t he following noun phrases.

nine-year-old girl (the girl is nine years old)

I The man lives in a house.

2_ _ _ _ _ __

3 Adverb + adjective combinations

2 There was a piece of cheese on the table.

refreshingly cool breeze

3 The shop sells furniture.

3_ _ _ _ _ __

4 Adjectives

4 The boy enjoyed the cake.

When several adjectives come before the noun, they need to be in a specific order.

S T he streets were empty.

Value adjectives (which give your opinion) come first, fo llowed by size, age, shape, colour, origin and material. 4

delicious slice of home-made apple pie

6 The bus was crowded . C Write three complex noun ph rases describing:

5 Prepositional phrases and participle clauses

I a place you have visited .

These occur after the noun.

2 something you have enjoyed eating/ cooking.

Prepositional phrases: 5

a camera for filming short video clips


Participle clauses: waves crashing against the sea wall

,., page 132 LANGUAGEBANK

3 something you bought recently.


Compare you r sentences w it h other students.

WRITING a description of a place

LEARN TO add detail



Read the Lonely Planet guidebook entry for Lisbon. Make notes about the city under the following headings. • Locati on

• N earby sights

• Things to see / do

• H istory

• Architecture

• Food and drink

What kinds of details did the writer add to improve the sentences below? I Trams travel along the streets of the old town , where many locals walk. 2 In Alfama, people gossip in the public baths, or in restaurants where they enjoy bread , wine and traditional Portuguese music. 3 In Bairro Alto, you can find many restaurants and bars which play live music. 4 Nightclubs around the town can be found in all kinds of interesting places, near the docks and in old mansions.

5 In Lisbon you can do many things, like enjoy a coffee at a pavement cafe , go windowshopping or visit the castle. 6 O utside Lisbon, it is wo rth visiting the town of Sin tra, and also beach es and fishing villages along the coast.


. I· throuah curvy tree-lined .crht yello\y trams w1I1d t lelr way " 1 1 've b 5 n", .. b A I old quarters ' muc 1 as tley ll th rough ne streets, Lls oetas suo. . . ld Alfama is exchanged at . V·ll ge hfe gossiP mo · done for centunes. 1 a - b' d dine at tiny patio restaurants, . b 1 . over fresh rea an w ' . the public aUS or ff do Portugal's traditional melanchohc as fadistas {proponents 0 a , . . a) erform in the background. smgm" p .. d locals chase the ghosts . . h r arts of town, VlSltorS an . Meanwhile, 111 ot e p . m1 t· 19~ Os-era cafes.Yet, while ) e poet) 111 war Y It .) . of Pessoa (a 1: ortugues . . . L" bon its spirit is undelllably , history is very much alIve 111 anClent IS


d b ·s Youthful. .. .. ' Alto dozens of restaurants an al In the hilltop district ofBanro .' lectronica and fado filling t eets With Jazz, reggae, e '. ·l d Nightclubs scattered all line the narroW s r . d 1\ arty1l1g unt! awn. the alr an reve ers p h ther on riverside docks or over town make fine use of old spaces, w. e . . tucked away in eighteenth-century mansIOns. . com asses so many th ings, from enJoYll1g The Lisbon expenence en p . te leafY plaza to windowa fresh pastry and bica (espresso) on ~pet~he su~set 'from th e old shopping in elegant Chudo or watc 111g Moorish* castle. . . f ·de L·lsbon there's more to explore: the magical sett1l1g 0 . fi h· ill es ] \.lst Oll tS I . ' Sintra lorious beaches and traditional s mg v ag . . ,g . (Muslim people from Northern Afnca) relatmg to the Moors

* Moorish -

B Work in pairs and discuss the questions. I What ten se(s) does the writer use to describe Lisbon? Why? 2 Do you think th e language in the article sounds form al or informal? Why? 3 Do you think the w riter likes the place? Why / Why not?

Add colour. Details help to make your writing more colourful and interesting for the reader. Try to use a rich range of vocabulary and add details (colours, shapes, sounds, smells, tastes, feelings) to help the reader experience your description. Underline the sections in the article which add colourful detail to the description.

B Read the description below. Underline phrases which refer to the senses and identify each sense. Approaching the central square, you can hear the voices of the market sellers, advertising their wares. The sweet smell of fruit ripened in the hot sun lingers in the air, mixing with the aroma of strong, fresh coffee and petrol fumes from the small, three-wheeled motorised vans the local farmers, or 'contadini', use to bring their produce to market. Each stall has mountains of different coloured fruits and vegetables, firm red peppers, purple beans, tomatoes of all shapes and sizes. There's a liveliness in the air, as the old ladies haggle over the price of the cherries and wave their arms in rebuke at the younger workers.

9A Plan a guidebook entry. Choose a place you know well. Make some notes using the headings in Exercise 7A. Think about how you can add some interesting detail. B Write your guidebook entry (200-250 words).


GRAMMAR I relative clauses

.. VOCABULARY I adjectives

SPEAKING 1A Work with other students. Look at the photos and discuss the questions. I W hat can you guess about the profession/ age l gender of the people who work in these rooms? 2 Do you think these rooms look like good spaces in which to work? Why / Why not?

3 What type of space is good to work in? W hat qualities does it need (e.g. light, view, furniture)?

B Match quotations 1-3 with photos A-C. Check your answers on page 162. I 'This room sold the place for me because it gets the morning sun and then that 's it.' 2 'I have to have a lot of colour around me. It makes me feel happy.'

3 'W hen I'm in my chair I feel like Goldfinger or one of the other Bond villains. ' C Discuss. What is good or bad about the space where you work or study?

VOCABULARY adjectives 2A Read descriptions 1-6. Are they from an advertisement, a ratings website, or a piece of fiction? How do you know? I Beautiful, roomy Suffolk cottage. Spacious living area, generous bedrooms, sleeps eight, shady patio for outdoor dining; call 01865 558569 2 Danziger's gloomy, airless room suited his mood. He lay on the mattress, listening to the whirr of the water pipes, and wondered where his youth had gone.

3 W e found the room comfortable, even though the decor - bright yellow and green stripes - was a bit gaudy. It also got quite chi lly at night. 4 Airy flat. Huge windows. Sunny living room. Peaceful location. Sleeps four. € 895 per month. 5 Entering through a grey door, she saw grey walls encloSing a grey space and said, 'W hat a dreary room. This looks like a good place to die.'

6 The room was a bit poky. There wasn't much space, but for £.60 a night in London ,

--v~~--------~---------------------------------Many descriptive adjectives end in -y. Some come from the root word ,

e.g. dirty, noisy, smelly. O thers do not have a root word, e.g. happy, pretty, silly. So, if we don 't know the meaning, we need to guess from the context. Do the adjectives in exercise 2A have a root word?

3A Are the bold vowel sounds long or short? Underline the odd one out in each set.

we coul dn't complain.

drea ry / city / reall y

4 hockey/jokey/poky

2 gaudy/body/naughty

5 shady/ready/daily

B Underline all the adjectives in Exercise

3 gloomy/footie / roomy

6 bury/ ai ry/ferry

2A. Which are positive and which are negative? Think of more examples to describe a place or room.


® 3.1 Listen and check. Then listen again and repea t.





4A 3.2 Listen to two people describing the space where they work. What types of space do they describe? What is good and bad about them? B Listen again. Who uses the following phrases: speaker 1 or speaker 2? open plan one drawback all crammed up a stone's throwaway somewhere nice to hang out it gets quite chaotic a little haven of tranquillity

C Work in pairs. Use some of the phrases in the box to describe where you work or live.

6A Check what you know. Look at comments 1 and 2 in Exercise 5 and underline the relative clauses. Which is a defining relative clause? Which is a nondefining relative clause? What is the difference? B Underline the relative clauses in comments 3-6. C Match descriptions a)-f) with the relative clauses in Exercise 5. a) a formal sentence in which a preposition comes before the relative pronoun (which / who / when, etc.)

5 b) a fixed prepositional phrase with which or when in a non-defining relative clause c) the possessive whose (used on ly before nouns) d) a relative pronoun after some of, all of, none of, etc. e) a defining relative clause with no relative pronoun f) a defining relative clause in which the relative pronoun (who, which, etc.) can be replaced by that


Work in pa irs and answer the questions.

I In what kinds of clauses can you sometimes use that instead of who, where, when, etc.? 2 Why is a comma used in sentences 2, 4 and 5 before the relative clause? 3 Which relative pronoun has been omitted from sentence 3? Why is this possible? 111*



Cross out the incorrect option in each sentence.

I My aunt and uncle, cook well , spend most of their time in the kitchen. a) both

b) both of whom

c) who both

2 That's the run-down little bar _ _ _ we first met. a) in which


relative clauses


Read six blog comments from people describing where they work. Do you sympathise with their views? Most people who do creative work need a quiet place, but I need noise and movement and chaos to create anything. 2

I've shared offices with lots of great talkers, none of whom were bad people, but I need silence to work.


My work space can be anywhere I feel physically comfortable , warm and relaxed.


I shared an artist's studio for two years. One day I arrived to find six people asleep on the floor, at which point I decided to work from home. Home is the best work space for me.


I love antiques , so everything in my house is old. Even the leather chair, on which I sit every day, is an antique. The best work spaces for me are those whose major characteristic is brightness. I just need big windows.

c) which

overlooks a secluded hotel off the

a) on where the castle was built b) on which the castle was built c) which the castle was built on 4 The group of friends, I've known for ages, went on a yearly holiday together. a) who

b) of which

c) a few of whom

5 We decided to go home in 1997, _ _ _ we had travelled to thirty-five countries. a) at which point c) by which time

b) since when

6 The food _ _ _ they served was wonderful. a) -


b) where

3 T he hill beaten track.

b) that

c) what

7 We watched the election, _ _ _ was never in doubt. a) the result of which c) whose result 8 She was the person a) on whom we relied c) who we rel ied on

b) that result for our information. b) whom we relied


Design your ideal space for work/study. Think about the following topics and make notes. type of room • special features

decoration • objects/furn iture

• size • view

B Work in groups. Take turns to describe your ideal space. _iiiiiAii . . .1iiIIi........ PLUS

9 r


Read about a hotel. Why is it famous?

Hotel Chelsea To say that the Hotel Chelsea has an interesting history would be an understatement. Since the early twentieth century, the hotel has been home to dozens of celebrities. The fame of the building itself pre-dates its fame as a hotel; when it was constructed in 1883 as a block of flats, it was New York's tallest building. It became a hotel in 1905. Although prosperous at first, during a period of maladministration the hotel began to degenerate. It went bankrupt and changed hands in 1939. Its proactive new managers soon got it up and running again and, in the post-war era, its fame grew. As a part of the New York artistic scene, the hotel is irreplaceable. Its famous residents have included actors, artists, singers, writers and numerous antiestablishment figures. Frida Kahlo, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jackson Pollock, Marilyn Monroe, Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, Madonna and Uma Thurman all lived there for a while, and the hotel has been immortalised (and some would say overexposed) in dozens of songs, books and films (9~ Weeks, The Interpretef). Always a place of non-conformity, the hotel's management sometimes allowed penniless residents to pay for their rooms with artworks, some of which still hang in its lobby today. Its famous residents have found the hotel conducive to creativity. Arthur C Clarke and Jack Kerouac wrote, respectively, 2001 .' A Space Odyssey and On the Road while living in the hotel, and Madonna used it for a photo shoot for one of her books. Unfortunately, the hotel IS also associated with artistic misbehaviour and tragedy. One of numerous examples of .vild adventures behind its closed doors, the poet Dylan Thomas collapsed in room 205 of the hotel after partying too hard. e died four days later.

10A Read the text again . Find and underline an example of each prefix in the first column of the table. prefix



de ir im non un

negatives/ opposites/reverse










B Complete the second column of the table with the meanings in the box. negatives / opposites ireverse size or degree time (before or after) wrong or bad attitude or opinion (for or against)

C What types of words do we use the prefixes with (e.g. nouns, verbs, adjectives)? We use un- with adjectives like uninteresting and unhappy, and adverbs like unfortunately.


Work in groups. Add your own examples to the third column of the table.

11 One statement about prefixes is true. Correct the false statements. When we add a prefix to the root word, the spelling of the root word usually changes. 2 We cannot add more than one prefix at a time to root words. 3 Learning to recognise prefixes helps us to build our vocabulary and guess unknown words. 4 There are rules that tell us which prefixes we can add to each root word .

12A Complete the words by add ing prefixes. I a place that is _known to most tourists because it's _exposed in the media 2 a hotel, restaurant, bar or cafe that looks _descript but is _rated 3 a hotel, restaurant, bar or cafe that you think is _attractive and a bit _rated 4 a building that is _inhabitable because it was _managed in the past 5 a threatened habitat that is _replaceable, but _possible to save B Work in pairs. How many examples of places in Exercise 12A can you think of? Compare your ideas with other students.

A place that is unknown to most tourists is Regent's Canal in London. You can walk nine miles along it from Camden Market to Little Venice, and it's great! III..,



FUNCTION I making a proposal

VOCABULARY city life 1A

Work in groups and discuss the questions.

Have you been to any of the cities in the photos!

2 What do you th ink might be good abo ut li vi ng in the m! What problems might the re be! 3 What is good and bad about the city o r town where yo u live!

4 What other problems connected with urban living can yo u think of!

It can be quite stressful because everyone's always in a rush. B Read t he a rtic le . Does it men t io n a ny of t he issues you d iscussed in Exercise l A?

Welcome to Perfect City Em'ironmental psychology is a fie ld of science that looks at th e ways in w hich we are affec ted by our surroundings. Almost every aspect of the built enviro nme nt, from the colour of hospital walls to the type of grass used in parks , ca n have a drama tic impact o n crim e, health , edu cati o n, commerce and happin ess. BB C Fow s Magazille repo rts o n how psychologists are teamin g up with designers to build spaces that are safer and healthi er.

Classic trick In th e mid- nineti es in M o ntreal, it was discovered th at playing classical music throu gh th e public address system wo uld drive away crowds of loitering teenagers and cut crim e. T he idea soon ca ught o n . Now, classical music is played in over sixty underg ro un d stations in Lo ndo n .

Stop signs Som etim es less is more - towns such as Bohmte in Germany have found that the best way to slow traffic is to remove all road signs and markin gs . With out these guides, dri vers have to slow dow n and negotiate rights of way with o ther drivers, cyclists and pedestrians.

Dipping distractions R.esearchers in Man chester fou nd that pickpocke ts took adva ntage of pedestrians distrac ted by confusing enviro nments. By removing visual clutter and m aking spaces easier to navigate, pedestrians are m o re aware of their surro undin gs and less likely to becom e victims of cri me.

Delays stress Commuting lo ng distances isn 't necessarily stressful , but delays are. A stud y of rail commuters fo und the highest levels of stress hormon e cortisol among those w ho perceived their journ ey as unpredictable. R ealtime transport upda tes, such as a text m essage sent to yo ur phone letting yo u know exactl y when the next bus w ill arrive, have been fo und to reduce stress .


Complete the sentences w ith the words in the box.

ame nities infrastructure congestion abando nme nt to lls regene ration The best t hing to do with loiteri ng teenagers is to give them such as sports fac ilities. 2 The city can't host a major international event because it doesn 't have the . The t ransport links are poor and the power supply often fails. 3 The of run-down old buildings used to be a real problem where I live, but the area has und e rgone urban _ __ _ , so now it's full of nice shops and houses. 4 The re's always traffic _ _ _ in the city centre. They should introduce more , so people have to pay to bring cars into the centre. B Wh ich three words in the box contain suffixes that turn them into nouns? What are the root words of these nouns?

FUNCTION making a proposal 3A


3.3 Listen to someone proposing an idea to improve an area of their city. What is the idea? What is the speaker proposing to do now? B Complete the notes. Then listen again to check. - f-Ie.rrog e.te COl/lYlCtf to 5e t l/Ip c'1c!e hl/lb5 iYl th e Yl ext I _ __ _ _ _ _ '1 e e.r . 5 - Idee.: to li-.cre e.5e

2_ __ __ _ _


- f-ll/Ib5 to g o Ii-. th e CI'hJ 3_ __ _ _ _ _ , wh e re rv.e.YI'1 c'1cit5f5 go.

- Wr!! rv.e./:.e the eYlviroYlrv. e Ylt 4_ _ _ _ _ __ for C'1c!15f5. - B e Yl e nt<; of c'1c!Ii-.g : fe. 5t; g ood for e Yl viroYlrv.eYlt; 5

e.Yld g ood for n'th.e55.


Some of the sentences below contain extra words. Cross out


extra words and tick the correct sentences.

Hello, everyone. To start up with, I'm going to talk briefly about Manor Studios. 2 Just to give a bit of background informatio n, Manor Studios was where some great fil ms were made in the 1930s, but it's now very run down. 3 The main goals objective of our proposal is to start a project to renovate the buil ding. 4 The aim of the project is to use the bUilding as a film museum.

S What we plan to do is but renovate the main studio and paint the whole building.

6 W e're going to build a new entrance and knock down some walls. 7 T his idea is too feasible because the bU ildings and the location st ill have great potential.

8 This solution will help us to put Manor Studios to use in the community.


Put phrases a)-g) under the correct

9 In the first of instance, our plan would mean an investment of about one million euros.

headings below.

10 The long-term benefits include bringing jobs and tourism to the area.

a) The main goal/objective of our proposal is to

I I So, basically, what is we're proposing is to re-establish the building in the community as a film museum.

b) T he short-term/long-term benefits include .. . c) To sum up, we're proposing . ..

12 So that's our plan. Is there anything that needs t he clarification?

d) Is there anything th at needs clarificat ion? e) This idea is feasi ble because ...


suggest modifications

f) To start wit h, I'm going to talk briefly about .. .


g) We're going to build/develop/come up with .. .

changes to a proposal. Answer questions 1-4.

Introducing your proposal

a) I'd like to propose a compromise.

Just to give a bit of background information, . ..

b) Let 's try to come up with a solution.

Look at phrases a)-f) which are used to suggest modifications or

c) Let's look at it another way. Stating the purpose

d) H ow about if we combine our ideas?

T he aim of the project is to ...

e) Is there any way we can reduce t he costs?


f) Is there any leeway regarding the schedule?

Describing your idea

W hat we plan to do is ... 3

W hich two expressions mean we should put separate ideas together? 2 W hich two expressions ask if there is flexibility to change a plan? 3 W hich expression means we should think of an answer to a problem?

Justifying your idea

4 W hich expression asks to rethink a problem?

This solution will help us to ... 4

Listing the benefits


In the first instance, thi s wou ld mean ...



your city, and make notes on the questions below.

Work in groups. Think of an area you know, for example pa rt of

Su mmarising your proposal

I W hat problems does t he area have? Think about:

So, basically, what we're proposing is to ...

• buildings • user-friendliness • facilities


Sol iciting questions

Does anyone have any questions?

B Which expressions were used by the speaker 'n Exercise 3A? Read audio script 3 .3 on page

'67 to check. page 132 LANGUAGEBANK

• safety • appearance • noise levels

2 H ow could the area be improved? 3 What would be the benefits for the community? B Your group is applying for a €1,OOO,OOO grant to imp rove the area. Plan a proposal using the structure in Exerci se 4A. Decide will say which part and practise the proposa l. C Present your proposal to the class.

W 0


Work in pairs and discuss the questions.


Do you enjoy travelling? What are the best and worst things about it?

I How is Bamako changing?

2 What is your favourite way to travel? Why? 3 Have yo u ever visited (or heard about) a country that you prefer to your own? Would you like to live there? How would your lifestyle change?

2 Read the programme information. What do you think Serpent's family business might be?

Watch the DVD and answer the questions.

2 What is Serpent's family business? 3 Why is it successfu l? 4 How is cheaper technology transforming the lives of people in Bamako?


Complete the extracts.

I This series is not about failure or despair, but _ _ and hope. 2 West Africa's largest nation is the Republic of _ _ . 3 I' m using the fastest-growing means of transport here, the _ _ . 4 There are now more than _ _ mopeds in a city of two million people. S The economy has grown on average by _ _ percent a year for over a decade. 6 It takes _ _ minutes to put [a moped] together.

B Watch the DVD again to check.

S Work in pairs. How do you think other cheaper technologies could transform the lives of people in developing countries? Think of specific examples.

speakout your country 6A

3.4 Listen to two people from Canada and Argentina. Make notes on what they say about their countries.

B Compare your notes in pairs. What do they say in answer to the questions below? Which questions don't they answer? I What is speci al about your country? 2 What are the highs and low s of livi ng in your country?

3 How would you describe your coun try geographically? W hat features would you focus on in a docu mentary about your country? 4 Is your country experiencing any particul ar changes at the moment? Do you feel strongly about any of them? 5 Does your country have any interesting customs or events? What are they? 6 What are the simil arities and differences betw een your country and your neighbouring countries ?

C Listen again. How do the speakers complete the key phrases? Check your answers in audio script 3.4 on page 167. keyphrases (Canada) has one of the highest . .. in the world . O n the downSide, I suppose, you have to deal with .. . I would describe (Canada) as geographically .. . W e're very lucky in (Canada) to have ... Undoubtedl y one of the best things about (A rgentina) is the . .. Peo ple are very warm ... and we've got a great sense of ... (Argentinians) , we've got a sense of longing for .. .


Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in Exercise 6B. Do you have similar answers? B Work in groups. Read the instructions for developing a documentary proposal. Decide what you would include in a programme about your country and make notes.

Lights, camera, action! You need to pitch a plan for a short documentary about your country. Think about your audience - who is the documentary for? Think about your purpose - what issue would you like to focus on? What do you want people to learn from your video? What attitude do you want them to leave with? Think about your plan - how will you make your information engaging and appealing? WhofWhere will you film? Will you include interviews? What will you call the documentary?

C Present your ideas to the class.

write back a proposal SA Read the sample proposal. Do you think this pitch would receive funding? Why/Why not? The music of our heritage This documentary would examine the importance of the National Folkloric Festiva l (Festival Nacional de la Mejorana) in Panama. The mejorana is a small guitar, and the music and dance associated with it form an important part of Panama's cultural heritage. Nowadays though , fewer people know how to make the instrument or how to play it. The aim of the documentary would be to film the four-day festival in order to raise awareness of the mejorana and the consequences of losing this tradition in favour of more modern music. During the festival , groups from all around the country gather to enjoy Panamanian folklore . There are musical performances , dances, singing , bull fights, traditional competitions and an ox-cart parade . It is a colourful and spectacular occasion. The documentary would highlight the atmosphere at the festival , filming music and dance performances , and interview young and old visitors to gather opinion about the importance of the mejorana and of protecting the traditional customs that are an integral part of Panamanian life. B Write a short proposal (200-250 words) for your documentary idea. Use the instructions in Exercise 7B.

LANDSCAPES 1A Match the sentence halves. It was a shabby little restaurant, 2 In the summer the normally calm,

3 Hong Kong is a 4 Loreto is an ancient S With its largely unspoilt 6 The beach was completely a) hillside town with cobbled streets. b) deserted and not safe for swimming. c) tranquil streets fill with tourists. d) but the food was exquisite. e) natural beauty, Vietnam is a top tourist destination. f) bustling, fascinating city.


Choose three adjectives from Exercise lA. Use them to describe places you know to your partner.

shabby - The tapas bar near where I live has been run by the same couple for thirty years. It's a bit shabby now and needs to be redecorated.


3A Read about three places. Complete the descriptive adjectives. I The Pear Tree is a g , dark bar which has live bands playing every night. It's quite p with uncomfortable wooden chairs and there isn't much space, but it 's a great place for musicians and artists to gather.

C Match the answers in the box with riddles 1-4. Are you asleep? lead in a pencil a hole a chick in an egg



Work in pairs and complete the proposal. You may need to add more than one word in each gap.

2 Jackie Brown's Cafe is a large cafe with a r interior. Set in a picturesque part of the city, it is very a , w ith huge windows that look out onto a big park. People come to chat, drink the excellent coffee and look at the stunning views.

2 _ _ main objective _ _ proposal _ _ get funds for marine research in Australia.

3 Bangles II is a bright, loud hangout

3 _ _ aim _ _ project _ _

for the city's trendsetters. It has ag , multicoloured decor and a DJ who plays hip hop and acid jazz while the clientele sips cocktails. A real summer hangout with large windows, it gets c in winter.

I Just _ _ give _ _ background information, I have ten years' experience in marine research.

document the gradual destruction of Australia's Barrier Reef. 4

S Then _ _ come up _ _ a plan to minimise the damage. 6

B Work in pairs and discuss which



Add detail to sentences 1-4 using words/phrases in the box.

places in exercise 3A you would most like to visit regularly/work in.



steaming hot five-mile-Iong laptop

brand-new top-of-the-range farm

on top of the hill


Japanese green

to keep me awake

in the rain

with all the latest graphic technology I I drink tea. 2 They bought the house.

3 I bought a computer. 4 She went for a run.

B Work in pairs and take turns. Extend the descriptions of the nouns in the box by adding one extra piece of information each time. a book coffee a cake cigars the house a day

A: an old book 8: an old book with tom-out pages


_ _ first instance, _ _ mean talking to Australian authorities about the problem.


_ _ long-term benefits _ _ preserving the reef with all its diversity of marine life.

alternatives to complete the riddles.

2 I have a little house which I live

alone/that I live alone/in which I live alone. It has no doors or windows and if I want to go out, I have to break through the wall. What am I?

3 What is one question to which you

con never answer 'yes'/which you con never answer 'yes'/that you can never answer 'yes' for? 4 A barrel of water weighed ten pounds. Someone added something to it, to which point/by when/at which point it weighed four pounds. What did they add?

B Try to solve the riddles without looking at the answers.

idea feasible it follows previous research on the reef.

7 I hope _ _ solution _ _ help slow down the destruction of the reef.

4A Underline the correct I I am taken from a mine and shut in a wooden case of which/from which/which I am never released, but almost everyone uses me. What am I?

_ _ plan _ _ is measure the coral every week for a year.

10 _ _ basically, _ _ proposing is _ _ carry out the study in a year and find solutions after that. I I _ _ anyone _ _ questions?


GRAMMAR I introductory it


VOCABULARY I crime collocations

~ HOW TO I talk about justic~

I trained as a lawyer to free my brother


1 A Work in pairs. Look at the film poster and the headline of the article. Use the phrases in the box to predict what you think happens in the story. free innocent brother shocking story elderly neighbour arrested for murder life sentence had an alibi trained as a lawyer fraudulent evidence appeal courtroom


Read the article to check your ideas.


Work in pairs and answer the questions. Why did Betty believe that her brother would not be charged with the murder?

2 Did she ever believe that Kenny had committed the crime?

3 What prompted Betty to go to law school! 4 What was the effect of her brother's case on her personal life?

S What evidence did Betty use in order to prove her brother's innocence?

6 How did she obtain the evidence!


Discuss. Would you do the same as Betty Anne Waters? Why/Why not?

VOCABULARY crime collocations 4

Make collocations by matching words in A with words in B. Then complete sentences 1-8. A under brought (to) previous perfect protest fresh early


B alibi convictions (an) appeal evidence release justice innocence arrest I The prisoners continued to ___ their ___ .

2 The police have found ______ which proves that Tilly was at the scene of the crime.

As a Hollywood film of her shocking story is released, Betty Anne Waters tells us what she went through to free her brother from prison. My brother Kenny and I were best friends growing up. Although I was younger. he always looked up to me. When he was alTested for murdering his elderly neighbour, it was a total shock. He had an alibi, so we thought he would be coming home. But, although the evidence was fraudulent. he was given a life sentence. He was twenty-nine. Shortly after his fir t appeal failed, Kenny tried to commit suicide. I was angry with him. but he said. '1 can't spend the rest of my li fe in prison for something I didn't do. I'm not going to make it.' I never doubted his innocence. He didn't tart trouble and would never have killed this woman . We had no more money for lawyers, so it was then he asked me to go to law school and become his attorney. I was unemployed ; 1 didn ' t even have a college degree. But I promised him I'd make it happen as long as he promised to stay alive. Getting Kenn y out of prison became my life. I enrolled at the local community college, then went on to law school. I was man'ied with two sons, but home life became very difficult and, when the kids were four and six, my husband and 1 split up. It was hard, but I took it one hurdle at a time. After Kenny had been in prison for sixteen years, I heard about the Innocence Project, an organisation that works to free innocent people using DNA testing - something that wasn't available when he was convicted. One piece of evidence at the trial was a bloodied curtain the perpetrator had wiped their hands on. But it was so long since his trial , finding it wasn't easy. By this point, I didn't trust anyone. So, I asked other students from law school to tell the police they were doing a project on the Waters case. Finally, a box with Kenny 's name on it was found in one of the archives. My heart was pounding so hard as I opened it. As soon as I lifted the lid, I knew the curtain was in there. Eighteen years after his conviction, Kenny was released. 1 remember taking him by the hand and walking out of the courtroom. The sense of freedom was amazing. When I heard they were making a film of the story with Hilary Swank playing me and Sam Rockwell as Kenny, I was so excited. Watching the film and talking about it with the team was like being in therapy. Thi s experience has done a lot for me. I have grown in confidence and am proud to be involved with the Innocence Project. My brother was the eighty-third person to be released through DNA testing in the USA. ow there have been 259. I feel lucky to be a part of that.

3 A man is ______ following the suspicious death of his wife.

4 Simon has obtained an ______ from prison .

S He had a ______ and the police let him 6 The crime went unsolved and the perpetrators to _ __

7 My client is planning to ___ an ___ against his conviction. 8 The defendant had no ______ 1111.



Work in groups. Choose one of the topics below and discuss it.

I Why do you think the wrong people are sometimes sent to prison!

go. were never



2 Is prison an effective deterrent against crime? Why/Why not?

3 Can the public do anything to help reduce crime! What can governments do to improve the situation? 4 Why do young people turn to crime? What is the best way to stop them! Who do you think should be responsible for this! B Summarise your ideas and report back to the class.

7 Look at Exercises 6A and B again. Find exa mples used for the following purposes.



Rules: Use it at the beginning of a sentence: a) to talk about the weather, a situation, dates, times. distances, etc.

(it + verb)

It rains a lot in September. b) to express opinion or emotion.

(it + adjective/noun phrase)

It's extraordinary how often we have the same ideas. c) to talk about what you understand from the evidence.

(it + verb + clause)


It appears that someone broke into the office. d) to report what someone else thinks or says.

(it + be + past participle + clause) It has been reported that the police decided not to pursue the case. Use it in the middle of a sentence: e) as a substitute object for transitive verbs, to be expanded on later in the sentence.

I'd appreciate it if you would help with our enquiries. f) as part of a set phrase.

I can't help it. We made it! (succeeded) page 134 LANGUAGEBANK


GRAMMAR introductory it 6A

Look at the text. What does it refer to?

It was th e best of times, it was th e worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was th e age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair ... (From A Tale ojTtIlO Cities by Charles Dickens)

B Check what you know. Add it in the correct place(s) in sentences 1-10. I could hardly believe when the policeman told me what had happened . 2 Has been reported that a number of people in the area were affected.


Complete the sentences with the words in the box.

difficult appears

help fault funny shame important wonder

I It's to believe he would have left all the money here. 2 It's no you were scared. That car nearly hit you . 3 It's not my we didn 't finish o n time . W e started late. 4 I can't it if I keep making mistakes. Nobody 's perfect. S It 's that we clear up any misunderstandings.

6 It was a that we didn 't see the beginning. 7 It to have been a mistake. S It 's how things always turn out OK in the end. B Complete the sentences to make them true for you .

3 Is no use! I've looked everywhere for my wallet but I can't find anywhere.

It's no wonder that ...

4 We would appreciate if you didn 't tell anyone about this.

I think it's important to ...

S Is surprising how quickly I was able to master the skill.

6 Is no wonder you couldn't find your bag. You left in the cafe. 7 A: How much further is? B: Is not far now. S Is a pity that you won 't be able to make to the lunch. 9 Was a warm day for the time of year.

10 Appears that someone has made a mistake.

I couldn't believe it when .

C Work in pairs and take turns. Compare your sentences and ask questions. A: I think it's important to find time to keep in touch " ~~ friends. B: Why do you think that?

VOCABULAR PLUS lexical chunks 9A Work in groups. Think of words which often collocate with justice.

a sense of justice, to demand justice B Read sentences 1-6 and add any more phrases with justice to your list. Families of the victims demanded that the killers be found and brought to justice as soon as Rossible. 2 Mr Jobe is an eXRerienced lawyer who sRecialises in this Rarticular area of crimi nal justice. 3 It is imRerative that young people on the streets who are committing crimes should not be allowed to escaRe justice. 4 It's uR to the courts to uRhold justice - you can't take the law into your own hands. 5 A surRrising number of ReoRle came to him demand ing jus 'ce for how they had been treated. 6 Gangs in the vicinity have been known to practise £... kin d of rough justice on their members. C Why do you think the other phrases in sentences 1-6 have been underlined?


Screen Plily by MAXWEl l ANDERSON .nO ANGUS Mo(;PHA tL ... ~.u ....- ..... O"ecled by Al


The film I is based on the true story I of Manny Balestrero, I an honest, hardworking musician I who is unjustly accused I of armed robbery I when he goes to an insurance firm I to borrow some money, I and employees mistake him I for the armed robber I who had robbed them I the year before. I In classic Hitchcock form, I Balestrero vehemently protests his innocence, I but unfortunately I he acts guiltily, I leading a host of policemen I and witnesses I to identify him I as the thjef. I The trial goes badly for Manny, I but things are even worse for his wife, I Rose, I who struggles to cope I with the strain of his ordeal.

o Which underlined phrases in Exercise 96 could be replaced with the following? I a sort of 2 it 's the responsibility of 3 try to implement the law yourself 4 it is extremely important 5 in the area



A lexical chunk is a group of words commonly found together. They include collocations, but while collocations tend to consist of content words only, lexical chunks are more phrasal and may include grammatical words like prepositions and articles, e.g. miscarriage of justice. Lexical chunks may act as discourse markers or adverbials, e.g. at that time, in her own way. Find a lexical chunk in Exercise 9B which acts as a time adverbial.

10A Work in pairs. Look at the film posters opposite and read the synopses. What do the films have in common? Which would you prefer to watch? Why?


4.1 Listen to someone reading the first B synopsis. Notice how they chunk the language, pausing between the chunks (marked '1'). When we speak, we group words into meaningful chunks of language. C Mark possible chunks in the second synopsis.

o ® 4 .2 Listen to check. Listen again and shadow read the story.

Dr Richard Kimble, a well-known Chicago surgeon, returns home one night to find that his wife has been viciously murdered in their own home. When police find Kimble at the scene of the crime, he is arrested, and later charged and convicted of his wife's brutal murder. However, on the way to the prison, a failed escape attempt by other prisoners gives Kimble his chance of freedom. While on the run from US Marshall Samuel Gerard, Kimble's only hope of proving his innocence and clearing his name is to find out for himself who was responsible for his wife's death, and to lead the team of detectives on his trail to the real perpetrator.


GRAMMAR I the perfect aspect

.. VOCABULARY I social issues


Annie Lennox

Work in pairs and d iscuss the questions. What do you know about the people in the photos?

2 What do you know about their humanitarian work?

2A 4.3 Listen to three speakers talking about t he people in the photos. Ma ke a note of any information that is new to you . Tell your pa rtner. B Listen again and answer the questions. Accord ing to the speaker, how did Annie Lennox's humanitarian work start? 2 What does the speaker particularly admire about her?

3 Why, according to the speaker, didn 't AI Gore get that much attention earlier in his career? 4 What did the speaker think after meeting him? 5 What is the speaker's personal connection with Sting? 6 What did Sting's example inspire the speaker to do?

GRAMMAR the perfect aspect 3A Complete sentences 1-7 with the correct name: Annie Lennox, Sting or AI Gore. I Since the 1990s, Annie Lennox has been working as a human righ ts activist as well as a singer. 2

's reputation as an activist appears to have overshadowed his fame as a politician.

3 Before becoming a global star in the I980s, _ _ _ _ _ _ had been a teacher. 4

's work has helped raise awareness of the HIV epidemic in Africa.

5 By 2026, 's ground breaking film will have been helping to educate people about global warming for twenty years. began 6 For several years before working to save the rainforest, some estimates suggest that it had been declining at a rate of around 20,000 square kilometres per year. 's An 7 It is estimated that, by 2020, Inconvenient Truth will have become a part of school curricula in over thirty countries.

B Which sentences above use the following tenses? • • • • • • •

present perfect 4 present perfect continuous past perfect past perfect continuous future perfect future perfect continuous perfect infinitive


Read t he description of perfect tenses. Look at the sentences in Exercise 3A and answer the questions.

We use perfect tenses to create a link between two times: to look back from one moment in time to a time before that. I Which three sentences link the past and the present? 1, 2 Which two sentences link the past to a time before that? 3 Which two sentences link a time in the future with a time before that? 4 Which three sentences focus on the action's duration? 1111"



4.2 IA;Mii(!1



What rhythm do the expressions in Exercise 7A have? Match them with the patterns below.

Work in pa irs. Decide if there is a difference in meaning between the pairs of sentences. If so, what is the difference?

I 0 0 0 00 civil liberties

7 000 0 000

2 000

8 0 00

I a) I've read that book. b) I've been reading that book.

3 0 0

9 00 000 00 0

4 0000

10 0 00 0 00

Sentence a) focuses on the completed action. The speaker finished the book. Sentence b) focuses on the action of reading, but the speaker has not finished the book.

5 00 0 0 0

I I 0 000 00 00

6 00 0000 0

12 000

2 a) I hope to have finished my studies by the time I'm twenty-five. b) I hope I wi ll have finished my studies by the time I'm twenty-five.

B 4.4 Listen and check. Repeat the collocations slowly and tap your fingers at the same time (use both hands) . Now say the collocations at full speed.

3 a) How long have you lived in your current home? b) H ow long have you been living in your cu rrent home?

4 a) Had you st udied with Professor Robson before? b) H ave you st udied with Professor Robson before?

5 a) I've painted the kitchen. b) I've been painting the kitchen.


Find and correct the three mistakes in questions 1-5.

I What do you hope to will have achieved by the time you're eighty? 2 Had you studied English before you came here?

3 By 2030, how long will you had been working? 4 What TV series have you been watching regu larly in the last year or two? 5 How long have you been knowing your best friend?


The more ways you interact with new words, th e better you will learn them. Research suggests t hat we need to use, see or hear new words six t imes (minimum) before we 'know' them. Use different methods: write sentences including the new word, teach the new word to someone else. pronounce the word many times and try to use the word in conversation. Which of th ese do you usually do? 1111.



Work in groups and discuss the questions.

I What are the three most important social issues in your country and in the world at the moment) Think about the issues in Exercise 7 A and add your own ideas.

B Ask and answer the questions with a partner.

2 What is being done about them? D o you know of anyone who is involved in tackling these issues?


3 What are the best ways of fighting for social justice?

social issues


Work in two groups. Group A: look at the expressions in box A. Group B: look at the expressions in box B. What do the expressions mean? Write an example sentence for each.

A human rights child labour economic development intellectual property capital punishment religious freedom

B environmental awareness civil liberties free trade gun control

illegal imm igrati on freedom of speech

B Work in pairs with a student from the other group. Explain the meaning of your expressions using your example sentences. C What other words/expressions do you know connected with social issues? Think about recent news stories.

B Work with other groups and compare your ideas.


a problem-solution essay

10A Which items in the box would you expect to find in a problem-solution essay? personal information reference to research facts and figures dialogue anecdotes a description of a problem a conclusion rhetorical questions a plan of action B Read the model essay and answer the questions. What issue does it deal with? 2 What do you think of the writer's idea? 3 Which features in Exercise lOA does it contain?

11 Look at the expressions below for different parts of a problem-solution essay. Tick the expressions used in the model essay. Introducing the problem (This) illustrates one of today's most important issues ... This represents a growing problem. Describing causes of the problem One of the causes is .. . This is largely due to .. . Describing consequences of the problem This has led to/resulted in/brought about ... One of the consequences of this is ... Suggesting solutions One possible solution ...

How many people are killed w ith guns every year? Let's take a round number - one million - and look at the figures for gunshot deaths. In Japan , 0.7 people per one million inhabitants are killed by gunfire in a year. In South Korea it's 1.3; in England it's 4.6 ; in the Netherlands it's 7; in Spain it's 9; in Kuwait it's 12.5 . In the United States, it's 152.2. That's not a misprint. The figure illustrates one of today's most important issues: gun control. 2 One of the causes of this figure in the US is the citizens' ' right to bear arms ' (carry weapons) written into the US constitution. The country has an extremely violent past and this has resulted in an ingrained sense of the need to protect oneself and one's family. Another reason is the rate of gun ownership. Around forty-six percent of families in the US have a gun in the house. 3 How can countries - the United States in particular - reduce the number of gun deaths? A complete ban on guns is barely imaginable in the US. However, there are a number of other options. These include developing better systems for registering guns and ammunition , instigating background checks for prospective gun owners and introducing tougher prison sentences for people who own guns illegally. The problem is that these solutions have already been proposed, passed into law and denounced as failures.

.t One possible solution that hasn't been tried yet is ' ID tagging' on guns. Each gun would be registered to one person 's fingerprint and only that person would be able to fire the gun. If someone else attempted to fire it, the gun wouldn't work. This wou ld mean that sto len guns would be useless. Also, the police would have fewer problems identifying the killers. 5 In conclusion, the solution proposed here is one for the future. The idea would not bring an end to gun deaths. Until guns are completely banned, it is unlike ly that anything could reduce that number to the magic zero. But the idea of using new technology ( ID tags) to defeat the ills brought about by old tec hnology (guns) is not just a shot in the dark. It cou ld become reality sooner than you think.

There are a number of (other) options. These include ... Concluding In conclusion .. . . To sum up, .. . The purpose/aim of this essay was to ...


use parallelism

12A Read two examples of parallelism from the essay in Exercise lOB. Find another example in paragraph 3. In South Korea it's 1.3 ; in England it's 4.6; in the Netherlands it 's 7 ... These include developing better systems for registering guns and ammunition, instigating background checks for prospective gun owners and introducing tougher prison sentences ... B Why do you think writers use parallelism? Which idea below is not a good answer? I It gives symmetry and consistency to the writing. 2 It gives ideas equal weight. 3 It uses balance and rhythm to deliver the message. 4 It helps us write better introductions. C Complete the sentences with the option that uses parallelism. The protest against gun laws was led by a number of civil rights groups, social justice campaigners and _ _ _ __ a) other people b) human rights activists c) those people who believe in fighting for human rights 2 In a few years, the powers-that-be may know everything about gun owners: the films they watch, the food they eat, _ _ _ __ a) the air they are breathing b) and the air they breathe as they walk around c) the air they breathe

13 Work in groups and choose a topic. Use your own idea or a topic in Exercise 7A. Follow stages 1-5 below. I What exactly is the problem? Write it in one sentence. 2 Brainstorm possible solutions and make notes. 3 Discuss which solutions are the best. 4 Make an outline for your essay. Use the expressions in Exercise I I .

5 Write your problem-solution essay (300-350 words).


FUNCTION I hypothetical preferences


I decisions


LEARN TO I add emphasis

VOCABULARY decisions

FUNCTION expressing hypothetical preferences



Read the situation below. What would you do? Tell other students. You are faced with a dilemma, Four friends buy you a lottery ticket for your birthday. The following week, you win €100,OOO with the ticket. Your friends think you should share the winnings with them, You have spent some time thinking it through, You have tried to take all these things into consideration: how long you've been friends, how much your friends need the money, whether you should share the winnings equally and whether you think your friendships will survive if you keep all the money, Now you have weighed up the pros and cons, you need to make your decision .

I What decision did Ann Timson have to make? 2 Do you think she was a hero?

3 What would you have done in her situation?

Supergran bashes burglars

A Wltl~ seve~ty-year-old

grandmother became a hero when, armed , just a flImsy shopping bag, she defied six hammer wleldmgjewellelY thieves on motorbikes An T' talkin ' n IlTISOn was g to a woman on the street when she hea d

!~~~ooked ac:oss the road and saw six men s~aSah~:;t:tion, h ows of a jewellery store in broad daylight. Seeing that ot er bystanders were doing nothing Ms T' d' Sh ' Imson eClded to act. e d~shed across the road and started to hit one of the robbers wIth her shopping bag, He fell offh' , was i d . IS motorbIke and I' p nne down by several members of the public before the ~o I~e arnved. Amazingly, all of this was captured on film by a ree h ance cameraman who happened to be nearby. The footage

h:;s:;;:: ~e~ome aYo~Tube se~sation, Asked later if she saw ero, Ms TImson saId no, but 'somebody had t 0 do something', It turns out that M T' somethin ' , , S Imson has been 'doing g for years, Resldmg in a poor area ofN rth UK, she has confronted d d 0 ampton, putt' h rug ealers and other criminals before IIlg er own safety at risk in order to aid the communi ' AklthOUgh bShe does not generally believe that the public Sh~~ld ta e on ro bers 't' d ' " - I S angerous she says - her actions have msplred countless numbers of people and mad t I would-be thieves think aga'm, ' e a east a few

B Underline expressions in Exercise 1A which have similar meanings to the expressions below. I in a predicament 2 assessing the situation

Read a true story and discuss questions 1-3.



3 bear these points in mind 4 considered the benefits and drawbacks

C Discuss. What difficult decisions/dilemmas might the people below face? • scientist • financial investor • soldier

teacher • doctor • parent

A scientist would have to consider the pros and cons of his or her research.


Think of a real/imaginary dilemma you have faced . Describe it using some of the expressions in Exercises 1A and B.


Work in pairs and compare your stories.


4A 4.5 Listen to two people discussing the story. Would the speakers do what Ann Timson did? B Listen again and try to work out what the expressions below mean. a have-a-go-hero 2 [if/when] push comes to shove

3 jumped on the bandwagon 4 I take my hat off to her 5 I'd probably leg it 6 I'd do my bit


LEARN TO add emphasis 7A

Look at expressions a)-e) from the recording in Exerci se 4A. Put them under the correct headings below.

a) It was totally wrong. b) The fact is .. . c) T he thing is .. . d) You're absolutely right. e) I completely agree. Adverbs for emphasis 2

- - -- - -- - - -


Fronting: expressions bef ore t he ma in verb W hat you have to remember is . .. 4

- - ---------------



Other expressions

What words do you think complete the expressions fo r expressing hypothetical preferences?

That's out of the question.

If it was

Not on your life.

1_ _ _

to me, I'd .. .

I'd sooner ... I'd just as soon ... as ... Given the

2_ _ _ ,

No chance.


B 4 .6 Listen to the intonation of the phrases above. Repeat them using the same intonation.

I'd ...

If I ever 3_ _ _ myself in this situation, I'd .. . Far better to .. . than ... This would be by 4_ _ _ the best option. My preference 5_ _ _ be to ... Without a shadow of a 6_ _ _ , I'd ...



When we write, we can emphasise words by using italics or underlining. When we speak, we use intonation to emphasise the same words. The pitch is higher and we sometimes make the vowel sounds longer. W hen you hear people argu ing, persuading. or getting excited, listen to the way they pronounce key words.

No way would I .. . B Read audio script 4.5 on page 168. Which of the expressions above can you find? 1111. page



Rewrite the sentences so the meaning stays the same. Use the words in brackets.

SPEAKING SA Read the dilemmas below. Think about what you would do and complete the notes fo r each situation . My first reaction is . . .

I You should weigh up the pros and cons rather than deciding now. (far better)

O n the other hand, . . .

2 W hich of the two cand idates woul d you choose? (up to)

The best option ...

3 I definitely think we can come up w ith some better ideas than these. (shadow/doubt) 4 If you had the choice, wou ld you ban all web advertising? (given) 5 I would ask my boss for advice if I faced this kind of dilemma. (found myself/situation)

6 Instead of acting rashly, I'd prefer to put important decisions on hold. (sooner) 7 I'd rather buy a house now than wait until the economy gets better. (preference)

8 She'd quit her job rather than do something unethical. (just/soon)

It depends on ...

Your friend's husband is supposed to be working late, but you see him in a bar talking in a friendly manner with another woman. You do not know the other woman. She could be a work colleague. Do you tell your friend what you saw? 2 You are in a hurry. You need to send a package urgently but the post office will close in two minutes. There are no parking spaces except in the Disabled section of the car park. You are not disabled . You think you will only be there five minutes. Do you park in the Disabled section? 3 A friend of yours stole something. You promise never to reveal th is. Soon afterwards, an innocent person is accused of the crime. You tell your friend that she has to own up. She refuses and reminds you of your promise. It is possible that an innocent person will go to jail. D o you reveal the truth? B Work in groups and compa re your ideas.

DVD PREVIEW i , A Work in pairs. Do you remember what t he words below mean? Expla in them to your pa rtner.

the evidence a courtroom a sentence a trial

Jj;l DVD~ 3A

Work in pai rs. What are the two worst things that

cou ld happen to you if you were on trial? Choose from the list below.

• The judge is biased against you before the trial starts. • Your lawyer doesn't know what he is doing. • The key witness for the defence is useless.

B Match the words in the box below with denn itions 1-4.

a witness the defendant the deceased the case (for the prosecution/the defence)

• A witness says you're guilty and identifies you. • You are given a prison sentence. B Watch the DVD. Which event in Exercise 3A does not happen to Capta in Blackadder? What happens instead?

I someone who has died, especially recently


2 someone who sees a crime or an accident and can describe what happened

people in the box.

General Melchett Captain Blackadder George (defence lawyer) Private Baldrick Captain Darling (prosecuting lawyer)

3 the person in court who has been accused of doing something illegal 4 all the reasons that one side in a legal argument can give against the other side


Read the programme information. Why is

Captain Blackadder on t ri al ?

Who does the following things? Choose from the

I announces the charges against Captain Blackadder 2 acts as the first witness 3 calls a 'last and decisive' witness 4 denies everything 5 forgets to turn a page 6 asks about a pigeon called 'Speckled Ji m'




7 puts on a black cap (signifying t he death perial~Yl, 8 asks for an alarm call


B Watch the DVD again to check.


Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

I How would you descri be the 'trial' in the DVD? W hich bit d id you th ink was the funniest? 2 C aptain Blackadder is saved at the last minute. W hat do yo u t hin k happens? Turn to page 162 to fin d out.

speakout a court case 6A Read about a court case and decide what you th ink should happen. A Birmingham family has been torn apart by the father 's will. When eighty-four-year-old James Holdicott died last April, it was widely expected that he would leave his successful clothing business to his son s, Chris (fifty) and Nicholas (forty-six). However, the company and all of Holdicott's assets were left solel y to oldest son Chris, who had worked with his father as Chairman of Holdicott Clothing for two decades. Nicholas, a lawyer who has never been involved in the family business, got nothing. He immediately initiated proceedings to contest the will. He says hi s ailing father was pressurised by Chris Holdicott and other business associates into rewriting the will just before he died. The court case begins on Tuesday.


B 4.7 List en to t wo people talking about the case. Why does the woman think Nicholas Holdicott will lose? C Listen again and tick the key phrases you hear.

keyphrases My first point is ... He doesn't have any proof that ... You have no case. It's been claimed that . . .

writeback a case summary SA Read a summary of anothe r court case. Do you agree with t he j udge's decision ?

Surprise Ho lid ay Lil y Mason , twenty-eight, was overjoyed when she answered a question correctly on a radio quiz to win an all-expe nses-paid ' dream holiday ' at a surprise ' exclusive' destin ati on. She was promi sed a week in a five- star hotel, compl ete with luxury suite and fine dining, while she wo uld spend her days sunbathing on the hotel's private beac h. Things didn ' t turn out quite like that. Instead, she was placed in a ho liday camp on the windy south coast of England in April. The rocky beach was too dangerous for sunbathing. the pre-prepared food came from a canteen with plastic table. and her 'su ite' was a small room with a shared bathroom. The weather got so cold that Ms Mason went home after three days. Within a week, Ms Maso n's disappoi ntment had turned to anger and she decided to sue. The owner of the radi o stati on explained that they had fa llen on hard time due to a drop in advertising revenues and coul dn't afford to pay for a luxu ry holiday. They insisted, howe er. that they had done nothing wrong: the holiday was ad verti sed as being in a 'surprise ' destination and Ms Mason had certainl y got a surpri e. Nonetheless, after listening to a tran script of the broadcast. the judge ruled in Ms Mason 's favour. He ordered the radio station to pay Ms Mason £ I ,500 - the value of the holiday. After the hearing, Ms Mason expressed sati sfacti on that justice had been served. She said, 'It was one of the most disappointing weeks of my life. I think this sends a message. If you make a promise on air, you have to stick to it.'

But having said that, . . . The question is .. . An expert witness testifies that ... There's no evidence to suggest that ...

7 A Work in pairs and read your instructions. Student A: turn to page 159. Student B: turn to page 162.

B Write a summary of the court case that you discussed in Exercise 7B (250 words) . Invent any .,


1 A Complete the sentences with a suitable word. It is shocking the way that so many criminals are never b to justice. 2 The convict was hoping for an early r from prison for good behaviour. 3 Ali was sure she would never be found out. She had the perfect

a_ __


3 Use the prompts to make statements about yourself or people you know. I ... would love it if ...

I would love it if my husband surprised me by cooking dinner tonight. 2 ... adore(s) it when ... 3 ... can't stand it when ... 4 ... find(s) it easy to ...

4 The family is expected to make an a against the ruling by the judge.

S It's pointless ...

S The case was reopened when f evidence was discovered.


6 He was given a light sentence due to the fact that he had no previous


c_ __ B Work in pairs. Test your partner on the collocations above.

A: This means you find new

information which is relevant to the case. B: You have fresh evidence. THE PERFECT ASPECT


Complete the jokes with the phrases in the box. it will have been have you been feeling I've broken have turned to have been ignoring ' Doctor, doctor, I keep thinking I'm a cat.' ' How long ___ like this?' 'Since I was a kitten.'

2 'Doctor, doctor, I appear to ___ into a dog.' 'Sit on the sofa and we'll talk about it.' 'I can't. I'm not allowed on the sofa.' 3 'Doctor, doctor, I'm in agony! ___ my arm in three places!' 'Well, don't go there any more.' 4 ' Doctor, doctor, tomorrow ___ ten years since I last had my eyes tested. I think I need glasses.' 'You certainly do. You've just walked into a petrol station.' S ' Doctor, doctor, people seem ___ me for years.' 'Next please!'

6 It's essential to ...

4A What issues do the definitions I ___ : the employment of children (especially in manual jobs) who are under the legal or generally recognised age 2 ___ : the movement of people across international borders in a way that breaks the immigration laws of the destination country 3 ___ : the notion of being free to practise and teach any religion you choose 4

: basic freedoms that everyone should enjoy, e.g. freedom of thought and expression, the right to be free

S ___ : when a country grows richer because of policies and/ or activity relating to business and money 6 ___ : something which someone has invented or has the right to make or sell, especially something that cannot legally be copied by other people

B Work in pairs. Complete the definitions. I freedom of speech: the right to ... 2 free trade: a system of trade in which ... 3 civil liberties: freedoms that protect ... 4 gun control: efforts to regulate ... S environmental awareness: an understanding of how ...


SA Correct the word order in speaker 6's responses. A: I could have had a holiday on a beach or gone on a cruise. B: If it was to up me I'd have taken the cruise. 2 A: I don't know whether to read the book or watch the film. B: I sooner would watch the film than read the book. 3 A: We can either go to a posh international restaurant or eat at the street market. B: I'd as just soon eat local food as dine in a fancy restaurant. 4 A: So I was lost with a broken-down car in the middle of nowhere. B: If I myself found in that situation, I'd go to the nearest house and beg for help. S A: We decided not to give Christmas presents because there are thirty people in the family now. B: Better far to do that than buy presents for everybody! 6 A: We're thinking of taking trains around Europe rather than flying. B: That would be by the far best option if you want to see places. 7 A: I hated my job so I quit, even though I needed the money. B: I'd have done the same a without shadow of a doubt. 8 A: I got rid of my mobile phone. It was too expensive. B: Way no would I do that unless I really had to.

B Decide if you agree with speaker 6. If not, change the response. Practise the conversations in pairs.


... GRAMMAR I modal verbs and phrases


I secrets


I talk about obligations



Work in groups and discuss the questions. Why do people keep secrets? If someone tells you something in confidence, are you likely to keep their secret or to tell someone else?

2 Who would you talk to if you wanted to tell someone your innermost thoughts? Who would you definitely not talk to?

2A Read the radio programme listing. It says that society has become more 'confessional'. What does this mean? Do you agree?

Everyone has a secret at some point in their lives and most of us will be told a secret and asked to


idioms: secrets

Complete the sentences below with the words in the box.

keep it quiet. As society cat

allegedly becomes more 'confessional', are we far

kept hidden? Are we losing the ability to keep secrets? When is



it appropriate to divulge a secret and how

3 He almost

4 So when should you spill the

that should never be revealed?

5 When is it better to

In this BBC radio programme, Jenni Murray

relationship counsellor.


it slip where he was. and be honest? schtum?

6 It's a secret, so try not to let the ____ out of the bag.

7 We pretended we didn 't know it was her birthday, but Sam gave the

whose new novel is called The Lost Art of Keeping Secrets, and Christine Northam, a


2 We became more knowledgeable about the kind of dangerous secrets that might be held behind closed , and the damage they could do.

should it be done? Are there types of secret

takes up the discussion with Eva Rice,


We were raised in an atmosphere where families kept themselves to and you told nobody your business.

too willing to talk about matters that should be



B Match the expressions in bold above with meanings a}-e}. Some expressions have the same meaning. a) deliberately disclose a secret (I expression)


5.1 Listen to the programme. How many

secrets do they mention? What are they?

C Listen again and answer the questions. I What would have made the presenter's father furious?

b) when something happens in private and the public are not allowed to know about it (I expression) c) tell something (possibly by mistake) that someone else wanted you to keep a secret (3 expressions) d) remain silent, or say nothing (I expression) e) live a quiet private life, not doing things involving other people (I expression)

2 A girl revealed her friend's secret. Was she forgiven?


3 What secret did the wife want to know from her husband?


4 Is the woman who had another relationship still married?


5 What kind of secret would the author keep?


Work in groups and discuss the questions.

I When would it be important to keep a secret? 2 When might you have to reveal someone's secret? Explain why. 3 When is it important for people to speak openly rather than keep secrets? 4 When is it better for the public not to know a secret?


modal verbs and phrases

SA Check what you know. Match the underlined forms in sentences 1-8 with the meanings in the box.

6A 5.2 Listen to some of the sentences from Exercise 5C. Notice how some sounds disappear or change in connected speech (elision). I A syllable containing an unstressed vowel is often lost.

diction(a)ry it's possible it's expected I was obliged (strong) I was obliged (weak) you did it but it was unnecessary it isn't a good idea I did it, but it 'vvasn't a geed idea it wasn't possible/ I wasn't able

compelle(dLto dare(dLto 3 The sound / h/ is often omitted.

tell him what (h)ad happened

I should never have told her. It was my fault.

I did it, but it wasn't a good idea.


2 / t! and / d/ are often lost when combined with other consonants.


cars (h)ave been banned

5.3 Listen and repeat the sentences.

2 I couldn't live with this secret. 3 I had to tell him. 4 Keeping a secret can be something that can bring about a more positive outcome.


Choose the best alternatives to complete the text.

S You're supposed to tell everyone the way you feel Family secrets

twenty-four hours a day.

6 We 'd better not start until everyone is here.

Shari: 'My grandmother disapproved terribly of smoking, so people 1 were never allowed to / wasn't supposed to smoke in the house. She didn't even

7 I felt that I ought to let her know.

8 You needn't have told him.

realise that her own daughter, my mother aged sixty, was a smoker. We all 2 ought to / had to go outside and smoke on the balcony and my grandmother never realised what we were doing. She 3 supposed to / used to think we were hanging out the washing and things like that. I suppose we 4 should have / ought have told her really.'

B Match each sentence with the correct meaning, a) or b). I We're supposed to catch the 8.30 train . 2 We have to catch the 8.30 train. a) It's very important that we catch the 8.30 train as there are no more trains after that.

Bob: 'My dad, who's sixty-one, bought a second-hand Mercedes. He didn't spend loads of money on the car, but he thought he 5 should have kept / ought to keep it a secret from his father because he was sure he'd disapprove of his extravagance. We 6 had to hide / should have hidden the Mercedes in the garage whenever my granddad came round.'

b) Ideally, we would catch the 8.30 train, but if we need more time, we can catch a later one. 3 You mustn't tell him about the relationship. 4 You don't have to tell him about the relationship. a) It's definitely not a good idea to tell him about the affair. b) Nobody is forcing you to tell him about it. It's up to you . S You shouldn't have called the hotel first.

Emma: 'My uncle thought he 7 'd better not / 'd not better tell anyone when he decided to get married for

6 You'd better call the hotel first.

the fi time at the age of sixty-five. He kept it a secret which nobody 8 was supposed to / would supposed to know. He 9 would have / could have told us - everyone 10 should have / would have been delighted for him. It wasn't as if he was marrying an eighteen-year-old. His bride was seventy-eight and was also marrying for the first time. '

a) It would have been better to call the airport first. b) I think you should call the hotel before the airport. C Find pairs of words/phrases in sentences 1-10 which have similar meanings.

7 allowed

= 5 permissible

I Dictionaries are allowed in the exam. 2 Alcohol is strictly forbidden in some countries. 3 It's obligatory for companies to provide details of their industrial processes.

.e At least she had the courage to tell him what had happened. ~

They reached the maximum permissible level of radiation. She felt compelled to resign because of the scandal.

- Cars have been banned from the city centre.


Choose two or three of the topics below. Work in pairs and take turns to talk about them .

Talk about something: o

you would never dare to do.


you ought to have done this week but you haven't.


you weren't supposed to do as a child, but you did anyway.


_ O nly a few journalists dared to cover the story. :: Maths and English are compulsory for all students.

- i'1 any companies have been forced to close. page 136 LANGUAGEBANK

o o


which is obligatory in your country, but not in other countries. you should never have done. you weren't allowed to do as a child, which you enjoy doing now. you 'd better not forget to do.

WRITING a narrative 9A

Read the true story below. What do you think was in

the box? Turn to page 161 to find out. As a child, my grandmother would often tell me stories. Stories of times gone by, of other eras. And I would listen with eager fascination, especially to the stories of her childhood. One story I will always remember was of my 'Auntie Madge', my great-aunt. She was a lovely woman , who I once met as a child. She was a quiet woman, unassuming. My grandmother told me how Auntie Madge had been a dazzling young lady. How all the boys in the neighbourhood had wanted to take her out on dates. But Auntie Madge only had eyes for one very nice young man, who she had fallen in love with . 2 Although the young couple planned to spend the rest of their lives together, there was a problem: my great-great-aunt Ada , Auntie Madge's mother. Ada had a reputation for being a bit of a dragon and wanting to control everything. Ada had decided that she didn't approve of the young man in question and she wasn't at all happy to let her daughter marry him. 3 After some persuasion , however, she reluctantly made a deal with Auntie Madge, saying , 'OK. If the two of you are determined to marry, then all I will ask is that you stay away from each other for one year. During that time, you shouldn't see each other, speak to each other, or write each other letters. And if, after a year, he writes to you and still wants to marry you, then I will accept. I'll consent.' 4 It was a long year, but the couple kept their promise. But, after a year, Auntie Madge never heard from the young man and had to assume that he'd found someone else. She subsequently married another man, but the marriage was very unhappy and eventually ended in divorce. From then on, Auntie Madge lived alone, and she never had children. 5 Years later, when her mother died , Madge found a box belonging to her mother.

LEARN TO use time phrases 11 A

Look at the extract from the story. Underline the

time phrase. During that time, you shouldn't see each other, speak to each other, or write each other letters.


Underline the time phrases in paragraphs 4 and

5 of

the story in Exercise 9A.

C Complete sentences 1-8 with the time phrases in the box. There may be more than one possible answer and you don't have to use all of the phrases. the moment afterwards after as soon as meanwhile ever since originally while instantly previously subsequently eventually in the meantime from then on immediately _ _ _ she entered the room, she knew there was something wrong.

2 The experience haunted me for years _ __ 3 Cromwell,

, picked up his hat and dusted it off.

4 They recognised him _ __

5 She knew she could never trust her boss again and _ _ _ she left the job.

6 He _ __ escaped and made his way back to France. 7 She has been terrified of the sound of aircraft _ __ the crash .

8 They met in 1998, and _ _ _ they were firm friends.

o Complete the sentences in any way you choose. Use the time phrases in Exercise llC. I It was love at first sight. The moment ... 2 He recognised her immediately. Previously, . ..

B Work in pairs and discuss. What do you think of Ada's behaviour? Can you think of a good title for the story?


Which features 1-10 are often found in narrative

3 She arrived on a boat from Costa Rica. As soon as ... 4 It was a long and tedious journey. Eventually, ...


Follow stages 1-4 to draft a narrative of your (200-250 words).



I an introduction to set the scene

I Identify an experience to write about (e.g. a childhood experience, a challenge, achieving a goal) and think about why it is significant.

2 detailed descriptions of people, places or objects 3 detailed statistics and evidence to support an argument 4 descriptions of feelings/actions to suggest mood or atmosphere

5 direct speech and a variety of adjectives and adverbs for impact

2 Make notes about the experience, including details (sounds, colours, etc.). 3 Create an outline of the story. 4 Use the outline to write a first draft.

6 a summary of the main events 7 narrative tenses and time phrases in order to make the sequence of events clear 8 an unexpected end to the story

9 a conclusion which reflects on the consequences of what happened lOa conclusion which includes details of all the main characters


After drafting your narrative, spend some time away from it. Then try reading it out loud. This helps to highlight any missing or repeated words or missing punctuation. Can you add any more detail to improve it? Are there any details you can remove because they distract from the main story?

B Check your draft. How many correct features

B Read the story in Exercise 9A again. Which features in

from Exercise lOA did you use? Try to make some

Exercise lOA does it contain?

improvements and redraft your story.

GRAMMAR I the passive



VOCABULARY I truth or myth


VOCABULARY truth or myth

1A Read the introduction to the article below. Can you think of any commonly held beliefs that are actually myths?

2A Find the expressions below in the article on this page and answer the questions.

B Work in pairs. Student A: read the myths below and answer the questions. Student B: turn to page 160.

conventional wisdom a common ly held perception a fallacy uncover the tru t h verify intuitively true de bunk a myth disprove a myth W hich expression means 'many people think it's true but it isn 't '?

I What is the myth?

2 Which myths were dis proved by experiments? 3 W hat is the truth about the myth?

2 Which three expressions mean 'people th ink it's true but there's no scientific evidence'? 3 W hich verb means 'reveal'?

C Tell your partner what you learnt. Then read

4 Which two verbs mean 'prove somet hing isn't true'?

your partner's section of the article quickly.

5 Wh ich verb means 'prove something is true'?

B Add the missing word in each sentence. It is a held perception t hat no one can survive a plane crash .

2 W isdom says you shouldn 't swim soon after eating. 3 Scientists in Panama rece ntly disproved myth that sloths are lazy.

4 The myth that you lose most of your body heat through your head has been .

5 It seems intuitively that long-distance runn ing is bad for your knees, but recent research suggests otherwise.

(]) You can beat a speed camera if you drive fast enough Technically, this is true, but it wasn't easy to verifY. As prove n by Top Cear, a TV car show, to beat a speed camera yo u'd have to be travelling incredibl y fast. ~iiiiii_!!!j Th e Top Cea r M ercedes,

w hich we nt past th e cam era at 148 nilles per , ur, was caught on film , but experimenters finally anaged to do it at 170 miles per hour.

Driving is safe with a hands-free mobile -

wo uld seem to be intuitively tru e. Surely using ands-free mobile is just like having a conversation -h som eone in the car? R esearch tells a different [yo It's even wo rse fo r your concentratio n than hoI, accordin g to the Transport R..esearch Laborato ry. y tested drive rs with or without alco hol, as well ·\th mobiles and hands-free mobiles. Afterwards, drivers answered th e experimenter's questio ns. mg perfo rmance under the influence of alco hol '13nifica ntly - e than ' ':1 aI driving, rer than .;;. with a , - even , rh a -free ki t. J

C Work in pairs. Discuss other examples of common myths, using the expressions in Exercise 2A. Use your ideas from Exercise lA.


Goldfish have short memories

A fifteen-yea r-old schoolboy has debunked this myth . Rory Stokes placed a piece ofLego (a small , plastic, coloured block) in the water of a fish tank at feeding time. Thirty seconds after placin g it, he sprinkl ed food around it, so that th e fish wo uld start to associate it w ith eating. At the beginning of Stokes' experiment, it took th e fish over a minute to swim over to the Lego. After three weeks, it took under five seconds. In the second part of the experiment, Rory removed th e Lego from the feeding process and then reintroduced it after six days. It took the fish just 4.4 seconds to associate it with food again .


Owls have the ability to rotate their heads through 360 degrees A bit of simple science alJows us to disprove this myth . An owl's neck has fo urteen vertebrae, w hich is twice as many as humans. C onsequently, an owl ca n turn its head up to 270 degrees . In other words, they could start by facin g 12 o' clock and turn th eir heads in a clockwise direction until facing rou ghl y 9 p.m . - impressive, but not 360 degrees.

GRAMMAR the passive 3A

Read the statements. Are any of them true?

The Great Wall of China is the only man-made object visible from space. 2 Caesar Salad is named after Julius Caesar.


Rewrite the sentences using passive forms. Some people believe that myths are spread easily on the internet. It _ _ that myths are spread easily on the internet.

3 Eskimos have over one hundred words for snow.

2 Someone stole Jake's wallet. Jake had _ _ .

4 Chewing gum takes seven years to pass through the digestive system .

3 Someone was fixing my car so I took the bus. My car _ _ so I took the bus.

S A sudden shock or great stress can suddenly turn your hair white.

4 I think people should take this matter seriously. I think this matter _ _ seriously.

B Check your answers below. False. The Great Wall of China cannot be seen from space with the naked eye, but cities can be made out, especially at night. 2 False. Caesar Cardini , a restaurateur, invented the recipe in Tijuana, Mexico, in 1924. He had the dish named after him. 3 False. It is claimed by linguists that Eskimos actually have about as many words for snow as we have in English (sleet, blizzard, slush, powder, etc.) - nothing like one hundred . 4 False. Chewing gum is processed through the body like any other food . S False. Hair isn 't expected to change colour suddenly, but some people's hair turns white quickly even in a stress-free situation. C Check what you know. Underline examples of passive forms in Exercise 3B. Why do we use passive forms?

D Which sentences contain examples of: a) a passive used when the important information in the sentence is the object of the verb? 4 b) a passive used to show that we are not certain about a statement? c) a pattern that uses havel get + object + past participle to describe something that is done to the subject? d) a passive used because we do not know who performs the action (or it is not important), we are interested in the action itself? e) a passive infinitive (to be + past participle + to + verb)? 1111"


S They need to do more research on the topic of herbal medicine. More research _ _ on the topic of herbal medicine. 6 They say people have seen ghosts in the castle. They say ghosts _ _ in the castle.

S Work in pairs. Decide which phrases in italics would be better in the passive. Change the phrases as appropriate. One piece of conventional wisdom that I people have passed 011 throughout the generations is that Friday 13 th is unlucky. 2 No one knolVs where this superstition came from, though 3 some people have attribltted it to the fact that on Friday 13 th October 1306, King Philip of France arrested the Knights Templar and 4 began torturing them. S People knolV the fear of the number thirteell as triskaidekaphobia, and 6 people consider thirteen unlucky in many cultures. 7 We call see this superstitiol1 in different contexts: in the United States, many skyscrapers don't have a thirteenth floor and several airports don't have a thirteenth gate. Hospitals and hotels regularly have no room number thirteen. Tn Italy, 8 the olganisers omit the Ilumber thirteell from the national lottery, while on streets in Florence 9 people give the house between Ilumber '/ 2 and 14 the Ilumber 12 Yz. It's not just crazy Europeans; other countries are just as superstitious, although not necessarily about the same number. In Japan, 10 people often omit the Itnlucky Iwmbcr four from hotels, hospitals and apartment blocks.


Read the review again and underline multi-word verbs with back, around, away, off, over, down, on, up and out.

SPEAKING 6A Prepare to debunk a myth of your choice. It can be about a person , a profession, a country or a belief. For ideas, turn to page 160. Complete the notes below.

B Look at some common meanings of particles in multi-word verbs. Complete the table with the meanings in the box. removal or disposal think or talk about continue remove, cancel or end something with no direction or aim increase or iffif'fO..,'e return (to the past) be in the open decrease or reduce

The secret is out about ... Many people think ... They believe this because ... The idea may have originated ... They say ... but it's a fallacy inasmuch as ... The truth is that ... I In fact ... In order to really understand ... people would have to ... This would happen if ...

B Work with other students and take turns to debunk your myths. Share your ideas with the class.

PLUS ---..;....;;;;.;;;.

multi-word verbs


Discuss. Which of the activities below have you done in the last twenty-four hours? Which do you do at least once every twenty-four hours? • send a text message





increase or improve continue

speed up, brighten up, jazz up


go on, carry on, keep on


pension off, cry off, call off, switch off


find out, speak out, stand out, callout


slow down, narrow down, crack down


put away, blow away, take away


bring back, th ink back, look back, cast (your mind) back


mess around, stand around, hang around


mull over, pore over, look over, think over

C Which examples in the th ird column are new to you? Look them up in a dictionary and make a sentence w ith them .

• playa video game • eat fast food • go on a social networking website (e .g. Facebook)

• listen to music/podcasts on an MP3 player

Knowing some general meanings of particles can help you to understand multi-word verbs when you read or hear them. However, many multiword verbs have several meanings which depend on the context. It is a good idea to learn these and write them down as they arise.

B Read the book review and answer the questions.


I W hat is the message in Steven Johnson's book?

I T he Government cracked _ situation couldn't go_.

• hang out in a shopping mall • talk on a mobile phone

2 Do you agree with th is idea?

The media is full of dire warnings about young people and modern life: too much technology, too many video games, too much fast food. Journalists and social theorists have looked back to the golden age before kids stood around texting and twittering and have decided enough is enough! Take away their iPods! Switch off their mobile phones! But writer Steven Johnson has thought it over and come to a different conclusion. His book, Everything Bad is Good for You: How Today's Popular Culture is Actually Making us Smarter, boils down to one message: kids can carryon facebooking, gaming and you tubing because as the world speeds up, these new skills are turning them into quick-thinking, multi-tasking, high-achieving citizens of the twenty-first century. Who's right? Could the doom-mongers be wrong? Read the book and find out for yourself.

Complete the sentences with the correct particles. on illegal immigration because the

2 We mulled the candidates and narrowed them shortlist of three.

to a

3 We called _ the game this morn ing, but the weather is brightening _ now. 4 Stop standing _ over the floor!

doing nothing and put _

5 When I found _ my grandfather.

about the accident, it brought _

l OA

your stuff - it's all memories of

Underline the correct alternatives.

Cast your mind back/Narrow down/Talk over to your chi ldhood. Who taught you your most important lessons? 2 How do you carryon/think back/find out if a journalist or other writer is telling the truth? 3 When faced with many possible truths, how can we call out/narrow down/speed up our options to one? 4 Is it always useful to mull over/mess around/speak out difficult issues w ith other people? B Choose two questions in Exercise lOA. Work in pairs and discuss you r answers. 1111"



FUNCTION I making a point


VOCABULARY I journalism

VOCABULARY journalism 1A Work in pairs. What do you know about the website W ikiLeaks? Answer the questions. I W hat kind of information is published on the website? 2 W ho sends t he information? 3 W hat effect does it have on governments and large organisations?

B Read the article to check your ideas.

In search of the truth


The problem with investigative journalism is that scoops are increasingly hard to come by. And not only that but, if you find one, the chances are that there will be an injunction out that will prevent you from publishing the information. Big companies, celebrities and governments all frequently take out injunctions in order to protect information which they want to be kept secret. But that doesn 't stop websites like WikiLeaks. 2




The whistle-blowing website WikiLeaks has dominated the news in recent years with its steady drip feed of secret documents striking fear into the hearts of anyone who has something to hide. WikiLeaks was responslble for the release of thousands of documents containing sensitive information from governments and other highprofile organisations, including classified military records detailing military strategy and operations. WikiLeaks also published information about oil companies. In just three years, WikiLeaks, fo unded by former journalist and hacker Julian Assange, published more scoops than the Washington Post managed in thirty years. However, the site has divided opinion. For some it is lauded as the future of investigative journalism; it has been described as the world's first stateless news organisation. But for others - particularly the governments and corporations whose secrets it exposes - it poses a huge risk. WikiLeaks allows anyone, from students to journalists, to submit documents anonymously. However, a team of reviewers - vo lunteers from the mainstream press, journalists and WikiLeaks staff - decide what is published. The site then uses advanced cryptographic and legal techniques to protect its sources. WikiLeaks preserves the anonymity of the leaker by bouncing the leak through a network of servers around the world. The more people who use the network, the harder it becomes to unpick. However hard the authorities may try to stop websites like WikiLeaks, it seems that one of the new powers of the internet is that, one way or another, the truth will out.

2 Complete the sentences using words f rom the article. I W hen a journalist deeply investigates a single topic of interest, often involvi ng crime, this is call ed i___ j_ __ . (paragraph I) 2 W hen a journalist publishes a news story before anyone else hears about it, it is called a S_ _ _ . (paragraph I) 3 If someone doesn 't want you to pu bl ish information about them, they might take out an i_ __ to stop you. (paragraph I) 4 Exposing unethical or illegal actions by an organisation is called w _ _ . (paragraph 2) 5 Information which, if disclosed by unauthorised people, cou ld cause problems for a company or government, etc., is called s_ __ information. (paragraph 2) 6 Someone who provides information to journalists so they can write the story is a S_ _ _ . (paragraph 4) 7 The release of protected information to the public without permission is called a 1___ . (paragraph 4) 8 A n expression which means that in the end the truth will always be discovered is: the ___ wi ll ___ . (paragraph 5)

FUNCTION making a point


3A 5.4 Listen to a conversation about WikiLeaks. Number the points in the order they are mentioned. a) Whistleblowers always existed, but the medium has changed now. b) Wiki Leaks seems to have no regard for the ethics of its actions. c) Freedom of information can on ly be a good thing. d) Organisations have to be ab le to keep some information private. e) Wiki Leaks is responsible for leaking a lot of private information. f) Governments and companies can no longer hide behind secrets.

B Listen again and complete what the speakers say. I The ___ why I say that is because they are responsible . .. 2 Can you be ___ about that? Is there any ___ to prove that? 3 But that's not the 4 Let me ___ it this way. 5 But that doesn't take

of the fact that some information .. .

6 I think you' II ___ that actually information has always been .. . 7 The point I'm trying to ___ is that if the chances ...

LEARN TO manage a conversation SA Work in groups. Do any of the following things happen to you when you are discussing an issue in English? • You struggle to find the right words in time. • People keep going off the topic, so you find it hard to follow. • Some people are reluctant to contribute to the conversation. • One or two people tend to dominate the conversation. • You pause to collect your thoughts and someone interrupts so you can't finish what you wanted to say.

C Add the phrases in bold in Exercise 36 under the correct headings below.

B Look at the different ways to manage a conversation. Put the phrases in the box under the correct headings below. Sorry, and another thing ... Where do you stand on this? I suppose, if you think about it ... Getting back to the point, which is ...

Making a point There are several reasons why I think that ...

Encouraging someone else to contribute The facts suggest ... IThe evidence shows ... After all , ...

So, what do you think about ... ?I But don't you think ... ? How do you feel about this?

The point is '" If you think about it ...

Keeping your turn

Clarifying a pOint

Hold on a minute. I wanted to say that ...


There are a couple of things I'd like to say about ...

What I'm basically saying is ...



Giving you thinking time

Actu ally, ... l in fact, ...

That's an interesting question to consider.


That's something which we should consider carefully. It's not something I've thought much about before.

Challenging a point Do you think that's always the case?




Staying on (original) topic

Is there any way I evidence to prove that?

Going back to what you were saying about ... I'm not sure what that 's got to do with ...


I don't see how you can say that.




Complete the responses using the prompts in brackets.



2 A:

Would you ever disclose company secrets? , it would depend on the Let me secret. (put) People who download music for free should be sent to prison.


3 A: B:

4 A: B:

5 A: B:


Write down your answers to two or three of the questions below. Think of ideas to justify your position.

. h d the nature of journalism Has the mternet c ange for the better or the worse? Is it justifiable to obtain information by phone or emaJJ tapping?

say that. (see) The public should have open access to any information they want.

Does the public have a right to know abOu\the private lives of people in POSlUO l1S of power.

that the information might be But that sensitive. (account) I'm not sure that I follow what you mean. What

is that I don't mind. (basically)

You should never give away your intellectual property for free. I think (find)

it depends on the situation.

ShouJd governments/the police/ bJ'g orga' . b II lllsatJons e a owed to keep information secret?

B Work in groups and discuss the questions. Try to use the phrases from Exercise 56. Then report back to the class.



1 Read the programme information. Which elements in the box do you think the drama involves?

2 Watch the DVD. What misunderstanding is resolved at the end?

murder mystery family saga fantasy romance comedy



Complete t he descriptions of each scene.

Scene I: Margaret tells her _ _ _ _ that she wrote to Frederick. Scene 2: _ _ _ _ arrives at the house. Scene 3: Frederick says he wants to stay for the _ _ __ but Margaret and their father say he must leave. Scene 4: At the train station, Margaret and Frederick are seen by _ _ __ that she cannot explain Scene 5: Margaret tells what happened at the station because 'the secret is another person's'. Scene 6: At the closed mill, Mr Thornton talks to a worker who explains that Margaret has a brother in _ _ _ _ who got into trouble with the navy and made a secret visit. B Watch the DVD again to check.


Wo rk in pai rs and discuss the questions.

I Margaret says, 'The secret is another person's. I cannot explain it without doing him harm.' Was she right to keep her brother's existence a secret? 2 Mr Thornton says to Margaret, 'I have not the slightest wish to pry into the gentleman 'S secrets ... I hope you realise that any foolish passion for you on my part is entirely over.' Was he right to be so angry with her? Could he have handled the situation differently? 3 How do you think the story will end?

speakout seven secrets about me SA

Read an extract from a website. What is the website asking for? There are big secrets - like having a brother no one knows about - and little secrets - like the fact that you had an imaginary friend as a child . Secrethouse.com wants to read a list of seven facts that no one knows about you . These facts don't have to be world-shattering, just interesting, quirky and fun!

B 5.5 Listen to someone talking about their seven secrets. Work in pa irs. How many of them ca n you remember?

e Listen again . Wh ich key phrases does t he spea ker use to introduce informati on?

keyphrases To start off with, ... (First/ second / third) on my list is ... It's not what you 'd call a big secret, but .. . Something I've never told anyone is that .. .

A few close friends know this. Last but not least, .. .


Decide on your seven sec rets. Use the prompts below to help if necessary. Make notes. • I w orked ... • My favourite (film / song/ boo k/ person) is .. . • If I w asn't .. . I'd .. . • I nearly ...

B Work in groups. Take turns to descri be your secrets and ask follow-up quest ions.

writeback personal facts 7 A Read the w inn ing entry. What can you guess about the writer, e.g. nationality, age, personal and professional life? Seven th i ngs you don ' t know about me 1 On my mother's side I'm related to a Shaol in monk. We don't know his name so we just call him 'the monk'. His brother, my greatgrandfather, was the wild one of the family. He went out every night and partied his life away. His nickname was ' the bear'. 2 I nearly drowned when I was si x. I fell off a boat in France and I suspect my family pretended not to notice. I made so much noise that the lifeguard finally took off his Walkman and jumped in to rescue me. 3 I worked in a cake factory every summer from the age of fourteen to eighteen . They paid peanuts but we ate like kings. 4 My favourite film is Blade Runner and I can quote the whole of Rutger Hauer's final speech before he dies. It goes like this : 'I've seen things you people wouldn't believe .' OK, I'll stop there.

5 If I wasn 't studying marketing , I would be a photographer. I've got about th irty albums' worth of photos - idyllic sunsets, family get-togethers, cityscapes at night and arty black-and -whites snatched when people weren't looking. 6 I haven 't lost at mahjong, a Chinese game that my mother taught me, for nearly ten years . I used to play at least twice a week, but now no one will play me. The world is full of sore losers. 7 I have a pet canary called Trill. My ex-flatmate emigrated to Argentina and left the bird behind , saying, ' he likes you more than me anyway'. Good excuse . Kim Robinson

B Write your own list of seven secrets (250 words). Incl ude as many details as you can.


Read other students' lists. What unexpected information did you learn?





Underline the correct alternatives. A: What do you think of David, the new website designer? B: He seems really nice and keeps / stays himself to himself. 2 A: Do you know what they decided during the meeting? B: No. That kind of information is kept firmly behind closed gates /

doors. 3 A: I don't know if I should tell you. B: Oh go on . Spill/ Drop the beans! 4 A: Do you think we should tell everyone? B: No. I think it's best if we stay

schtum/shut. S A: Why is your sister so angry? B: I let slip /lip that she wasn 't at Jo's house yesterday. B Work in pairs. Write a short conversation using two phrases from Exercise lA. Perform your conversation for other students.

Find and underline the incorrect word in each sentence. Then put the underlined words in the correct sentences. The perception wisdom says you have to know grammar rules to learn a language. 2 People think it's possible to learn a language in a few weeks. This myth needs to be conventio nal. 3 It's believed that people have a 'language gene' but this is difficult to intuitively. 4 The truth has bee n de bunked about translation : sometimes it can be useful to learners! S The idea that it's easier to learn foreign languages when you are young is verify true. 6 A commonly held uncovered is that bilingual children get confused learning two languages. B Do you agree with the statements in Exercise 3A? Compare your ideas in pairs.



2A Choose a suitable way to complete the second sentence. Use between two and four words.

4A Complete the text with the correct active or passive form of the verbs in brackets.

I wish I hadn't gone to bed so late. I should earlier. 2 We are expected to finish by Tuesday. We're by Tuesday. 3 They didn't have the courage to argue. They _ _ _ _ argue. 4 The restaurant was empty. We booked . S We're not allowed to take mobile phones into class. Mobile phones _ _ _ _ in class. 6 If you park here, you 'll get a ticket. You'd park here. B Complete the sentences in any way you choose. Compare your ideas in pairs. I I was supposed to . . . but ... 2 As a child, I was always/never allowed to ... 3 I think we ought to .. .

The story of maybe It 1 (believe) that this story com es from an ancient civilisation in the Americas. A farmer had a champio n horse. One day, the horse 2 (disappear) . Everyo ne thought th e horse 3 (steal) and all the fa rmer's neighbo urs visited him. 'What terrible news,' they said. 'M aybe,' said th e farmer. A few days later, the horse 4_ __ (come) bac k with two magnificent wild horses . The neighbours visited again to offer their congratulatio ns. The next day, the wild horses 5 (be) tam ed by the fa rmer's son , w hen he 6 (throw) off o ne of them and broke his leg. Again the fa rmer's neighbo urs visited. 'We are so sorry. This is awful news.' 'Maybe,' said the fa rmer.

The next day, an army captain cam e to recruit m en for a wa r, but because the far mer's son had broken his leg, he 7 (not recruit). H e stayed at home and 8 (help) to tame the wild horses, w hich becam e champions. The fa rmer's neighbours said, 'What wonderful news that your horses 9 (recognise) as the best in the country!' 'Maybe,' said the fa rmer. And the next day th e now famou s ho rses were gon e. B What do you think the moral of the story is? Compare your ideas with other students.


SA Add the missing words to the conversations. A: If we carryon like this, there will be no fish left in the river. B: Is there any evidence to that? 2 A: Sorry, I've lost you. B: What basically saying is we can't afford to waste any more time. 3 A: If think about it, we'd be stupid to let this opportunity escape us. B: Yes, I think you 're right. 4 A: I don 't how you can argue that economics doesn't have an influence on the situation. B: I really don't see what that has got to do with the issue. S A: People aren't interested in buying organic food if it's too expensive. B: Can we sure about that? B Practise the conversations in pairs. Try to extend them.


GRAMMAR I future forms

SPEAKING 1 What types of predictions do you think the following people have to make? • a weather man

• a stock market trader

• a businessman

• a fashion designer

VOCABULARY trends and predictions 2A Read sentences a}-j} below. Find expressions in bold which refer to: predictions with a link to the past. (2 expressions) 2 a situation that is already true. (I expression) 3 a fast change in the future. (2 expressions) 4 predictions that are highly possible . (3 expressions) 5 the evidence for a prediction . (2 expressions) a) The trend for greener living will gather pace. b) The signs are that the trend for outsourcing will grow. c) The days of wasting water are over. d) This trend for mobile offices may well grow. e) Oil will become a thing of the past. f) There'll be an explosion in non-synthetic materials. g) This trend for reality TV is bound to end. h) Plastic will be a distant memory. i) The popularity of social networking sites is likely to fade.

As everyone from business moguls to football managers to weather forecasters knows, predicting the future is not easy. History is packed with mistaken ideas about the future. Among the more famous are record company Decca's excuse for rejecting The Beatles: 'Guitar music is on the way out', and Ken Olson 's prediction made at the Convention of the World Future Society in 1977: 'There is no reason for any individual to have a computer in their home'. Despite thousands of similar errors, big companies still employ futurologists, the men and women whose job is to guess correctly what will happen tomorrow, next year and in ten years' time. So how do these modern-day Nostradamuses do it? 1 It turns out that the job of a futurologist is less mystical than commonsensical. To be a futurologist, you need good judgement and strong instincts, but mainly you need to do lots of research. By and large, the companies that employ futurologists aren 't interested in solving the world 's problems. They want to find out about business opportunities, risks, threats and changes in society that may affect sales. 2 According to futurologist for British Telecom Ian Pearson, people in his profession look at patterns in research and development - what is being researched and by whom - and they attend conferences and read technical magazines. Then they apply common sense, rooting out ideas that seem illogical. For example, a few years ago there was the idea of the intelligent home. Using a computer to organise every aspect of a home that is constantly changing (new owners, growing children, changing Circumstances) just doesn't make sense. Another

j) The figures point t o a major demographic change. B Work in pairs. Th ink of examples of: • something that was popular when you were younger, but is now a thing of the past. • a social trend that is gathering pace. • a worrying prediction that may well come true .


Read the definition and discuss questions 1-3.

futurology l ,fju:tJ;,'rol;:)d3i/ n [Ul the act ivity of tr yi ng to say correctl y what wi ll happen in t he future

- futurologist n [e l Who do you think futurologists work for? 2 How do you think they come up with their ideas? 3 What difficulties do you think they face? B Read t he art icle t o check your ideas.

4A Look at answers 1-5 about the article. Think of the questions. There may be several possibilities. I big companies Who do futurologists work for? 2 good judgement and instincts What ... 3 to conferences 4 intelligent homes and jet packs 5 They have to connect with people's emotions.

B Work in pairs and answer the questions. I What does rooting out ideas mean? (paragraph 2) What is a root? Why do you th ink the writer uses to root out here? 2 What is the pun (a play on words) in this sentence? The jet pack .. . failed to take off. (paragraph 2) 3 Dr Patrick Dixon says the past is 'full of graveyards of bits and pieces of gadgets'. (paragraph 4) What is a graveyard? Why do you think he uses this metaphor? 4 What does the expression give someone a buzz mean? (paragraph 5) Why do you thi nk t he writer uses this expression? What is the pun? C Work in groups and discuss the questions. I What do you think of the job of a futuro logist: would it be enjoyable. stressful, difficu lt? 2 Do you agree that the future is about emotion - about how people feel about technology?

6 Read about three other ways to talk about the future. Look at sentences 6-8 and choose the correct option to complete rules f}-h}. great idea, the jet pack - a battery-powered backpack that allows you to fly - also fai led to take off. 3 The fact that most predictions fail presents a problem for futurologists. They simply have to think big: radical and revolutionary rather than minor and minuscule. But radical , revolutionary ideas rarely become reality. Faced with this, one alternative for futurologists is to look at today's technology and find new ways in which it can be applied to everyday life. 4 Trends analyst Dr Patrick Dixon says the past is, 'full of graveyards of bits and pieces of gadgets which form no particu larly useful function ' and that the key will be how technology can work with human emotions. 'It's about how people feel about technology ... how people actually want to live.'

5 He may have a point. Recent innovations include toys that respond emotionally to the tone of a child 's voice (happy, sad, etc.) , as well as musical bath tiles that 'read ' your emotions and play mood-enhancing music. Another new product is a pair of bracelets that send signals across the mobile phone network. They can vibrate or heat up so you can send your partner a warm glow or literally give them a buzz. But don't bet on these becom ing bestsellers. The future, as we know, doesn 't always turn out as we expect it to. Just ask Decca or Ken Olson.

6 The government is to introduce new laws making health insurance compulsory. 7 Accord ing to some, robot intelligence is due to surpass human intelligence in the next th irty years. 8 Time travel could be a reality by 2075 , but it might on ly be available for the rich. Rules: f ) Use be + to + infinitive to describe an informal

plan/ an official arrangement or order. g) Use be due to + infinitive to descri be something that is expected to happen or arrive at a particular

time/ unlikely to happen in the foreseeable future . h) Use could/might/may + infinitive to describe a prediction that is not certain/ certain.


® 6 .1 Tick the sentences you hear.

I She'll be running. / She'll have been running. 2 I'll see him later. / I'll be seeing him later. 3 I'll be there. / I'll have been there. 4 We're going to be there at 1.00. / We're to be there at 1.00.

B Notice how some grammar words (e.g. auxiliary verbs) are pronounced in connected speech. listen again and repeat. She'll have been running. / SIl;:wbm/ 1111., page 138

GRAMMAR future forms 5

Check what you know. Match sentences 1-5 with rules a}-e} . Radio stations will play personalised streams of music based on your tastes.

2 By 2020, we will have been using portable medical tools for nearly a decade. 3 'N utrition pills' fu ll of vitam ins are going to be the main diet in non-farming areas. 4 Within ten years, self-service shops will have become the norm.

5 In the near future, we'll be using specialised glasses that contain books and internet functions.



Are both alternatives in sentences 1-8 possible? If so, is the meaning different? I By 2020, eighty percent of city dwellers will be working/ are to work from home.

Both are possible. We use 'will be working' to make a prediction. We use 'are to work' to describe an order from an authority. 2 Europe might/ will become a united state in the next ten years. 3 Fami lies will be/will be being raciall y very mixed . 4 By 2030, scientists are finding / will have found cures for most illnesses. 5 Cars will/ are due to be banned from city centres.

Rules: a) Use be going to + infinitive to make a prediction based on current evidence.

6 In fifty years' time, most rich people will live/will have been living until they are over 100.

b) Use will + infinitive (without to) to make a prediction.

7 By 2030, English is going to be/ will have become the world's third language.

c) Use the future continuous to describe an activity that will be in progress at some time in the futu re.

8 By 2050, it 's possible that governments will censor/ will have been censoring the web for years.

d) Use the future perfect to describe something that happens before a time in the future. e) Use the future perfect continuous to describe something in progress for a period up to a specified time in the future.

B Say the correct sentences out loud, using shortened forms of auxiliary verbs. C Do you agree with statements 1-8? Discuss with other students.


PLUS prepositional phrases


Read about some ideas of the futu re and discuss the questions. I Which ideas do you like? 2 Which do you think will come true? 3 What problems would the inventions solve?

4 What would the consequences be if these ideas became re ality?

Black box A personal 'black box' that records everything you do, see and hear every day and w hich allows you to watch, hear and feel any sensation from any time in your past.

I1WU,)'ti A pillow that reads your audio book w hile you're in bed, gradually lowers the volu me and switches to soothing sounds as you drift off to sleep.

Robot nurse A robot that cares for sick patients twen tyfour hours a day, can automaticall y 'read' the symptoms in the human body and is programmed • • rn to give the correct WI medication at the correct time.

lOA Work in pairs and read about a futurologist's ideas for the future. Complete the paragraphs with suitable prepositions (one or two words) . Use one preposition for each paragraph , once in every sentence. India is on track to surpass C hina as the most populated country by 2035. In India, 48,000 babies are born every day on average. In future,

India's resources such as schools and hospitals will be permanentl y on trial as th ey try to keep up with rising demands . Millions of children are risk of contrac ting diseases from dirty water. Only sixty percent of the world 's population has easy access to drinking water present. In th e future, it is hoped that least ninety-five percent of people will have running water at home, but there are no guarantees of this. As humanity's need for resources and industri es has grow n, it has become clear that man is far the most destructive animal on Earth . We are, nature, extrao rdinarily prolific polluters of the planet. In future, everyone will have to monitor their polluti on law. While the number of humans has risen, the number of wild animals such as lions and buffalo has been decline for decades. We are now preserving the genetic codes of animals that are danger of extinction. In future, we hope to be able to, effect, 'recrea te' th ese animals. In the early twenty- first century, corruption in business has started getting control. Corporations have tri ed to keep a number of scandals sight. In future, necessity, stri cter anti-corruption laws wili be passed.

B Look at all the prepositional phrases you completed in Exercise lOA and try to work out what they mean.


--~~~--------------------------------------~ Prepositional phrases are short, fixed phrases (usuall y two or three words) that begin with a preposition. They are often followed by a noun, e.g. at war, by accident. When you notice prepositional phrases, write them down in a complete sentence. This will help you to remember them .

1 fA Replace the underlined words below with prepositional phrases fro m Exercise lOA. Then use your own ideas to complete as many of the predictions as you can. I In the future, people will be vulnerable to catching a new disease called

.. . at risk


2 Birth rates are falling fast, so soon ... 3 Inflation will get completely crazy, which will lead to .. . 4 A new energy form will replace oil , because we really need it, and as a result, . .. 5 In 2040, easily the most important change in the world of work wi ll be . ..

Hand-held water purifier A € I contraption the size of an aerosol can that purifies any liquid that you put into it and tu rns it into drinkable water.

6 By 2040 there will be a minimum of ten billion people alive, and this will cause ... 7 In future, ~ people will have to register their ... 8 In order to protect animals that are close to becom ing extinct, we will ... 9 People will, generally, have only one ... 10 Right now, robots aren 't very intelligent, but by 2040, ...

B Think of three predictions on any topic, t heir consequences and what should be done about them . Make notes. C Work in groups and sha re your ideas. 1111. page



GRAMMAR I concession clauses




HOWTO I describe trends in language learning

VOCABULARY _ language 1A

Check you understand the meaning of the phrases in bold . .

W hy do you think English has become a 'lingua franca ', used by people around the world to communicate? W hat factors contributed to its rise as a global language?

3A 6 .2 Listen to part of the programme. Tick the topics that are mentioned. • culture and identity • new Engli shes

2 T hink of three ways to improve your command of a language and one situation where you need to mind your language.

• the type of English spoken by computers

3 W hat happens when you experience a language barrier? Do you think these will still exist in the future? Why/Why not?

• changing pronunciation

4 Can you name a dead language? Can you name a country where the official language is different from the everyday language? D o you think this is a problem?

B Discuss the questions above.

LISTENING 2 Work in pairs. Read the radio programme listing and answer the questions. I W hat do Stephen Fry and David Crystal discuss in the programme? 2 W hat are the two main reasons given for why Engli sh is changing? 3 W hat kinds of changes are mentioned?

As the use of English as a lingua franca continues to grow and spread around the world , the language itself is chang ing - adapting to how its speakers use it. The number of people who speak English as a second language has now grown to far outweigh the number of native speakers . Professor David Crystal , a world authority in language change , thinks sounds which some speakers find difficult to pronounce might disappear. And the vocabulary will certainly change, too . The other huge influence on the way English will change relates to technology. With computers that 'read ' text and automatic person-to-person translators , will computers soon be joining the swell ing billions who use and change Engl ish? In th is BBC radio programme, Stephen Fry and Professor David Crystal discuss the evolution of English.

• local languages/local brands of English • English as a mother tongue • English as a second or fore ign language

B What do they say about each point? Language is linked to your culture and identity because everything that makes up your identity (plants, animals, history etc.) has to be expressed with language.


Two of the sentences below are incorrect. Listen to the programme again and correct them . I The way English continues to move across the globe gives us a whole range of Englishes.

2 In the beginning, there was just British English and American English, and then came Australian English, South African English, Indian English and so on. 3 When a country adopts a new language, it changes it t o suit its local needs. 4 English has been adopted by more than sixty countries around the world . S There are about 400 million first language speakers of English.

6 A round the world, one fifth of the population speaks English as a second or foreign language.

B Discuss. How do you think English will change in the next 200 years? Do you think it will continue to be a global language? Do you think other languages will become more important?



concession clauses

SA Check what you know. Read the pred ict ions about the future of English. Underline the correct alternatives. While / Despite English is still the dominant language on the internet, other languages (like Mandarin, Russian, Spanish and Portuguese) will become increasingly important. 2 In spite of/Although 27.3 percent of internet users are English speakers, this number is closely followed by Chinese speakers (22.6 percent). Though / Despite we may find it hard to believe, the global language of the future might be Chinese or Arabic.

3 Difficult though it may be/ Strange as it seemed for students, in the future many school and university subjects are likely to be taught in English, using English materials. 4 However/ Whichever way you look at it, children need to start learning English when they are as young as possible. S Even though/ In spite of increasing numbers of English speakers, the global predominance of English is likely to change.

6 Even if/ Despite being able to use simultaneous translation on their phones to speak to each other, there will always be people who want to learn another language.

7 Whilstl Whichever people continue to use English to commun icate on the internet, the language itself will continue to change . B Work in pairs. Do you agree or disagree with the statements above? Why? C Use t he rule below to help you identify the main clauses and concession clauses in sentences 1-7 above. Rule: Concession clauses are used to introd uce information which co ntrasts w ith information in the main clause.



Write one sentence t o connect each pair of ideas. Use the words in brackets. Think carefully about the punctuation. I I always try to speak to people in their local language I I don 't speak it very well (even if)

I always try to speak to people in their local language, even if I don't speak it very well.

2 I spend a lot of time studying grammar I I still make mist akes (though) 3 It is difficult I I always try to believe what people tell me (difficult though) 4 It doesn't matter which way you look at it I technology is changing education (however) S I agree that English is important I I think students need to learn several languages (while) 6 It may seem strange I I find it hard to remember facts and figures (strange as) 7 It is a fact that I enjoy travelling I I don't get the opportunity very often (despite) 8 Learning a language is difficult I it doesn 't matter which method you choose (whichever) B Choose t hree of the linkers in italics f rom Exercise SA (even if, while, although, etc.) and write sentences which are true for you. Compare you r ideas in pa irs.

SPEAKING 7 A Work in groups of three and read about three ideas for language learning. Student A : read the text below. Student B: turn to page 159. Student C: t urn to page 163. Take turns to explain the ideas you read about. Robot teachers English-teaching robots, called 'Engbots' have been introduced in schools in Korea. I t is expected that by 2018 these robots should be able to teach on their own, so that there will be no need for English teachers in the classroom.

Answer the questions.

I What punctuation separates the clauses? 2 Do the linkers in italics introduce the main clause or the concession clause? 3 Most of the linkers in italics are followed by a verb clause . Which two are followed by a nounl -ing form? 1111"


B Discuss the pros and cons of each idea. What language learning ideas do you think are li kely to be popular in the future?

•..•.,}I~,; ..""·W~.":·. '''.:R<;'''!'.'-:'''~ "~'.&.-, f;;'';'·····,











WRITING a report SA

Look at the graph. What does it tell you about which languages will be important in the future? Can you make any pred ictions based on the evidence provided ? Top languages on t he internet

Read the guidelines for writ ing a forma l report. Wh ich gu idelines 1-6 are f ollowed in t he report in Exerci se 8B? What would you expect t o find in the remaining part of the report? I Introduce the report so that its purpose is clearly demonstrated.

2 Organise your report into paragraphs or

• • • • • • • • • • • • • 536.6



281 .2%

sections under different headings / subheadings.

3 Refer to statistics, graphs and other dat a, 4 Give recommendations or draw conclusions about the information in your report,

_' nese

S Use formal language (objective structures like

53.3 743.2%

'':anish • • •

the passive, fu ll forms rather than contractions, formal vocabulary and register).

6 Use linking words and phrases to help support your ideas .




LEARN TO describe trends

~ra bi c

2,501 .2%


59.8 398.2%

: _ssian


39.4 107.1%


10A Look at sentences 1- 6 . Which alternative • is not possible according to the graph in Exercise 8A? Cross out the incorrect alternative. The importance of Mandarin as a global language has increased dramatically/ risen sharply/


• Millions of users (2010) % growth (2000-2010)

B Read the first part of a report about languages on the internet. Answer the questions. I Which language does the writer think may become the dominant internet language of the future? Why? 2 Which other languages do you think are important to mention in the report? Why?

dropped alarmingly. 2 There has been a surge /a drop/ an increase in the use of Chinese on the internet . 3 Numbers of people using Arabic on the internet have plummeted/soared/grown in recent years. 4 There has been a relative surge/decline/drop in the percentage of people using English online, as numbers of people using languages such as Chinese, Russian and Arabic have declined/

increased/grown. S Numbers of Chinese speakers with access to the internet have rocketed/exploded/Collapsed.

6 There has been a steady/sharp /gradual increase


his report w ill look at th e changing impo rtance of vario us languages o n the internet and draw conclusio ns about the impli cations for language learners around the wo rld, The graphi c shows th e top ten languages used o n the internet, and gives info rmation about the rate of g rowth of each language and th e to tal percentage of users, It is q uite clear from the data that languages other than English are becomin g increasingly impo rtant o n the internet. There has been a huge surge in demand fo r M andarin C hinese, for example, w hich has increased by 1,277 A percent in th e last ten yea rs and is now no t fa r behind the use of En glish in terms of total numbers of users. Whilst there are 536.6 millio n users of English on the internet, C hin ese is fast catching up, w ith 444,9 million users, If the current trend co ntinues, C hinese w ill soon become the most do mjnant language o n the internet. Another popular language o n the intern et is currently Spanish , with 153.3 milli o n users, making it the third m ost do minant language. Spanish users have also shown a steady in crease in growth (743,2 percent) over ten yea rs, indica ting the continued importance of Spanish as an internet language. However, there are o ther languages w hich show an increasing mf] uence. In particular, ' "

2 __

J!!!:'.'. ,- "".:" .:.-.,' :;'~"-~":' 6 -"

in the use of Spanish online. B Use the prompts t o write sentences describing trends in education. Use the present perfect tense. explosion / demand for / mobile technology/ language learning 2 number / people / communicating regul arl y / use / blogs / increase / dramatically 3 number / students / attend / private language schools / study English / plummet 4 sharp increase / ability / learners / access / learning materials / internet S gradual decline / appeal / traditional teaching methods

11 Complete the report in Exerci se 8B by continuing the last paragraph and add ing a conclusion (150 words) . Use the language in exercise lOA to help.




FUNCTION I describing cause and effect



Discuss the questions.

I How would you describe the people and things in the photos? 2 Are there any images that you think look out-of-date?

3 How do trends start and spread? B Read the text about how trends spread. What is the main idea of the text? What is your answer to the question at the end of the text?

he best way to understand how trends take off might be to think of them as epidemics. How is it that unknown books suddenly become bestsellers, TV programmes become instant classics, toys that were adored by generations suddenly lose their appeal? The answer is that trends spread like viruses. Somehow they capture the imagination and strike a chord with the pUblic. Take the rise of the shoe brand, Hush Puppies. Sales of Hush Puppies had stagnated to just 30,000 pairs a year. Suddenly, the shoes became the latest thing in Manhattan clubs and stylists began to use them as accessories in fashion photo shoots. It turned out to be more than just a passing trend. In 1995, Hush Puppies sold 430,000 pairs, and in 1996, 1,700,000 pairs . Or look at the technology revolution led by Apple Computers. The number of Apple users has risen dramatically in the last ten years. How do these changes happen ? Some say it's a combination of word of mouth and pure luck, while marketers think it's something we can control. Who is right ?


2A Read the text again and find the words that complete the phrases in bold.

FUNCTION describing cause and effect

2 When a product goes out of fashion, it has lost its .. .

3A 6.3 Listen to people describing how two trends started and answer the questions.

2 One way that fashions spread is that they capture the.. ..

I What trends do they talk about?

4 When people like and identify with something, it strikes a ...

2 How did the trends start?

5 When a product or trend is suddenly popular, we say it

3 How/Why did the trends spread?

I When trends suddenly become popular, they take . . .

becomes the latest ... 6 When something is popular for just a short time, we say it's just a passing ... 7 When there is more of something now than before, we say the number has ...

B Read the expressions below for describing cause and effect. Can you remember which expressions the speakers in Exercise 3A used?

8 When something becomes trendy because people tell each other about it, it spreads by word of ...


informal and neutral


It all started ...

It has its origins/roots in ...

It originated in/ from ...

B Work in pairs. Think of examples of: • something that was a passing trend.

It's because of ...

• something that has captured the public imagination.

It stems from ...


• something that has taken off recently. effect

It can be traced back/ attributed to ...

It led to ...

It resulted in ...

It has caused.. .

It gave rise to . . .

Because of this, .. . l it brought about ...

C Listen again to check. 1111"



summarise your views

SA Look at the expressions in the box. When do you think we usually use these expressions? What is their purpose? So overall, ... To sum up, ... All in all, .. . Basically, ... In conclusion, ... So what I'm really saying is, ...

B Which expressions did the speakers in Exercise 3A use? Check your answers in audio script 6.3 on page 170.



When we are finishing a long 'turn' (a long explanation, story, description. etc.) we often try to summarise it using different words from the original turn. We may add a moral to a story or repeat the main points. This helps our listener to capture the message.

6A Complete the sentences in any way you choose. I People now expect to download music for free and CD sales are aJ: their lowest ebb. Basically, ... 2 We saw some great presentations at the conference. The hotel was wonderful and we loved the food . So overall, ... 3 Bloggers take news from real reporters and write comments. They do hardly any reporting themselves. So what I'm really saying is ... 4 Sales of the game soared in May, jumped again in July and rose dramatically at the end of the year. To sum up, ... 5 This report says young people believe in openness. They share details of their private lives enthusiastically online. In conclusion, ...


6 We had developed a great product, so logically it should have been a success. However, we had technical problems. Then we ran out of money and a competitor stole the idea. All in all •...

I Reggae comes from Jamaica. (have/roots)

B Compare your answers in pairs.

Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. Change the verb tenses as necessary.

2 The Mohican haircut. in the UK. was originally from the punk era. (have/origins) 3 Technology has led to new types of crime, such as hacking. (give rise) 4 Some say football started in China. (can/trace) 5 Global warming is the reason for many recent environmental disasters. (cause) 6 Better healthcare and diet, plus fewer babies per family, mean the population is ageing. (because of)

C Which two sentences are in a formal context? Which two expressions for summarising do they use?

7A 6.4 Listen to completed sentences 1-6 in Exercise 6A. Are any of the endings similar to yours? B How many vowel sounds do the words in the box have? When we say these words in connected speech, one sound in each word gets 'swallowed'. Which one? basically




7 The rising number of female world leaders can be attributed to the women's liberation movement. (stem)


® 6.5 Listen to check. Cross out the swallowed sounds.

8 The growth in online publishing has necessitated new laws. (lead to)


Practise saying the words, omitting the swallowed sounds.

9 It's thought that chess began in India over a thousand years ago. (originate)


10 Medical procedures for disfigured soldiers later helped the development of cosmetic surgery. (resulted) I I The recent popularity of tattoos is because of celebrities who have them . (can/attributed) 12 Globalisation has meant big changes to the way businesses are run . (bring/about)

SA What has changed in your lifetime in your country? Think about fashion, awareness of green issues, cost of living, the media, etc. Choose one issue. Make notes about the causes and effects of the changes. B Work in groups and present your ideas.

1 Look at the words in the box. How do you think these factors have influenced the world since the start of the twenty-first century? climate change globali sat ion Google credit cru nch W eb 2.0 carbon footprint


Read the programme information. What is the key trend that this episode focuses on?


Which of the following statements do you think are true?

The generation gap between young people and old people is getting bigger. 2 Increasingly, old people are afraid of young people and young people do not appreciate older people. 3 The concept of being a teenager only really started in the I 960s. 4 The market for selling toys to adults is larger than the market for selling toys to children.

B Watch the DVD to check your ideas.


Complete the extracts.

I The first decade of the new millennium saw waves of massive and , at times, _ __ _ 2 Age is to the twenty-first century what social class was to the twentieth century. It's one of the in our society. 3 We had a situation where everybody wanted to be young, but the only people who could afford were the old. 4 Adults and young people are probably more divided now than they ever were in the past, partly because of the and the role that youth culture has in dominating society. 5 People say, 'Well , in the 1950s, you know, there was a to wearing transition. You went from having 6 Why not have toys, why not , why not carry on behaving like you might have behaved when you were eighteen, nineteen, or twenty?

B Watch the DVD again to check.


Work in groups and discuss the questions.

I Do you agree that we are living in a society which is dominated by youth culture? Can you think of examples? 2 How do old and young people treat each other in your country? Do you think this is different in other countries?

speakout talk about a decade 6A

® 6.6

Listen to someone talking about a decade. Wh ich decade does she describe? What does she say about the following topics? • historical events • mobile phones/technology • economics • music/clubbing • fashion

B Listen again and choose the correct alternatives to complete the key phrases.

keyphrases The nineties was when the internet first went

downhil/ltook off. Generally though, the nineties was quite a poor/ prosperous time. I think one of the most memorable/ terrible things about the 1990s has to be the music. I remember wanting to go/going to the Take That concert in '93. Clubbing was generally really big/ cool too. Thinking about fashion/music back then makes me cringe. (It) was a great decade to grow up in/ be a teenager in.

7 A Work in groups and choose a decade to discuss. Make notes about three factors which you think helped to deftne the decade. Think about music, fashion, politics, news events and social or cultural trends.

writeback a review of a decade SA Work in pa irs. Read the review of the noughties. Think of other examples to add to each section.


Portrait of a decade: high points of the noughties Is it really possible to sum up a decade? We asked readers to send in their ideas of events, people and cultural highlights which they thought defined the last ten years. Twi tter, Xbox, Ugg boots and Big Brother ... t hese were just some of the highlights of t he noughties. Technology: The noughties was definitely the decade during which the internet really took off, and began to significantly change our world . With the success of companies like Google, video sharing sites like YouTube, and social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace and Twitter, the n~ughties was a time of information explosion. Television: There was a profusion of reality TV shows and popularity contests like Big Brother. This was perhaps driven by a demand for more realistic television than was being provided by the classic soap operas, and also by the increase in the use of home-made video recordings, which meant that people were getting used to watching each other on television . Games: The Xbox, the Playstation and later the Wii all became household names, and there was a move from computer gaming being an individual pursuit towards it becoming a family activity. Internet gaming also became popular with the success of games like Warcraft. People : The list of famous faces included Presidents, like George Bush, or Prime Ministers, like Tony Blair or Silvio Berlusconi, as well as sportsmen such as David Beckham and Roger Federer, and singer celebrities like Beyonce and Eminem .

B Present your ideas to the class. B Write a short review of a decade of your own choice (250-300 words) .



1 Complete the text by adding one word in each gap.

3A Work in pairs. Student A: you are an optimist. Student B: you are a pessimist. Complete the sentences according to your role.

T he idea of resur rec ting extinct species used to be science fic tion, but this development 1_ _ well come true. T he science already exists. T he recent explosion 2_ _ genom e research tells us that the recipe for maki ng a creature lies in its D NA. C reating animals fro m a genom e sequence is im possible now, but the 3_ _ are it will happen soon. When an ani mal dies in a dry cave or in ice, we can fi nd intact genome sequences . We then need a surroga te species to give birth to the animal. If we wa nted to bring back a mam mo th , th e surroga te wo uld be an elephant. As a result of this developm ent, fears about the extinctio n of some species could becom e a 4_ _ memory. As the science 5_ _ pace, conservationists are getting ready; they have begun freezing tissue samples of these animals. T he days of campaigns to save the w hale and so many other species could 6_ _ over, as extincti on becomes a 7_ _ of the past!

I By the time I'm old, I hope I will have done many things, such as ... 2 Tomorrow I'm going to .. . 3 By 2020, I will have been .. . 4 If everything goes to plan, I will .. . 5 If my plan falls through, I might .. . 6 I'm due to ... 7 I will be visiting . .. 8 Apparently, I am to ...

B Compare your sentences. Now compare with another pair. Who was the most optimistic and who was the most pessimistic?



Match the sentence halves.

I I'm planning to join a gym, 2 I love travelling. I always enjoy meeting people, 3 However hard I try to be organised, 4 I get tempted to buy things,


5 In a relationship, you need t o be able to forgive people,

2A The phrases in italics are in the wrong sentences. Put them in the correct place.

6 No matter how early you get up in the morning,


I It's useful to study Latin, even though it is a lingua franca .

a) whatever they do.

2 A language barrier is a language that is used to communicate between speakers of many different languages.

c) I still forget things all the time.

3 A simplified version of English, sometimes called 'Globish', will become the dominant dead


b) wherever I go.

18UM. SA Correct the mistakes in sentences 1-7. What trends do they describe? These can be tracing back to the 1700s, when a Dutchman attached tiny wheels to strips of wood and nailed them to his shoes. 2 This fashion item is often attributed by British deSigner Mary Quant in the I 960s, but ancient Roman soldiers wore a similar garment! 3 This musical style was popularised in New York in the I 970s, but it has the origins in the 'talking' style of West African musician-poets. 4 These have their rooting in ancient China, though they were popularised in the USA in the early 1900s when actors wore them to avoid being recognised in public. 5 When an American engineer, Sherman Poppen, invented a toy for his daughter by fastening two skis together and attaching a rope to one end in 1965, it lead to a new sport. 6 The first type was produced in the 1960s for the University of Florida's American football team , nicknamed 'the Gators' (short for alligators). This resulted on the brand name Gatorade. 7 The term 'weblog' was first used in 1997, but Peter Merholz divided this word into two and gave rise of one of the most popular forms of electronic writing.

d) there are never enough hours in the day.

B Check your ideas. Match the trends below with sentences 1-8.'

e) although finding the time to go is difficult.

roller skates blog sunglasses mini-skirt hip-hop snowboarding energy drin ks

f) even though I can 't really afford them.

4 I wish teenagers would global language. I hate to hear them swearing.

B Use the prompts to write your own sentences. Compare your ideas in pairs.

5 It's important for global economics that people can communicate without a mind their language.

I I'm good at ... even though .. .

B Work in pairs. Do you agree with the rewritten statements above? Compare your ideas.


2 I'd like to . .. whatever .. . 3 As hard as I try, ... 4 No matter what happens, .. . 5 Despite feeling ... I ...


Look at the photos and read the story. What do you think really happened? B Answer the questions. I Why do you think John Darwin was tanned! 2 What might have happened to his canoe!

3 Where do you think Mr Darwin had been during those five years! 4 What do you think happened next!

C Tu rn to page 161. Read part two of the story and check your ideas.

2A Work in pairs. Complete the sentences using information from part two of the story. I The circumstances that led John Darwin to consider faking his own death were . ..

2 John Darwin managed to live secretly at home by ... 3 In Panama. the Darwins had hoped to ... 4 The deception was uncovered by ... 5 As a punishment for their crime of fraud and deception, the Darwins ...

B Work in pa irs and discuss the questions. I What do you think of what John Darwin did! 2 What do you think was the most difficult part of the deception for the Darwins! 3 Do you think it was right for the Darwins to go to prison! 4 What do you think Anne Darwin should/ shouldn't have done!

The case of the disappearing man When a man walked into a police station in London, claiming to be suffering from amnesia, he told officers, 'I think I am

a missing person.' He apparently had no recollection of his whereabouts or events over the previous five years. What police didn't initially realise was that the man in front of them was in fact John Darwin, 'the missing canoe man'. When John Darwin , a married father of two, initially went missing five years previously, a massive search and rescue mission was launched along the northeast coast of the UK, near to where he was last seen. Prison officer John Darwin had been spotted paddling out to sea with his kayak early in the morning on 21't March, but it was only when he failed to arrive at work for a night shift that evening that the alarm was raised. The rescue teams searched extensively, but to no avail. Several weeks later, when the shattered remains ofJohn's kayak were found washed up on the beach, John Darwin was presumed dead. More than a year later, his wife threw flowers into the sea to mark the anniversary of her husband's disappearance. At an inquest, the coroner recorded an open verdict, which allowed the family to 'move on'. However, no trace of Mr Darwin's body was ever found. On his reappearance in London, his family were informed. His two sons, Mark and Anthony, were thrilled to be reunited with their father. And his wife Anne - who had sold up her properties in England and moved to Panama three months before his reappearance - expressed surprise, joy and elation at the return of her missing husband. However, nobody could have predicted what would come to light over the following days. When John Darwin appeared at the police station, he claimed memory loss, but otherwise he appeared both fit and well, and he was also suntanned (a little unusual for December in the UK). An investigation was immediately launched into his disappearance.



GRAMMAR cleft sentences


3A Sentences 1-4 express ideas in the story. but are phrased slightly differently. Rewrite them using the prompts in italics.

6A Match the sentence halves.

I Police didn 't initially realise that the man standing in front of them was John Darwin, 'the missing canoe man'.

2 The car broke down and we were

What police ... 2 The alarm was raised only when he failed to arrive at work for a night shift.

It was only when ... 3 He spent the next few years hiding inside the house and rarely leaving.

What he did then ... 4 A colleague of Anne Darwin's eventually put the pieces of the puzzle together.

It was a ... B Check your answers in the stories on pages 80 and 161. C What is the effect of starting the sentences with the phrases in italics? Read the rule to check. Rule: To add emphasis or focus attention on one part of a sentence, we can add certain words or phrases to the beginning of the sentence using another verb (e.g. It was ... / What he knew was ... / The reason why ... is ... / The person who ... is ... , etc.). This is called a 'cleft sentence'. III"


IA;f4iltill 4

Rewrite the sentences using the prompts.

I I don't understand why Anne Darwin didn't tell her sons about their father. What I don't understand ... 2 They planned to start a new life in Panama. The place where ... 3 The photograph of the couple buying a house in Panama revealed the deception. It was ... 4 She couldn't understand why Anne had decided to emigrate to Panama. The thing that . .. 5 John Darwin flew back to the UK from Panama because he was missing his sons. The reason ... 6 He found it difficult coming to terms with what his parents had done. What he found .. .


Complete the sentences to make them true for you.

Something I have always wanted to do is ... 2 The reason why I enjoy . .. is ... 3 The place I would most like to visit is ... .!

What I enjoy/dislike most about living where I do is ...

- One thing I would like to change is ... B Use your sentences to start conversations with other students.

: One thing I would like to change is my job. 3: Really? Why's that?


I Sometimes I feel so trapped 3 Don't you sometimes just want to escape 4 They packed up their belongings and 5 The couple were released 6 Suspecting the police were after him, he decided to 7 The prisoners spent much of their time together 8 During the frequent air raids, people took a) fled the country. b) by the life I am living. c) refuge in their cellars. d) stranded on the side of the road for hours. e) hatching an escape plan . f) the boredom of everyday life? g) make a break for it. h) from prison after serving only three years of their sentences. B Complete the sentences with words/phrases in bold from Exercise 6A. Flights were cancelled and I was with no money.

in Rome

2 I don't like going in lifts. I always worry that they will malfunction and we'll be _ _ __ 3 The police stopped the car to arrest the robbers, but the young men tried to _ _ __ 4 I've been working on . All we need to do is dig a tunnel at night when the guards are sleeping. 5 When I saw the shoplifter, I called out. He looked up, then turned and _ _ __ 6 In the book, he describes his experiences of being kidnapped and how he was eventually _ _ __ C Work in pairs and answer the questions. If you had to plan an escape route from your classroom which didn't use the door or windows, what would it be? 2 If you were captured by kidnappers, what would your plan be? 3 Have you or anyone you know ever been stranded? What happened? What did you/they do?



Add the corrected words from Exercise 9A to the grou ps


7 A What would you do if you were stranded on an island? Would you try to raise the alarm or make a break for it yourself? Turn to page 159 and read the rules of a game.

To form verbs


motivate, hesitate, renovate, 1_ _ _ __


darken, strengthen, brighten

-isel-ize (UK/US): prioritise, legalise, modernise, 2_ _ _ __ B Work in groups. Decide on a list of five things which you think would be useful to you in this situation. Work out an escape plan.


Tell other students about your plan. Which group has the best plan?

VOCABULARY. PLUS suffixes 8A Check what you know. Add the headings in the box to the correct columns in the table.

I adjectives




glorify, electrify, exemplify

To form nouns


exhaustion, production, 3_ _ _ __


immediacy, accuracy, tendency


clarity, stupidity, opportunity


embarrassment, enjoyment, harassment


loneliness, unhappiness, tiredness

-erl -ani -or.

engineer, musician, professor


applicant, attendant, disinfectant


clearance, reappearance, 4_ _ _ __

verbs To form adjectives

-ant/-ent emigrate

emigration I emigrant











dominant, redundant, independent


scandalous, rebellious, 5_ _ _ __


capable, edible, visible


persuasive, elusive, evasive, 6_ _ _ __


respectful, helpful, resourceful

suspiciously To form adverbs

B Underline the suffixes in the words in the table.

9A One word in each sentence is incorrect. Change or add the suffix to correct it. You may need to change some letters in the original word. I When she finally managed to emigrant, they bought a £200,000 tropical estate. 2 They travelled to Panama, looking for opportunities to start a new life together, while Mrs Darwin kept up the pretend that her husband was dead. 3 He apparently had no recollect of his whereabouts or events over the previous five years. 4 In the meantime, in the UK, several people had become suspicion. S A massively search and rescue mission was launched along the northeast coast of the UK. 6 What police didn't initially realisation was that the man in front of them was in fact John Darwin. 7 The rescue teams searched extensive, but to no avail. 8 When visitors came, Mr Darwin supposed hid in the neighbouring house. B What parts of speech are the corrected words? Find two verbs, two nouns, two adjectives and two adverbs.

-/y: deeply, financially, dramatically,

7_ _ _ _ _ 8_ _ _ __

Some suffixes, especially adjectives, have a clear meaning, e.g. -less indicates 'without' - hopeless, useless, meaningless; -proofindicates 'resistant to the effect of' - childproof, waterproof, soundproof. These can help you to guess the meanings of words you do not know. Think about the meaning of these suffixes: -like (childlike,

lookalike), -worthy (trustworthy), -iblel -able (incomprehensible, habitable). B Work in pairs. Take turns to choose words from Exercise lOA. Use them to make questions for your partner.

A: Have you ever hesitated before doing something? B: Yes! I hesitated before I did my first parachute jump. 1111" page


GRAMMAR I participle clauses


VOCABULARY idioms: relaxing 1 Look at the photos. What are the people doing? How do you think they feel? 2A Look at the phrases in the box. They are idioms for relaxing. Work in pairs and answer the questions. hang out take it easy have a breather slow down take your mind off (something) switch off let your hair down unwind Which expression: I means to stop thinking about anything? 2 do we use when someone is living life too fast? 3 describes the process of relaxing, usually after work? 4 might we use if someone has been focusing on something bad? 5 means 'spend lots of time in a particular place while not doing much'? 6 means 'relax and enjoy yourself without worrying what other people will think'? 7 might we use when someone is out of breath after physical exercise? 8 might we use if someone is working too hard and should stop for a while? B Replace the words in italics with phrases from Exercise 2A. There may be more than one possibility. 1 0K, run around the field one more time, then you can

take a rest. 2 If you 're free tonight, we can spend time relaxing at my house. 3 I'm a workaholic, but in recent years I've been trying to do a little less. 4 If I've been working a sixteen-hour stint, I usually go to the bar to relax. 5 Why don 't you go to that party and go wild for a bit? 6 I find it hard to stop focusing on my work in the evening. 7 Try to think

of something else besides your exam.

8 I'm just going to put my feet up and relax this evening.

3A 7.1 Listen to the phrases from Exercise 2A and answer the questions. Which expressions have two syllables? Which syllable is stressed? 2 Where is the stress on phrases with three or more words? Is it on the verb or on another word e.g. noun/ adjective? B Listen again and repeat the expressions. C Choose three of the expressions in Exercise 2A and Nrite true sentences about yourself. Compare your sentences in pairs. page 154 VOCABULARYBANK


Discuss the questions in groups.

I What do you do to get away from your day-to-day routine? 2 How long have you been doing it? 3 How does it help you to switch off?

SA 7.2 Listen to three people talking about how they switch off from their day-to-day routine. Which questions from Exercise 4 does each speaker answer? B Listen again and note down the answers. C Which person's method of relaxation would you most like to try? Why?

GRAMMAR participle clauses 6A Read about someone who found true freedom by learning a new skill. What did she learn and how did she do it?

IAdiMi 8

Make one sentence from two. Use participles and the words in brackets. You will need to omit some words. She was staying in Toulouse. This is where she learnt French cooking. (While)

lli!ing jaded from life at a desk and a.rm.e.d with nothing but a love of Argentinian culture, I decided to learn the tango. Having listened to the music as a child, I already knew the rhythms, so I felt excited walking into my first tango class. However, the tango was harder than it looked and after the first class, my feet were sore and my knees ached. Not wanting to give up, I decided to take matters into my own hands (and feet!). Using a CD lent to me by a friend, I practised at home and after a while, I improved. Encouraged by my teacher, I went to a cafe where you could hear the music and eventually, having struggled with it for months, I got the hang of it. People looking for something a bit different always love the tango. When you're doing it you feel completely free: the world disappears - it's just you, your partner and the music.

B Check what you know. Underline the present and past participles in the text. The first two have been done for you.


Match example sentences 1-4 with rules a)-d).

I Encouraged by my teacher, I went to a cafe where you could hear the music. 2 Not wanting to give up, I decided to take matters into my own hands. 3 a CD (that was) lent to me by a friend 4 I felt excited walking into my first tango class. Rules:

2 I honed my technique. Then I spent all my free time painting. (Having) 3 I didn't know how to relax. I always felt tense until I discovered pilates. (Not) 4 Paul was given the chance to go to a dance school in Colombia. He learnt salsa. (Given) 5 As experts have proven, jogging is a stress buster. It's great exercise. (Proven by / to be) 6 My rollerblades are a great way for me to get around. They were bought for me by my brother. (Bought) 7 He wasn't a 'natural' at sports. He had to work incredibly hard. (Not) 8 Alternative lifestyles are practised by many people. These people are looking for freedom from modern life. (looking)

SPEAKING= 9A Discuss. Where would you go to get away from you r day-to-day routine and what would you do?


Work with other students. Look at the list of activities below and answer the questions. I What types of people might be interested in these activities? Who are they for?

A survival course is probably for people who like nature and spend a lot of time outdoors.

Participle clauses can:

2 Which activities might be good for people you know? Who? Why?

a) replace relative clauses.

3 Which would be good for you? Why?

b) have an active meaning (when they begin with a present participle) .

• a survival course

c) have a passive meaning (when they begin with a past participle).

• an extreme experience weekend, e.g. F I racing

d) describe actions happening around the same time or one immediately after another.

• a spa retreat • a pottery course • a film-making course • a cooking holiday

B Read rules e) and f). Find an example of each in the text. Rules: e) Having + past participle can be used to give background information or show the cause of a second action. f) The past participle can be used as an adjective to add extra information. III"



• a dance course • a kids' camp



a leaflet

use subheadings

lOA What is the purpose of leaflets, brochures and information sheets? What are their typical features?

12A Which of the following are subheadings in the leaflet in Exercise 11?

B Read the guidelines to check.

a) Sparngall Spa Retreat

I Leaflets, brochures and information sheets inform us about something. They can also advise, warn or persuade. Businesses and organisations use them to promote events, places, services and products.

b) Relax, Rejuvenate, Recharge c) Welcome

2 The title must be bold , eye-catching and give a clear idea of the topic.

e) Rates

d) Facilities and activities

3 Use short, clear subheadings. They must stand out in a different font.

4 Break the text up into short sections in a logical order.

S Don't use language that is too complex. The message must be clear and easy to understand . 6 Lay the text out using spaces between sections. Use bullet points for lists of features and include illustrations, charts and photos if appropriate.


Read a leaflet about a place to relax and answer the questions.

I Who is the intended audience?

2 Does the leaflet follow the guidelines above? 3 Would you like to go there?

B Find a heading and a slogan in the leaflet. How are they different from subheadings? Think about the types of words that are used and their purpose. C Why do you think subheadings are useful? Tick the ideas you agree with.

I They help the writer, when he or she is planning the piece, to see what to include and what to leave out. 2 They show the reader how the piece is organised.


Ib Sparngall Spa Retreat welcomes you to a place of na:ura .eauty. .d where you can recharge your body and mind . O ur mission dis tOt.prt~eVsl e . d tion food an ac IVI I . the hig hest quality enVIronment, accommo a . • . h 0 h· hi so that you can relax completely during your time Wit us. ur Ig y qualified staff will provide you with a warm welcome and ensure that

you get the most out of YO'~'~lI':~:'~:llIutIlUUl'mll'III1"II"nllm'lImlluUlllllmmlllmllmlluUlmllmllUlIIIII,,,Ulllutllll"IlIm,,,mmllmmllllllllll _ _ 1$I _ _ _. - ' _ '. .lIlIftIIlltllllm"....nln'Ummfllllu

3 They allow the reader to jump to the specific information he or she is looking for. 4 They reveal the write r's o pinion of the topic.

S They visually break up blocks of text so that the piece is easier to read.


Read the additional information about Sparngall Spa Retreat. Think of a suitable subheading.


~ Sparngall Spa Retreat boasts eighteen luxury doubl~1 ~dro~ms

All with large en-suite bathrooms and views of Sparnga oun am. bedrooms come with stocked refrigerators, fresh flowers that are II changed daily. fruit, and spring water from our very own Sparnga

Rese rvo i f. _





Sparngall Spa Retreat is accessible by car or train. The nearest railway station is Spa rngall Station. From there it is a ten-minute taxi ride to the retreat. We are happy to arrange transport to and from the station for you.


~The spa retreat includ es a sauna. jacuzzi and sWlmlm mg ~ool. a~ offrom en from 0500 until midnight. We are ocate mmu es Jountain and Lake. and we offer seasonal Nord iC walkmg. Sparnga II d . .. . I de· hi king and fishing . O ur other services an activities mc u .

which are

** *



massage therapy facials


yoga classes beauty treatments

aromatherapy IIUtI'IUn~II




DINING d·· ·th The Sparngall restaurant includes high quality, healthy dmmghwl4 000 . Th grown and harveste on t e . the freshest ingredients. ese are 0 h f ill be delighted acres of land that surrounds the spa retreat. ur c e s:; f

to prepare meals to order.

i~"~!,~~~,~ ,~",~~,~~"~,:.~.:,~,~"~,~~, ~",:"~., , ,.~,:"~.:~..":,.~=;"_,,. , ,

~_'.n"-"lfqIllItIlllMnlltM""_II _ _ IIIP"I.UIIIIIIII



· t the month Please go to our webSite for current Rates vary accord mg 0 . rates: www.sparngallspa.net m. ".UII.llltJII.llllllm ••• fllI_mtll.u.lflumllu... mtIl1l1lll.U.ullilluHlltlullulllm1111111+111

-"" "' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ;'~::'~':'::':' ;::'':':~': '::~': ' '~ PARNGALL. SA2 7ND PHONE: 01567887254 EMAIL: [email protected]


Read the scenario and think of an idea you can write about. Make notes and think of subheadings.

You own a place where people go to switch off from their daily routine. What type of place is it? Do people go there to learn something or just to relax? What services and facilities do you offer? Is food and accommodation included? How expensive is it? B Write a promotional leaflet for your idea (250 words).

Kids and freedom When a New York journalist, Lenore Skenazy, wrote about how she had deliberately left her nine-year-old son in central New York and let him take the subway home alone, she unleashed a media frenzy. Her son, Izzy, whose idea the expedition had been, was happy with the experience . He had arrived home safely, ecstatic with independence. He had been nagging his mother for weeks to be allowed out on his own and to travel unsupervised. She had given Izzy a subway map, twenty dollars and a few quarters in case he needed to make a phone call. She hadn't given him a mobile phone (in case he lost it). But Ms Skenazy's actions landed her in a huge row. Although many came out to support her, she was labelled 'crazy' and 'America's worst mom' by others. 'My son had not climbed Mount Fuji in flip-flops,' she wrote subsequently. 'He'd simply done what most people my age had done routinely when they were his age: gone somewhere on his own, without a security detail. ' She now runs a blog called Free Range Kids, which advocates encouraging independence in children and says, The problem with this everything-is-dangerous outlook is that overprotectiveness is a danger in itself. A child who thinks he can't do anything on his own eventually can't.' So, are we living in a risk-averse culture where we stifle our children's ability to deal with danger by never allowing them to take reasonable risks? Does Western society mollycoddle its children? Or did Ms Skenazy's actions expose her son to real and unnecessary danger? What do you think?


FUNCTION exchanging opinions


3 7.3 Listen to people talking about the story in Exercise 2A. Who agrees with the following statements, the man (M) or the woman (W)?

Work in pairs and answer the questions. Do you think that, as a society, we have become afraid to take risks?

2 If so, why do you think this is? Can you think of any examples?

3 When is it OK to break the rules (at work, driving, at school, etc.)?


I It was a brilliant idea for the mother to leave her son to go home alone.

Read the article and answer the questions.

I What did the journalist let her son do?

2 The boy could have got lost, or been attacked.

2 What was her reason for doing this?

3 As parents we have to take a stand against

3 What kinds of reactions did she receive when she wrote about the experience? 4 What does Ms Skenazy think is the problem with protecting children too much?

B What do you think the words/phrases in bold in the article mean? Use some of them to complete the sentences below. You may need to use just part of the phrase, or adapt it to fit the context. I It's a good idea to get children to cook for themselves from an early age, because it encourages _ _ __ 2 If parents their children by indulging them all the time, the children will never learn to look after themselves.

3 No rational parent would

try to

their child to

unnecessary danger. 4 Children should be encouraged to take , like learning how to use sharp knives. This way, they will learn to do things

mollycoddling. 4 Doing things by yourself at a young age teaches you how to protect yourself and be streetwise. 5 Children should be thrown in at the deep end . 6 New York is one of the most dangerous cities in the world. 7 It's too dangerous to leave a nine-year-old alone in a city without a mobile phone. 8 We're in a hurry to push our kids to grow up too soon.


Listen again and complete the phrases you hear. a) Oh come on! You must be _ _ _ __ b) That's absolutely _ _ __ c) Well, I agree with you up to a _ _ _ __ d) Surely you don't

that ...

5 The problem with parents is that the child doesn't learn to deal with problems they will face in the real world .

e) That goes against my better _ _ __ because ...

6 The fact that your coffee cup is labelled 'Caution: contents hot' shows that we are living in a society.

f) How can you _____ that?


Do you agree with the statements in Exercise 2B? Why/why not?

g) It just doesn't make _____ to me. h) Oh that's _ _ __

LEARN TO convince someone SA 7.4 Listen to the speakers trying to convince the listener of their opinion. How does the speaker try to sound polite? I The point is that he was only nine years old.

2 Surely you don't think he should never be allowed out?

3 That's the whole point. We need to encourage independence.

4 All I'm trying to say is New York is a dangerous city. 5 I just think we're too risk-averse. 6 Oh come on! You can't really think that. B Listen again and repeat the phrases, copying the intonation.

6A Use the prompts in brackets to write responses which try to change A's opinion. I A: Everyone should be a vegetarian.

B: (surely I thinkl peoplel neverI eatl meat) 2 A: Children shouldn 't be allowed to hold knives.

B: _____________________________ (ali/sayl children / need/learn lsome stage) B Put phrases a)-h) under the correct headings. Agreeing I couldn 't agree more. Absolutely! I'm with you 100% on that.

3 A: Nobody should have to take exams.

B: _____________________________ (pointl examsl useful way I measure progress) 4 A: Young drivers shouldn't be allowed to drive with other youngsters in the car.

B: _____________________________

Agreeing in part

(come/not make sense)


I suppose you've got a point, but ...

B Practise the conversations in pairs. Focus on polite intonation.

Questioning someone's opinion 3





W here's the logic in that? You can't honestly think that . .. Strongly disagreeing

Look at the situations below. Who do you think should decide in each case? Why? Think of arguments to support your case. B Work in groups and discuss the situations. Try to convince others of your opinion.

The state versus the individual Who should decide: page 140 LANGUAGEBANK

order to disagree politely, ask questions, for example:

.Jo you really think so? Don't you think it's a bit long? Isn't ::-.at

rather extreme? To make your disagreement seem Well, Right, or Yes, but at the start of the

<:ss forceful, use

:'" tence. -.:JOk at audio script 7.3 on page 171 for examples of these :evices.

• whether you are allowed to smoke in a public place? • whether you should be allowed to eat junk food? • how much exercise an individual should do? • whether you should be allowed to keep a gun in your house? • the age at which a child should go to school? • how often you use your car or how fast you can drive in certain areas? • the minimum age that someone can start work?




1 Work in pairs and look at the photo. Where do you think the man is? What is his mood?

3 Watch the DVD. What are the two pieces of good news?

2A Read the programme information. Were your predictions correct? What do you think the good news might be?


Who says each sentence? Write Amy (A), William (W), Mr Clennam (C) or the prison worker

(PW). There's something up, John. I feel it in my bones. 2 If he had not prepared me for it, I do not think I could have borne it. 3 Compose yourself and think of the best surprise that could possibly happen to you. 4 You are heir to a great fortune . S And you can be as you were again. 6 'Tis but a few hours, sir. 7 How long do you think an hour is to a man who is choking for want of air? 8 Perhaps it's for the best. B Watch the DVD again to check.


Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

I What is the best surprise that could happen to you? 2 If you suddenly came into a lot of money, would it change your life? If so, how?

B Find words/phrases in the programme information with the following meanings. I rich and successful 2 a very large amount of money

3 kept in a place which you cannot leave .. try to remain calm

speakout develop a plot 6A

Work in pairs. Look at the pictures and think of three questions to ask about the story shown.

writeback a story SA

Read one person's continuation of the recording in exercise 68. Which sentence from exercise 7A do you think comes next? He'd been looking forward to this moment for twenty years. Having waited so patiently, he knew his moment was close. He glanced out of the car window and saw, by the light of the moon, what he had been looking for. He pulled the car over and got out. He stretched for a moment, stiff from driving, and walked over to the tree. He ran his hand over the rough bark. 'This is it: he said. Sitting down at the foot of the tree he was suddenly overcome with tiredness, so he lay down and slept.

B 7.5 Listen to someone telling part of the story. Does he answer any of your questions? C Listen again and tick the key phrases you hear.

keyphrases Once upon a time, ... After this, he .. . No sooner had he ... than ... Once he'd ... ,he .. . Having ... ,he ... And the moral of the story is ... And he lived happily ever after.


Which of the key phrases usually go:

• at or near the beginning of a story? • in the middle of a story? • at or near the end of a story?

7 A Work in pairs. Prepare to tell your own version of the story in the pictures. Try to use some of the key phrases and include one of the sentences below. Make notes. The map was wrinkled but still intact. Among the bones a diamond glistened.

Wrapped in newspaper was a pair of rough leather boots. B Practise telling the story. C Tell your version of the story to other students. What similarities do your stories have? Whose is the most original?

When the sun came up, he stirred gradually as the songs of the birds rang out from the branches overhead. He went to the car, pulled out the shovel and began to dig. Within minutes his shovel hit upon something hard. It was a wooden box. He scrabbled in the ground and picked it up, holding it to his heart. With trembling hands he opened it.

B Write your version of the whole story (300-350 words).


1A Complete the sentences with the phrases in the box. What most impresses me What you should do is The reason I've come All I want to say One thing I've learned is that It was when I was reading that book The person who What they do _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is to talk about what we need to do. 2

that I realised what I wanted to do with my life.


is his abil ity to fix any problem.


it's generally better to keep your thoughts to yourself.


works harder than any of the other students is Kristina.


call your manager to discuss the options.


is that I think it's too expensive for students.


is ask you lots of questions about your preferences and choose a product for you.

B Work in pairs. Make your own sentences using the prompts. I All I want to say about ... is ... 2 One thing I'd like to try is .. .

3 It was ... who taught me . . . 4 What I think we should do is ...


2A Complete the sentences with one suitable word. I To unwind, I usually play tennis. 2 The last time I my hair down was at a New Year party.

3 What helps me to take my _ __ off work is dandng salsa. 4 I like hanging

in the

shopping centre. 5 I need to slow _ _ _ because I

work too much. 6 Exercise helps me when I want to switch from work.

B Work in pairs. Make the sentences in Exercise 2A true for your partner by changing the pronouns and the sections in italics. If you don't know, guess. To unwind, Davide goes swimming.


4A Imagine your perfect day. Write a paragraph about it using the participle clauses below in any order. • Refreshed by a good sleep, I ...

C Check your sentences with your partner.

• Having eaten, I .. . • Not wanting to .. . • Offered a choice of ... • Walking to ...


Complete the sentences with the words in the box. made a break refuge fled stranded escape released Air travellers were left _ _ __ because of icy conditions.

• Having been taken to .. . • Having met up with .. . B Work in pairs and compare your paragraphs. Are they very different? How do they reflect your personalities and lifestyles?

2 He was arrested, but managed to ____ from the police cell.


3 He was

Correct the mistakes in speaker 8's responses.

by his captors after his family paid them a large sum of money.

4 Two of the prisoners _ _ __ for it, but were soon recaptured.


A: Everyone has the right to freedom of expression.

B: I agree with you up a point.

5 After the floods, many villagers took with friends higher up the mountain.

2 A: Freedom of speech means the media are allowed to pUblish absolutely anything.

6 His attackers turned and _ _ __ when the police arrived.

B: That ridiculous! There need to

B Work in pairs. Use phrases from Exercise 3A to say what you would do in the situations below. There is a serious crisis in your country. Your brother lives overseas and has offered to help you and your family leave. 2 You have been kidnapped by an armed gang. The person guarding you has fallen asleep. You think you might be able to steal one of their motorbikes.

3 You are walking along the coast when a huge storm strikes. You can see a small cave in the side of the cliff.

be controls.

3 A: The most important freedom we have is the right to vote. B: I could agree more. 4 A: People should be free to choose the country they live in. B: I suppose got a point, but there are obvious problems with what you're suggesting. B Write your own responses to speaker A's statements. Discuss your ideas with other students.

GRAMMAR I future in the past

VOCABULARY I time expressions

READING 1 A What objects would you choose to put in a time capsule to represent your culture? B Read the article about time capsules. Are any of your ideas mentioned?

2A Reread the article quickly to find out who, what or when the underlined words refer to. He must be a famous Brazilian singer. 2 Maybe there's a lot of hunting in that place. 3 11 is probably a really well-known restaurant in the area. 4 Maybe there's a lot of surveillance there. S The recordings were put there because it was probably safer than the Paris Opera House. 6 He believed his capsule would survive over 6,000 years.

7 They collaborated to create time capsules. 8 Only at that time will his grandchildren know exactly what Davisson put in the capsule.

n the verge of a fresh start, people get nostalgic. The end of the millennium saw an unprecedented number of objects packed into boxes and buried in the ground, where later generations would find them and reflect on us, their ancestors. So what objects and images represented us at the dawn of the new millennium?


B Discuss. What do the contents of the time capsules tell us about the different societies in the text?

VOCABULARY time expressions 3A Read extracts a)-f) from the article and answer the questions. Which phrases in bold describe:


People in Curitiba, Brazil, chose a recording of th e songs of Antonio Carlos Jobim, processed, packaged meat, an indoor toilet, a pair of jeans and a local tree with yellow flowers.


People in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, chose a bottle of soil, a plastic cup used by beggars, an akierie (a walking stick used for hunting) , and a pair of Bata 'Toughees' school shoes.


People in Fountain, Colorado, USA, chose a piece of barbed wire, a packet of cigarettes, a brick, a high school code of conduct, an issue of Girl's Life, a hearing aid, a recording of a high-speed car chase, Prozac,Valium, a TV remote control and a menu from Ralph's Fine Dining.


People in Bharatpur, India, chose a bag of soil, a closed-circuit TV camera, a chillum, a gold nose ring and a pair of flip-flops.


Arguably, the idea of 'history in a box' dates back to ancient Egypt, when the pharaohs were buried with their possessions. Since then, there have been numerous examples of time capsules, all with thei r own stories attached.


On Christmas Eve 1907, members of the Paris Opera placed twenty-four musical recordings into two containers made of iron and lead. They were going to leave these untouched in the opera house's basement for 100 years, but in 1912 they added more recordings. plus a gramophone with instructions on how to use it. The time capsule was supposed to be opened in 2007. However, in 1989, when a new air conditioning

I the beginning of something? (2 expressions) Which one is more literary and used only for very big occasions? 2 a long time in the future? (I expression) 3 something that was very close to happening? (2 expressions) 4 a situation that will continue far into the future? (I expression) a) On the verge of a fresh start, people get nostalgtc. b) ... what objects and images represented us at the dawn of the new millennium? c) ... a new air conditioning system was about to be installed . .. d) His capsule was to remain hidden for the foreseeable future . .. e) ... in years to come someone would find such glories of our time . .. f) From' the outset, it was to have been the world's biggest time capsule ...

B Complete each sentence with two words. In years, we will remember this as a golden age. 2 Scientists are the verge finding a cure for AIDS. 3 Humanity probably won't exist at dawn the next millennium. 4 We are enter an age of natural disasters. S From, the internet was able to unite people around the world.

6 Poverty will be with us for foreseeable. C Do you agree with statements 1-6? Compare your ideas in pairs.

GRAMMAR future in the past 4A Find sentences a)-d) in the article. Answer questions 1-3. a) The time capsule was supposed to be opened in 2007. (paragraph 6) b) His capsule was to remain hidden for the foreseeable future . (paragraph 7) c) The other wasn 't going to be touched for five thousand years. (paragraph 8) d) It was to have been the world 's biggest time capsule. (paragraph 9) Which grammatical structures in sentences a)-d) talk about plans or intentions in the past? Underline them. 2 Which three structures suggest that the plan did not become a reality? 3 How many other examples of the 'future in the past' can you find in paragraphs (r.8 of the article? Which two describe plans that did not become reality?

B How do we make the 'future in the past'? Complete the table . • system was about to be installed, it was discovered that one of the capsules had been broken into and the gramophone was missing. The remaining recordings were taken to France's National Library and opened eighteen years later. Another time capsule was devised by Professor Thornwell Jacobs of Oglethorpe University, Georgia, USA, in 1940. While researching ancient history, he realised historians' lives would be easier if there were more artifacts available, so he created the Crypt of Civilization. He gathered hundreds of objects and sealed them in a waterproof room with a stainless steel door welded shut. His capsule was [0 remain hidden for the foreseeable future : Jacobs optimistically stipulated that the crypt wasn't meant [0 be opened until 8113. In 1968, two Japanese companies, Panasonic and Mainichi Newspapers, worked together to create [wo identical time capsules. One of them would be opened regularly to check the condition of the contents, but the other wasn't going to be touched fo r five thousand years. Inside the capsules were 1 090 items, ensuring that in years to come someone would find such glories of our time as a glass eye, aIse teeth, dead insects encased in resin, an origami lll5truction book, fake money and handcuffs. It isn't just big organisations that do it. Harold eith Davisson, from Nebraska, USA, made a time capsule in 1975 because he wanted his grandchildren [0 know what life was like in the 1970s. He put it on his front lawn. Of approximately 5,000 items lll5ide it, there was a suit and even a car. From the outset, it was to have been the world's biggest time apsule, but then Davisson learned that other people \'ere building bigger ones. Deciding that actions eak louder than words, in 1983 he built a second -apsule on top of the first, including a second car! :be capsule will be opened in 2025.


future in the past

am/ is/ are going to


going to

am/ is/ are to + infinitive


to + infinitive OR


to + have + past participle

am/ is/ are meant to


meant to

am/ is/ are supposed to

was/ were supposed to

I I" page 5


Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.

I We planned for the opening of our time capsule in 2020. (to be) Our time capsule ... 2 The document was secret. No one could see it until 2050. (not / be) The document ...

3 The plan was for the safe to be locked for ten years, but someone opened it. (supposed) The safe ... 4 The idea was to visit Montevideo, but we didn't have time. (going) We ... 5 They expected it to be the world's biggest outdoor festival, but then the rain came. (have) It was to . .. 6 Jim went to Peru on holiday. He ended up living there for twenty years. (would) Jim went to Peru, where ...

6A Complete the sentences for you, with two true and two false statements. I Recently, I was planning to . .. but .. . 2 When I was younger I was going to ... but .. .

3 A few years ago I was supposed to .. . but .. . 4 A friend and I were thinking about ... but .. . B Work in pairs. Take turns to read your sentences. Guess which of your partner's sentences are true.


9A Work in two groups. Group A: when would you use the


Look at the photo. What kind of person do you think she is? Why?

proverbs below? Match proverbs 1-6 with situations a)-f). Do you have equivalents in your language? Group B: turn to page 162.

B What objects represent you? Choose some items

I A picture is worth a thousand words.

for a 'Museum of Me'. Include clothing, food or drink, books, magazines or DVDs. What stages of your life do they represent?

2 Better safe than sorry.

C Explain your ideas to other students. How many objects do you have in common?

The first idea on my list is an ;Pod. I chose this because ...

VOCABULAR~~ proverbs Look at the extract from the article on page 93 and underline the proverb. Do you have a similar saying in your language?

Deciding that actions speak louder than words, in 1983 [Davisson] built a second capsule on top of the first ...

B What are proverbs? Think of a definition and compare your ideas.


S Practise what you preach. 6 Rome wasn't built in a day. a) I've enjoyed this trip, but I've had enough now. b) You should leave home an hour early. There may be heavy traffic. c) You always say it's important to arrive on time, but you were late!



3 Out of sight, out of mind. 4 Home is where the heart is.


Proverbs are short, simple statements that express a general truth or give advice. They often come from literary sources or refer to ways of life in the past, so may use some old vocabulary. They often have a strong rhythm. It is essential to use proverbs at the right moment and with the exact words. Do you know any proverbs in English? Tell other students.

d) The photo of the melting ice caps sent a powerful message. e) I'd been away only two days, but I'd already forgotten my ex-girlfriend. f) If you want to fulfil your ambitions, you'll need to study for six years.

B Work with a student from the other group and take turns. Show your list of proverbs to your partner. Explain them in any order. Can your partner guess which proverb you are describing?

10 8.1 Listen to the proverbs. Notice the rhythm and repeat. Many proverbs have two or three main stresses. Listen again and underline the stressed syllables. 11 Work in pairs and discuss. Which of the proverbs do you generally agree with? Think of examples from your own life and tell your partner. I agree with 'practice makes perfect'. I learnt the piano for twenty years. I'm not perfect, but I got much better by practising. 111*



GRAMMAR I ellipsis and substitution


LISTENING , Work in pairs. What do the smells in the box make you think of? candles cigarettes vinegar fresh bread coffee perfume disinfectant sun cream lemons petrol paint

2A Read the radio programme listing. What kinds of memories are often evoked by particular smells? What is this phenomenon called? What does the smell of sun cream remind you of? Does it evoke strong memories of blue skies and happiness? Then perhaps you have experienced what psychologists have termed the Proust phenomenon . Why is it that particular smells bring back powerful childhood memories? In this BBC radio programme, Claudia Hammond explores the link between smell and memory.


8.2 Listen to the programme. Which smells from


ellipsis and substitution

Exercise 1 are mentioned? What do the speakers say about each smell?

SA Check what you know. Read the conversations and answer questions a) and b).


a) What words have been left out where you see .... ? Why is this?

Which sentences are incorrect? Correct the mistakes.

The smell of mint sauce reminds one speaker of Sunday lunches in his childhood home.

2 One man remembers his nursery school when he smells privet (a type of hedge).

b) Look at the words in bold. What do they refer to? What words do they replace?

A: .... Remember any special smells from your childhood? B: Yes, I do actually. .... The smell of my grandmother's perfume.

3 Psychologists think memories associated with photos are stronger than those evoked by smells.

4 Professor Chu uses unfamiliar smells to trigger

2 A: The smell of pine trees reminds me of holidays in Greece.

autobiographical memories.

B: Does it .... ? I've never been there.

5 The woman used mints (polos) and perfume to cover up the smell of cigarettes.

6 When the man smells candles. he is reminded of when he played the church organ.

B Listen again to check your answers.

4A Complete the extracts with the phrases in the box. evocative smell evoking memories takes me back in time carried back in time Now, ever had that feeling of being suddenly _ _ __ by a particular odour?

2 There is, it seems, something special about smells when it comes to _ _ __

3 The smell that always really _____ is the smell of disinfectant.

4 For me, the most is that smell you get when candles have just been snuffed out.

3 A: .... Got any photos of your family? B: Yes, .... lots.

B Read the rules and answer the questions. Rule: Use ellipsis to leave out a word, or words, when the context is obvious. In informal speech, we often leave out the beginnings or endings of common phrases. I Which words have been left out of the phrases/questions below?

Ever been to Spain? See you. Rule: Use substitution to replace a word or phrase with a single word (e.g. so, do, many, one, these, some, it, them, there, this, that) in order to avoid repetition.

2 What does so replace? B Check your answers in audio script 8.2 on page 171.

C Work in groups and discuss. Which smells bring back

A: Got everything you need? B: I think so.

strong memories for you?



lijWitil 6A Underline the correct alternatives. A: Are you coming to the party? B: Yes, I think do/so/not.

SPEAKING 9A Read about the website and choose a stage of your life to talk about.


2 A: Did you just delete the file? B: I hope not/such/do.

_ _ri!memOrleS.COm

3 A: Do you want to try this perfume? B: No, but I'll try that some/much/one.

Do you have vivid memories of your childhood or is it just a hazy blur? At talkingmemories.com you can record your memories of particular stages or events in your life, adding photos and videos. It allows you to preserve meaningful memories of your life, record important milestones and share memories of special events with friends, family and future generations.

4 A: Do you think we'll have enough time to discuss this later? B: We'll have s% little/one time. S A: Are you going away on holiday this year? B: No. Ann Marie doesn't have enough money and more/nor/so do I. 6 A: Are you sure you've got enough copies for everyone? B: Yes, I've got none/one/lots. B B.3 Cross out any words which could be left out of the conversations in Exercise 6A. Listen and check your answers.

7 Work in pairs. Student A: turn to page 161. Student B: turn to page 162. Take turns to read out your sentences and choose the correct responses.

B Prepare to talk about memories from that stage of your life. Make notes using the prompts below.

the area where you lived!went to school your earliest memory what you wanted to be when you grew up



people you spent time with

games you played

special memories (holidays/birthdays! celebrations, etc.)

mealtimes in your house (smells!noiseslfood)


where you lived


first experiences of work or university

Complete the sentences. Choose the correct word in brackets and put it in the appropriate place.

I This place lots of memories for us. (gets/ holds) 2 When I hear those old songs it back a lot of memories. (brings /takes) 3 It's one of my memories. (oldest/ earliest) 4 I have very memories of my time at primary school. (vague/slim)

S I only have a very recollection of what my grandparents' house looked like. (Iight/




music things that were important to you

people or events that shaped your life C Work in groups and take turns. Talk about the special memories you bave. Do others in the group have similar memories from that time?


a personal story

Read the personal story on page 97. Answer the questions.

Why was the fig tree so important?

6 It was a long time ago, but I remember it. (strongly/vividly)

2 What happened to the house?

7 I remember her dress. It was blue with a red belt. (distinctly/heavily)

B Read the advice for writing a story for a magazine. Does the writer of The Fig Tree follow the advice?

8 Every time I go there, the memories come back. (flooding/running)

I Remember your audience (who is going to read thiS?) and use a range of structures and vocabulary.

B Which words from Exercise BA can you use to talk about memories which are not very strong? Which words can you use to talk about memories which are very strong or clear?

2 Use an informal, chatty style. It makes your article sound more personal , so the reader can identify with you.



3 Capture the reader's attention with an anecdote, something surprising or a strong image. 4 'Close the circle': the ending could echo the beginning or refer to the wording in the task.

LEARN TO improve descr iptive writing 11

Read gu idelines a)-d) f or descriptive writing and

f ollow inst ructions 1-4 below. a) Include precise language. Use specific adjectives and nouns and strong action verbs (verbs that carry a specific meaning) to give life to the picture you are painting in the reader's mind .

The lion ate (weak) the antelope. The ravenous (specific) lion devoured (strong) the antelope. b) Include all the senses. Remember to describe sounds (using onomatopoeia - where the sound of the word imitates the meaning being described), smells, tastes and textures.

The car screeched to a halt. The murmuring of innumerable bees. c) Make use of contrasts. Describe how someone's mood changed from good to bad, or describe a location at different times of year. d) Use figurative language (metaphor, simile, personification) . Imagery can help to engage a reader.

The stars danced playfully in the sky. (personification - giving human qualities to something which is not human)

Her home was a prison. (metaphor - when you say one thing is another thing)

She felt as free as a bird. (simile - when you say one thing is like another thing) Find examples of specific adjectives and strong action verbs in the story of The Fig Tree . 2 Find an example of onomatopoeia. Where does the writer describe a texture? 3 How does the writer use contrast in this story?

4 Find an example of personification of an object and an example of metaphor.



t's important that you communicate to your reader exactly what you mean in the clearest possible way. Using strong verbs and adjectives helps you to paint accurate pictures of what you mean in the reader's mind. How do the verbs change the meaning of the !ollowing sentences? 'I love you,' he said. / 'I love you,'

he screamed. / 'I love you,' he whispered. / 'I love you,' he mumbled. Keep a list of strong verbs.


Read the instructions and write a persona l story.

Work alone. Think about any particular people, objects or places which hold special memories for you. Can you remember particular sights, sounds, smells or textures associated with them? :: Make some notes about the memory, including personal details (how you felt, why it was special , etc.) . 3 W rite your story (220- 250 words). Add a title. L.

Check your writing. Try to improve the description by using more precise language.

I rem ember we used to visit my grandmother's house at w eekends. It was a huge house w ith gardens leading down t o a f ield, and it seemed almost like a palace to me. At t he bottom of the f ield w as an orchard, planted w ith apples, and t went y-one walnut trees. In the middle of the field stood an anci ent f ig tree. It was here, in the tree, that my cousins and I would sit and play for hours on end. I can remember the smell of the green leaves, the sticky sap that would leak from the leaves and the figs as they ripened. We each had our own special branch and we would climb up and then sit looking out over the countryside. I can almost feel the warmth of the sun on our faces and the feeling of safety and security as we hid among the branches. In that tree, we would sit and chatter about life, feast on the sweet, crunchy apples, hold meetings, tell jokes, read books, make plans, have fig fights and discuss what we wanted to be when we grew up. The fig tree knew all our secrets. When I was twelve, my grandmother moved into a small flat and we stopped going to the house. But a few years ago, I was in the area, so I drove back there to see if it was how I had remembered it. The house was almost unrecognisable. It had been turned into a doctor's surgery, with signposts all around and cars parked all over the drive. The gardens had been redesigned, and there were pathways to walk along and benches to sit on and enjoy the views. Gone was my grandmother's wild flower garden. But behind the house, in the middle of the field, just as if time had never passed, stood the fig tree, full of lush green leaves, and juicy figs. Its branches hung heavily towards the ground, almost beckoning me to climb up. Just standing in the field brought all the memories of my grandmother and our life there flooding back to me. And touching the smooth bark on the trunk, it was alii could do to resist sprinting to the end of the field to pick an apple or two and then back to the f ig tree to enjoy the rest of the warm afternoon.

.. FUNCTION I discussing ideas


collocations with time


Work in groups. Look at the photos and discuss which activities are the biggest time-wasters. Which waste your time? What other things waste time?

2A Complete the expressions in bold below with the words in the box. What do the expressions mean? in







I What would you do if you had all the time in the world? 2 Are you ever

for time? When?

3 When was the last occasion you had lots of time on your

____I 4 Do you wish you had more time ____ yourself? 5 When you're bored, how do you pass


6 In your work/ studies, do you usually finish tasks just ____ time or with time to ? What does it depend on?

B Discuss questions 1-6 with other students.

FUNCTION discussing ideas 3

Work in pairs. Read the list of ways to save time. Which do you think are good ideas? Which are not serious?

4A 8.4 Listen to people brainstorming ways to save time in their daily lives. Tick the ideas they mention. read only the conclusion take a short cut phone first take the lift divide up your day have a routine bring in an expert use the microwave do it yourself make lists read the instructions first

Five time-savers that will put years on your life Prioritise Some tasks are important and urgent. Others are important but not urgent. Most are neither. Forget about them until they become important and urgent. Don't multi-task You think you 're doing lots of things well at the same tiJne. You aren 't. You 're doing lots of things badly at the same time, which will need re-doing later once you realise you've made a bad job of them. Focus on one thing at a time and do it properly.

Kill distractions Ignore email , leave the mobile in your car, unplug the phone and remove all TVs within sight. If you want to work, work. Don't have children This means you won't need to change nap pies, prepare baby food or deal with tantrums. When they're older, you won't waste time being a taxi service. Be creative Take gifts: instead of traipsing into town to buy flowers for your partner, just pick them from the local park. Or entertainment: don 't waste two hours watching the latest Bond film on DVD; read the synopsis on the back of the box and imagine the film.

B Are the statements true (T) or false (F)? Listen again to check. The student sometimes makes notes from a text. 2 Two of the women use microwaves to save time. 3 One man says lists help him divide up the day. 4 One woman saves time by always reading the instructions on how to assemble furniture. 5 One woman says it's a waste of time to call a technology expert to fix your problems. 6 One man says using the phone often wastes time.

SA Read audio script 8.4 on page 172. Find expressions for acknowledging an idea or introducing an alternative. Write them in the correct column of the table below.

Iacknowledging an idea Right, OK.

introducing an alternative Mind you, ...

I Sure.

_-'----I_ B Work in pairs. Add the expressions in the box to the correct column of the table. But looking at it another way, ... Alternatively, .. . Definitely. (Although) having said that, ... I know what you mean. I never thought of that. On the other hand, '" Yes and no.


Here are five more expressions for soliciting information. Which words do you think are missing? I What


2 Can you tell us _ _ _ __

3 Can you go into more _ _ _ __

4 Is there anything we've _ _ _ __

S Anyone managed to _ _ _ _ _ up with other ideas?

B The answers are below but in the wrong order. Complete the expressions. detail





speak W e use expressions with any : any ideas, anything, anyone, etc. when we don't want to be specific. It means that it doesn't matter which or who. Which word beginning with any could be replaced by anybody?

9A ® S.5 Listen to the expressions in Exercise SA and choose the correct answer. I Which words are stressed in these expressions? a) the first word in each expression b) the last word in each expression

2 What type of words are stressed? a) 'content' words, which tend to be nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs


Cross out the incorrect alternative in each sentence.

b) grammar words such as prepositions and auxiliary verbs

Shopping online is quicker. On the other hand,! Mind you,! That's true, you're taking a risk because you don't see the product or the vendor in the flesh.

B Listen again and repeat.

2 So you think we should bring a map? I know what you mean;IBut looking at it another way,l/'m with you there; it's easy to get lost in these parts.

3 Eating fast food saves time, but I never thought of that, I looking at it another way, Ion the other hand, it's not very healthy.

4 So you think we should leave early in the morning?

That's a good idea.lYes and no.lThat makes sense. The traffic gets really bad later in the day. S Do you really think I should delegate more? Having said that,!1 never thought of that.lThat's interesting. I thought I had to do everything myself. 6 I'm always pushed for time . Having said that,!Mind you,!Alternatively, my time management is terrible! I do everything at the last minute.

1* page 142 LANGUAGEBANK LEARN TO solicit more information 7 Read an extract from the recording in Exercise 4A. Underline three expressions for soliciting more information. ·Yeah. Okay, well anything to add? I mean to sum up, we've talked about the idea that you use the microwave, you make lists, you read the instructions first properly and divide up your day so you have things sort of more organised. Can you think of anything else? Any other suggestions?'


Put the words in the correct order to make questions. Add capital letters. I A: tell I more I us / you / can /? B: Well, for example, we could put a 'To Do' list on the wall.

2 A: you / go / detail/can / more / into /? B: Yes. Every Wednesday, we could spend an hour discussing the issue.

3 A: missed / there / is / we've / anything /? B: No, I think that's everything. 4 A: else / of / think / can / anything I you /? B: Yes, we haven't mentioned homework. S A: ideas / come / anyone / with / to / managed / other / up /? B: Sorry, nothing else from me.


Work alone. Think of as many ways as possible to save time while working, studying, travelling or doing housework.

B Work in groups and follow the instructions. Choose one facilitator to lead the discussion, solicit ideas and make sure everyone has a chance to speak. 2 Choose one scribe to write down all the ideas. 3 Share your ideas. 4 Divide the ideas into: a) really good, b) interesting but not always practical, c) too difficult to implement. S Present your group's best ideas to the class.



1A Complete the sentence below with two words in the box.

3 Watch the DVD. Number the ideas in the order they are mentioned.


a) There's a scientific reason for why the world doesn't run in reverse.





Whilst seeks to understand reality through the observation of emotions and the sharing of human experience, relies more on logical reasoning and detailed analysis.

B Compare your answers in pairs. In general, which approach do you tend to accept?


Read the programme information. What concept is discussed in this episode?


b) It's human nature to want to find the answer to these fundamental questions. c) Permanent change is a fundamental part of what it means to be human. d) The glacier has been moving down the valley for tens of thousands of years.

4A Complete the extracts. I Events always happen in the same order. They're never and they never go backwards. 2 We never see waves travelling across lakes, coming together and bouncing chunks of ice back _ __ 3 We are compelled to travel into the _ __ 4 And that's because the arrow of time dictates that as each moment passes, things _ __ 5 I suppose it's kind of the joy and _ _ _ of our lives. 6 In the life of the universe, just as in our lives, everything is _ __

B Watch the DVD again to check.


Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

I What do you think about the point Professor Cox is trying to explain? Do you think the glacier is a useful metaphor for the arrow of time? 2 Are you someone who relishes or resists change?

speakout a turning point


6A 8.6 Listen to someone talking about major turning points in her life. Answer the questions.

writeback a major decision SA Work in pairs and read the forum entry. Do you think Jason made the right decisions?

I What were the three important decisions? 2 Does she regret the decisions she made? 3 How is her life different from her sister's?


Listen again and choose the correct alternatives

to complete the key phrases.

keyphrases My parents gave me the option to go to a specialised theatrical school/stay at home. There was a lot of pressure on me to .. . /no pressure either way. I made the decision to go to a theatre school/go to a comprehensive school. Luckily for me, it's panned out/it's turned out OK. I found myself faced with a dilemma /another decision . The next major decision ... was whether to move house/ have children or not. I ... wonder what would have happened if ... / if I made the right decision.

7 A Prepare to talk about a turning point in your life. Think about the questions and make notes. I What was the decision? Who was involved? Did anyone or anything influence your decision? 2 How did the decision affect what happened afterwards? 3 How might things have been different now had you made a different decision?

B Work in groups. Discuss your decisions and how they have affected your lives.

Tell us about a pivotal moment in your life Jason, Australia : I'd say that the major pivotal moment of my life early on was when I was eleven years old and my parents decided to divorce. It was up to me to decide who I wanted to live with . At that time, my dad was living in a completely different part of Australia to me and my mum. After some deliberation , I chose to go and live with my dad. Looking back, it was a hard decision to make for an eleven-year-old, and I do sometimes wonder if I made the right choice. If I could turn back time, I wonder if my relationship with my mother would be any beUer now had I made a different choice. I suppose I have a sense of regret about that. Hpwever, if I hadn't gone to live with my dad , I wouldn 't have met my girlfriend at the time. We were together for over three years and when she wanted to move to England I gave up a really good career in Australia to move with her. That was fine for a while, but we eventually split up and then there was nothing to keep me in the UK. I came back to Australia , but it hasn't been easy to rebuild my career. At the end of the day, I think your guiding principle should be that blood is thicker than water, and it's usually best to put your family first.

B Write about a major decision in your life (250-300 words).




1 A Write sentences about your classmates.


SA Use a word from each box to complete the conversation.

Complete the sentences with a suitable word.

For the foreseeable future, _ _ _ will probably ... 2

A: Do you think we're going to be late? B: No, I hope _ _ .

is about to ...

3 From the outset of the class, we all realised was ... 4 We will all remember years to come because ...


B Work in groups. Read some of your sentences aloud, but don't say the name of the person. Can the others guess who you wrote about?


2A Underline the correct alternatives. Here are some excuses made by absent or late employees. 11meant to/supposed to be in the office at 8.00, but my dog was stressed out after a family reunion.

I 2was on the verge of/was to have written the report at the weekend , but my finger got stuck in a bowling ball. My husband and I 3were meant/were for to go away for the weekend , but we had car trouble. It's now fixed so we're going today (Monday). And some excuses for bad behaviour in relationships: I was 4to go to/going to call you , but my three-year-old niece dropped my phone in a swimming pool.

2 A: Are you enjoying the fish? B: My husband hasn't tried it yet, but I and it's delicious. 3 A: Do you expect your decision to have repercussions? B: Yes, I expect ___ . 4 A: It's a spectacular part of the country. B: Is it? I've never been ___ . 5 A: Will we see you on Saturday? B: No, we'd hoped to be able to come, but I'm afraid we ___ . 6 A: Do you mind if I borrow one of these umbrellas? B: Of course ___ ! Take

B Cross out words in sentences 1-6 above that could be omitted in casual conversation. C Practise the conversations in pairs.



Complete the sentences with the words in the box. vague holds

flooding distinctly

earliest brings

My grandmother's house _ __ lots of memories for me.

I 5had been/was planning to break up with you in person, but I thought you 'd prefer this email.

2 Looking at photos ___ back wonderful memories of happy times.

And finally, two excuses for neglected homework.

3 I have a very ___ recollection of my great-grandfather, who was an artist, but I can't really remember him well.

I read the questions, but I didn't realise we 6were supposed/were suppose to answer them. I 7meant for/was going to do it, but I started worrying about the oil crisis and I couldn 't focus.

B Write excuses for the situations below. Use the future in the past. Compare your ideas. Who has the best excuses? • You were absent from work. • You forgot to meet a friend. • You didn't do your homework.

4 I ___ remember telling you to leave the key for me. 5 As soon as I walked into the room, the memories came ___ back. 6 One of my ___ memories is of my parents and me on a beach in France.

makes I'm another mind having thought other that 's a know said you what true with of perfect hand good way A : University students should spend their first day getting to know the bUildings and staff. This will save them time in the long run. B: That's 2

1_ _ _ _

idea. I'd never


A: They should also attend a seminar on ways to save money. B: That 3_ _ _ _ sense. Although 4_ _ _ _ that, aren't there advisors to help them with that? A: Yes, there are, but often students don't know where to find them. B: Yes, 5_ _ _ _ . But looking at it 6_ _ _ _ , shouldn't students take responsibility? A: I 7_ _ _ _ you mean. But on the 8_ _ _ _ , university is the first time they have had to fend for themselves. Many of them just aren't prepared. B: 9_ _ _ _ you there. I remember how na'I've I was when I first left home. 10_ _ _ _ , I soon learned!

B Work in pairs. Think of things that students at your school!office should do on their first day. Write a conversation using the phrases in Exercise SA. Practise your conversation and perform it for other students.



GRAMMAR I tenses for unreal situations



VOCABULARY adjectives: the arts

1 A Look at three works of art that have been displayed in Trafalgar Square, London . What do you think of each 'statue'? B Work in two groups. Group A : look at box A . Group B: look at box B. Answer questions 1-4 below. A unconventional thought-provoking moving bleak impressive compelling charming well-received poignant

B overrated offbeat dramatic stunning

stylish amusing striking heart-breaking subtle

Which words do you know? Use a dictionary to check the meaning of unknown words. 2 Which art forms do you think these words usually describe? 3 Which words can be used about people? 4 Can you use any of the words to describe the art in the photos? C Work with a student from the other group. Teach them your words. Think of films, books, music or works of art that fit the adjectives in Exercise 1B. Think of as many as you can in two minutes.

The film Avatar was stunning.


9 .1 Say the words in Exercise 1B aloud . Which th ree words are spelt differently from their pronunciation? Listen and repeat.

thought-provoking ...

speak In English, many words look different from the way they sound. Sometimes, combinations of letters in the middle of words aren 't pronounced in the way we expect. What are the silent letters in the following words: whistling, cupboard, foreigner, mosquito? Now say the whole word.

4 Find words/expressions in the arti cle w ith the following meanings. I show (paragraph I) 2 leading to (paragraph I)


Read t he title of the article. What do you t hink it is about?

3 organise (paragraph I) 4 worries or concerns (paragraph 2) 5 people who are watching (paragraph 2) 6 unsystematically (paragraph 3)

B Read the article to check your ideas.


Match paragraphs 1-6 with headings a)-f) .

7 range (paragraph 3) 8 went on longer than (paragraph 4)

a) The first and the last

9 calming (paragraph 6)

b) A musing or thought-provoking? W hat the 'artists' did

10 as if someone enjoys watching other people's private live: (paragraph 6)

c) Up on the plinth - the artists' viewpoint d) A ntony Gormley 's 'O ne and O ther' e) W hat to do with the fourth plinth f) The computer's choice: art for everyone by everyone


Discuss. What do you think of the project? Have there been any similar projects in your country?

· .-


n London's Trafalgar Square stand three statues. T hese depict old soldiers - Bri tish heroes who helped build its empire. The fourth plinth (the base on which a statue stands) stood empty for years, engendering a national debate about what -hould go on it. Should it be a statue of another British hero - Winston Churchill, for example, or John Lennon? Should it be a striking piece of modern art or something representative of modern multicultural Britain?While the debate went on, :\ntony Gormley, one of Britain's best-known sculptors, was as ked to orchestrate a project to fill the plinth for 100 days. _ Gormley decided to offer the plinth to members of the public, who would stand, sit or lie on it in their own piece of performance art. While there, they could speak of their preoccupations, stand up (literally) for their beliefs, reveal their fantasies, or simply enact their everyday lives in front of onlookers. It was an unconventional project, bringing the world of reality TV onto the street. It was called 'One and Other' and would have a different person occupying the plinth every hour for t\¥enty-four hours. The plan was to develop a compelling portrait of the UK in the t\¥enty-first century. Gormley also seemed to be challenging the idea that only famous old soldiers or politicians should be depicted in statues. .3 Gormley invited the public to submit their names for a spot on the plinth. They didn't need to say what they were planning to do once they were there. Rather than select from the 14,500 entries according to artistic skill or ambition, participants were chosen at random by a computer. They ranged in age from sixteen to eighty-three and their professions covered the full spectrum of British life, from professors to blacksmiths to rubbish collectors. - The first 'living statue' was housewife Rachel Wardell, who took her place on the plinth on Monday 6 July, 2009. She did it 'to show my kids that you can do and be part of anything'. The last was a medical photographer, EnU11a Burns, who read out a moving short story about the ninety-six victims of a disaster at a British football stadium in the 1980s. She overran her hour, but as there was no one to take her place, she was allowed to finish. In bet\¥een Wardell and Burns, there were 2,398 others. They came up with wildly different ways to spend their sixty minutes of fame, some thought-provoking, some poignant, some amusing. Darren Cooper performed a silent disco for an hour, while fifty of his friends stood below, listening to the same music at the same time on their headphones. Jane Clyne dressed up as a bee to highlight the decline in the numbers of bees due to environmental damage. Heather Pringle, a student, marked her twentieth birthday on the plinth, and celebrated with a solo birthday party. David Rosenberg, a forty-one-year-old designer from London , used a folding pink bicycle to generate electricity to light up his suit. And what was it like up on the fourth plinth? Did the performers have to put up with nerves and noisy on lookers? Cooper said , 'I was quite nervous at first, but once [ started dancing, the nerves went away and [ had the best time.' Rachel Lockwood said, 'It felt very peaceful and serene on the plinth looking down at everyone living their lives. All I could hear was the noise of the fountains and the traffic below. I felt like I was isolated and in a bubble.' Martin Douglas said, 'It was strangely voyeuristic watching people go about their daily lives. Not many people look up, you know!'



verb tenses for unreal situations

Read some comments on the 'One and Other'

project. Which ones do you agree with?

I This is great. It's about time people realised that art is for everyone. 2 These are normal people acting as if they were artists, but what they're doing isn't art. 3 I wish I was brave enough to do somet hing like that in front of everyone. I admire them for their courage. 4 Imagine you had sixty minutes to perform in public. I think it would be hard. S I'd rather nobody noticed me in public. I'd hate to be up there. 6 What if I had been on the plinth? I'd have done something about world peace. B Look at t he underlined clauses in the comments above and answer the questions.

I Which tense are the final verbs in each underlined clause? One of the verbs is a different tense. Which one? 2 Do these situations refer to a) the past, or b) an imaginary Ihypothetical situation? III . page



Complete t he sentences w ith the words in the box.

time was

rather hadn't





He walked in here as though he ___ a hero. 2 If only I ___ lost my lottery ticket, I'd be rich! 3 It's ___ you stopped complaining and did something! 4 Supposing you ___ seen her! What would you have said? S I'd ___ nobody knew about my plans. 6 Hey, ___ you could speak twenty languages! Wouldn't that be amazing? 7 What ___ you could retire right now? W ould you? 8 I ___ sooner do a research paper than take the exam.


Answer the questions. Then compare you r answers

w ith other students.

Would you rather somebody took you to a fi lm or to the theatre? A rock concert or a ball et? 2 Imagine you could own any painting or sculpture in the world. Which would you choose? 3 Supposing you were asked to act in a soap opera. Under what conditions would you accept? 4 If someone from your home town said, 'It's t ime we did something cultural,' what would you suggest?

• SPEAKING 9A You are an art dealer. Read about your clients 1-3 and look at the sculptures on this page and on page 162. Decide which sculpture to recommend to each company. I Icontech.com is an internet start-up run by twenty-one-year-old twins. T here is no one over thirty in the company and everyone wears jeans and shorts. The company recen t ly relocated to a stylish one-storey office. T he owners want a dramatic scu lpture for the roof. It must fit their company motto: Live for Now.

2 Daniels and Stone is a conservative, traditional law firm . The new boss wants a more exciting image for the firm, but doesn't want to offend old clients. He is looking for a sculpture to go outside the main entrance of the building. 3 Green Tuesdays Ltd is a company that sells organic food. It is run by fifteen ex-hippies who live in a mult i-coloured bus. In two years, the company has expanded by 180 percent and now has a stunning new office building surrounded by trees and hills. The owners want a striking sculpture to go in reception.


Work in groups and discuss your choices.

.....iC!!~~!!!!!~!....p~t.u ~s ~ three-part multi-word verbs 10A

Read three extracts from the article on page 105 and answer the questions below.

11 Choose the correct multi-word verb to complete each sentence. I You stole the money, but you'll never get away with/get round to it!

2 I've been meaning to write to Sally but I neve r get away with /get round to it. 3 I don't really go along with/go in (or dangerous sports; I prefer golf. 4 I'm happy to go along with/go in (or your plans. 5 Because of the price, I don 't know if we'll buy the flat; it' ll all come up with !come down to money.

6 We have twenty-four hours to come up with /

come down to a plan to save this company! 7 I'm not going to put down to/put up with this noise for one minute longer!

a) Whi le there [on the plinth] , they could stand up for their beliefs.

8 He had problems reading, which he put down to/put up with his poor education .

b) They came up with wildly different ways to spend their sixty minutes of fame.

9 You have to stand up (or/stand up to t hat bu lly, or he'll walk all over you .

c) Did the performers have to put up with nerves and noisy onlookers?

10 My father taught me to stand up (or/stand up to

Underline the multi-word verbs. What do they mean? 2 Is it possible to split three-part multi-word verbs) (Can we say: he came up with on ideo and he came up on ide~ with?) 3 W here is t he main stress on three-part multi-word verbs?

B Read the advice for learning multi-word verbs. Which pieces of advice do you agree with? I Write full examples of multi-word verbs in your notebook because they are best understood in context. 2 Learn all t he meanings of the most common phrasal verbs by heart. The top ten are go on, carry out, set up, Pick up, go bock,

come bock, go out, point out, find out, come up. 3 Never use phrasal verbs in formal English. 4 Don't learn long lists of mu lti-word verbs because there are too many and they have different mean ings. Instead, 'discover' them in texts. 5 Learn t he general meanings of some particles (see page 61 ) because you can sometimes guess the meaning of the multi-word verb from t he particle.

6 Group the mu lti-word verbs either by topic (e.g. friendship: get on, (0/1 out), main verb (e.g. get up, get over) , or particle (e.g. come

up, eat up) in your notebook.

my beliefs. I I I hope to catch up with !catch on to you at the party next month.

12 The police will never catch up with !catch on to th is little scam!


Choose three questions to answer. Compare your answers in pairs. I Is there anything you've wanted to do for a long time but haven't got round to? 2 When you need ideas desperately, how do you come up with them? 3 What irritations of modern life do you find difficult to put up with ? 4 Is there anyone from your past you 'd love to catch up w ith ? 5 Do you go in for any dangerous sports or do you prefer a qu iet life?

6 Can you th ink of a time when you stood up fo r your beliefs? 1111"





3A Write a list of all the phrases you can think of wh ich use the words idea or ideas. You have two minutes. have an idea, think

of an idea ...

B Look at the list of common collocations below. Does it include any of the phrases on your list? Can you think of other ways to express the phrases in bold? I He's always coming up with novel ideas.

2 I'm toying with the idea of going back to college.

3 W hat gave you the idea for the book? 4 The idea came to me wh ile I was having a bath.


5 We had a meeting to brainstorm ideas for the new advertising campaign.

6 We hit on the idea of renting a cottage.

7 Whose bright idea was it to leave the washing out in the rain?

8 The company is looking for people who can come up with original ideas.

9 It seemed like a good idea at the time. 10 Camping in the middle of winter was a ri diculous idea . C Answer the questions. a) Which phrase is often used ironically (to mean the opposite of what you say)l b) Which phrases talk about having new ideas? c) Which phrase is used when you're considering something? d) Which phrases refer to bad ideas?


Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

I Where do you thin k people in different jobs might find inspiration, e.g. musicians, artists, w riters, designers, chefs, architects? 2 W rite a list of six ways to find inspiration.

4A Wh ich phrases in Exercise 36 could you use to talk about the following situations? I Your younger brother is thinking about going to university, but isn't sure if he wants to. 2 Your business has a new product and is looking for some new ideas for ways to sell it.

3 You've been wondering what to do for your birthday, and B 9.2 Listen to four people talking about where they get their ideas. Make notes about what their job is and where they get their inspiration. C Did the speakers mention any of the ideas from your list in Exercise lA?


Answer the questions.

I W hy does the wri ter like to do the washing up? 2 W hy does the artist like photos? W hat does she do with them?

3 W hy does the chef enjoy using old recipe books that he has had for a whi le? 4 W hat kinds of things does the fas hion designer put on her inspiration board? How does it work?

when you were out today you sudden ly had an idea. 4 You convinced your family to go out for a walk, but the weather turned bad and now everyone's in a bad mood. B Choose two or three phrases in Exercise 36. Write sentences to describe situations in which you might use the phrase. Read your sentences to a partner. Try to guess the phrase.



The collocations in Exercise 3 were taken from the

Longman Advanced Dictionary of Contemporary English. Most good dictionaries wi ll show list s of common collocations . Use a good dictionary and find some common co llocations fo r the w ord creativity. Write them in your notebook.

B Listen again to check your answers. C Discuss. What do you think of the ideas suggested? What kinds of things do you do when you 're looking for new ideas/inspiration?



GRAMMAR adverbials SA Read the six suggestions for finding inspiration. Tick any ideas you like. B Work in pairs. Cover the text and try to remember the six ideas.

6A Look at the underlined adverbials in the text. Replace them with the words/phrases in the box. most probably alone at the same time to keep track of his observations willingly


B Read the rule and answer the questions. Rule: An adverbial gives us additional information about a verb, an adjective or another adverb. It can be a single word (frequently, eventually) or a group of words (on your own, for his ideas) which act together to give detail. Which adverbials in the text describe: how something happens/ should happen? (adverbial of manner) 2 when something happens? (adverbial of time) 3 how often something happens? (adverbial of frequency) 4 the probability of something happening? (adverbial of probability)

5 why something happened? (adverbial of purpose)

C Find at least three other examples of adverbials in the text. page 144 LANGUAGEBANK


I$;$ISI 7A

Expand sentences 1-6 using the adverbials in a)-f). Make sure you put each adverbial in the correct position. I I I totally forgot to call you

2 yesterday 3 to

tell yo~ about

this great idea I've had. 2 We 1_ _ _ go walking 2_ __ 3_ _ _ • 3 I can 1_ _ _ change the appointment 2_ _ _ 3_ _ _ . 4 II

like to facebook friends 2_ _ _ 3

5 I

like to take things easy


_ _.

try to visit my family


_ _.

I_ _ _

6 I'll

1_ _ _

1 Cultivate your imagination. Write everything down. Charles Darwin kept a rigorous system of notebooks for his ideas and he reread them frequently. These days, we have Google Docs. Use a 'spark file' to keep track of interesting ideas and websites you come across. 2 Create a 'coffee house' culture in your brain by extending your sphere of interest with hobbies. Many great inventors worked on several projects Simultaneously. Darwin had no fewer than sixteen hobbies.

3 Take a reading sabbatical. Bill Gates takes two weeks off a year just to read. This isn't practical for most people, but you can adopt the principle. Save up everything you want to read around a topic and then take a long weekend to do nothing but read.

4 Learn to share. George Bernard Shaw said, 'If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas.' Share your ideas readily, both online and offline. 5 Spend time on your own. Every once in a while, find space and time to just relax and be by yourself. Solitude bears surprising fruit.

6 Try new things. Doing the same thing every day does little to spark your creative genius. Put yourself in new situations and try new experiences. This will almost certainly allow your brain to make new and interesting connections.

a) to make it more convenient / easily / for you b) to find out what they've been doing / generally / in the evenings when I'm at home


c) next time I'm in the area / probably

SA Work in groups. Write a list of 'creative' questions you could ask a stranger in order to get to know them. Try to think of questions you have never been asked before.

d) totally ,' to tell you about this gl eat idea I'ye had / yestel day

e) at the weekends / usually f) in the mountains near our house / regularly / during the holidays

B Choose two sentences from Exercise 7A. Expand them in a different way to make them true for you. Compare your sentences in pairs.

If you were a colour, what colour would you be? If you could change the world, where would you start? B Work with a different group. Ask and answer your questions, making your answers as interesting as possible.

C Use your answers to tell the class two things they didn't know about you.


a review


Read the review of a television programme and answer the questions. What kind of programme is this? 2 Who is it suitable for? 3 Is the review positive or negative? A

Would you watch this based on the review?

B Read the guidelines for writing a review. Which ones does the Wallace and Gromit review foll ow? How could it be improved? I Try to be both informative and entertaining. 2 Give an account of the subject in question (the book, film, play or event) and offer a reasoned opinion about its qualities. Report on the content, the approach and the scope of the work. 3 Your audience mayor may not have heard about the work in detail. Make sure your review caters for those who have and those who haven't. 4 Even with a short review, try to follow a clear structure. Include: • a brief introduction. • a description of contents. • an assessment of value. • a comparison with others. • a conclusion.


use a range of vocabulary

lOA Work in pairs. Think of synonyms for the words/phrases below. I unusual/peculiar 2 very clever

Wallace & Gromit's World Of Invention Wallace and Gromit hit the world stage in 1993 when their short film The Wrong Trousers won an Academy Award. Since then, the animated duo - an eccentric cheese-loving inventor Wallace, and his quiet but highly intelligent dog, Gromit - have become some of the best known and best loved stars to come out of the UK. I was absolutely delighted to discover they are back on our screens with a new BBe series, Wallace & Gromit's World of Invention. In the series, Wallace and Gromit explore the wonders of the natural world and look at inventions inspired by Mother Nature. They travel to various locations around the world to meet inventors working on some really fascinating projects. Among them are a robot that takes its inspiration from a Venus fly trap and an artificial gill which allows a person to breathe under water. I had initially expected the whole show to be animated. Much though I am a fan of this comic duo and their extraordinary escapades, I was pleasantly surprised to find that Wallace, in his animated form, just plays host to the show, introducing the inventors and their ideas. The rest of the filming is live, on location, and it is this combination of humorous animation mixed with stunning action segments that gives the show its appeal, both entertaining and truly educational for adults and children alike. Don't miss it.

3 very pleased 4 extremely interesting 5 at first 6 unusual adventures 7 happily 8 funny and enjoyable 9 extremely attractive or beautiful B Find synonyms for words/phrases 1-9 in the review. Compare them with your own ideas.

Make your review interesting by using a variety of adjectives, e.g. good = excellent,

superb, top quality, terrific, exceptional, etc. Qualify the adjectives you use in a review with adverbs, e.g. absolutely

gripping, completely credible, quite heavygoing. Find examples of adverb + adjective co mbinations in the review in Exercise 9A.

11 You have been asked to write an exhibition review for a magazine. Read the exhibition description below. Then turn to page 163 and read some notes about it. Write a review based on the notes (200-250 words). Exhibition: Inventing the 21st Century Folio Society Gallery, The British Library

Price: FREE

In a celebration of British ingenuity, this exhibition explores the stories behind some of the most iconic inventions of the century's first decade. Whether they are changing the world of sport, fighting climate change, or just making life a bit easier, each inventor has challenged the established way of doing things. From Dyson's revolutionary bladeless fan to President Obama's favourite dog bowl, trace the journey of an idea from that first spark of inspiration to the development of a business. See original drawings, patent specifications and the finished products.


FUNCTION I ranting/raving



VOCABULARY I express yourself


LEARN TO I use comment adverbials

express yourself

, A Read the website extract and discuss the questions. What kind of we bsite does it talk about? 2 What kinds of things can you read about on this site? 3 Do you know of any other websites like this? 4 Do you think they are a good/bad idea? W hy/W hy not? LOVE IT OR HATE IT?

Do you ever find yourself hating something which everyo ne else raves about? For me, it's football and C oca C ola. For my husband , it's Marnute. ow you have the chance to celebrate your individuality on rantrave.com . This website claims to have a community of independent thinkers who crave a fresh perspective and are always willing to speak their nund .You can find more than just reviews here - this is a place fo r people to rant and rave about anything that's on their mind , whether it's paying for an overpriced ticket, ravi ng about a new album yo u've bo ught, or simply complainin g abo ut foo tball results. Sign up to rantrave.com and start to let your feelings fly. Why not give the world a piece o f yo ur mind, whether they like it or not? B What do you think the following words/phrases from the extract mean? rave (v, n)

4 speak their mind

2 rant (v, n)

5 let your feeli ngs fly

3 crave a fresh perspective

6 a piece of your mind

C Complete the sentences with words/phrases in Exercise lB. I Everything I read in the newspapers is the same. I really ___ . 2 He went on a ___ about the evils of modern society.


3 That's not acceptable. You should give the manager _ _ .


Listen again and complete the phrases below.

4 Don't tell them they are wrong all the time. Let th·em _ __

It was the most wonderful/amazi ng/awesome .. .

5 I've never seen you so animated before. You really _ __

It was absolutely

6 Rick loves to _ _ _ about how wonderful life is in A ustralia.



It's really the best (show) 2_ _ __ There's (absolutely) nothing 3

than .. .

FUNCTION ranting/raving

(It was) one of the most 4 seen.


Choose three of the topics below. What do you think people would rant or rave about for each one?

I cou ldn't believe my 5_ _ _ _ when ...

(sunsets) I've ever

It was idyllic.

• arts and entertainment

• people

It's an all-time 6- - - -

• culture and lifestyle

• products


• economy

• science and t echnology

If there's one thing I can't 7_ _ _ _ , it's . ..

• food

• sports

It drives me up the 8_ _ __

• news and politics

• travel

speaker 1


It was absolutely 9_ _ __ It was a total


of money.

B 9.3 Listen to people ranting and raving about different things. Match each rant/rave with a topic in Exercise 2A.

It's not my style/kind of thing/cu p of tea at all.

C What did each person say about their topic?


9.4 Listen to the phrases. Notice how the intonation changes for the positive and the negative comments. Repeat the phrases.


use comment adverbials


SA 9.5 listen to extracts from the rants/raves in Exercise 26 and complete the sentences. I

, it drives me up the wall.

2 I have, in the past, 3 I'd

raised my voice at tourists.

go back there again.

4 She was

good, honestly.

5 The restaurant was 6

overpriced .

it's hard to cook for a lot of people.


---~r-~------------------------------------~ Listen out for comment adverbials (absolutely, definitely,

obviously, totally, simply, undoubtedly, completely, surprisingly, incredibly, etc.) to help you understand someone's viewpoint. A lso, w hen you are talking, commen t adverbials which come at the begi nning of the sentence can give you thinking time (Honestly, Basically, Seriously, etc.) .

B Choose the correct alternatives.

Honestly/ Undoubtedly, I have no idea where you could possibly find more delicious chocolates! 2 Incredibly/Basically, he's just lazy.

3 Clearly/Completely, this was one of the more luxurious hotels. 4 Not clearly/surprisingly, with high unemployment young people are struggling to find jobs.

5 It's quite basically/simply the most ridiculous idea I've ever heard.

6 UndoubtedlylCompletely, this is one of the top bands of the moment.


Match the sentence halves.

I If there is one thing I can't 2 We went to an exhibition at the Tate Modern, but I'm afraid 3 The hotel had great reviews, but the service was 4 It was most definitely one of the funniest films

C Work in pairs. Are the sentences in Exercise 56 rants or raves? Choose one of the sentences and develop it into a short conversation. Include two more comment adverbials.


6 It's one of the most

Choose two or three topics from the list below. Prepare to rant or rave about each topic. Make notes and try to use comment adverbials.

a) absolutely horrendous.

• a restaurant you've enjoyed/ been disappointed by

b) a really well -made coffee, in a friendly and welcoming cafe.

• a spectacular/ugly pl ace you have visited

c) stand, it's havi ng to read a boring book.

• an actor or fil m you love/hate

d) spectacu lar shows ever. T hat's why it 's been such a raving success.

• a piece of music/al bu m you love/hate

5 There's nothing better than

• an item of clothing you love/hate

e) I've ever seen. I was on the floor with laughter.

• something you bought recently which was a success/ disaster

f) it wasn't my cup of tea.

B Work in groups. Take turns to talk about your topics.

I.- page



Work in pairs and discuss the questions.


How much do you know about famous art galleries, museums and other cultural places in your city or region? Which have you visited and why?

I a giant slide

2 Are there any galleries, museums or cultural places you would like to visit in other countries?

Watch the DVD. Tick the works of art that you see.

2 a mechanical sun 3 a metal container that is completely dark inside 4 a giant spider 5 a work by Henri Matisse called The Snail


Read the programme information. What question will the programme attempt to answer?

6 a portrait by Pablo Picasso 7 an animation of a cartoon girl 8 an old van with sledges coming out of the back door

4A Answer the questions. I How many people visit Tate Modern each year? 2 What is the impressive thing about Tate Modern even when it's empty? 3 The presenter shows us two areas of Tate Modern: the Turbine Hall and the higher floors. How are the two areas different? 4 What years does the permanent collection cover? 5 What comparison does the presenter make between modern artists like Henri Matisse and contemporary artists like Gerhard Richter? 6 What is the final question that the presenter asks? B Watch the DVD again to check.


Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

I The presenter describes one area of Tate Modern as a 'make-you-think' theme park and a 'philosophy fairground' . Do these 'happenings' make you think, or are they just for amusement? 2 The presenter says 'this temple of the far-out [crazy or strange things] has become a fixture in ordinary people's lives.' Why do you think so many people go to art galleries like Tate Modern? Is it because of the art or are there other reasons?


recommend a cultural place

6A 9 .6 Listen to someone recommending a cultural visit to a group of students. What is impressive about the place? What subject do you think the students are studying? B Listen again and tick the key phrases you hear. keyphrases It's one of the world's most recognisable landmarks. It's an absolute must-see. The most striking thing about it is .. . The best time to go is ... What makes it so breathtaking is . .. The building itself is obviously admired all over the world. It's also been very influential in . .. It makes an impression on you because ...


Read the instructions and think about questions 1-3.

A group of students is coming to your city. You have been asked to recommend a place for them to visit. This place must be relevant to their studies. You will also need to provide a short oral introduction to the place, saying why it is important today or how influential it has been. What are your visitors studying? Choose from: architecture, art, fashion , engineering, design, music, sport, business or history. 2 What place in your city will you recommend? It could be a building, stadium, museum, street, etc.


a recommendation

SA Read one post and one reply from a travel forum. Why does the writer recommend this place? We are going to Cairo next month. Is there anything we should particularly see or do apart f rom the Great Pyramids and the Sphinx? We are interested in culture and history. Molly Go to Khan el-Khalili, the downtown bazaar. This is a wonderful place to browse. The bazaar is huge so you'll need several hours if you want to see everything. You can buy all kinds of t hings here, but it's particularly good for handmade jewellery, precious stones, pottery, rugs and all kinds of textiles. Don't be shy about haggling, either. The locals expect it and they are very friendly and open. As soon as you arrive, you're hit with a sensual explosion noise, colour, smells, people everywhere. This can get a bit overwhelming, but fortunately there are several restaurants and coffee shops where you can take refuge. The most famous of these is EI Fishawy, where the great writer Naguib Mahfouz used to go. While in Khan el-Khalili you should pause to appreciate the architecture. For those who look closely enough, there are many wonderful archways, engraved doors and ornate decorations on the walls. Overall, I'd say Khan el-Khalili is unmissable for any visitor to Cairo. Just make sure you take your camera and some money for souvenirs.

3 In your introduction to the place, what will you tell the students? Why are you recommending it?

Kim Hae-Jeng

B Work in groups and take turns to introduce

B Write a comment for the forum about somewhere you know (200 words). Recommend the place, explaining why visitors should see it.

your cultural places. Listen to other students' recommendations and ask questions.



1 Underline the correct alternatives. The exhibition was very impressive/ overrated. No wonder it was sold out. 2 What a compelling/well-received film. I couldn't stop watching.

3 The song is very poignant/subtle. It reminds me of some hard times. 4 I don't think this book is that good. It's stunning/ overrated.

S The movie was quite bleak/ offbeat. It was full of bizarre surprises. 6 That actress is extremely stylish/ thought-provoking. She always dresses well.






Read about a wish list for the arts. Find and correct the six mistakes.

It's high time art forms like opera are made accessible to the public. Tickets should be cheap, and free for children. Opera and theatre are treated as though they're for the elite, but they're about the same things that are in the papers every day: jealousy, passion, murder and blood feuds, and it's about time the public is having a chance to enjoy them.

3A Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. I Oh no! The whole bookcase has fallen over now. Whose _ _ __ idea was it to move it? a) toy b) novel c) bright

horrendous amazing luck all-time waste

ever idyllic thing

2 We were completely at a loss until we on the idea of renting out the office. a) hit b) had c) held

I A: What did you enjoy about the film? B: The most thing about it was the cinematography. It was spectacular!

3 What _ _ _ _ him the idea of becoming a circus performer? I have

2 A: Did you like his latest book?

no idea. a) hit

b) gave

c) had

4 If we don't know what to do, I suggest we a few ideas. a) toy b) original c) brainstorm

S I've never heard of that before. What an idea! a) original b) origin c) originate 6 I've never heard of such a _ _ __ idea in all my life. a) ridiculous b) ridicule c) ridiculously

B: Yes, it's an his best one yet.

classic. It's

3 A: Did you enjoy your holiday? B: Yes, it was the best holiday

4 A: Did you enjoy the exhibition? B: I'm afraid I didn't. It's not my kindof _ __ S A: Did you manage to get tickets? B: Yes, I couldn't believe my _ _ _ when I saw there were still some available.

6 A: It's a four-star restaurant.

B Work in pairs. Test each other on the phrases above.

B: I can hardly believe that. The service was absolutely _ __

A: We thought it was a good idea at

7 A: What was the island like? B: Oh it was . The beaches were sandy and deserted and the sea was a beautiful turquoise blue.

the time ...

B: It seemed like a good idea. A: Correct. ADVERBIALS ~



I'd sooner TV isn't overtaken by sites like YouTube. The do-ityourself culture has its benefits, but people talk as if anyone can make a masterpiece on camera. They can't and that's why TV will survive.

Work in pairs. Try to expand the sentences as much as possible by adding different adverbials.

Finally, it's time schoolteachers will think outside the box. What if circus skills were taught in schools? Supposing kids having a chance to learn how to juggle, swing on a trapeze and be real clowns? I'm sure millions of kinaesthetic learners would rather they are spending their days doing this than sitting at desks doing worksheets.

B: I always eat chocolate at the end of the day. A: I always greedily eat chocolate at the end of the day.

I I eat chocolate.

A: I always eat chocolate.

2 I like music. 3 He left the office. 4 We agreed to pay. S We went there. 6 I love the way she speaks. 7 He cooks.

B Write three sentences to describe your own wish list for the arts. Remember to use language for unreal situations.

SA Complete the conversations with the words in the box.

B Compare your sentences with other students.

8 A: Is that new computer game you bought good? B: No, it was a totar of money because it was the wrong version for my computer. B Work in pairs and practise the conversations.

GRAMMAR I inversion

VOCABULARY I collocations


Work in groups and discuss the questions.

I Do you think travel can broaden your horizons? How? 2 Would you like to travel around the world on a motorbike? 3 What do you think would be the good/bad things about an experience like this?

2A Match 1-7 with a)-g) to make collocations. I an epic

a) at border crossings

2 an obsession

b) by the kindness of strangers

3 physical

c) journey

4 the depths

d) with motorbikes

5 (be) humbled

e) privations

6 (be) held up

f) mobsters

7 gun-wielding

g) of depression

B Discuss. How do you think the phrases above could relate to a story about two people travelling around the world on motorbikes?

3A Read the article to check your ideas. What were

Change your life

the good and bad things about the journey?

Take your time. Take the Long Way.

B Put sentences a)-g) in the correct places 1-6 in the article. There is one extra sentence.


a) Hearing everyone was all right freed us to get on with what we were doing. b) The idea grew into a plan for an epic road trip, which would also highlight the global work of the children's charity UNICEF. c) They were just curious and looking to be friendly.

d) 0, tneil botn being young Britisn actors .. no nad eacn n iar! ied 1 ecently, and .. ere tnen tne prouc} £atnel s of n iontns old baby girls.

e) I just couldn't stay on the bike! f) In remote Mongolia, for example, one of the bikes broke down . g) And although McGregor has owned bikes ever since he bought his first - a 100cc Honda - at nineteen while studying drama in London, he still needed a bit of help with his off-road technique.


Work in pairs and answer the questions.

I What did Charley Boorman and Ewan McGregor have in common? 2 What previous biking experience did the two men have? 3 Why did their attitude towards strangers change during the trip? 4 How did the two men keep in touch with their families? Why was this important? 5 How did the Ukrainian shopkeeper surprise them?

ong /MIy Round, filmed for the BBC, is the gripping

account of an epic round-the-world motorcycle journey undertaken by Ewan McGregor and Charley Boorman, during which they covered 20,000 miles and crossed twelve countries and nineteen time zones in just 115 days. When Ewan McGregor and Charley Boorman first met on a film set in Ireland, it wasn't the experience of co-starring in a little-remembered costume drama that bonded them. 1 ~ Rather, it was mutual love of - obsession with, some would say - motorbikes and bike-riding. 'It was like discovering you had another brother,' says McGregor. 'So I asked Charley to be my daughter's godfather and we and our families have been involved pretty much constantly ever since.' The idea for Long Way Round all began when McGregor and Boorman first thought of taking off on their bikes together initially (with their wives riding pillion) to Spain, and then a far as China. 2 _ _ And when M cGregor mentioned it to a TV producer, the proposal to film their journey soon followed . But were the two actors ready for the challenge? One nearly wasn 't. 'Charley was far better at riding off-road than me, having had much more experience,' admits McGregor. Even though he first sat astride a 50cc Honda at the tender age of six, for years, he says, he was a 'biker without a bike'. (Boorman , by contrast, had been riding bikes on the family farm since he was a boy.) 3 _ _ 'Two days' pre-training with BMW was supposed to bring me up to speed,' says M cGregor, 'but actually began by sinking me into the depths of depression. 4 _ _ Here I was, about to embark on this awesome journey, and I couldn't even master the key core skill!'


Work in groups and read the leaflets below. Would

you like to go on one of these trips? Why/Why not? B Plan your own dream adventure. Where would you go and what would you do? Read the information below and plan a trip for your group.

There is one constraint: you can only make one journey by commercial aeroplane. For the rest, you can use any other means of travel. Think about the following questions. • How are you going to travel? • What countries will you visit? • What will be the main aim of your trip? • How long will the trip take? • Could you use the trip to highlight any particular issues? Which ones? How?


~ZebraCompany BuS

• What problems do you think you might have? How • will you deal with them ?


Tell the class about your

plans. Which group has the

Luckily, by the end of day two, latent ability had kicked in. And that, plus their close relationship and a small technical support team, saw the pair through a journey involving more than 20,000 miles, on and off road, across three continents. 'We promised before leaving that we'd always be honest with each other,' says Boorman of the potential stress on their friendship. 'If something started to bug me about Ewan's behaviour, he knew I'd tell him. And vice versa.' Both admit to having been humbled by the kindness so often shown to them by strangers who had no idea who they were. 'Early on,' says McGregor, 'passing through the Czech Republic and Slovakia, we became aware of just how suspicious we were. If someone approached us, our hard, city-based response would be, "Who is this guy? What does he want?" But they didn't want anything. 5 _ _ _ So, gradually, we found ourselves relaxing and looking at others in a different way.' There were, of course, physical privations - in the more remote areas they had to camp, live on rehydrated packet foods and wash in river water, or not at all - but being apart from their families was the toughest trial. Most nights, a fifteenminute phone call was possible. 'That call home became such a highlight,' says McGregor. ,6_ _ _ Without it, I'd have been travelling through some of the most desolate, beautiful landscapes on earth with my mind elsewhere.' Along the way, they'd experienced the extremes of camping alongside nomads and staying in luxury with gun-wielding mobsters (a Ukrainian shopkeeper, who offered them a bedbug-free room, turned out to own a mansion complete with swimming pool and he and his mates eagerly showed off a Kalashnikov and other scary weapons). Occasionally McGregor and Boorman fumed, as they were sometimes held up at border crossings for up to fifteen hours. But it was, they agree, the adventure of a lifetime. 'Now we're back, I almost can't believe we did it,' admits McGregor. 'I went all the way around the world? On a motorbike? Surely not. But I did. We did.'

most interesting idea for


dream adventure?





ExperienCe the world s largest thering of humpback whales gaand a fabulous diversity of marine wildlife with

GRAMMAR inversion


6A Read the text. What was similar about the two journeys?


When Ewan McGregor and Charley Boorman travelled around the world on their motorbikes, it was a life-changing feat. Not only did the Long Jit.0y Round journey challenge their view of the world, it also tested their physical endurance. Had they known how difficult the journey would prove, they might never have started. But their shared passion for adventure and the kindness they encountered on the way kept them going. Never before had they experienced such hospitality from complete strangers. It was the trip of a lifetime but, three years later, they fixed up their bikes and embarked on a second journey together. For the Long Jit.0y Down, the two men travelled 15,000 miles through two continents (Europe and Africa) in eighty-five days.



Look at six extracts from the article on page 116. Can you think of words/phrases with similar meanings to the words in bold? I Long Way Round is the gripping account ... 2 ... of an epic round-the-world motorcycle journey ... 3 The trip would also highlight the global work of the children 's charity UNICEF. 4 I was about to embark on this awesome journey . .. S ... and I couldn't even master the key core skill!

6 If something started to bug me ...

B Which word in each set has a different B Read the sentences. What do you notice about the word order? Rewrite the sentences beginning with If.


I Had the first journey not been such a success, they never would have considered the second.

2 journey: trip, tracker, expedition

2 Had he been a more experienced rider, he might not have fallen so often. C Choose the correct alternative to complete the rule. Then find another example of inversion in a conditional clause in the text above.

gripping: thrilling, exhilarating, dull 3 highlight (v): stress, overemphasise, accentuate 4 embark on: undertake, complete, set off on S master(v) : train, grasp, get the hang of

6 bug (v) : excite, irritate, get on (my) nerves Rule: In formallinformalwritten texts, the word order in conditional clauses may be inverted.


Look at sentences 1-4. Notice how inversion is also used after negative adverbials to add dramatic effect. Find two examples in the text in Exercise 6A. No sooner had they finished one trip than they were planning another.

Use a thesaurus. A good learners' dictionary will often give you a thesaurus to help you expand your vocabulary range. Look up the word interesting in a thesaurus. How many alternatives does it offer? Think of example sentences for each word and write them in your notebook.

2 Rarely/Never before/Seldom had they seen such spectacular scenery. 3 Not once/At no point did they stop to question their decision. 4 Only later/Not until the journey was finished did tpey appreciate some of the places that they had visited. III. ,

9 Complete the sentences with the words in the box. exhilarated embarked mastered emphasised


7 A Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first. He didn't think about leaving his family until they were ready to depart. Not until ... 2 I then saw the danger that we were in. Only ... 3 As soon as we left the tent, it collapsed. No sooner ... 4 If we had thought about it more, we would have taken extra fuel. Had .. , 5 They had never ridden motorbikes for such extended distances. Never before ...

6 They did not consider giving up the expedition at any pOint. At no point ...

B Think about a difficult journey you have experienced. Complete the sentences for you and tell a partner. I Had I known ... then .. .

3 No sooner had I ... when ...

2 Never before had I .. ,

4 Not only ... but also ...

expedition bugs

It just me that I have to work so many extra hours for no extra money. after reaching the top of

2 Dan felt the mountain.

3 The Prime Minister _ _ _ _ that there are no plans to raise taxes. 4 He

on a new career as a teacher.

S I never quite _ _ _ _ the art of w alking in high heels.

6 He went on an _ _ _ _ to Borneo to film the wildlife there.

10 Write down five words from the lesson. Work in pairs and think of as many synonyms as possible for each word.

I I"



GRAMMAR I comparative structures

. VOCABULARY I ambition



much just far nothing like considerably slightly infinitely a bit a lot nowhere near marginally miles not every bit decidedly significantly barely any loads way a good deal

Work in groups and discuss the questions. Imagine you a) scored three goals in a World Cup final, or b) were the subject of a film. How would your life change?

2 Read about people who experienced these events. Are any of your ideas from question I mentioned?

When England won the World Cup final in 1966, Geoff Hurst scored three goals. The third, according to the BBC, is the most frequently shown sports footage of all time. Back in 1966, it wasn't such a big deal - Hurst spent the weekend after the World Cup washing the car and mowing the lawn. However, he now says, 'Scoring a hattrick in the World Cup final has completely transformed my life.'

Erin Brockovich became famous when a movie, starring Julia Roberts, portrayed her fight against water contamination in California. The film completely changed her life. She went to premieres, did lots of publicity and appeared in magazines and on TV, but later said, 'I found it difficult to cope with the attention, difficult that people were judging me and making comments.'

Which words in the box can complete sentences 1 and 2 below?

I My life now is ____ better than it was before I became famous. 2 My life now is


as good as it was before I became famous.

Discuss the questions. What type of difference do the words in Exercise 3A describe: a small difference, a big difference or no difference?

2 Which words are formal and which are informal? C Read about two other comparative structures. Match structures 1 and 2 with rules a) and b). I Double comparatives

The harder you search for fame, the more difficult it is to find it 2 Progressive comparatives

She gets more and more beautiful every time I see her. Rules: a) A comparative describes how something increases or decreases by repeating the same comparative . We put and between the forms. b) A comparative describes how a change in one thing causes a change in another. We use two comparative forms with the and a comma after the first clause. 111*


liji$jtii 4

Imagine you are the world's most famous celebrity, photographed by the paparazzi every day. What might you say about your life? I My life would be considerably better if ... 2 Being a celebrity is nothing like as ... 3 One good thing about fame is that it's far ... 4 Even for a celebrity, it's every bit as .. . 5 I find it more and more difficult to . . . 6 The more famous I become, ...

GRAMMAR comparative structures 2A

Answer the questions about the texts above. Whose life was barely any different immediately after the event? 2 Whose life became significantly more stressful after the event? 3 Who received far more opportunities soon after the event?


Check what you know. Which phrases in bold in Exercise 2A mean a small difference and which mean a big difference?

7 The more money I make, ... 8 Life gets better and ...


10.1 Listen to completed sentences 1-4 from Exercise 4. Notice how we emphasise differences by stressing the modifier (considerably, nothing like, etc.). Read your sentences aloud, emphasising the modifier where appropriate.

B 10.2 What do you think expressions 1-3 mean? Do you have equivalents in your language? Listen to the rhythm of double comparatives and repeat. I The more, the merrier. 2 The sooner, the better. 3 The bigger they come, the harder they fall.

10.2 LISTENING 6A Read about a writer called Frank McCourt and discuss questions 1-3. I Why do you think Frank McCourt published his first book only when he was in his sixties? 2 How do you think his life changed after Angela's Ashes became a bestseller?

3 Who do you think he met after becoming famous?

Frank McCourt came from an extremely poor lrishAmerican family. His ambition was to be a writer, but the longer he waited, the more unlikely it seemed that his dream would come true. So, having spent most of his adulthood as a teacher, he was delighted when his memoir, Angela's Ashes, was published. By now in his sixties, he was every bit as surprised when the book became a bestseller. Life became a good deal better for him with his sudden fame. He went on to write two more books: 'Tis (1999) and Teacher Man (2005), which cemented his reputation as a first-class memoirist.


® 10.3 Listen to an extract from Teacher Man.



Were your answers to questions 1-3 correct?


Listen again. What is the significance of the numbers and names below? I thirty years

6 hundreds of times

2 a few hundred copies

7 President Clinton

3 thirty languages

8 Sarah, Duchess of York

4 1996

9 Elton John

S five a day

10 William Butler Yeats


Find words 1- 6 in audio script 10.3 on page 174. What do you t hink they mean? I a scrap (of attention) (n)

4 clamour (n)

2 dazzled (adj)

S geriatric (adj)

3 ascension (n)

6 a beacon (of hope) (n)

C Turn to page 163 to check your answers.


Read the extracts from the recording and discuss t he questions. I 'The book was my second act.' W hat do you think this means? What was Frank's 'first act'? 2 'A woman in a coffee shop squinted and said, I seen you on TV. You must be important.' Do you think Frank felt he had become important?

3 'I was asked for my opinion on Ireland, conjunctivitis, drinking, teeth, education, religion, adolescent angst, William Butler Yeats, literature in general.' How do you think Frank feels about his new 'expertise'? What is his tone of voice? 4 ' I travelled the world being Irish, being a teacher, an authority on misery of all kinds.' From this comment, what can you guess about the book Angela's Ashes?

McCourt IST.-a.SATIOSAl. BpST$F,11 F




9A The pairs of phrases in bold have similar meanings. Underline the correct alternative to complete sentence b) . Work out what the phrases mean. I a) I know people who crave fame and fortune. b) Nobody I know has ever hankered beforel afterfame. 2 a) It must be terrible to be in the spotlight all the time. b) I like to be the centre of fame I attention.

3 a) I don't think you need to serve an apprenticeship to become good at something. b) In any artistic profession, it's important to payl give you r dues even if it takes years. 4 a) It's not important to be held in high esteem by your colleagues. b) It's important to think I be renowned for good work. S a) I'd hate to become an overnight success like Frank McCourt. b) It would be great to shoot/jump to fame like Frank McCourt. 6 a) I'm set on becoming an expert in my field. b) I don't have I like aspirations to become w ell known.

B Tick the sentences above that you agree with. Compare you r ideas in pai rs and ask for more information.

I I.,

page 157



Celebrity culture - a blessing or a curse?

10 Work in groups and discuss the questions. I What were your ambitions when you were younger? Are they the same today? 2 Have you had any experiences that made your &eams come true? How was your life different before and after the experience? 3 Are any of these your dream come true? If not, what is? • getting a job that you really love • living in a magnificent house • finding the 'perfect' partner • winning the lottery • speaking English perfectly • passing an upcoming exam


a 'for and against' essay

11 A Work in groups. Read the quotes and discuss questions 1-4 below. 'If you become a star, you don't change; everyone else does.' (Kirk Douglas, actor) 'A celebrity is a person who works hard all their life to become well known, then wears dark glasses to avoid being recognised.' (Fred Allen, comedian)

Do you think the quotations are true?

The world's first celebrity was Alexander the Great. Not only did he want to be the greatest man in history, but he also wanted everyone to know it. Alexander employed historians, sculptors and painters to tell his story for posterity, and they succeeded. But of course his achievements were astonishing. Today, many people become celebrities by doing little more than craving to be the centre of attention. With so many magazines, chat shows and websites needing content, such 'celebrities' fill a void, but many would argue that they fill a void with another void. The question is, does celebrity culture matter? Is it just harmless fun or does it erode our values? On the one hand, there is the fame industry: Hello and OK magazines, gossip columns, Oprah Winfrey-style chat shows. These give us insights into the rich and famous. They show us the ups and downs of people whose lives seem far larger than our own. Most of us enjoy a bit of gossip, and what could be better than hearing about some superstar finally getting what he deserves (whether good or bad)? This view sees celebrity culture as a branch of the entertainment industry. In addition, fame has become democratised. On reality shows like Big Brother, the participants needn't have any talent and many see this as a good thing. Not everyone can be an Einstein or a Messi. On the other hand, there are those who believe celebrity culture has got out of control. They argue that people now idolise mediocrity. It is no longer the greatest who win our hearts, but the loudest. A recent poll discovered that almost fifty percent of teenagers simply want to 'be famous', without specifying the profession and presumably without making any effort to learn a skill. The danger is that fame can be confused with achievement. ppearing on TV is not the same as spending years mastering an instrument or working for peace or inventing a cure. So, is celebrity culture a blessing or a curse? Those in favour say it entertains us, sells newspapers and allows us to dream. Those against say it promotes 'fame for fame's sake' and doesn't value effort or skill. One thing we know is that the actions of most of today's celebrities will soon be forgotten, while real achievements won't. William Shakespeare, Joan of Arc, Helen Keller, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela: their work will live on. And we're still making movies about Alexander the Great two thousand years after he died.

2 What is 'celebrity culture'? 3 Do you read gossip columns or magazines about celebrities? Do you watch chat shows or look at websites that focus on celebrities? 4 Do you think celebrity culture is a good or a bad thing? B Read the essay. What arguments does the writer give for and against celebrity culture?

12 'For and against' essays often follow the structure below. To what extent does the essay in Exercise 116 follow this structure? I Introduction to the issue 2 Points for (plus examples) 3 Points against (plus examples) 4 Conclusion

LEARN TO describe pros and cons 13A

Which phrases in the table were not used in the essay above?

contrasting arguments On the one hand ... on the other hand .. . While .. . is true, it is also true to say ... pros cons What could be better than ... ? One of the benefits is . .. Those in favour (say) ...

The danger is .. . One of the drawbacks is ... Those against (say) ...

B Add the expressions in the box to the correct column of the table.

In contrast to this, ... One advantage is ... One disadvantage is .. . The arguments against ... include... The arguments for ... include .. . We also need to take .. . into consideration On the positive side, .. . On the negative side, .. .

14 Choose one of the topic statements below. Write down as many pros and cons as you can think of. Write a 'for and against' essay (350450 words). • University education should be free for everyone. • All books should be available free on the internet. • Fast food should be prohibited. • Governments should pay musicians to play on the streets.

VOCABULARY I negotiation

LEARN TO I stall for time

VOCABULARY negotiation 1 Think about the questions. Then discuss them in groups. I Why might the people in the photos need to negotiate? 2 What negotiations do you think the following people sometimes have? What experience do you have of these types of negotiations? • parents and children • bosses and employees • companies and customers 3 What do you think makes a good negotiator?

2A Read seven tips for negotiating. Which three are the most important for you?

1 Approach the negotiation in the right way. Don't think of the other negotiator as your enemy. There are bound to be similar things that you both want, so try to establish conunon goals.

FUNCTION negotiating 3A Put the stages of a negotiation in the correct order.

2 Be realistic when haggling or bargaining. Don't start with an insultingly low offer. This will only annoy the other party and make a successful conclusion less likely. 3 Be aware that you won't get everything you want. You will need to surrender some points. This means you need to make compromises. 4 Always be tactful and diplomatic. Never talk badly about anyone or anything. If you do, it may come back to haunt you. S Don't be afraid to postpone or defer a decision. As the negotiation progresses, you may find that the conditions aren't right. You can always come back the next day and start again. 6 Don't bluff. If you don't know something, say you don 't know. If you say 'this is my final offer', it must be your final offer. If you are caught bluffing, you will lose your credibility as a negotiator. 7 Keep your eye on the main goal. Once the main deal is done, make concessions on small details. The idea is not to 'win', but to make sure both parties are happy.


Can you think of any other tips for negotiating?


Which words/expressions in bold in the text can be replaced by definitions a)-g)?

a) let the other person have something in order to reach an agreement b) careful about what you say so that you don't upset or embarrass anyone c) pretend something in order to achieve what you want d) delay (until a later date) e) accept less than what you originally wanted in order to reach an agreement f) find out what you both want g) arguing to agree on the price of something

make an offer establish common goals follow up the deal refuse or accept the deal name your objectives


B 10.4 Listen to someone talking about negotiating and check your answers. 4A Work in pairs and answer the questions. I In a negotiation, what does 'exploring positions' mean? 2 What is the most important word in a negotiation? 3 What should you do if you switch off and miss something during a negotiation? 4 What is 'always delicate' during a negotiation? 5 What word should you never say in a negotiation, according to the speaker? 6 What might you need to do in a business negotiation? 7 What is the purpose of following up the deal?


Listen again to check.

C Discuss the questions. Do you think the speaker's advice is relevant to all types of negotiation or only some types, e.g. business? 2 Did the speaker say anything that you particularly agree or disagree with?

6 There is one word missing from each sentence. Add the missing word. I We want to sort this as soon as possible. 2 Can you go more detail?

3 Great! We've got deal. 4 What you have in mind? S If you sponsor this idea for me, I make concessions for you.

6 What we supported your project from the beginning?

7 I'm not sure I do that because of what I told my friend .

8 That be difficult for me because I already agreed to something else. 9 Let me know you have any queries about the arrangements.

10 Get touch if anything needs clarifying.

LEARN TO stall for time 7 A The speaker mentions 'stalling for time'. What do you think this means? Read the expressions below. Which one is not used to stall for time? I I'd like to think about it.

2 I'll have to ask about that.

3 I need more time to consider it. 4 I can give you an answer to that right now.

S Can I get back to you on that?



10.5 Listen and repeat the expressions in Exercise 7A. Copy the intonation.



Read the phrases for negotiating. Which ones did the speaker use? Check your answers in audio script 10.4 on page 175. naming your objectives

refusing an offer

We want to sort this out as soon as possible.

That would be difficult for me because of ...

By the end of the day, we want to resolve this.

I'm not sure I can do that because .. .

exploring positions

accepting an offer

What do you have in mind?

Good. That sounds acceptable to me.

Can you go into more detail?

Great. We've got a deal.

making conditional offers

following up the deal

If you do ... for me, I'll do ... for you.

Let me know if you have any queries.

What if we supported your idea?

Get in touch if anything needs clarifying.

B Can you think of any other expressions that could go under the headings in Exercise SA? III.



Read some notes about a plan to hold an International Film Festival at your school. Which unresolved issues are the most important?

• • • • • •

Name of event: International Film Festival Who for: all students at the school Place: the school Films: ? Dates: ? Times: 5.30 first film 8.00 second film

• Cost: ? • Food and drink: ? • Advertising the event: ?

B Work in two groups. Group A: turn to page 161. Group B: turn to page 163. Read your roles and answer the questions. C Work with a student from the other group. Negotiate a deal. At the end, try to come up with three films from three different countries that you can show at the festival.


Tell the class what you decided.



Read the programme information and answer the questions.

Watch the DVD and number the statements in the order you hear them.

I Where do the contestants travel to and why?

a) The bees are obviously getting a bit more angry now. Please don't sting me.

2 What do they hope to win and what happens if they are not good enough?

b) I've never even been on a plane before, so to be going over African wilderness is just absolutely amazing. c) We've got to throw ourselves into it. We've got to put ourselves on the line. d) I've never been anywhere like this in my life, so this is all really, really amazing experience for me. e) I'm feeling really under pressure and I'm gonna lose my temper in a minute. f) It's exhilarating, but it's made my day. I can't stop smiling.


Complete the extracts.

I It takes people with a very special mix of

and _ _ _

2 How will this factory worker from Rotherham cope filming thousands of ? 3 And when to the limits, how does it feel to track the most powerful _ _ _ on earth? 4 Today, nine ordinary people are on a journey to one of the world's remotest spots, the Okavango Delta in Botswana, to start a in wildlife film-making. 5 East London mum Sadia Ramzan dreams of _ _ _ and loves animals, so this could be just the _ __ ' 6 For one of you , t his w ill be a _ _ _ experience.

B Watch the DVD again to check.


Work in groups and discuss the questions.

I What skills and qualities do you think are important for this job? 2 Would you enter the competition? Why/Why not?

speakout a dream job


SA 10.6 Listen to someone talking about his dream job. How does he answer the questions?

writeback a job application 7 A Read about Francesca's dream job. What do you think the job is?

I What is your dream job? 2 What skillsl qualificationsl experience do you have that would help you qualify for the job?

3 What qualities do you think are important for the job? 4 What could you do to help you on your path to your dream job? B Listen again and choose the correct alternatives to complete the key phrases.

keyphrases I guess my dream job would have to bel has to be a (filmmaker). I'd relish having the opportunityllove to have the opportunity to work in an environment like that. I'm fairly qualified in that I'm doing a degree in ... 11 have a degree in .. .11 studied at .. .11 have previous experience in ... I'd like to think that I'm a fairly organisedlmotivatedlcreative individual. I'm not afraid to try out new ideasltell people what I thinkl get stuck inlput myself on the line. I've got a good eye for detail!a productlthings that are going to work. I think it's essential to be hardworkinglopen-mindedlf/exib/e. I'm doing some work experience/a part-time course in ...

6A Think of your own dream job. Prepare to answer the questions in Exercise SA. Make notes. B Work in groups and take turns to present your ideas. You each have three minutes for your presentation. At the end, decide who you would give the dream job to.

Get-your-dream-job.com Do you want to apply for your dream job? If you want to be sure of getting the job, send us a short paragraph explaining why it's your dream job and how your skills and experience qualify you. Francesca: My absolute dream job by far would be an . I've always been fascinated by people who taste food and drink for their jobs, like chocolate tasters, restaurant critics, etc. I'd like to th ink that I have a very fine palate. I'm what you'd call a real food ie, always cooking and enjoying fine food. Perhaps that's because of my Italian background . In the summer, one of the things I most enjoy is going out in the evening with a few friends to have an ice cream. In Italy, there's an ice cream shop on nearly every street corner, selling a frightening number of different flavours of ice cream. I think I've tried them all , including some of the strangest combinations, like English trifle and pistachio. To my mind , my passion for flavour combined with my creative instinct would make me ideal for the job.

B Write a short paragraph about the dream job of your choice (150-200 words). Don't include the name of the job. C Read other students' descriptions of their dream jobs. Can you guess the jobs?




1 Complete the sentences with the words/phrases in the box.

3A Work in pairs. Student A: look at box A. Student B: look at box B. Write four comparative sentences using the phrases in your box.

SA Sentences a)-g) are from a meeting about a company's annual party. Cross out the extra word in each sentence.

Student A

a) OK, so you'd like to take everybody to Sweden instead of having a party. Can you go into the more detail?

an epic held up humbled by the depths an obsession Gambling became _ _ _ _ and he lost everything.

2 On hearing the news, she sank into

every bit as nothing like as the more ... , the more ... bigger and bigger

_ _ _ _ of depression.

3 He went on


through South America.

4 I'm sorry we're late. We were _ _ _ _ at the police station for hours.

S We were

the generosity

that was shown to us.



Put the phrases in the correct order to make sentences. Add capital letters and punctuation.

Student B better and better a good deal the more ... , the more . .. nowhere near

B Compare your sentences.


Complete the words/phrases in bold by adding the missing letters. What you would do if you suddenly s ___ to fame:

2 Someone who became an

2 the last chocolate, / did you eat / any more / but you / not only / also didn't buy

3 Someone who always has to be the c of attention:

4 they / like it / see / would /never again / anything S can I / been / it / how difficult / only now / must have / appreciate 6 have overslept / might not / they gone / had / earlier, / they / to bed

B Work in pairs. Use the prompts to write a five-line story using only inversions. I Never before . .. 2 No sooner ... 3 Had she known . .. 4 On no account would she have agreed ... S Only now would she ...

1 Never before had she seen the beautiful mountain ~ower. 2 No sooner had she picked it than C Read your stories to other students. Who has the best story?

c) Welcome, everybody. By the time end of the meeting, we want to have some concrete plans for our Christmas party. 1 d) If that you can pay for some of the trip, I can ask the board to subsidise the rest. e) Good. That sounds acceptable for to me.

I a knock at the door / than / no sooner / had she / there was / sat down

3 called you earlier / realised / had I / would have / to happen, / I / what / was going

b) Get in to touch if anything needs clarifying.

o _______ t success:

4 One reason someone in your field might be h _ _ _ in h ___ esteem: S A job for which you need to S ____

an apprenticeship:

6 Someone who is renowned outstanding work: 7 Something you were set __ doing when you were younger: 8 Something you cr___ regularly: 9 An asp ___ tion that most people in your country have: 10 Something you used to hanker a ____ , but no longer care about:

B Write an example sentence for the phrases in Exercise 4A. Are your answers similar to other students'? If I suddenly shot to fame, I would go and hide on an island!

f) Firstly, can you tell me a little about what you have taken in mind? g) I'm not of sure we can do that because of the cost.

B At what stage of the meeting did the sentences occur? Put them in a logical order. The first one has been done for you.

C What do you think were the responses from the other people in the meeting? Response to sentence c): 'Fine. That

sounds good. '



be beat become be in bend bet bite bleed

bent bet bit bled


blew broke brought

broadcast build burn burst bu catch choose come cost cut deal di do draw dream drink drive eat fall feel feed fi ht find flX forbid forget







beat became be an


leave lend

left lent

let lie Ii ht lose


left lent let

broadcast built burned/burnt burst bou ht caught chose came cost cut dealt dug did

become begun bent bet bitten bled blown broken

chosen come

say see sell send set

ate fell felt

eaten fallen felt

fed fou ht found flew forbade

fed fought

met mistook

met mistaken

ut read /red/ ride ring

cost cut dealt

lost made meant


burned/burnt burst bought cau ht

drew dreamed/ dreamt drank drove



brought broadcast built

dug done drawn dreamed/ dreamt drunk driven

for ive freeze

make mean meet

lain lit lost made meant

lax lit

rise run

rode ran rose ran said saw sold sent set shook shone

shrank shut san sank

shrunk shut sun sunk




sle t slid

sat sle t

shut sin sink

slide smell

smelled/smelt s oke spelled/spelt

s eak spell spend spill




got iven been/gone


s read stood stole stuck

stood stolen stuck

stung swam

stun swum

took taught tore told thought

torn told thought

stand steal stick

heard hid hit held

hit held



teach tear tell think


kept known laid led

throw understand wake wear

threw understood woke wore

lea t leaned/leant learned/learnt

win wnte

won wrote

lay lead leaR lean learn

grown hun

knew laid led leaRt leaned/leant learned/learnt

slid smelled/smelt s oken s elled/spelt

found flown forbidden for otten for iven

hear hide


seen sold sent

shot showed

shoot show shrink


hit hold hurt keep

risen run said

set shaken shone shot shown

shake shine

go row hang have


read /red/ ridden run

had heard hidden

sting swim take


thrown understood woken worn won written

GRAMMAR the continuous aspect

Use the continuous aspect to talk about:

An aspect is a way we look at something. With verb forms, there are three aspects: simple, continuous and perfect. The simple aspect emphasises that an action is complete. The perfect aspect emphasises that an action is completed before another time.

o actions that we see happening over a period of time. They've been waiting here for an hour. o

actions in progress when another thing happens.

john was crying when I arrived. o

The continuous aspect focuses on the action and its duration (how long it lasts), rather than the result. It is used to show that an activity is temporary and its duration is limited.

temporary or incomplete situations.

He's living with his parents until he can find a house. o

repeated actions (that may be annoying) .

She's always playing her music loudly.

In contrast to the continuous aspect, we usually use simple tenses to talk about facts, permanent situations, finished actions and habits. Some verbs - called state verbs - are not usually used in the continuous, e.g. verbs that describe personal feelings (love, prefer), the senses (hear, sme/~ and thoughts (believe, understand) .


situations in the process of changing.

The economy is getting worse. o

plans (often using the past continuous).

I was thinking of going home this weekend. o

tentative ideas (to avoid being too direct with a request) .

I was wondering if I could borrow some money. o

actions in progress at a particular time.

Everyone seems to be working at the moment

describing habits Use will to describe present habits and behaviour (both good and bad).

Use keep on to emphasise that the action is repeated frequently.

Sorry, I keep on forgetting your name! Use tend to to describe typical states. She tends to shout a lot. My parents tended to be very laid-back.

She'll tell you everything she has done during the day, even if you're not interested. He'll always bring me flowers. Use present continuous + always, keeps + -ing and will keep + -ing in the same way. This often implies annoyance. He's always telling me what to do. She keeps texting me. They will keep nagging me to go and visit them. Use would to describe past habits and behaviour (both good and bad).

My parents wouldn 't drive me to parties on Saturday nights. They would make me stay at home. Note: We can only use will/would to describe habits, not states. He would get angry very easily. (NOT He would be angry very easily.) Use past continuous + always, kept +-ing and would keep + -ing in the same way.

They were always complaining. We kept asking for a refund, but we were ignored. He would keep going on about his brother. It drove me mad.

spoken grammar

Will and would may be stressed to emphasise the annoyance at a habit. He will turn up late. They wouldn't listen to me. other expressions

I'm inclined to ... / I have an inclination to ... I tend to .. . / I have a tendency to ... I'm prone to .. . I'll spend hours ... / I'd spend hours ... As a rule, I ... Nine times out of ten, I ... Andy is inclined to act first and think later. I'm prone to falling asleep in front of the TV in the evenings. He has a tendency to be very critical, and this makes him unpopular with colleagues.

speculating Use the following phrases to speculate about people or situations. speculating I suppose/guess/reckon he's/she's about .. . I'd say he/she looks/doesn't look ... I wonder what he/ she .. . ? I'd hazard a guess (that) . . . If I had to make a guess, I'd say (that) ... I'm pretty sure he/she . ..

There's something . .. about him/her. He/she gives the impression of being .. . He/she could be/must be/might be .. . It seems like he/she ... /It seems to me . .. /It looks to me as if he/she .. . It makes me think (that) maybe he/she .. . It might suggest (that) ...

PRACTICE 1 Which of the underlined verbs are better in t he continuous form? Change them as necessary.

2 Complete the questions. Use the correct continuous form of the verb in brackets where possible. Which sentences need a sim ple f orm?

I The photocopier doesn't work at the moment, but the engineer will fix it this afternoon.

I A: (cry)? B: Because I just fell off my bike and it hurts!

2 You can't go to the cinema because you haven 't finished your homework.

2 A:

(work) there before they fired him? B: About twenty years. He was devastated.

3 I had a great time at the party when my dad arrived and dragged me home!

3 A: (do) since you graduated? B: I've mainly been looking for jobs, but no luck so far.

4 The postal worker weighs the package right now. 5 That's a tricky question and I don 't know the answer.

4 A: (live) in Madrid? B: Twenty-seven years. I moved here when I was twenty.

6 I looked through myoid papers and I found this letter from you.

5 A:

6 A: _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ (want) to be when you were a child? B: A fireman . I loved the uniform!

8 I didn't hear the doorbell so I carried on watching

TV. 9 She has studied all morning.

7 A: (wait) long? B: About an hour. The hospital is always busy on a Saturday.

10 I live in Krakow, but I do a course in Warsaw this summer.

1 Add willi won 'tl wouldl wouldn't to the sentences in the correct place. I On Sunday mornings, I get up early and go for a run along the river before anyone else is awake.

(talk) to when I saw you

earlier? B: Oh, she's an o ld schoolmate.

7 Can you turn down the volume? I talk on the phone.

8 A: (not finish) your degree? B: Because I ran out of money and couldn 't pay the tuition fees.


Complete the sentences using the prompts in brackets.

I The drug (tendency / cause)

headaches if used for prolonged periods.

2 I sometimes wait for hours before a bus arrives.

2 He paintings which cost far too much money. (inclined / buy)

3 My mother-in-law always bake a cake for us when we visit.

3 We're (prone / argue)

4 He keep bothering me for my telephone number, but I don 't want to give it to him.

4 I whether or not I've been given the job. (keep / wonder)

5 The children stop fighting. It's driving me crazy.

5 She's _ _ _ _ a fuss about the way I dress. (always / make)

6 She spend the first half an hour chatting before she even starts work.

6 They (kept/ cheat)

7 My parents take us on camping holidays in the rain . We hated it.

7 As _ _ _ _ , I _ _ _ _ a lot of herbs and spices in my cooking. (rule / not use)

8 My grandfather shout, or tell you off. He was a very gentle man.

8 My father me back a present from his travels. (would always / bring)


about politics at the dinner table.

at cards, so I decided not to play with them .

Complete the conversations w ith the words in the box. sure say

seems hazard

wonder looks



I A: I reckon it might rain later. B: Yes, it _ _ _ _ as though it could . 2 A: How much do you think that painting is worth? B: I'd a guess at about $500. A: Not quite. It's worth $1 .2 million. 3 A: What time do you think they'll arrive? they'll be here by si x. B: I'm pretty

4 A: What do you think it's supposed to be? B: I it could be an animal of some sort. 5 A: I if she' ll remember we're coming? B: If not, we'll surprise her. 6 A: If I had to make a guess, I'd to me that we're lost. B: It

it was that way.

7 A: Have you seen that Rafael and Lina have got a smart new car? B: Yes, they the impression of having plenty of money.

GRAMMAR conditionals and regrets

mixed conditional

The most common conditional sentences refer to permanent facts (zero conditional), future possibility (first conditional) or imaginary situations (second conditional).

Use to say how, if something had been different in the past, the present or future would be different.

If she'd listened to me, she wouldn't be in debt now.

third conditional


Use to talk about something that could have happened, but didn't, or should not have happened, but did.

Use regret + gerund, i( only + past perfect or wish + past perfect to say we want something in the past to have been different.

If I hadn't eaten that shellfish, I would have been fine .

I regret going out last night. If only I hadn't left the oven on. He wishes he'd gone to university. Use i( only + past simple or wish + past simple to say we want

other forms with a third conditional meaning

Supposing you'd met the President, what would you have said? Imagine you'd missed the flight, what would you have done?

something to be different now.

In more formal contexts, it is possible to replace i( by inverting the subject and had.

Note: After if, i( only and wish, we often use were instead of was. Were is considered more correct in formal English, although was is often used in spoken English.

Had I known her, I would have said hello. Or replace i(with but (or + noun (+ gerund)

But for Wilkinson's heroics, they would have lost the match.

If only we had some matches! I wish you were here.

Use i( only + would or wish something now.

+ would to show we are annoyed by

If only you'd be more sensible! I wish you would be quiet!

verb patterns

passive infinitive or -ing form

verb + -ing

Use the passive -ing form (being done) to describe actions which are done to the subject.

Many verbs can be followed by a verb in the -ing form. Some of these verbs are related in meaning: like, dislike, adore, love, detest, can't bear/stand. Some can also be followed by the infinitive, but the meaning may change.

I hate being told what to do. Use the passive infinitive (to be done) after some verbs

We regret to inform you .. . (We are sorry before we speak.)

He was considered to be the right person for the job. perfect infinitive or -ing form

He regrets telling her ... (He is sorry after he speaks.) Prepositions are followed by an -ing form. Are you still interested in buying the property? -Ing forms when they function as nouns (gerunds) are often

Use the perfect -ing form (having done) or the perfect infinitive (to have done) to emphasise when one action happened before another.

She mentioned having seen him leave. They seem to have solved the problem. After verbs of preference (would like/ love/ hate/ pre(er/ rather)

the subject of a sentence.

Smoking is bad for you. infinitive with to Use an infinitive with to: • after certain verbs including appear, decide, (ail, need, offer, re(use, want, wish. Verbs with a future meaning (hope, expect, promise, etc.) are often followed by the infinitive.

They hoped to negotiate a better deal. • after certain verb

(especially reporting verbs).

+ object combinations, e.g. advise,

we can use the perfect infinitive to talk about an action in the past.

We would hate to have lost the match. negative infinitive or -ing form

Not + infinitive and Not + -ing are also important. It's quite common not to understand at first. Not understanding is quite common.

aI/ow, ask, cause, encourage, (orbid. The police asked everyone to remain calm.

Infinitives can be the subject of a sentence.

• with some nouns, often as part of semi-fixed phrases (It's

To learn is important. Not to thank her would be impolite.

time to ... , etc.). • after most adjectives.

I was happy to help.

introducing opinions Use the following phrases to introduce opinions or knowledge. If you want my honest opinion, . ..

According to (the statistics), . ..

Quite frankly, . ..

From what I can gather, ...

Look at it this way.

The reality is, ... /In reality, .. .

As far as I'm concerned, .. .

If you ask me, ...

To my knowledge, ...



LB2 PRACTICE , Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the box. Use the negative form where necessary. spend find cause stay pull take over know be die become tell arrive win listen call cook If you to my advice, you ____ in such a terrible situation now.

2 I regret

a manager so young; I wish I _ _ __ more time in the industry first.

3 We

your house if we

you on the mobile.

4 Imagine if Donner Textiles Ltd ____ the company, it ____ all kinds of problems.

S Had they

us about that hotel, we ____ there now, instead of in this dump!

6 But for the emergency services ____ so quickly, many more people in the fire. 7 If I

she didn't eat wheat, 1____ pasta.


Rewrite the sentences using the word(s) in brackets.

I We gambled on red. We lost. (If/won) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 2 They only asked him to the party because he's famous. (wouldn't) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

3 The boys feel bad about borrowing your car. (regret) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

4 She didn't know you were a vegetarian! She bought fish! (Had) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

S I forgot my keys. Now we're locked out! (If only/wou ldn't) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

6 I'm working in a boring, low-paid job. I shouldn't have dropped out of university. (If) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 7 Ahmed is sorry he didn't speak to you before you left. (wishes) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 8 He had an injury. We would have won otherwise. (But for) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

8 It's such a shame: had she ____ a muscle, she _ _ __ the race.


Underline the correct alternatives.


Find and correct the six mistakes in sentences

1-8. We all know how important I make/ making/to make a good first impression is. We've heard the statistics: when you meet someone for the first time, only seven percent of their impression is based on what you say, thirty-eight percent on how you say it, and a massive fifty-five percent on your appearance and manner. So, it's vital not 2underestimate / underestimating/ to underestimate the importance of choosing your clothes carefully when you go to that key meeting or job interview. This is your opportunity 3impress/impressing/to impress. On 4 walk/walking/to walk into the room, most people are likely Sto have formlto have forming/to have formed an opinion of your character based on your appearance in less than three seconds. It's difficult 6say/saying/to say why people insist on 7judge/judging/to judge by appearances, even when we know that it's so unreliable 8do/doing/to do this. Even in courtrooms, juries and judges appear 9give/ giving/ to give lighter sentences to people who are well-dressed.


I I can't bear seeing people smoke in cars. 2 I don 't know why you waste all your time sit in front of the computer. 3 Cooder was encouraged play the guitar by his father. 4 They hoped meet up with some of the stars after the show. S They were rumoured to have get married in secret. 6 I gave up the idea of go into politics when I was in my thirties. 7 We were tempted ask if we could stay the night, but we thought it might seem rude. 8 I would prefer to have seen it for myself.

Match the sentence halves. If you want my

a) honest opinion, there isn't much evidence to support this theory.

2 The reality

b) frankly, this is the best film of the decade.

3 Look at it

c) is, we can't keep sending them money.

4 As far as

d) gather, he's very well-established in his field.

S If you ask

e) knowledge, Yum Yums is the best brand for baby food.

6 According to

f) me, you should put aside more time for your family.

7 Quite

g) the boss, we're making a profit of € I 00,000 every month .

8 From what I can

h) I'm concerned, this company is living on borrowed time.

9 To my

i) this way: we must do something now or things will get worse.


GRAMMAR noun phrases

after t he noun (post -modificati on)

A noun phrase is a group of words which function as a unit to describe the noun. Information can be added before or after the noun to add further information about it.

Prepositional phrases can be used to help modify the noun.

the light from the setting sun a suggestion for how to arrange the meeting

befo re the nou n (pre-modification)

Participle clauses also give more description.

Compound nouns are formed when another noun is added to help describe the noun head. These can be written as two words, with a hyphen, or as one word .

people rushing in and out of their offices

coffee cup


Relative clauses can also be used to modify the noun phrase. See 3.2 below.


the man who I spotted in the restaurant

Compound adjectives can be used for expressions of measurement. Plural expressions become singular.

Sometimes, the relative clause can be rewritten as a noun phrase.

A forty-five-minute journey (it tokes forty-five minutes)

research that has been conducted recently ---. recent research

Adverb + adjective combinations can be used to give more information about the noun.

on amazingly simple process Adjectives before a noun need to be in a specific order. determiner


two my some

lovely shabby






o rigin



leather silver

biker ear

vases jacket rings

French black




relative clauses

relative pronouns

defining relative clauses

Use: who for people, which for things/groups of people, where for places, whose for possessions belonging to people and things. That can replace any pronoun except whose in defining relative clauses.

Defining relative clauses give essential information about a noun. Compare:

1 My uncfe, who lives in New York, is coming to Oxford. 2 My uncfe who lives in New York is coming to Oxford. In sentence I, who lives in New York is a non-defining

Use a relative pronoun after some of, all of, a few of, none of

She has four sisters, none of whom are married.

relative clause. It gives extra non-essential information about the uncle. In sentence 2, it is a defining relative clause. The speaker has more than one uncle so she identifies which uncle she is talking about. In defining relative clauses, we can omit the relative pronoun if it is the object of the verb.

I've eaten the coke (which) I mode yesterday. non-defi ning relative clauses Non-defining relative clauses give extra information about a noun. Use a comma before and after the relative clause.

That project, which I started years ago, still isn't finished.

fixed prepositio nal phrases and relative clauses There are a number of fixed phrases which use a preposition in a non-defining relative clause.

The company ron out of money, at which point I quit my job. He may work late, in which case I'll get home first. We watched the final, the result of which was never in doubt. In informal sentences, the preposition stays with the verb. In formal sentences we put the preposition before the relative pronoun . Compare: He completed the book which he'd been working on. (informal) He completed the book on which he'd been working. (formal)

making a proposal introducing you r proposal

justifying your idea

soliciting questions

Just to give a bit of background information, ...

T his solution will help us to .. .

To start with, I'm going to talk briefly about ...

T his idea is feasib le because . ..

D oes anyone have any questions?

stating the purpose

listing the benefits

The aim of the project is to .. .

In the first instance, this wou ld mean ...

The main goal/ objective of our proposal is to ...

The short-term/long-term benefits include ...

describing your idea

summarising your proposal

What we plan to do is .. ,

So, basically, what we're proposing is to ...

W e're going to build/ develop/ come up w ith ...

To sum up, we're proposing ...

Is there anything t hat needs clarification?



Make one sentence by adding the information in

Rewrite the sentences to make one sentence with a

brackets to the noun phrase. Pay attention to word order.

complex noun phrase.

I I like coffee. (black / strong / small cups of / freshly-ground )

I I went to the shop. It sold shoes. It was advertised on television. Iwent ____________________________________

2 He bought the house . (by the river / little / pretty) 3 She made cakes. (with strawberries and fresh cream on top / delicious / dark chocolate / two) 4 He smokes cigars. (which juan gives him / hugely expensive / Cuban / those / enormous) 5 They carried the bags. (ridiculously heavy / massive pile of / all the way up seven flights of stairs) 6 It was a dog. (incredibly smelly / hairy / guard / but rather friendly)


Complete the sentences with one word in each gap.

2 The man was old. He was walking with a stick. Hewas ___________________________________ 3 We ate the cakes. They were home-made. They were absolutely delicious. We were sitting in the sunshine. Weate ___________________________________ 4 Th ey rented a house. It was nice. It was near the airport. It had a swimming pool. They rented _______________________________ 5 We went to a restaurant. It was big. It was a pizza restaurant. It was o n the outskirts of town . It was run by two Italian brothers. They were called Gino and Rino. Wewent __________________________________


Complete the second sentence so it has a similar

meaning to the nrst. Use the word in brackets.

In my early twenties, when I was a student, I used to hang out in a few places, none 2_____ which were exactly posh. There was one seedy dive called Schubert's, 3 an acquaintance of mine, 4 name I've forgotten, played the piano. But my which I remember everything favourite haunt, S including the decor (a Matisse poster 6 edges were peeling off the wall), was johnny Bee's Cafe. The table 7 I regularly sat faced a window from 8 you could see the street. I must have gone to johnny Bee's every day until I graduated, by which 9 I was virtually living there. Most of the dissertation 10 which I was working was conceived in johnny Bee's. I went back last year and saw the same people, none of 11 had changed except for a few grey hairs. 1

I There were lots of children there and all of them sang really well. (whom) There were lots of children there, ________________ 2 When the fire alarm went off, the lesson ended. (point) The fire alarm went off, ________________________ 3 We stayed in that woman's house. (house) That 's the woman ___________________________ 4 Clare's the person I learnt the most from . (whom) The person _______________________________ 5 If yo u get a scholarship, you won't need to pay. (case) You may get a scholarship, in ___________________ 6 There are two photocopiers in the office, which are both out of order. (of) There are two photocopiers in the office, ______


Underline the correct alternatives to complete the proposal.

just to give a bit of 1background information/ information background, we're computer programmers who have travelled all over the world and have contacts everywhere. To start 2up/with, we're going to talk briefly about our plan for a website to organise student trips abroad . The main goal 3 to/ ofour proposal is to get funding for this internet start-up, and the 4 target/ aim of the project is to help students travel abroad for life-changing trips. OK, show/what we plan to do is create personalised trips according to the client's interests. We're going to come 6up with/ down to a menu of travel options linked to the client's profile.

This idea is 7possible/ feasible because students book everything online and they love travelling, but they also want to avoid the problems of independent travel. This 8 opportunity/ solution will help them to realise their dreams. Here are the benefits: in the first 9instance/ case, our idea would mean the client didn't have to organise anything. Secondly, there is the 1 term-Iong/ long-term benefit of security. We will plan safe itineraries and we'll always know where the traveller is.


So, baSically, 11that/what we're proposing is to tailor holidays for the client using our contacts abroad. To 12sum up/the sum up, we want to provide amazing experiences for future generations, and you can be a part of this by providing start-up funds for our site.


GRAMMAR introductory it

Use it as an 'empty ' object after certain verbs to introduce a clause.

Use it as an 'empty' subject to introduce or identify something later in the phrase.

(subject + verb + it + complement + infinitive/clause) I'd appreciate it if ... I find it impossible to ...

'What's the problem?' 'It's nothing. It 's just that I'm worried about work. ' Use it + be to talk about: • weather.

It 's a bit chilly for this time of year. • time/dates.

It's about half past two. • situations.

It's a very peaceful place.

other common expressions with it

it + be + adjective It's hard to know if ... It's easy to believe that ... it + verb phrase It always amazes me that ... It looks/seems as if ...

It 's about thirty kilometres away.

it in the middle of the phrase I'll leave it to you to decide .. . I find it easy to ...

Use it before some phrases to describe probability.

fixed expressions

• distance.

It looks as though we're going to lose. Use it before some phrases to report events. It would appear that they have left without us.

It's no wonder/no coincidence that ... It's considered rude to ... It's pointless/ no use + -ing ...

the perfect aspect

future perfect

The perfect aspect looks back from one time to another and emphasises that an action is completed before another time . In some cases, the exact time may be unimportant or unknown. Sometimes the event is incomplete. It started in the past and is still relevant now.

Use the future perfect to look back from a time in the future to a time before that.

By next week we will have finished the project. Note: We also use will have + past participle to make predictions about the present or the future.

present perfect

Don't call the house, she' /I have left for work by now.

Use the present perfect to look back from now to a time before now.

Use the future perfect continuous to focus on the length of time the action takes.

I've been here since June .

In 2020, I'/I have been living here for fifty years.

Use the present perfect continuous to focus on the length of time the action takes.

perfect infinitive

She's been waiting for hours.

Use the perfect infinitive after verbs like seem and appear to look back to a previous time period .

past perfect

He seems to have forgotten us.

Use the past perfect to look back from a time in the past to a time before that,

It can be used with different time periods.

It's great to have finished my exams. He said he was sorry to have missed your party. We hope to have done the work by 5.00.

I had to go back because I'd forgotten my passport. Use the past perfect continuous to focus on the length of time the action takes.

She'd been doing the same job for fifteen years.

hypothetical preferences Use the following phrases to express hypothetical preferences. hypot hetical preferences If it was up to me, I'd ... / I'd have (+ past participle)

Far better to .. . than ...

I'd sooner (+ infinitive without to)

This would be by far the best option .

I'd just as soon (+ infinitive without to) ... as

My preference would be to ...

Given the choice, I'd ...

Without a shadow of a doubt, I'd . . .

If I ever found myself in this/that situation, I'd ...

No way would I (+ infinitive without to) .




it/it's in the correct place(s) in sentences

1-8. I can't stand when all does is rain for days on end.


Complete the second sentence so it has a similar meaning to

the first. Use three to six words including the word in brackets.

I Don't cry about the situation now. It won't help. (pOintless) It's about the situation now.

2 I'd appreciate if you could give me a little more notice next time.

2 Being trustworthy is vital in this profession. (essential) It's in this profession.

3 No use just standing there. You'd better get on with it.

3 He appears to have misplaced his keys. (seems) It his keys.

4 I find hard to believe that the summer is here already.

4 We need to be hospitable to them as they were welcoming to us. (owe) W e hospitable as they were welcom ing to us.

S Appears that the police have video footage of the incident. 6 Pointless argu ing with her when she's in that kind of state. 7 I'll leave to the others to decide what time we should meet. 8 I've always made clear that my family has to take priority over my work.


S I am not surprised by her lack of enthusiasm as she has heard the talk before. (wonde r) It's when she had heard the talk before. 6 It's easy for me to keep abreast of t he latest news online. (find) I of the latest news online.

Underline the correct alternatives.


UNICEF will have provided/has been providing/is to have provided humanitarian assistance to developing countries

Use perfect tenses.

since 1946. 2 My family will have lived/has lived/ hod been living in that house for over 100 years by the time we were forced to move. 3 Next year, it hod been/will have been/has been twenty years since we met. 4 They have closed/hove been closing/will have closed that shop because it wasn't making money. S Judging by the state of the garden, she will have

abandoned/ hod been abandoning/appeared to have abandoned her home . 6 By 2018, Tom will have been running/ has been running/is to have run the company for twenty years.

Complete speaker B's responses using the prompts.

I A: Is the protest still going on? B: Yes. The workers / march / since 8.00 this morning. 2 A: Why did you shout at the students at the end of class? B: They / talk throughout the whole lesson. 3 A: Eliana is the most experienced person in the office, isn't she? B: Yes. This time next year she / work / here / for forty years. 4 A: Do you think they'll be at the airport now? B: Yes. It's 8.00. They / arrive / by now. S A: Why is he losing so badly? B: He / seems / forget / how to play! 6 A: I hear Mary lost her job because the company went bankrupt. B: That's right. She / only / work there for two months when the company closed.

GRAMMAR modal verbs and phrases

can, (be) allowed to, (be) supposed to, (be) permitted to for

Use modal verbs and phrases to express degrees of obligation or whether or not something is necessary, desirable, permitted or forbidden. Modals are also used to refer to people's abilities.

talking about what is permissible/possible

have to, must, should, ought to, had better for obligation We ought to set the alarm for an hour earlier. Had better is stronger than ought to and implies a warning. We'd better leave now. We don't want to be late. need for talking about obligation or lack of it We needed to ask for directions. (If we had done this, we

(maybe it's a rule). We can use this when we don 't obey the rule .

wouldn't be lost.) Notice the difference between didn't need to and needn't have. We didn't need to ask for directions. (We had a map.) We needn't have asked for directions. (We asked for directions, but it was unnecessary as we found a map.)

the passive Use the passive to sound objective and impersonal. The passive is particularly common in formal writing, e.g. academic writing and news reports. Use the passive to emphasise the important information at the beginning of the sentence.

We couldn't leave the premises after 6p.m. (It wasn't allowed .)

Be supposed to implies that someone expects you to do this

We 're supposed to leave the key on the desk when we finish . (But we may not, we may take it with us.) other phrases which can be used with modal meaning

(be) allowed, (be) permissible; (be) forbidden, (be) banned; (bel feel) compelled, (be) compulsory; (be) forced to, (be) obligatory; have the courage to, dare to They were forced to wear army uniform. (Army uniform was compulsory.) We weren't allowed to contact the teachers. (It wasn't permissible to contact them .)

The passive is often used in formal English to describe rules, processes or procedures.

Membership cards must be shown at the door before entry. It is common to use the passive with an infinitive or with to

is the invention of penicillin.)

have + past participle. She was thought to be the best swimmer in the city. He is known to have been present during the crimes.

Use the passive if who performs the action is unknown or unimportant. The emphasis is on the action itself.

We can use a causative form with a passive meaning. The form is hovel get + object + past participle.

The museum was built in the seventeenth century. (We aren't interested in who built it.)

She had her car broken into. He got his teeth removed.

Use the passive to show that we are not certain.

spoken grammar

It is believed that this ancient society used aspirin. (There is no

Get is more informal than have.

proof. It's just a theory.)

A spoken form of the causative have is common in the US .

Use the passive to distance ourselves from a statement.

I had the mechanic fix my car.

Penicillin was discovered by Fleming. (The most important point

It's said that it's unlucky to walk under a ladder. (The speaker might not believe this.)

making a point

clarifying a point

There are several reasons why I think that ...

challenging a point

What I'm basically saying is . ..

Do you think that's always the case?

The reason (why) I say that is . . .

The point I'm trying to make is that ...

Can you be sure about that?

The facts suggest ... IThe evidence shows .. .

Actually, ... lin fact, .. .

Is there any way I evidence to prove that?

After all, . ..

Let me put it this way . . .

The point is ...

I think you'll find that .. .

If you think about it, ...

But that's not the point. I don't see how you can say that. But that doesn't take account of the fact that . ..



LB 5 PRACTICE 1 Complete the second sentence so it has a similar meaning to the first. Use the word in brackets. I We couldn't bring our own food to school. (allow) We weren't _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


Find and correct the mistakes in sentences 1-8. There

is one mistake in each sentence. You didn't need rush. There's another five minutes before the film starts.

2 I wish I hadn't told him that I cheated in the exam . (should) 1_ __ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ __

2 We'd better to leave plenty of time to get to the airport in case of heavy traffic.

3 Turn your mobile phones off. Th ey are not allowed in the cinema. (better) You'd _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

3 You didn't have got to buy a present. That 's very kind of you. 4 You should don't drive a car if you're tired.

4 You must hand this work in first thing in the morning. (have) You _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

5 We didn' t had to stop at all on the way.

5 I didn't have the courage to tell them the truth. (dare) I didn't _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

7 You ought to trying this programme - it's very good.

6 Th ey aren't allowed to have their lights on after 10p.m. (supposed) They're _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ __

1 A Complete the second sentence so it has a similar meaning to the first. Use the passive or causative and the word in brackets. Police are investigating the case. (being) The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 2 The university lets you borrow a car for official business. (allowed) You _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 3 They are delivering Mike's washing machine today. (having) Mike _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ 4 Some peo ple say the tradition began in the nineteenth century. (claimed) It _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ __ __ _ 5 There's a possibility someone recognised Wilhelm . (might) Wilhelm _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 6 She instructed the players to stretch before the game. (had) She _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ __ _ __ 7 Someone is checking in our luggage right now. (being) Our _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 8 The researchers have only tested the product on volunteers. (been) The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

B Why might sentences 1-8 be better in the passive? Which might be formal written English?

6 Th ey we re supposed deliver the furniture today.

8 You shouldn'r to talk to people like that. It's rude .

2 Rewrite the underlined phrases in the passive. Omit the 'doer' of the action . I They say that the wo rld's greatest keepers of secrets are spies. Wh ile this may be true, there is another secret connected to spies that is less well known. They are a huge pro blem for their employers. Whyl Like most workers , spies retire when they get old . However, unlike most workers, spies retain numerous high level secrets. 2 They need to keep thes e secrets even after the spies retire. So 3 what can the au thorities do with retired ex-spies? In the I 960s, 4 they considered brainwashing. But S they discovered that brainwashing didn't work. They also tried hypnotism, in the hope that 6 they could erase certain memories from the mind. But it turned out to be impossible to erase some memories and not others, e.g. the names of your family members and your street address. So what did they do in the end? We don 't know, of course. It's a secret.

4 _ _ __ _ _ __

2 _ _ _ _ _ __

5 _ _ _ _ _ _ __

3 _ _ _ _ _ _ __

6 _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1 Put the underlined words in the correct order to complete the conversations, A: I saying I'm is what we need to be very careful who we give the information to. 2 suggest facts the that the more people who know about the idea, the riskier the situation.

C: 6 are several thl reason s there w hy I thi s is the right thing to do and' abou t nk it if you, we don't have any ot her op 10 s.

B: I guess so. But we need to tell people about the product before we launch to get people excited about it.

D : 8 say you don' can how see I that. I just don't think the idea w ill work in practice .

A: That's true, but 3 the is point if the competition find out about it, they will probably steal the idea.

C: Well, 9 way put this me it let, we don't have any more ti me to consider options . We need to decide,



think always you is that case the do?

A: Yes. sAil after, what have they got to lose?

D : I know there are time pressures, but 10 that trying make is I'm po int to the we need to think about the costs as well.

GRAMMAR future forms be going to Use be going to + infinitive to: • express personal intentio n. Th e action has been considere d in ad vance and some pl ans have already been made.

future continuo us Use t he future continuous to: • talk about an action that will be in progress at some time in the future. This time next week I'll be lying on a beach. • make a deduction about the future based on normal practice.

We 're going to stay with John next summer.

I expect the Smiths will be having their annual party soon.

• make a predictio n based on present evidence.

• talk about something that will happen as part of the normal course of events, not because you planned it. I'll be seeingJackie at college, so I'll give her the note.

I think she's going to fall! (She is off balance.) will Use will to: • make predictions. We'll win the Cup this year. • talk about future facts. He'll start school next year.

futu re perfect and futu re perfect conti nuo us

We often use will with adve rbs of probability. I'll probably see you tomorrow.

Use the future perfect to talk about a future event which will be finished at a certain point in the future. Use the future perfect continuous to talk about the length of an action as seen from a moment in the future.

We also use will fo r de cisio ns made at the moment of speaking.

The builders will have finished our house by January. By 2018, I'll have been studying French for twenty years.

I think I'll have a nap.

modal ve r bs

present continuo us Use the present continuo us to talk abo ut a pre-arranged actio n in the future . Be going to is fo r intentions, w hile the present continuo us is fo r planned events or arrangements fo r a specific time.

Could, might and may are also used to make predictions. They have similar meanings, but may is more formal.

I' m visiting Sheila on Sunday. present sim ple Use the present simple to tal k about fixed future events in timetables o r programm es. My train arrives at 5.00.

concession clauses Use co ncession clauses to give information that contrasts with the information in the main clause. T he clauses can be intro duced w ith co nj unctions such as although, however, even though, etc. Although he was a good linguist, he took five years to

learn Mandarin. W e can also use while and whilst (fo rmal) to replace

although. While / Whilst I'd like to be with you, I have to attend a meeting. Use much as to repl ace although with ve rbs fo r li ke and hate to talk about stro ng feelin gs.

Much as we appreciate your efforts, sadly we won't be able to use the report.

be to Use be + to + infinitive to describe official plans and arrangements.

The company is to provide insurance for all of its workers. be due to Use be due to + infinitive to describe a form al arrangement. The plane is due to land at 6.00.

Use adjective / adverb + as/ though + subject + verb clause for emphatic sentences.

Hard as we tried, we failed to get hold of anybody. Difficult though it was, we eventually secured the premises. Use however/ whatever/ wherever, etc. to express the idea of 'no matter what/who / where' , etc.

Whatever he says, I'm going anyway. Use in spite of and despite + noun phrase/ -ing form to express contrast. In spite of the fact that we had no ID on us, the porter let us in.

Despite feeling awful, we stayed until the end. Note: Sentences using in spite off despite are not concession clauses, as the linker is not followed by a verb clause, but is followed by a no un/ -ing form . W e can use adverbs and adverbial phrases to introduce contrast.

We were exhausted but we carried on all the same. We were exhausted. Nevertheless, we carried on.

describing cause and effect Cause


infor mal and neutral

fo r mal

informal and neutral


It all started .. .

It has its origins/ roots in . ..

It le d to . . .

It resulted in ...

It originated in/from .. .

It can be traced back/ attribute d to . . .

It has caused ...

It gave rise to . . .

It 's because of .. .

It stems from ...

Because of t his, . . ,

It brought about ...

1 There are ten words missing from the speech. Complete it by add ing the missing words.

2 Complete the second sentence so it has the same meaning as the first. Use the words in brackets and a future form.

'Yesterday we announced that we are merge

It's our twentieth weddi ng anniversary tomorrow. (married) By tomorrow, we will _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __

with jonas Inc. We are due do this in May, so today I'm going speak about the company's history and the decision to merge. This time next year, the company will have building houses for twenty-five years. By january, we will built more than 100,000 homes, and I hope that we'll still be houses in 2050. Although we be discussing the new situation with you individually, we are sure your jobs will secure. Through this merger, we be expanding and so we will be moving into unknown markets. By February, we will sent you a document about the company 's plans. For now, I promise there will be opportunities for all. '


Complete the sentences with the words in the box. however whereas

despite matter

although spite



American cars are generally too large for the japanese market, japanese cars are popular in the USA. 2 Hard open.

she tried , she couldn't get the door to

3 No _ _ _ _ how difficult it is, I'm determined to do my best. 4 They explained that we could leave _ _ _ _ we wanted to. 5 She went to Spain _ _ _ _ the fact that her doctor had told her to rest. 6 We went out in _ _ __

of the rain.

7 I really want the car, _ _ _ _ much it costs. 8 We decided to take the room, couldn't really afford the rent.


2 The arrival time for the London-Brussels flight is 2.00. (at) The London- Brussels flight _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ 3 The govern ment will pass a law proh ibiting guns. (is) The government _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 4 I work in the same office as john, so I can speak to him. (seeing) 1'11 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ 5 We arrived here in july five years ago. (living) By july, we 'II _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 6 The committee has schedu led a meeting with the owners. (due) The committee is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ 7 Roger always puts up his Christmas decoration s in November. (putting) I imagine Roger w ill _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 8 My son celebrates his eighteenth birthday next March. (old) My son _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ __

2 Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. Write one or two sentences. I spend much too much time on the internet. I know that it's bad for me. (Despite) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 2 My grandmother is still fully independent. She is nearly ninety-six years old. (Even though) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 3 He's an excellent manager. He can be a bit scary to work for. ( . .. although . ..) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 4 They tried hard. They couldn 't persuade him to give up his work. (Hard as) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 5 I understand how difficult the situation is. I'm afraid I can't help. (Whilst) _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __

we knew we 6 He's very charming. I wouldn 't trust him at all. ( ... However, ... ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Underline the correct alternatives.

The Second World War gave I rights/ arise/ rise to the term 'The First Worl d W ar'. Impossible? No. It's all because of 'retronymy'. A 'retronym ' is a word invented for an object/ concept whose original name has gone out of date. Retronyms are invented because new developments change the way we perceive the world. The term 'The First World W ar' can be traced 2 up/ on/back to 1939. Before that date, nobody knew there would be a World W ar II , and World War I had, until then, been called The Great W ar'.

Another example is the gu itar. A ll guitars used to be acoustic. The invention of the electric guitar 3 caused/ led/ moved to the term 'acoustic guitar'. Similarly, nobody said 'black and white TV' before the invention of colour TV 4 developed/ resulted/ traced in the need for the term. Many retronyms 5 affect/ stem/ rise from modern technology. The invention of laptops brought 6 with/fori about the term 'desktop computer' and the proliferation of mobile phones resulted 7 on/in/to the word 'Iandline'. The word 'retronym' is 8 attributed/given/caused to Frank Mankiewicz, an American journalist.

GRAMMAR cleft sentences

We can use Wh- words with cleft sentences. To emphasise the action, we use a form of do.

Cleft means 'd ivided '. In cleft sentences, one sentence is divided into two parts, each with its own verb. This adds emphasis to part of the sentence.

Jane invested well. ---. What Jane did was invest well. emphasising with what, all and it

John loves Mary. (one verb) It's Mary that John loves. (two verbs, emphasises Mary)

To emphasise an action or series of actions, we can use sentences beginning with What.

The following structures are commonly used to begin cleft sentences.

He dropped the vase. ---. What happened was (that) he dropped the vase. We can use Wh- clauses as introductory phrases. What I would like to know is where the money went. We can use all instead of what. All I'd like to say is that the company appreciates your work. Use It + be + that/who to emphasise parts of a sentence. Karin left her bag on the train. ---. It was Karin who left her bag on the train. (Karin - not Fatima) It was her bag that Karin left on the train. (not her umbrella) It's because you have such a good sense of humour that I enjoy your company. (emphasising reason) It was only yesterday that I discovered the documents were missing. (emphasising time) It was by chance that they met in Paris. (emphasising

It+ ...

What+ ...

It was a .. . who ... It was in .. , that ...

What I like about ... is What they didn 't realise was ...

other structures The person who ... The place that .. . The thing that ... is / was . . . Something that . . . is/was ... The reason why ... is / was ... The only thing that ... is/ was . .. All that I would ... is/ was .. .

prepositional phrase)

participle clauses Participl e clauses are used to make our writing and speaking more economical, efficient and, sometimes, more elegant. They can also be used to add information about reason, condition and resu lt. past participles Past particle clauses have a passive meaning. Use past participles to add extra information. They sometimes serve the same purpose as adjectives (describing a noun). Loved by everyone, Don was a wonderful character. (describes Don)

Exhausted trom her efforts, she struggled on. (describes 'she') present participles Present particle clauses have an active mean ing. Use present participles (-ing form) : • as reduced relative clauses. Here the present participle serves the same purpose as an adjective.

The woman who is smiling in the photo is my grandmother. ---. The woman smiling in the photo is my grandmother. I smelt the bread that was burning. ---. I smelt the burning bread.

• as adverbial clauses (like adverbs): expressing manner, conditions, cause, result, etc. This is especially common in formal or literary texts. To make the negative, use not before the present participle.

Moving silently, the lion follows its prey. Lying face down in the sand, he looked like some strange sea beast. Not being qualified, she couldn't work there. There was a fire, resulting in serious damage. having + past participle Having + past participle is used: • to show the cause of a second action.

Having won every competition, he decided to retire. • to show a sequence of actions.

Having made breakfast, she sat down and read the paper.

exchanging opinions agreeing

questioning someone's opinion

strongly disagreeing

That's absolutely right.

Oh come on, you must be joking.

It just doesn 't make sense to me.

I couldn't agree more.

Surely you don't think that ...

Oh that's ridiculous!

Absolutely! I'm with you 100% on that.

That goes against my better judgement because ...

agreeing in part

How can you say that?

I agree with you up to a point.

Where's the logic in that?

I suppose you've got a point, but ...

You can't honestly think that . ..


Complete the second sentence so it has a similar


Rewrite the sentences in three different ways using the

meaning to the first. Use the word in brackets.

prompts. You may need to change some words.

I He lost his job because he kept breaking the rules. kept breaking the rules. (reason) The

I Elections have given these people their first real opportunity to decide who will govern them.

2 He only realised who she was when he left the theatre. (recognised) It was only her.

a) What elections have done is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

3 I want to persuade them to come with us. (do) What I to come with us.

c) It's the elections _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

b) The thing that _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

2 Heavy snow and severe weather caused w idespread

4 The thing that concerns me is whether she will have enough money. (worry) All whether she will have enough money.

a) It was the airports _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __

S They have such a fantastic range of spices.

c) What caused disruption _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

(amazing) What is fantastic range of spices.

disruption to the country's airports, roads and rail systems. b) It was heavy snow _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _

3 Hundreds of students marched through the city centre to

such a

protest against the new laws. a) What caused students _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ b) The reason hundreds of _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ c) What happened was _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


Complete the pairs of sentences using the same verb, once as a

2 Find and correct five mistakes in the text.

present participle and once as a past participle.

I a)

Arming with nothing but a donated caravan, a

as much noise as she could, Lola attracted the attention of the rescuers.

solar laptop and toothpaste made from crushed

b) _ _ _ _ in China, this new gadget will be cheap and efficient. 2 a) b) 3 a)

he had six months to live, he shocked everyone by living another twenty years. his staff he was visiting a client, Jones disappeared with all the company's money. for her ticket, she suddenly realised she had never been to a theatre before . by the hour, the employees rarely worked at the

b) weekend .

cash. Having graduate in economics, he was a food company manager. One afternoon while to discuss the world's problems with a friend, he decided to act on Gandhi's words: 'Be the change you want to see in the world.' Giving a caravan by a stranger, he moved out ofhis home. A friend donated a bike and he

4 a) Many of the clothes _ _ _ _ by famous people are kept in the museum. b) All participants _ _ _ _ a badge will receive a free meal. S a) In my opinion, it's one of the best books ever _ _ __ b) _ _ _ _ on his blog today, Mick Davies says the economic crisis is over.


cuttlefish bones, Mark Boyle lives without

Complete the conversations with the words in the box .

got himself a stove and began his new life. He now lives off the land, cycles everywhere and writes a blog. Is it true freedom? Asking what he misses about his old life, he says stress, traffic, bank statements and utility bills. He's joking.

3 A: I think we've done more than enough for today. B: Absolutely' I" m w ith you







A: The sales department have asked us to talk through the material with them. B: Why do they want to do that? It just doesn't make _ _ _ _ tome. 2 A: No one would ever want to actually wear something like that. It's too uncomfortable. B: I _ _ _ _ you've got a point.

on that.

4 A: When we finish the tour, we need to go back to the beginning and start again. B: _ _ _ _ ·s the logic in that? S A: Brill iant. I think that's an excellent idea. B: I'm sorry, but you can't _ _ _ _ tell me you think that is a good idea. 6 A: We'll have trouble finishing everything in time. B: I couldn't agree _ _ __

GRAMMAR future in the past Sometimes when we're talking about the past, we want to mention something that was in the future at that time. To do this, use future structures but make the verb forms past, e.g. is going to ----. was going to

I was going to help you, but I didn't have time.

They told me I was to give a speech the fol/owing day. I was to have taken a job with my father's company, but it went bankrupt. other expressions to talk about the future in the past To describe a plan that did not become reality, use:

• was/ were supposed to. I was supposed to go to Nick's house, but my car broke down.

present continuous ----. past continuous

They were hoping to have a picnic, but it rained aI/ weekend. wi/! ----. would* I arrived in Recife, where I would spend ten years of my life.* *This is a different use from would for repeated actions in the past. Compare:

At sixteen, I got a job at Limo Company, where I would later become CEO. (future in the past) For years, I would go running at S.OOa.m. every morning. (repeated actions in the past) We can also use was/were to + infinitive and was/were to have + past participle. These are quite literary and more commonly found in writing than speech. The expression was to have is usually used when the plan did not become a reality.

• meant to. I meant to mention the cost of tickets, but I forgot. (active) We were meant to check in an hour ago! (passive) For events that very nearly happened , use: • was/ were on the verge of + gerund.

She was on the verge of giving up her dream when she received a letter from an agent. • was / were on the point of + gerund. They were on the point of leaving when the boss arrived. • was/were about to + infinitive. Hi! I was about to text you!

ellipsis and substitution

spoken grammar

ellipsis Sometimes words which we might expect to be present from a grammatical point of view are left out because we can understand the meaning from the context (the preceding or following text). Often the words which are left out are auxiliary verbs, modal verbs or subjects. She immediately got up and (she) left the room. (subject) Should we wait for a while or (should we) phone him straightaway? (modal verb)

Ellipsis is very common in spoken English as the situational context is usually very clear between the speakers.

They have finished lunch and (they have) gone for a coffee. (subject + auxiliary verb) It is possible to leave out repeated verb phrases or adjectives and just repeat the auxiliary or modal verb.

Marisa has never tried Asian cooking, but I have (tried Asian cooking). Harry always thinks he's right about things, but he isn't (always right about things). I thought we'd be able to finish this before Monday, but we can't (finish this before Monday) .

Didn't know you were going. (I didn't know ... ) Sounds good to me. (That/What you'vejust suggested sounds good.) This means that some common phrases are often shortened.

Did you have a nice weekend? ----. Nice weekend? I suppose so. ----. Suppose so. It's nice to meet you. ----. Nice to meet you. substitution Instead of repeating a word/phrase, they are sometimes replaced with a substitute word / phrase. Determiners (many, a little, some, etc.), so, do and not are all used fo r this.

A: Do you know a lot of the people coming tonight?

8: Not many. A: What do you think of this dress?

8: Actual/y, I prefer the other one. A: Do you think they'l/ be here soon? 8: I expect so. (so them to be here soon)


A: Who ate aI/ the chocolate biscuits - you? 8: No, Max did. (did = ate all the chocolate biscuits)

A: Wil/ you have to pay a fine? 8: I hope not. (not I won't have to pay a fine)


discussing ideas introducing an alternative

acknowledging an idea Absolutely. Definitely. That's a good idea. (That) makes sense. That's (very) true. Good one! Sure. '"

I'm with you there. That 's interesting. Right, O K. Yes and no. I know what you mean. I never thought of that.

Mind you , . . . I also think .. . Actually, ... But looking at it another way, ... (Although) having said that, ... Alternatively, .. . On the other hand, ...



Match the sentence halves.

Find and correct the seven mistakes in sent ences 1-1 0 .

I was supposed to

2 3 4 S 6

We are about to ascend the mountain when snow started to fall.

The three musicians were going

2 Just as Clancy was on the point of escaping, a guard entered the hallway.

At the time, I didn't know that

3 Melissa meant tell you about the dinner invitation, but she forgot.

Paul was on the verge of

4 We were to had taken the 6.02 train to Manchester, but it was cancelled.

Honestly, I was

S She got sick when she was on a verge of becoming a superstar.

You were about to

6 He was going to stay with his brothers for a while before emigrating.

a) I would never see her again.

7 Thompson then travelled to Bali, where he will later meet his sixth wife.

b) planning to help you in the garden, but I got backache. c) giving up when he saw the top of the mountain.

8 I was but hoping to work with Donna again, but she left the company. 9 It was to have been a surprise party, but she found out about it.

10 I was to meeting Daley and his gang in the subway at midnight.

d) to be the greatest band in history. e) make the biggest mistake of your life. f) call home, but I forgot.


Complete the sentences with words in the box. mine ones

so not






Decide which words can be om itted in sentences 1-8. I'm not sure if they've finished, but I think they have finished.

2 We could have met them later, but I didn't want to meet This jacket is in a terrible state. I need to buy a new

them later.

3 Do you want a coffee? I've just made some coffee.

2 Louise loves Italian food, and I _ _ _ too.

4 I'd be happy to help if you need me to help.

3 A: Is it safe to come out?

S A: What time were we supposed to arrive?

B: I think _ __

B: We were supposed to arrive at six.

4 They'll probably lose the match, but I hope _ __

S These batteries are too small. I need those _ _ _ over there.


7 They'll be here soon, but I don't know exactly when

6 I've been to the Seychelles. We went on holiday _ __ 7 A: Is that your car? B: No,

6 Erica had ice cream for dessert and Bill had chocolate

is parked across the road .

they'll be here.

8 A : Have you got the time? B: The time is half past two.

8 A: Do you know where all the tools are? B: There are _ _ _ in the garage.

1 Put the underlined phrases in the correct order to complete the conversation. Capitalise letters where necessary. A: Teachers, my idea is that from now on students set their own homework. B: That's interesting, I of I that thought never.

A: If they set the homework, there's more chance they will do it. B: 2 with there you I'm. 3 sense makes that.

e: 4 way another at but it looking, won't they set very small amounts of homework?


5 mean you what know I, but I don't think it will happen.

Students know what is good for them.

e: Yes and no. Many of them want to learn, but 6 hand the on other, my students hate homework. They prefer going to parties in the evenings!

A: Mine too.

e: 7 that said having, maybe they can write about their parties for homework. B: Nice idea!

GRAMMAR verb tenses for unreal situations After some expressions, we use past tenses to describe unreal or imaginary situations. These ideas may refer to the past, present o r fu tu re.

it's time Use it's time + past simple to say t hat somethi ng is not hap pe ning but it shou ld be.

It's time you went home. W e can also use it's high time + past simple or it 's about time + past simple. These are more em phatic than it's time.

It 's high time she left her boyfriend! It's about time you found a job! what if/ suppose/ supposing Use what iff suppose/ supposing + past simple to ask about imaginary sit uatio ns and their consequences in the present or future. These are sim il ar to second conditional questions.

What if you missed the plane? Suppose you got injured, what would the coach say? Supposing they gave you the prize, how would you fee!? W e can also use t hese expressio ns with the past perfect. This is sim il ar to the th ird co nditio nal.

What if you'd failed your exam last week, what would you have done?

adve rbials Ad verbs o r adve rbial phrases give us information or detail about how, w he n, why, how ofte n, w he re, etc., something happens. They can be single words or grou ps of wo rds.

would rather/ would sooner Use would rather/ would sooner + past simple to describe preferences.

/'d rather you didn 't play football inside. /' d sooner they gave me a cheque than a watch when I retire. If the person expressing the preference is also the subject of the preference, use the infinitive (not the past tense) . I'd rather go to Madagascar than Hawaii.

I'd sooner eat bread than cake. as if/ as though Use as iff as though + past simple to say that appearance is different from reality. She treats me as if I had a disease. (The speaker knows he doesn 't have a disease.) The y use this place as though it was a playground. (It isn't a playground .) Use the present simple/ present perfect with these expressions when the situation may be true . He acts as if he knows what he 's doing. (M aybe he knows what he's doing.)

You look as though you haven't slept for days. (Maybe she hasn 't slept for days.)

adve rbials of pu rpose These describe the reason behind / for an action . They play chess to work on their strategic thinking skills.

She apologised fo r being so insensitive.

adverbials of manner These describe how something happens. He left the room quietly.

comment adve r bials These describe someone's viewpoint.

She spoke in a soft voice.

For more examples, see page I I I .

adve r bials of t ime These describe when something happened.

adverbials of frequency These describe how often somethi ng hap pened .

Adverbs and adverbial phrases usually go at the end of a sentence in the following order: how, where, when. Adverbials of purpose generally come last. They wandered aimlessly (how) around the park (where) at the end of the concert (when) in search of the keys (purpose) .

We must have gone there pretty much every day for fifteen years. I often blog about this toPic.

Some adverbials can go at the start of the sentence for emphasis.

adverbials of probability These describe how pro bable or im probable something is. He is right, without a doubt.

On the radio, they played his music all day long.

In 2008, the government was overthrown. We saw him yesterday.

She is undoubtedly right.

The clothes in that shop are ridiculously expensive.

Adverbs/ Adverbials of frequency usually go before the main verb (or after the verb to be/ auxiliary verb) .

Our paths have frequently crossed.

ranting/raving raving


It was the most wo nd e rful /amazing/ aweso me . . . It was absolutely fantastic /incredible. It's really the best (show) ever. There 's (absolutely) nothing better than . . . (It was) one of the most spectacular (sunsets) I've ever see n. I couldn 't believe my luck when ... It was idyllic. It's an all -time classic.

If the re's o ne thing I can't stand , it 's ... It d ri ves me up the wall. It was absolutely horre ndo us. It was a total waste of money. It 's no t my style/kind of t hi ng/ cup of tea at all.


Cross out the incorrect alternative.


I'd prefer/sooner/rather we went somewhere picturesque than stay here.

I You really should speak to your mother. (high time) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __

Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets and the past simple.

2 He scores goals as if/as were/as though it was the easiest thing in the world.

2 What would happen if I pressed this button? (Su ppose) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

3 What if/Suppose/How about that half-baked

3 The way they treat that girl. you'd think she was a princess. (as though) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

idea became a reality?

4 It's the/high/about time she started living up to her name.

S She'd rather/want that/soonerthey came up

4 Given the choice , I would learn Chinese instead of German. (sooner) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __

S Imagine a volcanic eruption in a densely populated area. (What if) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __

with some ideas than just criticise.

6 Supposing/Rather/ Suppose your career went downhill, what would you do?

7 Isn 't it one time/time/about time yo u took

6 She ought to stop smoking now. (about time) _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ __

7 Anyone would think they own the place. the way they behave. (as if) _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

her feelings into consideration , too? 8 In meetings, I'm treated as if/as though /as I was an idiot.


8 I don't want you to go there. (rather) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Choose the correct option, a), b) or c}, to complete the text.

The £40 Art Collection Tom Alexander, began I collecti ng British Modern art after moving to the Isle of Arran, UK in 1947. Having 2 established a shop 3_ _ __ with his brother in the village of Brodick, he joined the Officers Emergency Army Reserve in order to do something 'public spirited '. 4 , the Officers Emergency Army Reserve paid him an 5 sum of money around £.40. With the encouragement of his wife Catherine, he decided to use this money to buy one work of art per year. Alexander had acquired an interest in avant-garde British art after purchasing his first piece in 1943 and visited the Tate and National Gallery 6 . In a fashion that would be impossible today, Alexander wrote 7 to artists whose work he liked and asked them to send him a piece of their own choosing. Many famous artists 8 responded to Tom Alexander's direct and eloquent approach, often enjoying the idea of having works on Arran . The exhibition includes examples of correspondence Alexander had 9_ _ __

2 Put the phrases in the correct order to make sentences. There may be more than one possible order. I I / just grab / if / at lunchtime / I'm in a hurry / quickly / a sandwich / to eat

2 generally / sit / too tired to talk / in front of the television / in the evenings / my husband and I

3 to reduce the number / carefully plan / in English / I / always / of mistakes / anything I write

4 in front of / too much time / I / the computer / consistently / spend / unfortunately

S enjoyed each other's company / I a) often

b) clearly

c) regularl y

2 a) obviously

b) successfully

c) frequently

3 a) here

b) there

c) everywhere

4 a) To hi s surprise b) Surprised

c) For a surprise c) annual

S a) per year

b) per month

6 a) always

b) whenever possibl e c) impossibly

7 a) straight

b) immediately

c) directly

8 a) generously

b) often

c) used to

9 a) obviously

b) usually

c) with the artists


online / for a while / they met / and

6 about six months ago / painting / I / took up / to help me relax

7 when I left this morning / my things / I left / on the kitchen table

8 have more time / probably / I'll / when my exams are finished / to see my friends

Find and correct the six mistakes in the conversations below.

A: Did you enjoy the concert? B: It was awesome - really, the best concert never!

2 A: How was the exhibition? B: I didn't really like it. I wasn't my mug of tea.

3 A: Did you enjoy the film last night? B: No, it was a horror film and if there's one thing I can 't stand for it 's violence . I walked out halfway through.

4 A: Did you like the book? B: Yes, it's an all classic. S A: What did you think of the acting? B: Oh , I thought it was absolute incredible. 6 A: Was the restaurant good? B: No, the food and the service were terrible. It was total waste of money.

GRAMMAR inversion Inversion is when we put an auxiliary verb before the subject of a clause.

I never saw such a wonderful sight again. auxiliary

+ subject + clause

Never again did I see such a wonderful sight. Inversion is common in written formal texts, but it is also used in informal spoken English to add dramatic effect or emphasis. No way would I ever go on a trip like that! (There is no way / chance that I would ever go on a trip like that.) Not in a million years would I agree to cross Africa on a motorbike' negative adverbials In formal English, it is common to use inversion after negative adverbial expressions and restrictive words such as only, never, hardly and little. At no time did they stop to think about the consequences. Not until the ambulance arrived did we realise how serious it was.

Hardly had the film begun when she fell sound asleep in her chair. Never before/Rarely/ Seldom had I seen such landscapes. Little did they realise how stupid they had been. No sooner had they opened the packet than the biscuits were finished. No longer will we accept these poor conditions. Only then did they see what a fantastic chance they'd been offered.

Only now that I am pregnant has he finally agreed to stop riding his motorbike. Not only did they leave their families for more than two months, but they also travelled to some of the most dangerous places on the planet. Under no circumstances/On no account should you leave the bike unattended. Scarcely had they left the room than people started talking about them. conditional clauses In formal English, inversion can be used with conditional sentences.

If we had known how much it was going to cost, we would never have chosen it. Had we known how much it was going to cost, we would never have chosen it. If you were to have approached from the other direction, you might have seen the signs. Were you to have approached from the other direction, you might have seen the signs.

comparative structures

To show a small difference use almost or nearly.


He's almost as neurotic as me. big difference

small difference

To emphasise no difference use just or every bit.


considerably, infinitely, decidedly, significantly

marginally, fraction ally

I'm just as clever as you. We're every bit as good as our competitors.


much, far, a lot, a good deal

slightly, a bit, a little, barely any


miles, way, loads

double comparatives Use double comparatives with the to say that one situation leads to another. The bigger the lie, the more people believe it.

Their technology was considerably more advanced than ours. We're way better than you at football! (spoken English) modifiers with as + as We also use modifiers to give more detail about as + adjective + as statements. To show a big difference, use nothing like, or nowhere near. He's nothing like as obstinate as his brother. She's nowhere near as good as me at chess.

The more you read, the more you'll learn. progressive comparatives Use the progressive comparative form to say something is escalating. Use the comparative word twice (separated by and) to emphasise the adjective .

House prices are getting lower and lower.

negotiating naming your objectives

refusing an offer

We want to sort this out as soon as possible. By the end of the day, we want to resolve this.

That would be difficult for me because of .. . I'm not sure I can do that because ...

exploring positions

accepting an offer

What do you have in mind? Can you go into more detail?

Good. That sounds acceptable to me. Great. We've got a deal.

making conditional offers

following up the deal

If you do ... for me, I'll do . .. for you. What if we supported your idea?

Let me know if you have any queries. Get in touch if anything needs clarifying.



Match the sentence halves.

I No sooner had I reached the door

Find and correct the five mistakes in sente nces 1-8 . Seldom I have seen him looking so miserab le.

2 little did I know what

2 Not on ly have they decided to move cities, but they are leaving the US altogether.

3 At no time did she 4 Only after the film had started

3 Under no circumstances you should leave the office .

S Scarcely had I walked in through the door

4 We had known there would be a water shortage, we would have been more prepared.

6 Had I suspected that he was untrustworthy,

S Only later she realised her mistake.

a) admit that it was her own mistake.

6 Had he invited us, we would have been delighted to accept.

b) I obviously wouldn't have given him the package. c) than I realised I had left my keys inside.

7 At no time did she consider giving up her campaign.

d) did I realise that I'd seen it before .

8 Were they to apologised more quickly, I might have

e) surprises they had in store for me.

forgiven them .

f) when the phone rang.

1 Complete the sentences w ith a su itable word . She 's nothing intelligent as her father.

2 We are


For footballer Tiago Manu el Dias Correia, better known as Bebe, life I better better just and gets. He is 2 as near as nowhere famous C ristiano Ronaldo, but his story 3 bit remarkable everv as is. In 4 than little vea r a more, from livin g in a shelter for yo ung people in Lisbon , Bebe is on th e brink of stardom. He was playing for the CA IS Association in the 2009 European Street Football Festival in Bosnia when he joked with his team-mates that one day he 5 greater fa r wo uld than be Ronaldo. While he still has a long way to go before he ac hi eves that, he has just 6 deal closer a good come. During th e tournament in Bosnia, Bebe was the best player, but accordin g to the director of Be be's team, he was 7 like nothing hero flamboyan t his as as, Ronaldo. ' H e was a very simple sort of guy who did not have much. But ... in terms of ability, he was the team. But he did not try to keep the ball. H e involved the others.' After the tournament, he was signed by Estrela Amadora , a Portuguese club. Then he moved on to a club called Vi toria. After he had impressed in a pre-season game, suddenly Manch ester United came calling. In Au gust 2010, the British club signed him for a reported £7.4 million, 8 more th an monev considerably he would have expected to see in his lifetime. ' I had the dream of playing for a major club,' said Bebe, 'and that dream has come tru e.'

as lot

stronger than them.

3 I'm

any bigger now than I was aged twelve.

4 This tastes a good better than it did yesterday.

S He's

bit as famous

as his mother.

6 Some sprinters just get faster and as they get older.

7 The closer you come, more dangerous it'll be.

8 I'm nowhere


ambitious as my brother.


Put the underli ned word s in t he correct order to complete the text.









Two word s in each sentence are in the wrong orde r. Correct them.

A: We want to sort out this as soon as possible. B: So do we. Can you go into detail more about your proposal l 2 A: By end the of the meeting, we want to have a concrete plan. B: What do you have mind in? 3 A: If you do for this me, I'll help you with the project. B: I'm sure not we can do that because of our contract.

4 A: Good, that sounds to acceptable me. B: Let know me if you have any queries. S A: Great! We've a got deal. B: Get in touch if anything clarifying needs. 6 A: What if supported we your idea for the pension scheme? B: OK, but the rest of the proposal would difficult be for us as it still means cutting jobs.




Find pairs of opposite adjectives in the box.

considerate circumspect conservative temperamental easygoing gregarious selfish liberal introverted


B Match the adjectives in the box with statements 1-10. She expects everyone to help her. but she never does anything for anyone else! 2 My boss is happy one minute and screaming the next. 3 The manager doesn't like new ideas; he wants to do everything the old way. 4 That child talks to few people; he prefers to sit quietly and read or just think. S That girl is so relaxed that she never seems to worry about anything. 6 She's very cautious; she thinks carefully before she decides to do something. 7 She's tolerant and she wants her employees to be free to do what they want. 8 That man makes too many instant decisions without thinking about the consequences. 9 When he sees me, he always brings a gift and asks about my family. 10 She loves socialising; she goes to parties every night. C Can you think of people (friends, famous people, fictional characters) who match the adjectives above?


Read sentences 1-6 and look at the pictures. How could you complete the idioms?

She has a lot of power. In that organisation she's a ' "

4 He ruined the company's reputation. He was a ...

2 He must be the laziest person I've ever met. He's a total ...

3 She sometimes gets out of control. She's a bit of a .. .

S She broke her arm and still refused to give up. She's a .. .

6 He complains whenever we try to have fun. He's a bit of a ...

B Check your ideas. Match idioms a)-f) in bold with sentences 1-6 above. a) rotten apple: one bad person who has a bad effect on all others in the group b) loose cannon : an unpredictable person who may cause damage if he/she is not controlled c) couch potato: a person who lives a sedentary lifestyle, never doing any exercise d) wet blanket: a negative person who ruins other people's good times e) big cheese: an important, influential person f) tough cookie: someone who is strong enough to deal with difficult or violent situations


1 Underline the metaphors in sentences 1-12. Match the metaphors with the meanings in the boxes. Intelligence as light a clever idea that comes suddenly was especially good at something

intelligent not very intelligent

The solution came to me in a flash of inspiration. 2 Nico shone at maths from an early age. 3 As a small child, Akiko was obviously bright. 4 Everyone thought I was dim, but I eventually passed all my exams. Theories as buildings help prove



fails because of a particular reaso n

S We analysed the findings and then constructed a theory. 6 Do you have any statistics to support this theory? 7 Your evidence is very weak; that's where your idea falls down. 8 The foundations of the argument aren 't very strong. Business as war began an intense series of actions merge together a big profit

aimed at

9 He made a killing from his latest investment. 10 The marketing department launched an aggressive campaign to promote the product. I lOur new adverts are targeting eighteen-year-olds. 12 The two companies decided to join forces in 2009 .


Choose the correct alternatives to complete the phrases in bold.

I If an opinion is one that is commonly agreed on it is the general/ usual opinion . 2 Sometimes it can be diplomatic to keep/ hold your opinions to yourself. 3 If you have an idea about something which doesn't represent your company's view, it is your individual/ personal opinion . 4 If someone has strong opinions and lets them be known, they might be considered opinionated/ idealistic. S If you disagree with someone you might have a split/ difference of opinion . 6 If there are two sides to the argument, and equal numbers of people on both sides, then we can say opinion is divided/ half 7 If there is no right or wrong answer then it is just a matter/ case of opinion . 8 People have a right to make their own decisions about things. In other words, they are en tit/ed/ open to their own opinion .

B Complete the sentences with the correct answers from Exercise 2A. Sandie suggested splitting the work between us, but if you want my 2 I honestly couldn't stand him. I found him both 3 I'm afraid I don't agree. We seem to have a

of opinion on this one.

4 We asked over a thousand people and found that opinion was S I don't see how you can say that. It's a

opinion , I think it's a bad idea.

and arrogant.

, with nearly forty percent against the decision.

of opinion.

6 You can't tell him what to believe in. He's _ _ _ to his own opinion. 7 I think in this instance it might be better to 8 The

our opinions to ourselves.

opinion seems to be that it would be a good idea to start now.



Match sentences 1-4 with photos A-D.

I It's a vast, overpopu lated metropolis. 2 It's a quaint, secluded village far from any big cities. 3 It's a scenic town with awe-inspiring mountain views. 4 It's a sprawling, ramshackle slum. B Match meanings a)-h) with adjectives in sentences 1-4 above. a) extremely large b) extremely impressive in a way that makes you feel great respect c) surrounded by views of beautiful countryside d) spreading over a wide area in an untidy or unattractive way e) unusual and attractive, especially in an old-fashioned way f) in bad condition and in need of repair g) very private and quiet h) there are too many people in a place


Underline two prefixes in each sentence.

I She was a supermodel when miniskirts first became fashionable.

C Which words are described in definitions 1-8 below? Use prefixes from the table in Exercise 2B. I twice every month


2 Camping in sub-zero temperatures, the team soon learnt to cooperate.

2 a hero who has amazing powers

3 I became bilingual by interacting with French speakers from an early age.

4 a secondary plot that isn't the main story

4 I'm semi-retired now, but I outlasted many younger men in this business.

3 grow too big for some of your clothes 5 between or among nations 6 a circle cut in half 7 two people who founded a business together

B Complete the second column of the table with the words in the box. below small half more/more powerful/larger between/ among bigger/greater than something else

I prefix



example words



bi monthly, bicentenary



co-author, co-pi lot


interchangeable, intercontinental


minicab, minimi se,


outsell, outpl ay


semi-skimmed , semicolon


subtitle, subway


supernatural, superpower

8 a small bar, or drinks in a small fridge, in your hotel room

o Add more examples to the third column of the table.



Complete the sentences with a preposition.

Underli ne phrases in Exercise

lA which


meanings a}- j} below.

I The men were released from prison and put _ _ _ probation .

a) comes into effect

2 Hundreds of young fans went _ _ _ the rampage through the city centre.

b) asked to report to a probat ion officer at regular intervals rather than being sent to prison

3 A new law, introduced to reduce vandalism, comes _ _ _ force next month.

c) may cause a risk to others

4 He was given points on his licence _ _ _ speeding. 5 We agreed to help the police _ _ _ their inquiries. 6 An investigation is being held accident.

the causes of the

e) took part in a course of violent, frenzied behaviour f ) assist in a police investigation

7 The gang were arrested and held

g) officially accu sed by a court of del iberately causing harm to another person

custo dy.

8 Two teenagers were identified and charged _ __ assault.

h) legally confined by the police i) released CS gas in a crowd (often used during riot s)

9 The man was described as a hardened criminal who posed a serious threat the public. 10 Police f ired tear-gas to disperse the crowd .

d) received a penalty whi ch involves putting nu mbers on your driving licence - when you reach a certain number, your licence is taken away from you for a period of time

j) the po lice are t rying to di scover what caused something

the protesters in an attempt


Match the socia l issues w ith pictures A-H.

I white -collar crime 2 illiteracy 3 poverty 4 gender inequality





5 censorshi p 6 ageism 7 organised crime 8 antisocial behaviour B Complete the sentences using the words/ phrases above.

a) A definition of is when people don 't have enough money for their basic needs. b) D ue to , women often get paid less than men for doing the same job. c)

is harmful to ot her people and shows that you do not care about other people.


is a term for illegal activiti es, such as scams and fraud , carried out by businesspeople.

e) Because of , people are often prevented from speaking and writing the truth.



means people cannot read or write, often because they could not get an education .


refers to a coord inated group of criminals wh o engage in illegal activities to make money and gain power.


comes from negative stereotypes about older people.



IDIOMS: SECRETS , A Match the phrases in bold in sentences 1-5 with similar phrases in a}-e} below. I This is classified information.


2 She divulged a secret. 3 What I said is between you and me. 4 It's a covert operation. S She's behaving as if she has something to hide.

A a) She looks furtive. b) It's hush-hush , so don't tell anyone. c) TI ,,~se docun ,ems al e confidentiel. d) She blurted out the secret. e) This action is top secret. B Match the phrases from Exercise 1A with pictures A-E. C Which phrases in Exercise 1A are usually used in formal situations, e.g. government and business discussions/documents?


I on

Complete the sentences using the particles in the box. back








If you have a problem with your husband you should talk it _ __ 2 Things are looking

: sales have improved and we've got some excellent new products.

3 Even though he was exhausted, he soldiered 4 They killed

and reached the top of the hill.

my proposal because it was too expensive.

S Those children are too excited - they need to calm _ __ 6 Please tidy

your stuff - it 's all over the floor!

7 She was well-behaved for a few days but now she 's slipped 8 Those boys are always lounging

to her old ways.

doing nothing!

B Think of ways to rephrase the ideas in the multi-word verbs above.

1 We con use 'discuss it' instead of 'talk it over'.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES , A Match the prepositional phrases in bold with phrases a), b) or c).

B How could speaker B respond to what speaker A says? Write down your ideas.

I The ship was hit by the typhoon and blown off course. Now it's lost. 2 I started the race OK, but soon realised I was off the pace and had to give up. 3 You can't get power into a golf shot if you're off balance.

I A: I was feeling under the weather yesterday.

B: ____________________

a) too slow to keep up b) away from a scheduled path

2 A: I'm absolutely over the moon!

B: ____________________

c) in an unsteady position 4 We are not investigating the President. He's above suspicion .

3 A: I was under the impression you were happy at work.

S We never do anything illegal. Everything is above board . 6 The planes are fast and comfortable, but above all they're safe.

B: ____________________

a) the most important thing is b) assumed to be innocent

4 A: D o you think I'm over the hill? I'm only thirty-five.

c) legal

B: __________________

7 The manager said that, aged sixty-five, I was over the hill so he fired me. 8 When I won first prize I was over the moon. I celebrated a lot.

S A: I hear you resigned . Isn 't that a bit over the topl

9 Her celebrations were excessive. They were over the top .

B: __________________~

a) too much b) past my best (too old now)

6 A: I'm above suspicion in this investigation, aren't II

c) extremely happy

B: ____________________

10 I didn't go to work because I was feeling under the weather. I I Oh, do I have to cook dinner? I was under the impression you 'd do it! 12 When you testify in court, remember you are under oath and cannot lie. a) thinking (probably wrongly) b) obliged by the law to tell the truth in court c) a little bit sick


B Which idioms in Exercise 2A would you use in situations a)-j)?

Complete the idioms in bold with the words in the box.











I Marisa was talking so fast I just couldn't get a ____ in edgeways. 2 Come on! Try to ____ to the point. 3 After ten minutes we realised that we were talking at ____ purposes.

a) Someone has completely misunde rstood w hat you have said (so they do something diffe rent) . b) You can't understand anything t hat someone is trying to say. c) You can't hear what the other person is saying.

4 I'm sorry. I didn't ____ what you said .

d) Someone is talking so much It'S hard for you to say anything.

S That kind of behaviour is not acceptable . It sounds to me like she needs a ____ talking to.

e) Somebody needs to be reprimand ed fo r something.

6 I'm sorry. We've been talking ____ all evening. Let's stop t alking about work now.

f) You need someone to re peat what they said.

7 Could you ____ that by me one more time? 8 I couldn't make head or ____ of what she was saying. 9 That's an understatement to say the ____ . 10 Unfortunately, I think he got the wrong end of the ____ .

g) There has been a mi sunderstanding on both sides. h) Someone should say what they want to say (i nstead of talking around the subject). i) You think a situation is more serious than someone else suggested.

j) Someone talks about their work.

VOCABULARY BANK SUFFIXES 1A Put the words in the box in the correct column of the table according to their suffix. One word can be used in two columns. censorship exorbitant nationalist governor responsive senility fabricate likelihood personable kindliness identical repetition sarcasm glorify troublesome classy expertise remission anxious heroic verb

j adjective



B Complete the sentences using the words in brackets and a suitable suffix. I I

, but I really don 't know how to help. (sympathy)

2 Heat therapy has been proven to be highly

in cases of this kind . (effect)

3 I know it's an _ _ __ , but could I possibly use your bathroom? (impose) 4 I'm not sure that such 5 He was in the

helps the company's image much. (frivolous) position of not having to work for a living. (envy)

6 Gemma felt so nervous during the interview that her answers were a little _ _ _ _ . (hesitate) 7 A delay of two hours failed to dampen their

. (enthusiastic)

8 I found his attitude really _ _ _ _ . (chauvinist)


Match the idioms in bold with pictures A-F.

I I'm exhausted: I've been burning the candle at both ends .

2 I'm goi ng to while away myoid age reading an d swimming. 3 I'm taking time out from wo rk to finish writing my book. 4 I'm go ing to chill out for a few weeks. C'

5 I've been working all hours to finish my castle. 6 We were burning the midnight oil to finish it on time.









B Answer the questions. a) Which idiom means you've been doing too much late at night and early in the morning? b) Which idiom means to change your usual routine to do something else? c) Which two idioms refer to relaxing? d) What do you think the other two idioms mean? Do they have a negative or positive connotation?

C Write short answers to questions 1-6. What would you like to take time out to do at the moment?

2 How do you plan to while away your old age? 3 When did you last chill out? 4 As a student, dol did you ever burn the candle at both ends?

5 When might you need to work all hours to get a job or task done?

6 When is the last time you burned the midnight oil? What were you doing?





1A Match the phrases in bold in sentences 1-10 with meanings a}-j} below.

2A Underline expressions in the conversations below which relate to memory or memories.

I We were so poor that we accepted the offer to live there. Beggars can't be choosers!

2 Ah , here's the report - two weeks late! Better late than never, I suppose.

3 It looks as if our team is going to win , but don't count your chickens.

4 He wasn 't sure about starting up the business, but I told him to strike while the iron's hot. S Do what the teachers tell you, son , and keep your nose clean .

6 Working late again? No rest for the wicked .

7 It doesn't matter if you aren 't top of the class, but always put your best foot forward . 8 Give your little brother some of your drink! Share and share alike.

A: Is there anything else you can think of that would helpl

B: No, nothing springs to mind. 2 A: I travelled across South America on horseback.

B: W ow, that's a once-in-a-lifetime experience. 3 A: I've had such a wonderful day.

B: Yes, it 's been a real day to remember.

4 A: Can you remember that woman's name? B: N o, but it 's on the tip of my tongue. S A: W here's your bag?

B: I've left it somewhere, and I can't for the life of me remember w here.

6 A: There you arel Why didn't you call me like I asked you to l B: I'm so sorry. I clean forgot.

9 I start working at S.OOa.m. My mother always told me that the early bird catches the worm .

7 A: D o you remember when we studied history together?

10 The government was brought down by journali sts and writers, not soldiers. The pen is mightier than the sword.

8 A: D o you remember when we used to study together during the holi daysl

a) Do everything you can to be successful. b) If you start (work) early, you wil l have more opportunities. c) Take decisive action while the conditions are right. d) Don 't get too confident of something until you're absolutely sure it 's going to happen. e) Bad people have to work constantly and aren't allowed to stop and rest. (We say this as a joke to a busy/ overworked person.) f) If you don 't have much (money, opportunity, etc.), be grateful for anything you're offered . g) Be generous to other people with your things (food, possessions, etc.) . h) Good writing is more effective than violence. (It'S better to use your intelligence rather than violence to beat an opponent.) i) Be good and don 't get into trouble .

D Even if you can't do something on time, do it anyway. This is better than not doing it at all. B Which of the proverbs and sayings have equivalents in your language? C Think of situations in which you might use the proverbs and sayings above.

You might soy 'shore and shore alike' to a young child if he/she isn't shoring. You might soy 'strike while the iron's hot' to a business associate if you see a good opportunity.

B: That's going back.

B: O f course. I remember it like it was yesterday. 9 A: Sorry, I've had a complete memory lapse and I can't remember your name. B: It's Lisbeth. Elisabeth Al exander. lOA: Can you remember her phone number? B: Yes, it 's etched on my memory. B Which expressions refer to remembering or forgetting? Which refer to past experiences? C Find expressions in conversations 1-10 which relate to meanings a}-e} below. There may be more than one possible answer. a) I remember it very well. b) It was an experience worth remembering. c) I can't quite remember at the moment. d) I completely forgot. e) It was a long time ago.


Find the three-part multi-word verbs in headlines 1-10. Use them to complete definitions a)-j).

President goes back on his word, says conditions have changed

a) _ _ _ _ _ _ someth ing: reduce the amou n or number of something that you take / eat/ drink, etc.

What did superstar Megan Kleist get up to on her last holiday?

b) _ _ _ _ _ _ an idea/plan/scheme: do something you had promised or planned to do


Doctors say cut down on fatty foods and quit TV meals

c) _ _ __ _ _ what you sa id/ your word: not do what you said you would do


People asked to look in on elderly neighbours during winter freeze

d) _ _ _ _ __ virus: become ill


Experts warn public to watch out for new computer virus

e) _ _ _ _ _ _ something: get rid of something or stop using it


USA will struggle to keep up with new superpowers, says economist

f) _ _ _ _ _ _ someone/something: think that you are better than someone else or that something is not very good


7 10,000 lose jobs as HRG Company goes through with plans to downsize


Prince goes down with flu before his big day


Company does away with face-to-face business, everything now online

an illness, e.g. chicken pox, a

g) _ _ _ _ _ _ someone/something: move as fast as someone or something else h) _ _ _ _ _ _ something/someone: be read y for someone or something that might hurt or cause problems for you i) _ _ _ _ _ _ someone: make a short visit to someone, especially if they are sick or need help

j) _ _ _ _ _ _ : do, especially enjoyable I0


Snobbish actress Lara Richards looks down on UK awards

activities (We use this multi-word verb on its own especially in questions. We don't name the activity.)

Complete the sentences in any way you choose.

I To be healthier I suppose I could cu t down on ... 2 W hil e in my city/ town you need to watch ou t for .. . 3 I would never look down on ... 4 In the future I think society will do aw ay with ... 5 I sometimes find it hard to keep up with . .. 6 Someone who got up to something interesting recently is ...



Look at the phrases and definitions below. Use phrases a)-f) to complete sentences 1-6.

a) get the wrong idea about something: misunderstand a situation

I thi nk I _ _ _ _ who took the money, but I can't prove it.

b) (not) have the fa intest idea about something: have no understanding of something

2 You mustn't _ _ _ _ about Dan and Helen - they 're just friends.

c) (be) full of bright ideas: have a lot of good ideas

3 Is this _ _ _ _ I Because I don 't think it 's very funny!

d) (be) someone's idea of a joke: someone thi nks th is is funny

4 They seem a bit confused . They don't seem to have _ _ _ _ of what they want.

e) have an idea of/about something: be fairly certain about something, but not completely certain

5 The children were _ _ _ _ for how they cou ld spend the afternoon.

f) have a clear idea about something: have a good underst anding of what you want

6 I'm so rry but

1 ____

what you're talking about.

SYNONYMS , A Circle the word in each list that is not a possible synonym. I impure / unadulterated / natural /genuine 2 shun / ignore / ostracise / welcome 3 guess / estimate / assume / hypothetical 4 argue / squabble / admit / dispute 5 run / stroll / meander / crawl 6 lightweight / cum bersome /awkward / heavy 7 considerable / extensive / minimal/substantial 8 sincere / dishonest / straightforward / unambiguous B Choose the correct alternatives. I have to admit/ dispute I was very surprised by the resu lts. 2 W e took a stroll/ meander through the deserted streets of the old town. 3 The porter carried my bags, which were rather cumbersome/ awkward. 4 I trusted him immediately. His manner was very straightforward/ dishonest. 5 We decided that the best policy would be to ostracise/ ignore what was happening altogether. 6 We have to estimate/ assume that they reviewed all the information available.


Look at the cartoon story. Use the words in the box to complete the captions.





Jodie had a burning _ _ _ _ to be famous.

5 O ne day she had a _ _ _ _ of luck: a talent agent came to her town and saw her perform.




2 From a very young age. she set her on becoming a singer.

3 At school she was constantly _ _ _ _ the limelight.

4 She practised every day. and everyone knew she would eventually hit the _ _ _ _ t ime.

6 When he signed her up. it looked as if all her hard work had paid

7 She was an instant succes s but. not wanting to be a one-h~ ,she kept developing.

8 N ow she's a legend in her _ __ _ , but she still goes home to visit her frie nds and family.

B Cover the captions and re-tell the story. Try to use the completed phrases in bold.



Check your profile. Do you agree with the description?

MBTI Profiles ESTJ - The Overseer - responsible, logical, norm-following

ISTJ - The Examiner - responsible, loyal and hard working.

hard workers. You enjoy being the person in charge and

You have an acute sense of right and wrong and work hard

often make good supervisors.

at preserving established norms and traditions.

ESTP - The Persuader - action-loving, 'here and now' realists

ISTP - The Craftsman - adventurous and independent.

with excellent people skills. You don't always agree with

You like to figure out how things work and have great

rules and regulations, but are good at solving problems.

mechanical and technical skills. You are adaptable and

ESFJ - The Supporter - social butterflies that value

spontaneous, and thrive on new and exciting situations.

relationships, supporting and nurturing others. You are

INTJ - The Strategist - introspective, analytical, determined

dutiful and have a deep concern for others. You often end

people with natural leadership ability. You are a

up as caretakers.

perfectionist, expecting a lot from both yourself and others.

ESFP - The Entertainer - cooperative, 'here and now'

INFJ - The Confidant - introspective, caring, sensitive,

people-persons that enjoy excitement and love new

gentle and comple x people that strive for peace and derive

adventures. You like to be the centre of attention and hate

satisfaction from helping others.

being alone.

ISFJ - The Defender - traditional, loyal, quiet and kind. You

ENTJ - The Chief - strategic, organised natural leaders.

are sensitive to other people's needs because you are very

You are able to understand complicated organisational

observant and pay attention to detail. You do not seek

situations and are quick to develop intelligent solutions.

positions of authority.

ENTP - The Originator - logical, innovative, curious and

ISFP - The Artist - artistic, creative, loyal, independent and

inventive. You can always find ways to improve things and

sensitive. You have a keen appreciation for beauty, and are

are good fun to be with.

easy to get along with.

ENFJ - The Mentor - w arm, supportive and encouraging.

INTP - The Engineer -logical, individualistic, reserved and

You tend to focus on others and have excellent people skills.

very curious individuals. You focus on ideas, theories and

Good at language skills, you do w ell in leadership roles.

the explanation of how things work.

ENFP - The Advocate - introspective, values-oriented,

INFP - The Dreamer - introspective, private, creative and

inspiring, social and extremely expressive. You are natural

highly idealistic individuals that want to do good in the

advocates for things you feel to be important.

w orld . You often have a talent for language and writing.


Work in pairs. Describe and discuss the portraits below. Use the following questions to help you .

• What can you say about the person's job or character from the picture? • How do you think he/ she is feeling? Why do you think this might be?


Student B

7A Student B

9A Read the paragraph below and underline four metaphors related to time and money. Match them with meanings 1-4.

The English Village At the Happy English Village in Taoyuan, Taiwan, children arrive at the end of their normal school day to spend time speaking English and having fun. The village has themed rooms (a shop, restaurant, airport, coffee shop, cookery room and dance studio). Children work in groups of twelve with volunteer foreign teachers.

Stuck in a stressful job, I was living on borrowed time. I ate badly and was constantly sick. Whenever I tried to relax, I found myself thinking about work. Even at the weekends, I felt as if my boss was tapping me on the shoulder, saying, 'You're wasting precious time! ' One Sunday, I visited my grandfather. I said, 'I know I should put aside some time for myself, but I just can't afford to spend time relaxing. I'll lose my job.' He said, 'No. You can't afford not to. If you go on like this, you'll lose your mind. Which is worse? ' keep time free

2 using time badly (not doing anything with your time) 3 don 't have time to do something 4 survive after you would expect to be dead

B Read your paragraph to your partner twice. Which metaphors did he/ she notice? Teach the four metaphors to your partner.

fII 7A

Student A: prepare to argue that the will is fair and should be upheld. Here is your case. o




Read the rules of the game.

James Holdicott was 'of sound mind' when he wrote the will. He was still making business decisions while in hospital. He understood the contents of the will and changed a previous will because he was not happy with it. He wanted to reward Chris for his loyal work. He believed Nicholas had no interest in the company and did not need the money.

Where are you? You're on one of the Admiralty Islands, a group of small islands off the north coast of Papua New Guinea in the Pacific Ocean. You were able to swim there, with a few belongings, after your

7C Read the text to find out what really happened. Do you think the bosses did the right thing?

plane crashed en route to a conference in Australia.

CASE 1 The boss decided not to fire this worker. The employee had been there a long time and in all other respects was excellent. Instead, the boss sent an email around the office saying, 'Someone is stealing supplies from us. I will offer a €lOO reward to whoever catches this person.' The stealing stopped immediately.

CASE 2 The boss immediately fired the employee. The employee challenged his boss, saying, 'How do you know I wasn't sick and recuperating on the beach?' She replied, Tn'l not firing you beca use you took a day off to mess around on the beach. I'm firing you for stupidiry. 0 smart person would pu t a picture on Facebook of himself parrying on a beach when he's supposed to be at work.'

A penknife, a pen and some paper, a small mirror, a bottle of alcohol and water-resistant tape. Plus, up to five items of your own choice. None of them would, in themselves, allow you to escape (so no inflatable boats, sadly). But used together, and perhaps with a few items from the island, you can hatch an escape plan.


Building a raft, but you quickly rea



it would not get you to safety on Papua

The boss wrote a memo to all employees, saying exactly what \\"as and was not allowed to be charged as expenses. Without nanling the woman, he included many of the items that she had been charging the company for (clothes, tickets to the theatre, etc.). He knew the employee would recognise that she had been caught. The boss also explained that any corporate entertaining needed to be cleared with him bifore it happened.

New Guinea 300 km away before you ran out of the fruit you'd stashed for the journey. Shining a mirror towards the boats that pass on the horizon has failed, too.



Read the myths below and answer the questions.

I What is the myth ? 2 Which myths were di sproved by experiments? 3 What is the truth abo ut the myth?

mSugar makes kids

(Z) Turning your PC off

hyperactive Not one study has conclusively shown that children wi th a sugarladen di et behave differently from those with a sugar-free diet. Most of the studies come from the US with titles such as 'H yperactivity: is candy causal?' but time after time, no link has been found . Despite the evidence, parents simply can't believe this is a myth. In an experiment where th ey were told their children had been give n a sugar-l oaded drink, parents ra ted the children as 'significantly more hyperactive' than parents whose children had received a sugar-free drink. In reality, the children had been given the same sugar-free drink . The difference in behaviour was all in the parents' minds.


Get cold and you get ill

One professor uncovered the truth by studying volunteers w ho were as ked to dunk their fee t in cold water. H e discovered that being chill ed does make a cold more likely. But it's not quite as simple as that. The crucial requi rement is that your body is harbouring a cold virus in the first place. N o virus, no cold.

without shutting it down damages it According to tests in the US, as long as yo ur PC isn't in the middle of an epic video editing proj ect or full of unsaved documents, bypassing the full shutdown rigmarole shouldn't cause any major harm. After you've hit the power button, Word and Excel easily recover your previous spreadsheets and musings. Just take care not to power off when you 've got stuff up and running - you cou ld lose precious data.


Your email is private

H ave you seen ads that correspond to your chat about sausages or that next gen smartphone? Th at's because Google scans yo ur email for key words in order to let its advertisers target yo u. In other words, your emails are far from private; th ey are being used For by big companies w ho want to sell you thi ngs. The scans are by robots, To' Jose G.uda not people, but Cc . _ _- - - - - - - -it's had privacy Subject" TomorrOW evenl"_9 _ _ _ campaIgners up 111 lsat ~Jo;, .•11 free to plllylQott>lIit to:':; eYflnmg7t(dolt arms for yea rs . a.15 .tN King Allred SchOOl spo Hope to tee you \tier.



You are going to debunk a myth of your choice. It can be about a person, a profession, a country or a belief. Here are three ideas. Complete the title and notes on page 61.

1 We only use ten percent of our brains This myth is often cited by people who want us to believe that we can learn to master paranormal activities such as telepathy. Brain imaging techniques, e.g. PET scans, disprove this myth. They clearly show us using the whole brain on a daily basis.

2 Sushi means raw fish It does not mean raw fish. The name refers to the rice used in the dish . Sushi is rice made with rice vinegar, salt and sugar dressing. Traditionally, it's topped with fish, fish eggs, or a variety of vegetables

3 Bulls are angered by the colour red Bulls do not get angry because of the colour red . Professional matadors traditionally use a red cape, but it wouldn 't make any difference if the cape was a different colour because cattle are colour-blind. It is the movement of the cape that angers the bull, not the colour.


, C Read part t wo of the story and check you r answe rs to Exercise 1B on page 80.

An investigati on was inm1ediately launched into his disappearance. Five days later, John Darwin was arrested on suspicion of fraud and deceptio n. A photograph, published in a tabl oid newspaper, revealed th at Mr and Mrs Darwin had been seen together in Panama and had bought a house there together. It turned out that Mr D arwin had planned the w hole disappearance from the beginning after finding himself in finan cial difficulty. On the day of the 'djsappeara nce', Mr Darwin had in fac t pushed his kayak out to sea and later returned home to his wife. What he did then was spend th e next few years hjding inside the house and rarely leavin g. When visitors came, Mr D arwin supposedl y hid in the neighbouring house, escaping though a hole he had made in th e wall of an upstairs bedroo m. H e changed his appearance, spent a lot of time on the internet and applied for a passport under a fa lse name. Mr and Mrs D arwin travelled to Greece and then to Panama, lookin g for opportuniti es to start a new ljfe together, w hile Mrs D arwin kept up the pretence that her husband was dead to her friends, colleagues and two sons. When Mrs D arwin received the life insurance money taken out in her husband's name, Mr Darwin moved to Panam a, where he bought an apartment and waited fo r his wife to j oin him. When she finally managed to emigrate, they bought a £ 200,000 tropical estate and planned to start a hotel business selling canoe holidays. John Darwin finally returned to the UK, claiming that he was missing his sons and was fed up with living the deception. In the m eantime, in the UK, severa] people had become suspicious. It was a colleague of Anne D arwin 's w ho eventually put the pieces of the puzzle together. She had overh eard a conversation which Anne D arwin had had with her husband on the telephon e before leaving for Panama. She th en typed the names 'Anne+John + Darwin+Panama' into Google images and found the photograph, w hich she later sent to th e m edia and to the police. John and Anne D arwin we re both sente nced and served time in prison for fraud and decepti on. Their ill-gained assets (money and property) were taken from th em and their sons refused to talk to eith er of them, claiming that they had been victims of the scam and they no longer wished to have any contact with their parents. John Darwin was released fro m prison in Janu ary 2011 and Anne D arwin in March 201 1. It is thought that they still have some asse ts hidden in Panama.


Th is is how the story continued .

It was a small wooden box , which her mother had kept hidden in the back of her wardrobe. Madge lifted the lid gently and peered inside. The momen t she saw them , she recogn ised his handwriting . At the bottom of the box, lying unopened after all those years, were dozens of letters from the man she had wanted to marry.

7 A Student A: look at your sentences. Delete any words you can leave out due to ellipsis. Read your sentences to St ud ent B. Student B will choose a response. I Have you ever bee n to China? 2 I do n' t know why I can't get this camera to work. 3 I love olives.

4 Have they nearly fini shed ?

5 What's that? It looks wonderful. B Listen to Student B's sentences and choose t he correct responses a) -e) . a) Yes, she said she'd be at the airport at 2p.m. b) No, I wanted to but I fe ll asle e p! c) No, I haven 't. I've o nly just started. d) Did t hey? Do you know who it was? e) No thanks. I've just had one.


Read your role. Think about your answers to questions 1-3 below.

Group A You are the school administrators. • Your budget is €800 (for re nting fi lms, buying fo o d and paying staff for overtime). • You think students should pay €5 per evening (two films ). • You want to serve snacks on ly. • You think the fest ival should last three days. • You t hink the school adm inistrato rs shou ld choose the films because you need to make sure they are appropriate . • You want the student Film Festival Committee to deve lop a web page about the festival to go on the school's w ebsite . You thi nk this will attract students to the school. • You want the festival to take place next term so there is time to arrange it pro perly. What is your mai n o bjective in t his negotiat io n? 2 W hat do yo u think the other team's objective is? 3 What are your o ther objectives? Which of these are qu ite impo rtant? Which are not so important?


9A When would you use the proverbs below? Match proverbs 7-12 with situations g}-I) . Do you have equivalents in your language? 7 There's no place like home. S Nothing ventured, nothing gained. 9 Don't judge a book by its cover. I 0 Actions speak louder than words. I I Practice makes perfect. I 2 Absence makes t he heart grow fonder. g) I love to travel but I always feel happier w hen I return . h) I haven't seen Miroslav for six months and I really miss him! i) He looks ordinary but when you talk to him, he's a genius!

j) She's a great tennis player because she works at it six hours a day. k) He doesn't talk much but he always gets the job done. I) If you don't take any risks, you'll never know what you can achieve.

7A Student B: listen to Student A's sentences and choose the correct responses a}-e} . a) It's a Cajun dish with shrimps. Try some! b) Yes, I have. I went there to see my brother who w as living in Beijing. c) Neither do I. Why don 't you let Johnnie have a look? He's good with technology. d) Do you? I can't stand them. e) I think so. They 've just got one more thing to do.

B Look at your sentences. Delete any words you can leave out due to ellipsis. Read you r sentences to Student A. Student A will choose a response. I Have you been in the job for long? 2 Are you sure she's coming today? 3 Someone called you earlier and left a message. 4 D o you want a tea or coffee? 5 Did you see the film last night?

9A You are an art dealer. Read about your clients on page 106. Look at the sculptures below and on page 106. Decide which sculpture to recommend to each company.

1B Answers: I C - Jack Vettriano, painter 2B - Zandra Rhodes, fashion designer 3A - James Caan, businessman


Read what happened to Captain Blackadder.

Captain Blackadder is about to be shot when a telegram arrives. It is from the Minister of W ar, who is George's uncle (George is the defence lawyer). The telegram says that Captain Blackadder's life is to be spared.

7 A Student B: prepa re to argue that the will was rewritten illegally and should be changed . Here is your case. • In the months before his death, James Holdicott was not 'of sound mind ' because he was taking strong medication that affected his mental capabilities. • He was pressurised into changing the will by business associates who feared t hat Nicholas would make changes to the business. • A n earlier draft of the wi ll split James Holdicott's money and assets between the brot hers. This will should be upheld.



Student C

11 Read the notes about an exhibition. Write a review based on the notes (200-250 words).

Mobile English With the Millee Language Program, children in rural areas in India are learning English on their mobile phones. In remote villages, good English teachers are hard to come by, but mobile phones are reasonably cheap. The children learn vocabulary by playing games on their phones. They can then take the phones wherever they go, so that even the fields where they work can become a classroom.

flrst lW\.preSSloYt - YtlCe ldMS. 0lAt Ytot VU8 drtl-W\.tl-tlc vlSlAtl-l~.

GlW\.ple ltl-8 0lAt - flfteen recent 13rltlsh lYtventloYtS ltl-ld tl-rolAYtd the 5tl-llu8 ttJlth Short lYtforW\.tl-tloYt 00tl-rds OYt etl-Ch.

GoW\.e of the ldetl-s tl-re lYttuestlYt5 - 8.5· tl- h8puSOYtlc tl-ltl-rW\. ttJhlCh oYt~ teentl-5us Ctl-Yt hMr (ctl-lled tl- W\.OStl,lAltO) _ lAsed to stop teentl-5us lOltUlYt5 ttJhue the8 tl-ren't ttJtl-Ytted.

88 Read your role. Think about your answers to questions 1-3 below. Group B You are the student Fil m Festi val Committee. • You think t he event will cost € 1500 (for renting films and buying food) . • You think students should pay € I 0 and be allowed to attend all films (two per day) . • You want to serve international food to match the films (e.g. during a Brazilian film , you will serve Brazilian food). • You think the festival should last five days (Mond ay- Friday). • You think the student Film Festival Committee should choose the films because you know what students like. • You want to create a promotional leaflet to hand out to all students.

GoW\.e Ytot so lYttuestlYt5 or or15lYttl-l - e·5· electrlc 0lc8 cle. 0tl- 08 00ttle ttJlth tl-lAtOW\.tl-tlC ttJNW\.U I YtforW\.tl-tloYt tl-00lAt the stor8 0ehlYtd the lYtVentloYt - OK lYttuestlYt5 to Ytote thtl-t soW\.e ldMS htl-ve 0een lYtsplred 08 80lAYt5 people (oYte chlld ttJtl-S jlAst e15ht ttJhen he slA55ested the ldetl- to hlS ftl-thU). OVUtl-ll - dlStl-ppolYtted - It oYt~ ttl-kes tl-00lAt ten W\.lYtlAtes to 50 rOlAYtd the ttJhole e><'hl0ltlOYt - left feellYt5 tl- llttle Htl-t. rtl-thU thtl-Yt lYtsplred. H15 hl15 ht - seCtloYt ttJhue people htl-Ve ttJrltten thelr ottJYt ldMS of pro0leW\.s ttJhlCh cOlAld 0e solved ttJlth YtettJ ldetl-s/ sollAtloYts - soW\.e rMl~ flAYtYt8. YtettJ ldMS.

• You want the festival to take place thi s term because everyone is enthusiastic about it . What is your main objective in thi s negot iation) 2 What do you think the other team's objective is? 3 What are your other objectives? Wh ich of these are quite important? Which are not so important?


Check your answers for Exercise 7B on page 120.

I a scrap (of attention) (n) ----. a very small amount 2 dazzled (adj) ----. amazed 3 ascension (n) ----. ri se 4 clamour (n) ----. con ·nuous loud noise 5 geriatric (adj) ----. Old (person) 6 a beacon (of hope) (n) ----. a sh ining light

AUDIO SCRIPTS [email protected]"

Recording I

I She kept on making mistakes. 2 He'll spend hours studying grammar. 3 They would complain all the time.

[email protected]"

Recording 3

M = Mariella J = John M: For any of you who work surrounded by other people, you' ll know that one of the biggest stressors in the world of work is not the work itself, it's the people we work with. There are the people who need to be noisy when you're trying to be quiet, there are the ones who 'shush' you when you're telling a really good story, there are the sweeping generalisers, and the detail-obsessed nit-pickers, the obsessive planners, and the last-minute deadline junkies. You, of course, are perfect. These days there are tests for just about everything, and personality is no exception. If you've ever been intrigued to define your type, or sat down and completed a questionnaire at work, then it's likely you'll have come across the MyersBriggs Type Indicator, known to its fans as the MBTI. Myers-Briggs is the world's most widely used personality questionnaire. From Beijing to Boston to Bournemouth, office workers, college students, and people who are simply curious to find out more about themselves, answer a series of questions to determine which of sixteen different personality types they fall into. J: How did you find completing the questionnaire that you completed just yesterday I think? M: Em, I found it not particularly challenging. Maybe I didn't think about it as much as one ought to. M: The preferences are split into four sections, so prepare yourself for the psychological bit. The first category determines whether you are an extrovert or an introvert. The second tells you whether you prefer to sense or intuit information. The third deals with decisionmaking: thinking or feeling. And the fourth, our approach to actions: judging and perceiving. Ultimately, you end up with a four-letter acronym like ENFP, or ISFJ , which describes your personality type. J: How do you prefer to, if you like, recharge your batteries at the end of a tiring day? M: Well, most of the time, I prefer to go home and be quiet and read, or slow down ... put my children to bed and so on, J: Typically when we ask people this sort of question. Typically, introverts are more likely to talk about spending quiet time, time on their own, reading, etc. Extroverts are more likely to talk about spending time with people .... I don't know if you ever had the opportunity to put together any flat-pack furniture, or anything like that. How did you go about doing it? M: Well, you know, I'd lose the screws, and then the directions would be underneath the box, and then I'd lose another part of it, and it would take quite a long time, and be quite an infuriating process.

J: OK. Typically when we ask that question, people with a preference for sensing will like to follow the instructions. People who have a preference for intuition, it's not that they disregard instructions, but they 're a little bit more of a gUide ... If you imagine perhaps a friend of yours gives you a call, and says, 'I've just been burgled.' What would you, what would your reaction be, what would you do? M: Do you know, it's so difficult, because I think it depends on the person, you know ... J: OK. In some ... matter ... to me it's a matter of what you do first, because both people with a preference for thinking, (and both people with a preference for feeling) .. . will do both things. They 'll do the practical things. 'Have you called the police?' 'Is the person still there?' 'Have you, you know, called the insurance?', etc., etc. And they'll then go on to, 'And how are you?' M: Well, in that instance I would definitely fall into the thinking category, I think. J: How do you go about doing the food shopping? M: Em I, I'm in love with internet food ordering, um so I do that, and then all the things that I've forgotten, cos I don 't do it with any great system, I spend the rest of the week running out and picking up.

J: OK. Typically, people with a preference for judging will be quite organised about those sorts of things. People with a preference for perceiving may also make lists, but those lists have a more aspirational quality. M: Random feel, shall we say? J: Yeah, they are things that they might buy, or they might not buy. If they see something more interesting when they get to the supermarket, they 'll get that instead. M: At the end of my conversation with John, I got my personality type, which I'll illuminate you on later.

.......... Recording 4 WI =Woman I MI = Man I M2 = Man 2

Portrait A WI: I think this woman looks very intelligent. M I: Mmm - she's got, she's got an in ... a kind of intensity to her her face, hasn't she? M2: She looks a bit puzzled to me. WI: I think she looks thoughtful. M I: Yeah, pensive. M2: Yes, maybe. M I: But the way she's sitting ... it's unusual isn't it ... WI: It's very unusual ... she's ... M2: It seems like she's trying to say something - do you know what I mean? M I: Oh, by the way she's ... M2: Trying to make a statement by ... 'this is the sort of person I am. That I ... am relaxed ... and ... confident with ... myself,' I suppose.

M I: Yeah , she gives the impression of being very at ease with herself - doesn't she? WI : I think she's ... it it looks to me as if she's listening ... MI : Mmm WI : . .. to someone else talking ... that we can't see. M I: Yeah ... off off frame yeah. WI : I wonder what she .. . does for a living? M I: Mmm .. . possibly .. . WI : O'you think she's a teacher? M I : I was gonna say academia, I wonder if she's a .. . M2: But something that's not ... within the system, if you know what I mean .. . some ... she looks ... there's something rebellious about ... WI: Yes ... she could be a writer. M2: The way she's . .. just the way she's holding herself there, it's just very confident, and very 'I'm gonna do it my way'. M I: Yeah yeah. I I ... WI: Do you think she works ah ... on television ... something like that? M I : Possibly ... she could be a presenter, or a broadcaster? WI:Yes. M2: That kind of stuff. M I: Umm ... I wouldn't wanna get into an argument with her though. WI : No.

Portrait B M2: This guy looks kind of I'd say intellectual. You've got all the books behind him, he looks quite, umm studious - wouldn't you say? MI:Mmm WI: Yes ... he he looks very thoughtful. M I: But don't you think that it's the glasses that are making us think that? Put a pair of glasses on someone and they suddenly look intelligent . M2: Hmm, maybe. WI:I'd ... M2: But it's also ... WI: ... hazard a guess that he was a writer. M2: It's a - yeah, something like that. It's also the hand on the chair that I'm I'm .. . M I: It's quite posed isn't it? M2:Yes. WI: He ... he doesn't look British I don't think. M2:Ahh! MI:Yes! M2: Interesting. M I: Yeah. I'd say he looks mm ... maybe Eastern European? WI: He could be American . M2: Hard to say isn't it? M I : Ahh, yeah .

AS plOII.,

WI: Do you think that's his room?

M I : N o, th is time not.

M2: I wonder if it's his study - yes.

M2: What is it then , what . ..

M I : Like a study or a library? Again , it makes me think maybe he's in academia.

WI: He could be an artist.

WI: Yes, it could be ... university.

WI : Possibly.

3 Had I known this, I'd have asked to become a cloud.

M2: 'Cos he's dressed very, sort of formally.

4 If I'd been stronger, I could've stopped the

M I: But again he's dressed ... he's dressed quite comfortable ... comfortably, isn 't he? WI : Very casually. M I: It's not formal, is it? M2: So you 'd think that might suggest it's his home or something. M I : How ... hQw d 'you think he comes across though , personality wise? M2:Um WI : I think he looks kind. M2: Hmm, I think there's something guarded there. I think there's ... M I: He knows something. There's something knowing in his eyes ... as if he's got a secret. M2: Yes and not necessarily going to tell us.

Portrait C M I: Now this chap looks like he's in a world of his own .. . like his thoughts have just drifted off somewhere far away. WI : I can't make out where this is. M I: Difficult, isn't it? M2: It looks quite set up, doesn't it? WI: Yes it does. M2: They look like props in front of him. M I : Theatre ... the colours in the background remind me of theatres - the colour of theatre seats. WI: Yes - there is a mug, there's ... is this a plug? MI:Oh yes. M2: I wondered that, with the ... look ... with the wire there . . . WI: I can see ... and a bag. M2: And that looks like a paper bag with his lunch in or something. M I : Brown paper bag ... so maybe he's trying to tell us that he's ... he's got no pretensions. He he's not a ... he's not posh. He's he's brought his lunch in a ... in a grocers' bag. WI : I think it looks ... M2: I don't get the plug if it is a plug. I don't understand that. WI: ... quite funny. M I: Yeah - incongruous. WI : It's quite amusing. M I: Yeah - as if he's trying to make a point about how ridiculous or absurd er his life is or life in general is. WI :Yes. M I: What d'you reckon his job might be? WI: I don't know. M2: When you said you thought somebody with glasses looked intellectual - do you think he's intellectual?


Recording I

I I wish I'd been born a rich man. 2 I wish I was the sun instead of a rich man.

MI :Yes.

w ind.

M2: But there's something otherworldly about the .. . where he's sitting, if you know what I mean .

S But for my weakness, I would've blown that mountain down.

6 If only I'd been transformed into a mountain,


I'd be the strongest of all.

WI : Yes.

7 If only I'd known this, I would've remained a

M2: It's all that red behind him. M I : Like he's bridging different worlds. M2: Exactly. M I: So he he could be a creative; he could be a novelist or a playwright, or something like that. Somebody who fuses fiction and reality.

plOII•• Recording 5 I I'll be there soon. I just have a couple of things to do. 2 Why don't we meet at about eight-ish? 3 I left a lot of stuff at the hotel, but I can pick it up later. 4 Don't worry. We 've got plenty of time. S We've sort of finished the accounts. 6 There'll be about forty or so people attending.

Recording 7 My treasured possession is a very old carpet that has been in my family for four generations. My great grandfather was a salesman. He sold carpets in Calcutta. During the nineteen-fifties he went bankrupt and went to South Africa to find his fortune. Legend has it that he took nothing but the clothes he was wearing and this carpet. I'm not sure this is true, but that's the story. Anyway, he made his fortune in South Afnca and the carpet remained in the family. e he died, my grandmother inherited :t and instead of putting it on the floor of her house in Durban, she hung it on the wall. Even as a young child I remember it. It's bngh y coloured: reds, white, green and gOld, w. these beautiful patterns that look like ea ,es. and I just remember it hanging on the va, 0' the dining room and always wondering y a carpet was on the wall. Anyway, eventualy it was bequeathed to me and um it's now on my wall. It's a little bit old and frayed no ..... I suppose I should repair it. Some 0' e weaving is falling apart. but it stililooi

8 I regret making all these wishes, and I want to be a stonecutter agai n.


Recording 2

The book - Alex Now, you might think of a library as a dusty old place full of books that nobody uses anymore. After all, when we need to research something, we tend to do it on the net nowadays. But in a 'living library' the books are real people. People who can share a significant personal experience, or a particular perspective on life. I volu nteered to be a book at a living library event in Sheffield . The event was organised by the university and was meant to tackle prejudices. Arriving in a bit of a hurry, I looked through the catalogue of available books to sign myself in as 'a student' . Against each 'book' are a few of the typical prejudices and preconceptions people might associate with your 'title'. Next to 'student' were written things like lazy, politically apathetic, do useless degrees. And also wastes tax payers ' money, can't cook and spends all his money on beer. Thinking back to the previous night, I wasn't sure how I was going to tackle any of these accusations. Sitting in the waiting room was rath er surreal, with 'books' asking each other 'Who are you?' and already I was beginning to have second thoughts. When the public started coming in, it was like sitting on a shelf, waiting and hoping that som eone would choose you, and hoping that you would be able to ' inc something to say when they did. LlJC ·Iy. don't ha e to wait long. An older man. grey hair and a suit, came to collect me. As we walked over to our designated corner, I planned my responses to the rail of expected accusations. In fact, as we talked over coffee, w e compared experiences - student fe in the I 960s, with the riots and protests, wild music, and the ambitions they had of changing the world. And student life now. Interestingly, we found that we shared a lot of the same ideologies, that many things haven't really changed. I think the directness of the experience was eye-opening really. The candid discussion forces people to keep an open mind about things, and that has to be good.

AUDIO SCRIPTS The reader - Saba

W2: Oooh , I don 't know about that.

If, like me, you're the kind of person that is curious about other types of people that you don't know personally, then I think you 'd enjoy the 'living book' experience. I went to a three-hour session in Norwich, and was surprised at how much I learned . It gives you a chance to really talk to people, who may be from a different religion, or culture - people who you don't normally get to talk to in your everyday life. I met all kinds of people, some wonderful people. One of them was Karrie, a blind woman. Karrie is visually impaired, having lost her sight due to illness when she was a child. The first thing that struck me about Karrie is that she's fiercely independent. She doesn't like other people doing things for her, so you can imagine that can be a bit difficult. Her mission was to tackle the stigma that people attach to blind people, that they 're helpless. She wants to challenge the stereotype that just because a person can't see, they can't do anything for themselves. Karrie lives a perfectly normal life, gets dressed by herself, goes to work, goes out socially - and does all the things that the rest of us do. Well, she can't drive, but that was really one of her few limitations. She told me about successful blind people around the world who have had a great impact on society - people who've been successfully employed, er taken advanced degrees, published books, written music and participated in athletic and even Olympic events. These are the people that have been Karrie's inspiration. She also talked about how many blind people use their other senses, which happen to be quite developed. So, Karrie feels that she's quite a good judge of character, because she is able to 'see' people for who they really are, on the inside, rather than just how they want to present themselves, or how you may judge them because of the clothes they're wearing, or the. scar they may have. As she put it, she 's able to 'see with her heart' rather than her eyes. My conversation with Karrie gave me a whole new perspective. It taught me not to be narrow-minded about disability, and I thank her for that.

M I : It it is .. . why?

Recording 3 MI = Man I M2 = Man 2 WI ::Woman I W2 ::Woman 2 M I: As far as I'm concerned, we cannot trust the news we read these days. WI:Mmm M2:Why not? M I: Because journalists have an axe to grind. M2: What) That 's debatable. M I: I think it's very rare to get a truly impartial journalist . I don't think it's within human nature to be impartial. You side on one side or the other. M2: Why why would a journalist want to be partial? Why would a journalist not want to be impartial? Surely that's the job of a journalist.

W2: No II 'm agreeing with you. I'm just saying I think there are some journalists who cannot be trusted. They have an agenda .. . they, they aren 't there to tell the truth, they're there to sell newspapers ... or they have an axe to grind . M I: Yeah, it's a job, they 're being paid and er effectively they 're the mouthpiece for whoever is paying them. M2: But isn't the job of a journalist to be, to be rigorous. I mean if somebody comes up with a piece of nonsense, or just whatever er you know a piece of received information that they 're spouting, isn 't the job of a journalist to get to the bottom of that and say: what do you really mean by that, have you got proof of it, who, you know, what are your sources? That's their job, surely?

M2: Could we ... do you think we could agree that the basic honesty of journalists is probably not to be questioned but that the re are a few bad apples in the cart? W2: Yeah. M2: And that there are journalists who gi ve other, you know, who are bad journalists, who are partisan and who are arguing a particular political slant who give other journalists a bad name. M I: Well, I'd say that there are a few bad carts rather than a few bad apples!

[email protected],

Recording 4

Extract 1 A: Journalists have an axe to grind. B: What? That's debatable.

Extract 2 A: Why would a journalist not want to be impartial?

WI: Exactly, you know they 're going in there asking where's the evidence for what you're saying? They're not just going to say, you know - oh you tell me every sheep in Wales is blue and they 're not going to go ooh right I'll just write down every sheep in Wales is blue. They're going to say right, well show me photographs, take me and show me these sheep.

A:Journalists don 't even know that they're biased.

M I : But but the bigger issue here if you ask me is that they're there to sell newspapers and newspaper owners have political agendas.

2 I'm really not sure about that. 3 That's highly debatable.

W2: Quite frankly, it's a business as well isn't

4 I find that highly unlikely.

B: Oooh .. . I don't know about that.

Extract 3

B: I find that highly unlikely.

Recording 5 I really don 't know about that.

it? M I: It's a political business. M2: From what I can gather about the nature of .. . of the dispassionate idea of being a journalist, what a journalist is after is the truth. If that journalist then goes to work for a particular paper that 's got a particular angle ... a particular axe to grind then, certainly that journalist may err towards one side of the political spectrum or the other. But only a bit, I would say. I would say they are still after truth at its heart. WI: Exactly. Surely any journalist worth his or her salt is going to make the case for both sides? Anybody just arguing one side in a totally biased way is not going to be taken seriously. M I : Why? Why are there so many libel trials then if we can trust everything journalists write?

W2: And from what I can gather, people and journalists included don't even know that they 're biased and they'll write, you know, something trying to be impartial and they, they won't realise that actually they have a slant on it, you can't help it. WI: I find that highly unlikely. I mean, they're not stupid people, are they? M I : Some of them are, for some newspapers, the way they write, incredibly stupid.

W2: But surely the people being libelled are just people who didn't like what was said about them?

Recording 6 C :: Chairperson Q:: Questioner S:: Speaker S: OK, I'm going to talk about the influence of nature versus nurture. And I'd like to begin by stating that, as I see it, by far the strongest influence has to be 'nurture'. The reason I think this is that I believe the way we're brought up will have a much stronger influence on how we behave than anything that's in our genes. I mean, some people will argue that our abilities are determined pretty much exclusively by our genes, so if your father was a great scientist with a natu ral ability for mathematics, then there's a pretty good chance that you might inherit that same ability. Personally, I think it's ridiculous to suggest this. I think that when u parent has a particular strength, or interest, or achieves something wonderful in a particular field , then the chances are that when they have children, they will try to instil in the children the same kind of interest, they will pass on their knowledge, their passion for the subject, they are quite likely to engage the child in activities related to that field, perhaps for quite a lot of the child's time. And it's as a result of this that the child may also develop strengths or abilities in the same field. I absolutely reject the idea that nature endows us with these inborn abilities. I mean, you can be born with the best natural musical ability in the universe, but if you don't practise the piano, then nothing will come of it. On the other hand,

AS I think you can teach people to do just about anything, so long as you dedicate time and give the child the right kind of encouragement, or put them in the right situation. So, to conclude I would have to argue that nurture plays a much stronger role in the development of who you are and the talents that you develop than nature does. C: OK. Thank you. And now, let's open the discussion up and take questions from the floor. Does anyone have a question for one of the speakers?

Conversation 2 W: I'm very lucky because I work at home on a very very big dining table in the conservatory so it's very light, very airy, roomy. M: Right. W: There is one drawback and that is it's very cold, very chilly in the winter. M:Oh. W: I have a fire on, but because there's so much glass it's very cold.

Q: Yes, I'd like to ask a question to the last


speaker. I think it is quite obvious if you look around you, that people often very much resemble their parents in terms of their physical appearance, and even their characters. Why then, do you not think that it is equally possible that a child will inherit its parents' ability, or intelligence?

W: But it's lovely being at home. It's a stone's throwaway from all the shops. It's near my neighbours. When I have a coffee break I can meet a neighbour, have a cup of coffee, catch up on all the local chit-chat ...

S: That's a good question, because yes, we can see that we do inherit physical characteristics from our parents. However, the point I'm trying to make is that we cannot rely on something we are assumed to be born with . For me, the influence of nurture is far stronger. I believe that everyone has the same potential, they just need to be given the right conditions to nurture and develop that potential. Thank you for the question. C: Thank you. Are there any other questions?

a;;&ai&I~. Recording 2 M = Man W = Woman

Conversation 1 M: I work in a call centre which is a ... huge open plan, um well, there's tables everywhere people at little sort of boxed areas where they have to just make call after call after call. W:Oh right. M: Um, it's weird because it's a huge airy space, the actual the big room but everything feels quite pokey because it's, you're all crammed up next to each other ... W:Oh dear. M: ... all making your separate calls and it's very noisy, you just hear chat all the ... time. You'd love to be able to get away and have a little bit of quiet, a bit of peace and quiet and somewhere nice to hang out but this isn't it! W:No. M: Um basically everybody's talking and depending on, it varies, depending on what what we're trying to sell and if it is a hard sell W:Right. M: If it's something we're trying to sell as many units of as possible then it gets quite chaotic there but it's, the one benefit is it's within walking distance of home so at least I can get home quickly. W:Yes.

M:Mmhmm W: ... and then go back to work. And at lunchtime, I'm right next to my kitchen, my fridge, make myself a lovely meal, go back to work - no time spent travelling ... M: Mmm ... sounds good. W : ... which is wonderful, and it's a very lovely place to work, a little haven of tranquillity ... because it looks out on to my garden with all the birds.

Recording 3 Just to give you a bit of background information, Harrogate council has announced the creation of cycle hubs er, as part of its cycling strategy for the next five years. Now, the aim of this project is to set up cycle hubs. What are hubs' Hubs are areas where innovative ideas for cycling can be piloted and where resources can be targeted to increase er cycling. So what we plan to do is to introduce these new hubs in the centre of Harrogate, located in areas with a high concentration of cycliSts. Er, this solution will help us er, to create a more safe environment for the cyclist. Cycling is an incredibly efficient mode of transport. It's fast, it's environmentally friendly and it's cheap - with of course the added bonus of keeping you fit. So basically, what we're proposing to do is to get everybody around the table to discuss the merits and demerits of whether or not the idea of a cycling hub in the centre of Harrogate is a good or a bad idea basically. So um, does anyone have any questions?

Recording 4 WI =Woman I W2 = Woman 2 WI: Er Canada has one of the highest standards of living in the world and, you know, long life expectancy ... um and it's one of the world's wealthiest nations so it's really quite a nice - nice place to live. Um and on the downside I suppose there's um - in a lot of areas you have to deal with bad winter weather, so um not - not in all places but in a lot of places we get a lot of snow and um really cold temperatures in the winter um and that can be quite difficult to deal with, although you do get used to it.

I would describe Canada as er geographically massive. Um I think it's kind of difficult to explain how - just how big the country is. It's the second largest country in the world apart from Russia, or next to Russia, um and yeah, so it's just really, really, really big and very, very diverse. Every province is different um and, you know, to visit Canada you really have to go far and go for a long time to - to really appreciate the the vastness of the country. Um what um if I was making a documentary I'd probably focus on things like, you know, we're very, very lucky in Canada to have a huge range of fresh water, um great lakes, rivers everywhere, literally. Um we have three coasts: the Pacific coast, the Atlantic and the Arctic, and we actually have the longest coastline in the world. So you get incredible um diversity, um everything from wildlife to bird life um and also diversity in climate so, you know, we have temperate rain forests and we have deserts, we have um arctic er prairies, we have volcanoes, mountains, um you know, almost half of Canada is covered in forests. Er some similarities um between the United States and Canada um that I can think of is that um we both have a strong history and a long standing history of aboriginal peoples um and we share the longest border in the world. W2: Well undoubtedly one of the best things about Argentina is um the values, um people an9 and their values, how they view life and they - we tend to attribute quite a lot of um um sort of value to our our family. We care a lot about our families and and our gatherings and we kind of gather on Sundays and we have a big barbecue and everybody comes and we all talk about our weeks and what we've been up to and it's a good chance to catch up. Um we also care a great deal about our friends, um we celebrate Friend's Day, which is a big celebration and we have a lot of fun and we give each other cards and thank each other for our friendship. Um so I think that's kind of the best thing about Argentina: people are very warm, very caring and there 's a - we've gOt a great sense of solidarity. Um I guess if you - a lot of people think that Latin America is just Latin America and that all the countries are the same and, you know, like Brazil and Argentina are the same thing but we're very different um with our - we we've got like I I guess if you could put it in into words. Brazilians are very upbeat and very happy and Argentinians we're ... we've got a sense of longing for fo r the old world and this er melancholic view of the of the world and so we ... the outlooks are very different and hence the culture is is very different. An interesting way of seeing Argentina would be um if you were to film a documentary, it would be through following one person like through a day or through a couple of days because then you start getting a sense for all the things that um go on in the country and like, you know, for instance when I used to teach, it it was like I used to start my day not knowing what my day would be about because there's always a strike, there's always a picket line, there's always

AUDIO SCRIPTS all these difficulties you have to overcome through throughout a day and .. . but at the same time you can see how resourceful people are when dealing with difficulties and how er relaxed and and laid back they are about them, in a way. So it's it's an interesting way of living. Um it's a constant struggle but at the same time keeping your smile.

[email protected]"

Recording 3

Speaker 1 I really admire Annie Lennox, the singer. Not not just a singer, um I don't know what you'd call her. I suppose a humanitarian, in a way, because of the work she does er raising awareness of the impact of HIV and AIDS on women and children in particular, especially in South Africa. Um in 2009 she won the Woman of Peace award er for that work and er and it all started when um she went to take part in a concert for er a campaign, an HIV campaign that Nelson Mandela had organised er in South Africa. And from then on - I think she's raised over two million dollars now um to help with treatment, testing, HIV education and prevention programmes. And um, you know, like from a personal point of view, er I've got nearly all of her albums and there are certain of her songs that just take me back to very particular times in my life, like sad times and happy times, and so, you know, she kind of cuts straight through to the heart. But I particularly admire the fact that she's dedicated time to helping other people. I mean, when you find great success like that and you actually have the time and resources to enjoy your wealth and success and money er and you take out huge swathe of ... swathes of time um to help other people around the world and be of service to others, I think that's very admirable and er and a role model for us all.

Speaker 2 AI Gore was vice president of the USA um in the nineties and at the turn of the century um and I think it's fair to say that he didn't get um that much attention because he was serving under Bill Clinton at the time, who was um generally taking the headlines and the plaudits. Um but he sort of became better known when he tried to become president himself. Um but anyway, soon after that he sort of dedicated himself um, well at least more in the public consciousness, um he became known as a kind of environmental activist. He he helped um he helped with a documentary called An Inconvenient Truth, which was based on his own book. Um and it had a huge effect on raising awareness of global warming and environmental issues. A lot of these things are are spoken about now and it seems um it's much more commonly in the news but at that stage really it was ... it was not a very common subject and it made a massive difference and I really admired him for that. I actually got to meet him at um Notre Dame University in in America and I found him really ... there was something ... there's a real integrity about the man that I really admired. The only thing I wonder about is of course

he's always flying around here and there, um giving these talks, and you sort of wonder how much fuel he's burning in doing that. But I think um he's offset that by by his message and um the number of people he's managed to help create an awareness for.

Speaker 3 I'm going to talk about Sting because he's first of all gorgeous, also a fantastic singer, amazing songwriter, wonderful actor and, of course, really respected humanitarian. But personally for me um I've always been interested in him because I know that my dad years ago wrote a book on how to write a hit song, cos he had a few hits as a songwriter, and apparently um Sting er read the book and started ... and embarked on his amazing career. So that um, for me, was what sparked my interest and er he started, as far as I know, in the 1980s after um he was a teacher, that was his background, so obviously he's a really clever man and knowledgeable as well, um and that was when I was growing up in the 1980s, so I remember him touring and singing in concerts for Amnesty International. And some of his songs um also deal with social justice, um like Driven to Tears, which I think was around the same time, um which was about world hunger. Um he also co-founded The Rainforest Foundation to help save rainforests in South America and to protect the indigenous tribes living there, which affected me um so much that I decided I'll embark on a campaign myself to help stop the destruction of rainforests.

Recording 4 civil liberties 2 human rights

3 free trade 4 freedom of speech

5 religious freedom 6 illegal immigration 7 intellectual property 8 gun control

9 environmental awareness 10 capital punishment II economic development 12 child labour



Recording 5



M: So did you see that thing on the news about that er seventy-year-old grandmother who um who stopped the jewel thieves? W: Oh the the one yeah, who knocked one of them off their bike, off their motorbike? M:Yeah. W: That was amazing. M: Wasn't it extraordinary? And they were robbing this jewel store and smashing the windows. W : Yeah yeah yeah, and she just came up and completely ... M: And nobody was doing anything about it. W: ... hit them straight over the head with her massive great handbag.

M: With her shopping bag. W: Shopping bag or something. M: Full of, I don't know, beans or something. W: Cans of beans, yeah! M: But I mean would you do that in that situation? W: Oh II, if it was up to me I think I would probably be too cowardly and I'd end up just calling the police, I'm afraid to say. M: I know, it's interesting, isn't it? I mean, you know, if if I ever found myself in that situation I would like to think that I would be, you know, a have-a-go-hero as well but come, you know, push come to shove, whether or not you actually do it or not is another question, isn't it? W : Yeah, yeah, I mean. M: I mean the fact is that it's dangerous. W: How many ... were there six of them she took on? M: Something like that, yeah. W : That really is ... M: And she knocked one of them off their scooter and then ... and it was only then that all the other passersby came and, you know, landed on him yeah. W : Oh yeah, jumped on the bandwagon, yes. M: But she'd done done the whole thing. W : No you have to ... I completely take my my hat off .,. hat off to her for that because that is truly heroic to just charge in there, but no way would I do that. I just can't see my er yes I I own up to cowardice. I would be ringing someone. M: Well a friend of mine said that he thought it was absolutely, you know, completely stupid, totally wrong thing to do. I said no, I thought that if more people, you know, were like that you'd have a better society. W: Yeah. The thing is, as you said before, I don't know, I think it has to be one of those instantaneous reactions. You either don't think about the consequences and you you pile in and you you do what you can, or it's, I mean as soon as you hesitate I think you're lost really. M:Yeah. W :And er ... M: I think to be absolutely honest, if it was up to me, in the same Situation, I'd probably leg it. W : Really? Yes, weill I think I'd probably do my bit by calling the police.

........... Recording 7 M

= Man



W : This kind of thing seems to be quite common. Families are always being torn apart by money. M: By arguments about money, it's true. But what do you think should happen in this case? W : Well, my first point is that it's quite rare to have a will overturned in court so you need really solid evidence. M: Right. W : And it seems as if the younger brother ... M: Nicholas. W : Nicholas. He doesn't have any proof that ...

AS M: Um, any proof that the father was pressurised. W: ... that the father was pressurised into changing his will. M: And without proof you have no case. W: Exactly. M: But having said that, there's also the issue of whether the father was 'of sound mind'. He was taking a lot of medication apparently so maybe he wasn't thinking straight. W : Again, the question is can you prove that? It's very difficult to do in retrospect, especially if there 's no evidence to suggest he'd lost his mental capabilities. M: Right.

[email protected] , Recording =



J Jenni Murray A Ailish Kavanagh E = Eva Price G = Girl WI = Woman W2 = Woman 2 J: Now, if I'd ever told anybody how much my dad earned, he'd have been absolutely furious. I'm not sure that I ever really knew. We were raised in an atmosphere where families kept themselves to themselves and you told nobody your business. And then it all changed as we became more knowledgeable about the kind of dangerous secrets that might be held behind closed doors, and the damage they could do. We were encouraged as a society to tell these tales and let it all hang out. So, can we still keep a secret? G: One of my friends told me to keep a secret about how she was going out with this other girl's boyfriend. And I kind of went up to the girl and told her by accident, it just fell out. She got really, really annoyed and it was - oh, it was horrible. It was like I thought she was actually going to slap me. It was so bad. Oh my god. We made up like two hours later but it was just the initial, you know, ... I should never have told her secret though. So, it was my fault. A: Have you ever given away anyone's secret by accident? WI: Probably, just Christmas presents maybe accidentally telling someone what their Christmas present was. My husband nearly did that yesterday actually. He took an afternoon off work to go and er go and get something for my .. . for Christmas for me. He wouldn't tell me for days where he was going, and almost let it slip where he was. I really wish he had given it away. A: What's the hardest secret that you've ever had to keep? W2: I revealed a secret of a of a romance that I had with an older man ... that I revealed to my husband because I decided that I had to tell him ... er so that ... because I couldn't live with this secret. If I had to live in honesty with my husband, I had to reveal to him this secret and face the consequences. And, as you can see this is the consequence - we've grown closer together as a result of that. A: So the consequences were quite good then, it seems?

W2: They were. Here he is, still at my side, and I'm at his side. So that was a very big secret that I kept, but I did reveal it. J: Ailish Kavanagh talking to people in Croydon. So when do you spill the beans and be honest, and when is it better to stay schtum? Well , Christine Northam is a counsellor with Relate. Eva Rice is the author of a novel called The Lost Art of Keeping a Secret. Do you really think we have lost the art of keeping a secret? E: I, I certainly do. I think that nowadays everyone's so encouraged to say everything at all times, and express the way they feel, umm, at the drop of a hat. And I think that the point of my book was to get across the fact that sometimes keeping a secret isn't always a bad thing. It can be something that um ... can bring a more positive outcome than always, always telling everyone how you feel. J: SO what kind of secret would you keep? E: I think well, like the characters in my book, if you're keeping a secret that is, in some way, going to protect somebody from something. Obviously I don't want to give away too much of the plot. But if you're protecting somebody in a way that isn't going to damage them when they do ultimately find out um I think that in that case a secret is a very good thing to keep. But nowadays, it's something that is frowned upon, and something that is considered wrong. And you're supposed to tell everyone the way you feel twenty-four hours a day, and so it's something that you shouldn't do is keep a secret.

Recording 4 M = Man MA = Marc W = Woman W: What do you think about organisations like WikiLeaks? M: Well , to be honest, I think they should be stopped. And the reason why I say that is because they are responsible for leaking all kinds of confidential information, some of which is highly sensitive information about people who work in government, or military strategy, and they release this kind of information in a way which is, which is quite honestly .. . completely reckless. They seem to have no regard for the ethics of what they're doing, and um I think they should be stopped. They 've exposed people who they say are informants, and now the lives of those people and their families are now in danger. W: Hold on a minute. Can you be sure about that? Is there any evidence to prove that? M: Well, no, probably not, not absolute proof. But that's not the point. The only way to prove it'll be if something terrible happens to those people as a result of the information which has been disclosed . The the point is that governments and you know certain organisations simply have to be able to keep some information private. It doesn't make sense for everybody to have access to all the information that they want. Let me put it this way. It's like saying you need to give everybody your bank details, because we all have the right to know, but you don't. You don't have that right, and it's simply ridiculous to think that you

do. If you think about it, it's just irresponsible and it's dangerous. W: I don't see how you can say that. Don't you think that there are cases when it's right for the public to know what's happening? Marc, where do you stand on this? MA: Well, yeah, absolutely. I agree. It's not something I've thought much about before, but in fact I think that WikiLeaks is one of the best things to happen in the last few years. It's opened up access to information and it means that big companies and governments will need to be much more careful about how they deal with things in the future, because they can no longer hide behind secrets. And that's how it should be. After all, if you think about it, you can't give people the protection to do whatever they want without fear of being discovered. Whether it's companies using spies to find out what rival companies are planning, or governments holding people illegally, or using illegal practices to get information. I think freedom of information can only be a good thing, and it's like a wakeup call to all those who previously thought that they could get away with wrongdoing by just keeping it quiet. That just doesn't work anymore. M: But that doesn't take account of the fact that some information, like um military information is highly sensitive, and shouldn't be allowed to spread around the internet where simply anybody can get hold of it and use it for whatever purposes they wish. MA: I think you'll find that actually information has always been leaked. It's just the medium that has changed now, so that with the internet it's that bit easier, but there've always been whistleblowers, and there will continue to be. It's no different. The point I'm trying to make is that if the chances of you being discovered are increased, the likelihood of you being exposed, then it'll make you think twice about the actions you're taking, whether you're in government or in a big corporation. I think you'll find that people will be more careful in the future, and in my opinion that can only be a good thing.

......... . . Recording 5 OK, well, to start off with, I have a tattoo on my back. It's a sea horse and I had it done when I was eighteen. Second on my list is my birthday. I was born on Christmas Day. It's a bit of a disadvantage really because no one ever gives you two sets of presents and people tend to forget your birthday because they're so busy celebrating Christmas. Third, it's not what you'd call a big secret but I sing in a local choir. We practise once a week and do occasional concerts. Number four. My favourite film is The Usual Suspects. I've seen it about twenty times. Number five. If I didn't work in an office, I'd like to be a dancer. I used to dance every day when I was a child and I really loved it. I might have taken it further but as a teenager I had back trouble for a couple of years and had to stop. My next one: a few close friends know this. I like gardening. I have an allotment where I grow vegetables like

AUDIO SCRIPTS tomatoes and leeks, and I'm quite good at it. I like to potter around there on Sundays. It's sort of like therapy - very relaxing. And last but not least, at the age of thirty I still don't drive. I'm planning on getting round to it some time, but I've been saying that for years.


Recording 2

S == Stephen Fry D == David Crystal S: Professor David Crystal says that the migratory patterns of our language as it continues to move across the globe, gives us a whole range of Englishes, and that process is becoming ever more intense. D : So just as once upon a time there was British English and American English, and then there came Australian English and South African English, and then Indian English and then Caribbean English. Now, it's down to the level of Nigerian English, Ghanaian English, Singaporian English and so on. And these are the new Englishes of the world. What happens is this: that when a country adopts English as its language, it then immediately adapts it to suit its own circumstances. I mean why have a language? You have to express what you want to say which is your culture. your people, your identity. And when you think of everything that makes up an identity - all the plants and animals that you have, the food and drink. the myths, the legends, the history of your culture, the politics of it, the folk tales, the music, everything has to be talked about in language. And that means your local language, local words to do with the way you are, and different from the way everybody else is. And so the result has been. as English has been taken up by, well over seventy countries in the world as an important medium of their local commun ication. But they have developed their own local brand of English . S: How many people spoke the language we are now conversing in say six hundred years ago? D: Ahh, well, certainly we know around about 1500, 1600, there were four million speakers of English in England~ S: And now in the early part of the twentyfirst century, how many ... I D: Well , if you distinguish between, sort of first language speakers and foreign language speakers there's about 400 million or so first language speakers, English as a mother tongue - or father tongue, depending on your point of view - around the world, and about five times as many who speak English as a second or a foreign language, so we're talking about two billion people, you know, a third of the world's population really. The important point to notice is that for every one native speaker of English, there are now four or five non-native speakers of English, so the centre of gravity of the language has shifted with interesting consequences.

Recording 3 Speaker 1 It's a trend that started in the States and spread certainly in Europe. And it's when guys wear their jeans halfway down their hips so you can see their underwear. Apparently it all started in the prison system in the States. What happened was that prisoners aren 't allowed to wear belts cos these can be used as a weapon. And the prison uniforms were often too big for the inmates. So you 'd have a little guy wearing a huge baggy pair of prison issue trousers and so the prisoners ended up with these trousers halfway down their legs. So the trend has its roots in the prison system but somehow it spread beyond those walls so rappers like Ice T started wearing their trousers like this and it led to widespread adoption of the style. It's known in some parts as a kind of gangster look because obviously it originated in prison, but actually it's pretty common now amongst young people, so basically it 's crossed over into the mainstream. And I guess this is how fashions start and spread cos they kind of come from nowhere, out of the blue, and then early adopters, I think they're called, help to make them fashionable and suddenly you've got a trend.

Speaker 2 As a TV producer, I've obviously looked at the trend of reality TV. It all started to take off in the nineties with the emergence of programmes like Big Brother and Pop Idol. But actually I'd say it originated fro m earlier programmes, stuff that was done in the seventies and eighties. I think the popularity of these shows has caused a big shift in how programmes are made. Production values are quite low and the emphasis is now on making something cheap and quick. Becau se of this, TV companies make bigger profits and it's this that resulted in these shows spreading around the world. So what I'm really saying is we'll keep making these programmes now until the, erm , the public tires of them. And it's because of the public's taste for knowing about real people and real lives. . . . . . .....1IIlt

Recording 4

People now expect to download music for free and CD sales are at their lowest ebb. Basically, the music industry has had to completely change its business model. 2 We saw some great presentations at the conference. The hotel was wonderful and we loved the food' So overall, it was really worth it. 3 Bloggers take news from real reporters and write comments. They do hardly any reporting themselves. So what I'm really saying is that without real reporters, there's no news. 4 Sales of the game soared in May, jumped again in July and rose dramatically at the end of the year. To sum up, we've had an incredible year.

5 This report says young people believe in openness. They share details of their private lives enthusiastically online. In conclusion , young people don 't value their privacy as much as older generations. 6 We had developed a great product. so logically it should have been a success. However, we had technical problems. Then we ran out of money and a competitor st ole the idea. All in all , it was a complete disaster.

........... Recording 6 The nineties feels like such a long time ago now, but lots of important things happened in that decade. There were obviously some major historical events, like umm ... well, Mandela was released from prison, and became President in 1990. There was Mad Cow disease throughout quite a lot of the nineties, which although it was a UK problem, caused a lot of panic - certainly in the rest of Europe. I remember that really well. And then when Mother Teresa died . That was in '97, I think, and I remember it had quite an effect on me. The nineties was when the internet first took off as well, and we started to hear about companies like eBay and Yahoo. I remember getting my first email in the nineties! And I got my first mobile phone then too. It had a changeable face, so that you could change the colour to suit your mood. I had a yellow face, and one with a strawberry on it. I'm not sure what that really says about me. Generally though. the nineties was quite a prosperous time, you know, lots of people were earning good money. So, I think the atmosphere was about enjoying yourself, and having a good time. I think one of the most memorable things about the I 990s has to be the music. Big bands like Take That and The Spice Girls were around. I remember going to the Take That concert in '93 - it was amazing, it was the best night of my life. definitely. And clubbing was generally really big too. There were loads of big clubs. Dance music really took off during the nineties. Thinking about fashion back then makes me cringe , to be honest. Shell suits were all the rage at that time, and I had a purple one. I wore it all the time. It was my favourite, I absolutely loved it. Other fashion items I remember were light-up trainers, you know, when you walked the lights started flashing. Everyone thought they were really cool. It's funny to look back on it all really, but the nineties was a great decade to be a teenager in, definitely.

Recording 2 Speaker 1 The best way for me to switch off from my day-to-day routine is a series of very relaxing and healing movements called Qigong. Qigong it means literally moving the energy and I find that it's the only way to ease my mind after a stressful day. I've been doing it for a few years now and the more I practise it the more effective it is for me. Um those movements, very slow movements

AS with the hands and arms just pull the focu s inwards rather than outwards towards the distractions and worries of the day. And um you're not thinking about what's happened or what will happen, your thoughts are truly in the present and my mind is totally freed up.


Speaker 2

W : Oh the one about the nine-year-old child?

I'm a teacher and my week is usually very busy and very stressful. When I come home from school I don't stop, I still have a lot of marking and preparation so it's not until the weekend that I'm able to begin to switch off. On a Saturday morning I drive to .. . Trowlock Island, a little island on the Thames - takes me about ten minutes by car to get there. I then go across on the ferry to the island. There's a little five-minute walk to the end of the island, no cars, beautiful flowers, spring flowers at the moment, trees, it's very peaceful, lovely, the sound of birds and then I get o nto my boat, turn on the engine and chug away. And instantly I am in another world and completely relaxed with the water, the swans around, the ducks, the sky. It is instant relaxation. It's very peaceful at night sleeping on board, getting up early and I just completely forget about all the worries and stresses of the school and the pupils there and it's a, it's a very very quick, very instant way of relaxing.

M: Yeah who left her son uh in central New York and left him to come back on his own, to make his own way back at the age of nine.

Speaker 3 Um I think the only thing I find really relaxing on a day-to-day basis is gardening. Um I try and get out in the garden most days, mainly because if I don't I'll probably start shouting at, at people. Um I think one of the disadvantages of being a mum is that you never, you're never on your own, someone always walks in when you're in the middle of just thinking about something, you can't finish a thought. So if I go out and garden I can finish a thought. Plus, being a very impatient person um you can't be impatient in the garden, you have to wait and you have to watch and you have to, you can just be in the moment planting things and, and watching things happen and, and I find it incredibly peaceful and relaxing and ... almost meditative. Th e thing is it can't be hurried and there's nothing else to do except watching, waiting and, and as a result my mind is free. Um yes I have a great sense of freedom in the garden um both physically and mentally um and I think it's that sense of freedom, I think, that sense of getting away from everything. Uh and the sense of peace that comes with uh with the activity and the slow, gradual process of things growing and changing and um blossoming. It's, it's a very joyful and very freeing activity.


= Man


Recording 3


M: D id you read that article recently about um, uh I can't remember her name, a New York journalist who . ..

M: I do at the age of nine, he didn 't even have a mobile phone l W: He's probably a nine-year-old that 's really got a lot going on you know, that's the whole point I think to take the child as an individual. M: I understand the wanting the empowerment, I just think we're in a hurry to, to push our kids to grow, grow up too soon ... W: Oh come on.

W : Brilliant l

M: ... these days, I don't understand it.

M: Brilliant?

W : Oh please!

W :Yes l

M: What's the hurry?

M: Oh come on, you must be joking.

W: You know everybody feels that, if everybody feels like that we're never going to get anybody that stands up for themselves.

W : I'm absolutely serious. M: Well in what way brilliant? I mean he could have got lost, he could have been attacked, he could have been mugged, he could have .. . W: That's absolutely right and we have .. .

M: Oh that's ridiculous! We're talking about a nine-year-old ' W : Well that 's absolutely right.

M: What and that's good? W : Look we have to, as parents, now take a stand against all this mollycoddling, cotton wool rubbish. I was allowed to do a lot at a very young age and it helped me make the right decis ions about how to protect myself and learn to be streetwise. These kids don't know anything these days. M: Weill agree with you up to a point, but I mean you can't think that a nine-year-old should be left alone to kind of grow up in the course of two hours. W: Surely you don't think that he should never make his own way home then and never learn? M: Of course not, but not at the age of nine! W: Right, well that goes against my better judgement because I actually think it's, it 's more responsible as a parent to show them by chucking them in at the deep end. M: Right so its, you think it's more responsible to abandon your child , you can't think that surely? W: She didn't abandon the child. M: Well effectively she did. W : The, you know he lives in New York and anyway ... M: What, so who. well that's one of the most dangerous places in the world! W: How can you say that? There are far worse places in the world. It's all relative. M: Of course it's all relative, but if you look at the muggings and the crime rate in New York it's horrendous and a nine-year-old wouldn 't have a clue how to deal with all of that. It's, it just doesn't make sense to me. W : It wasn't from what I know at two o'clock in the morning so, you know, you have to take it with a pinch of salt a bit. M: Right. W: Right, so ... M: Because all crime happens at two o'clock in the morning? W: Surely you don't think then that it's terribly dangerous to leave a child in a, in a city in the middle of the morning, that they know and they 're not four . . .

Recording 5 After twenty long years he was finally free. He breathed deeply. The air smelled good. He thought to himself he would spend the rest of his days outside, by the ocean, at the foot of a mountain, in a 'lalley, in a field, under the stars, it didn't matter as long as he could breathe the air and never be confined again. But before all that, he knew there was something else he had to do. He walked to the nearest town. He had some savings and the first thing he bought was a shovel. This is the best thing I'll ever spend my money on, he said to himself. After this, he walked a while until he came to a car rental office. Using his old ID card , he rented an old blue Chevrolet. No sooner had he got in it than he realised he barely remembered how to turn on the ignition. He fiddled around for a while, but once he'd got the engine going, he drove long into the night. He was sure he would remember the tree. How could he forget? It was burnt into his memory like a scar. Even in the darkness he would remember the rise of the hill, the curve in the road, the thick branches hanging over a rusting iron gate. He'd been looking forward to this moment for twenty years. Having waited so patiently, he knew his moment was close.

Recording 2 G C L

=Geoff Watts



I M2

=Man 2

=Claudia Hammond S =Simon Chu =Louise J =John Aggleton

G: Hello. We're looking back quite a bit in this week's programme, back to childhood for a start. Now, ever had that feeling of being suddenly carried back in time by a particular odour? You probably have because it's a common experience. The smell of coal does it for me, and even more specifically mint sauce. One whiff of that, and it's back to Sunday lunch in the house where I was born. There is, it seems, something special about smells when it comes to evoking memories. Now, as Claudia Hammond reports, psychologists think they may be getting to the root of it.

AUDIO SCRIPTS M I : The smell that always really takes me back in time is the smell of disinfectant, and kind of cedary wood. And for some bizarre reason it reminds me of being at school when I was about seven. M2: Whenever I smell privet, walk past a hedge or something, it takes me instantly back to my kindergarten, to the rather smelly passage through from the garden to the school restaurant, where we had our lunches. It takes me straight back there. C: For some reason, the memories evoked by smells seem to be stronger than memories that come back to you, say from looking at a photo. In the field of psychology, they call it the Proust phenomenon, after the famous incident with the madeleines in Remembrance Of Things Past. One of the people studying the Proust Effect is Doctor Simon Chu, a lecturer in psychology at Liverpool University. The link between smell and memory has hardly been touched by researchers, because until recently, it's been very difficult to prove in the lab. Using familiar smells, like vinegar and talcum powder, Simon Chu tries to trigger autobiographical memories. C: So, what have you got here? You've got about eight little plastic boxes. S: Here we've got things like raw mixed herbs, we've got um some cigarette ash, some vinegar, ketchup, got some paint. What I'm going to do is I'm going to give you a word, and I'm going to ask you to tell me as much as you can about a particular experience that the word reminds you of. C: First, he gives his volunteer Louise a word, like cigarette. And she has to come up with an event from her past linked to the word. Once she's remembered everything she can, he lets her sniff the real thing from one of his special boxes. S: I'd like you to sniff gently at this and tell me anything else you can remember about that particular experience.

L: Oooh um stale cigarette smoke .. . that's a horrible smell. I can still smell it from here. I just remember . .. just the smell of it and the fact that it, you can still smell it on yourself ages later. And then when you go home, you suddenly realise that your parents are probably going to be able to smell it on you as well. And then you get that fear inside you that they're going to know that you were smoking, and you know there were the polos, and the perfume and that kind of thing desperately trying to cover up the smell, so that your parents don't know what you've been up to. C: Confronted by the actual smell of cigarettes, Louise remembers far more about the event than she did when she was simply given the word 'cigarette'. In particular, she remembered the fear that her parents would find out she'd been having a sneaky cigarette. It seems that smell is very good at bringing back the emotional details like this. S: There is something quite unusual and special about the relationship between smells and memory.

J: For me, the most evocative smell is that

W2: Five minutes, my lunch is over in ten.

smell you get when candles have just been snuffed out. And it takes me back to my childhood when I was a chorister in a church choir, in a village in Berkshire. And towards the end of the service, one of the servers used to come out and extinguish the big candles up by the altar. And if I just smell that smell, of candles being snuffed out, I'm instantly back at that time and the memories are of the music of my boyhood, the church music of the time.

WI : ... I mean with the kids like, you know 1" try and make something at the beginning of the week um. You know if everyone's eating at different times, going out in different things, microwave, I don't really like them but they, they really save a lot of time. You can just put a small portion in the microwave, heat it up, a couple of minutes, they can eat it and go.

G: Odours that prompt the memories of times past.


Reco rd i ng 3

M2: Yeah makes sense. W2: Yeah, it's a real short cut. M I : Does anyone else make lists? Cos I find that really helps if I, I have lists ... that help me divide up the day and know what I'm doing when.

Conversation 1

W2:Yesl ...

A: You coming to the party?

M2: Cos you can focus on particular tasks then, assign particular times.

B: Yes, I think so.

Conversation 2 A: Did you just delete the file? B: Hope not.

Conversation 3 A: Want to try this perfume? B: No, but I'll try that one.

Conversation 4 A: You think we'll have enough time to discuss this later? B: We'll have a little.

M I : Exactly. W2: Yes, yes, yes. To do all your phone calls in one go ... M I: Exactly, I know I've got that amount of time and that 's it. W2: ... all your emails in, in one after the other. WI : Yeah it's nice to be able to tick things off and know ... M2: Mind you, if the list becomes too long then I'll procrastinate for so long about which to do first, that it actually wastes time.

Conversation 5

M I: Yeah ... it has to be realistic.

A: You going away on holiday this year?

W2: I also think when, I don't know if any of you have had to make up um furniture from a flat pack.

B: No. Ann Marie doesn't have enough money, and nor do I.

Conversation 6

M2:0h yes.

A: You sure you've got enough copies for everyone?

W2: I think ... I often don't read the instructions properly. I glance at them and then I really wish that I had taken some time and really studied it before I embarked.

B: Yes, lots.


Record i ng 4

M I = Man I Man 2 = Man 2 WI =Woman I W2 = Woman 2

M I: Yes, cos in the long run that would've helped. M2: I am with you there. M I : Absolutely.

M I: OK so uh what ideas do we have for saving time?

M2: I've been caught out like that many times.

M2: Well like for example at univerSity, if we've got a lot to read, there's like a massive reading list um, I'll like take a report or an analysis that someone else has written, and I just simply haven't got time to read the whole thing, so I just often just skip to the conclusion and just like make bullet point notes of what I read there.

WI: Yeah, but I mean when it comes to something like .. . I mean I found one of the most time-consuming things is trying to sort out a computer problem myself, when I don't really know what I'm dOing. And I have had to conclude that paying someone for an hour of their time is gonna save about three hours of mine.

M I: Right OK.

M I : Absolutely.

M2: Well it's not ideal obviously but it does save time.

WI: Ultimately.

WI:Yeah, yeah. M I: Sure, sure. W2: And I find when I'm really busy and I just have to um have a very, very quick lunch to save time, I just bring something in, in a tupperware, put it in the microwave on a plate. M I: Ah that's a good idea. WI: Yeah and certainly ...

M I: That's true. W2: Absolutely, yeah I, I certainly believe in bringing in the expert. There's a wonderful organisation called Tech Friend, that you ring up, you pay a yearly fee and you can ring them at any time with your computer problems. M I : Oh that's interesting. WI: Brilliant - a very good idea.

AS M I: OK well anything to add! I mean to sum up we, we've talked about the idea that you use the microwave, you make lists, you read the instructions first properly and divide up your day so you have things sort of more organised um. Can you think of anything else! Any other suggestions! M2: Actually yes recently, for my birthday, I knew of this restaurant in town that I'd been to on like a Friday or Saturday night one time. And I was gonna have a Sunday lunch there, so I got everybody to meet there and it was closed . I did not realise it would be closed on a Sunday so .. . MI : Ah. M2: You know the telephone was invented many years ago, why do we not use it! Phone first. WI: Yes, yeah, yeah. M I: That's true. Yeah good idea. WI: Good one.

[email protected]':' Recording 6 When I was about nine or ten and everybody uh from primary school was moving up to secondary school, my parents gave me the option to go to a specialised theatrical school or a regular comprehensive. And um it was very important, cos I remember being sat down and shown brochures of everything and there was no pressure either way. And at that young age I made the decision to go to a theatre school. And luckily for me I, I, it's panned out and I've had a career in that um, that line of work. But I then found myself faced with another decision, because we were moving house and uh we had to leave school, and did we want to continue with theatre school or did we want to go to a normal school! And at that point I was about fourteen, and I decided actually I want to get an education and leave the theatrical world at that point, still very, very young to make those decisions. And I did, I left and went to a regular comprehensive and got some uh you know qualifications behind me and everything, and my sister didn't she carried on at theatre school and she went straight into work, very early, and was really successful. I've always wondered if perhaps I should have chosen the other option, cos it was a longer road for me, and I'm still very much on it. And um, and I suppose that the next major decision, the final decision was whether to have children or not or take this huge job that was offered to me, and I chose my children, in that case. So I'm very grateful I've got two lovely boys um, and I've still got my career but I just um, kind of wonder what would have happened if ...

[email protected] Recording 2 Speaker 1 People always ask me that, and it's a very difficult question to answer. One thing is that it's no good just sitting around waiting for an idea to come. If I'm stuck for an idea, I have to switch off and do something else for a while. If I'm stuck with the plot, or I need to work out how a particular character should behave, then I'll go off and do something else for a bit. DOing the washing-up is quite good, doing something mundane, that you don't have to think too hard about. So, I like to invite lots of people round to dinner, so that in the morning there are lots of plates to wash , and that gets me thinking. When you free the mind it helps spark creative connections. So you're doing the washing-up, or having a shower, and suddenly an idea might come to you. You actually have to take your mind off the writing, off the task in hand. And that's when you think of something creative. It's funny how our brains work. Sometimes, I'll go out into the garden, or go for a run to clear my head. When I get back to my desk, the ideas flow a lot more easily.

Speaker 2 I use a lot of mixed media, so I get my ideas from all over the place. But one place I often start is with a photograph. I really like old black and white photographs, so I might start with a photo of someone, and then I'll gradually build up a story around the photo, using a collage of different ideas and colours. Sometimes I read poems, or write them, and I put quotes on the pictures to help tell the story. But it usually starts with the photo. Sometimes when I'm out with a group of people, I get very inspired just watching what's happening. I look at the colours, the clothes people are wearing, how the colours change in the candlelight, things like that. I might take a photo, or I just try to keep the image in my head - take a mental picture of what it looks like, and the feeling I have, and then I'll use that in a painting that I'm working on.

Speaker 3 Um books mainly, old recipe books ... like Margaret Costa, a classic. I'll look through old recipes and then try to recreate the same idea but with a modern, more contemporary twist. Yes, old tomes. Larousse is another one, with plenty of ideas, or sometimes I'll go to the Michelin guides, you know the restaurants with stars - they have books, so I look there too. Unfortunately, I rarely eat out myself, so I don't get ideas that way, but books are a great inspiration. And there's something about having big, heavy books in the kitchen that have been with you a long time. They inherit your character a little, and hold in them so many memories of enjoyable meals.

Speaker 4 I sometimes go to museums or exhibitions, and I'll go and look at some Picasso, or Van Gogh, someone who used big bold colours, and I'll just sit in the gallery with my notebook, and do a few sketches, or try out some colours. Or if I don't have time, I'll buy some postcards, and then when I get home I'll choose from the various patterns and shades. I have an inspiration board at home - a wall in my studio where I put images, photos, things I like the look of. If I go into a shop and see a design I like, then I'll try to take a picture of it (or do a quick sketch) and that will go onto the board. I won't copy it exactly, but it might feed into something I'm working on. There are all sorts of things there, quotes I read , cards that people send me. The idea is that I can use the board as a starting point for a new design. It's important that I can see and touch lots of different textures, and materials. These are very important in fashion. Sometimes just looking at something aesthetically pleasing helps to get the creative juices flowing, and gives you a few ideas to reflect on.

........,.. Recording 3 Speaker 1 If there's one thing I cannot stand it's getting off a tube train on the London underground and lots of people on the platform try to get on the carriage before I have gotten off. Honestly, it drives me up the wall! Don't they understand that if I can't get off then they can't get on, so they need to let me off. And I have in the past actually raised my voice at tourists.

Speaker 2 The last time we went to Cornwall we went to the lovely little town of Fowey, and I discovered what I could describe for me as paradise, it's a tearoom which somebody could describe in a book and it still wouldn 't be as good as, as the actual experience when you go in - beautifully decorated. It's got those little um cake plates with, piled up with the most beautifu l sumptuous cupcakes. And then in the back part they 've got a lovely Rayburn. and if you decided you wanted sardines on toast or scrambled egg or something they'll just whip it up for you. Every single thing you could imagine . on your dream menu . I could have sat there for a week and worked my way through the menu . It was the most wonderful, delicious and, and , the people were so friendly. And they'd gone to such sort of trouble to make this gorgeous place to eat. And um I'd definitely go back there again.

Speaker 3 . The other night I saw the best show ever, it was a show called Dirty Bancing, it's on in the West End, absolutely fantastic. The acting was brilliant, the dancing was brilliant, the songs were terrific! I mean uniformly they were absolutely terrific. And I don't know who played the mother, but she was especially good, honestly, really the best show ever, you must see it!

AUDIO SCRIPTS Speaker 4 I cannot recommend highly enough a trip to one of the beautiful islands of Thailand. I went there last year and there is absolutely nothing better than finding yourself on a private beach with a cool drink in hand and having a dip in tropical warm waters. And I saw one of the most spectacular sunsets I've ever seen. And honestly, I couldn 't believe my luck when I saw turtles in the water, I've always wanted to see turtles. It was idyllic.

Speaker 5 The worst meal I ever had was quite recently. It was absolutely horrendous. The restaurant was grossly overpriced, honestly it was a total waste of money. But it's also you know minutes of my life that I won 't get back. Um the service was appalling, and the waiter just seemed like he'd rather be doing anything else. Clearly it's hard to cook for a lot of people, I understand that, at the same time. But you know meals were coming out at all different times. We had appetisers arriving and then the main course and then nothing for about an hour. It was horrendous.

Speaker 6 I bought the 'one touch can opener' and it has changed my life, seriously, and I'm not even overstating how amazing it is. It's an all-time classic of products, you have to get one, and I couldn't believe my luck when it arrived in the post, just for me, and it does exactly what it says it will. You touch it once and you leave it alone. It's incredible! It's the most incredible thing. You don't have to, you can do something else if you want. It's one of the most spectacular lifechanging products you can buy, because all of that mess and effort taken away um. So if you're ever thinking about it, just do it, it's awesome, seriously, the best product.

[email protected]

Recording 6

I live in Sydney, Australia and I'd recommend the Sydney Opera House. I'd say it's one of the world's most recognisable landmarks, certainly for anyone interested in modern architecture. The most striking thing about it is the shape of the roof, which looks like .. . well, like a group of open shells, or maybe sails unfurling, just like a ship. Its size is quite dramatic as well - it's a lot bigger than it looks in pictures. I think the best time to go is either really early in the morning when there's no one there or in the evening. If you go in the evening, you can watch the sun setting over the Sydney Harbour Bridge and you'll see the birds overhead circling the roof, which is just an amazing Sight. And as it gets dark, there are the city lights reflected off the water and you can stroll along the harbour and pop into any of the great restaurants or bars there. The building itself is obviously admired all over the world, but it's also been very influential in modern architecture. It was one of the first buildings to use computeraided design - back in the 1960s when it was being built, and a lot of the techniques involved in its construction have been copied by other architects. For example the use of reinforced concrete was very .. .

a.:.1IiII~1:otI Record ing I I My life would be considerably better if I had a normal job. 2 Being a celebrity is nothing like as glamorous as it seems. 3 One good thing about fame is that it's far easier to book a table in a restaurant. 4 Even for a celebrity, it's every bit as difficult to enjoy life.

....M:j. Recording 3 When I taught in New York City high schools for thirty years no one but my students paid me a scrap of attention. In the world outside the school I was invisible. Then I wrote a book about my chi ldhood and became mick of the moment. I hoped the book wou ld explain family history t o McCourt children and grandchildren. I hoped it might sell a few hundred copies and I might be invited to have discussions with book clubs. Instead it jumped on the best-seller list and was translated into thirty languages and I was dazzled. The book was my second act. In the world of books I am a late bloomer, a johnny-come-Iately, new kid on the block. My first book, Angela's Ashes, was published in 1996 when I was sixty-six, the second, Tis, in 1999 when I was sixty-nine. At that age it's a wonder I was able to lift the pen at all. New friends of mine (recently acquired because of my ascension to the best-seller liSts) had published books in their twenties. Striplings, So, what took you so long? I was teaching, that 's what took me so long. Not in college or university, where you have all the time in the world for writing and other diversions, but in four different New York City public high schools. (I have read novels about the lives of university professors where

they seemed to be so busy with adultery and academic in-fighting you wonder where they found time to squeeze in a little teaching. ) When you teach five high school classes a day, five days a week, you 're not inclined to go home to clear your head and fashion deathless prose. After a day of five classes your head is filled with the clamour of the classroom. I never expected Angela's Ashes to attract any attention, but when it hit the best-seller lists I became a media darling. I had my picture taken hundreds of times. I was a geriatric novelty with an Irish accent. I was interviewed for dozens of publications. I met governors, mayors, actors. I met the first President Bush and his son, the governor of Texas. I met President Clinton and Hillary Rodham Clinton. I met Gregory Peck. I met the Pope and kissed his ring. Sarah, Duchess of York, interviewed me. She said I was her first Pulitzer Prize winner. I said she was my first duchess. She said, Ooh, and asked the cameraman, Did you get that? Did you get that? I was nominated for a Grammy for the spoken word and nearly met Elton John. People looked at me in a different way. They said, Oh, you wrote that book, This way, please, Mr McCourt, or Is there anything you'd like, anything? A woman in a coffee shop squinted and said, I seen you on TV. You must be important. Who are you? Could I have your autograph? I was listened to. I was asked for my opinion on Ireland, conjunctivitis, drinking, teeth, education, religion, adolescent angst, William Butler Yeats, literature in general. What books are you reading this summer? What books have you read this year? Catholicism, writing, hunger. I spoke to gatherings of dentists, lawyers, ophthalmologists and, of course, teachers. I travelled the world being Irish, being a teacher, an authority on misery of all kinds, a beacon of hope to senior citizens everywhere who always wanted to tell their stories. They made a movie of Angela's Ashes. No matter what you write in America there is always talk of The Movie. You could write the Manhattan telephone directory, and they'd say, So, when is the movie?

AS 1Il111'11'

Recording 4

Much of negotiating is in body language and gesture, but it's also vital that you use the right words. So you're at the beginning of some kind of negotiation. The first thing you want to do is name your objectives. So you can use a phrase such as 'we want to sort this out as soon as possible'. This makes it clear to everybody what you want from the discussion. Another thing you need to do is explore positions. What does that mean? Well, it means asking questions like 'Can you tell me more about this?' 'What do you have in mind?' Exploring positions is all about asking what the other guy wants and then really listening. In this way you can establish common goals. Um, so then you need to make an offer. And this is where the real negotiating starts, and the 'if' word becomes so important because your offer is going to be conditional on certain terms being met, concessions and compromises being made. So you might say, 'If you do this for me, I'll do this for you.' 'We'd be prepared to help you if you help us.' And, as for questions, again we can use 'if'. 'What if'? 'What if we gave you access to this?' 'What if we gave you a helping hand?' 'What if we supported your idea?' In negotiating, the word 'if' is the biggest word in the language. OK. Check that you understand. Negotiations can be long and tiring, but you cannot switch off for a moment. If you missed something, don't bluff. You have to ask about it. Go over the points more than once. Be sure. Ask 'Have I got this right?' 'Are you saying this or that!' 'If I understand you correctly, you mean this.' OK, so then you get towards the endgame. The haggling is over. It's decision time and you need to refuse or accept the deal. Refusing is always delicate. You really don't want to close off all further discussion, so you need to be tactful and phrase the refusal carefully. You never just say no. 'No' is a word that closes doors. Instead, you give reasons and explanations. For example, you might say, That's more than I can offer'. 'That would be difficult for me because of my situation'. 'I'm not sure I can do that because I promised something else'. In other words, you refuse without saying no. It's at this stage you might want to stall for time, or defer the decision, or if you're in business, consult a more senior colleague. The next stage is when you've reached agreement. You say something like, 'Good. That sounds acceptable to me.' Or 'Great. We've got a deal.' But that's not it. It isn't over. You need to follow up the deal. Be polite and civil. Say something like, 'We can talk about it again and review the situation in a few months'. If it's a more formal deal, we can say 'Let me know if you have any queries.' 'If there are any other pOints, I'll email you.' The thing is to follow up the deal. Always keep the conversation open.

Recording 6 I guess my dream job would have to be a film -maker. Making short films, well, making full-length films too - that would be wonderful. The kind of films I'm interested in are those realistic animation films. What appeals to me is that it's wonderfully creative. There's so much you can do. You can do anything. I'd relish having the opportunity to work in an environment like that. I'm fairl y qualified in that, well I'm doing a degree in time-based art and digital film at university so we do a lot of work on film, image, sound and performance. I've made a series of short films, using various different techniques, so I've got a bit of experience behind me. And I'd like to think that I'm a fairly creative individual. I have lots of ideas about how to do things, and I'm not afraid to try out new ideas, to experiment. I'd say I've got quite a good eye for things that are going to work. Like an instinct. I can sense if something is working or not visually, or if we need to change it. I think it's essential to be open-minded and forward-thinking. There are a lot of people now doing fantastically creative things. and making films, so it's quite hard to be able to stand out from the crowd . So you need good business sense too, to make sure your film is successful. It's not JUSt about having the ideas. You need to be a good organiser, so you can manage a project. And you have to be flexible. As for moving towards getting my dream job, as I said, I'm still studying at the moment, but I try to do as much creative work as I can in my spare time. I'm also doing some worlk expenence with an advertising company, looking at how we can use short films in advertising. I'm hoping that this experience will help me to find a job when I graduate.

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© Pearson Education Limited 2012 The right of Antonia Clare and JJ Wilson to be identified as authors of this Work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical , photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers. First published 2012 ISBN : 978- 1-4082-6749-3 Set in Gill Sans Book 9.751 11.5 Printed in Slovakia by Neografia Acknowledgements The publishers and authors would like to thank the following people and institutions for their feedback and comments during the development of the material: Reporters: Brazil: Stephen Greene, Damian Williams; Hungary: Eszter Timar; Italy: Elizabeth Gregson; Japan: James Short; Poland: Lech Krzeminski; United Kingdom : Kirsten Colquhoun, Stephanie Dimond-Bayir, .f;Jhn Evans, Eileen Flannigan, Pip Langley, Robert Turl and We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: Figures: Figure 6.2 from "Top Ten Languages in the Internet 20 I0", www.internetworldstats.com. Internet World Stats. Copyright © 2000-20 I0, Miniwans Marketing Group. Tables: Table 6.2 from "Growth in Internet (2000 20 I0)" , www.internetworldstats.com. Internet World Stats. Copyright © 2000-20 I0 , Miniwatts Marketing Group. Text: Extract 1.1 adapted from "First Name Terms" , The Guardian, 24/ 0912007 (Giles Morris) , copyright © Guardian News & Media Ltd 2007; Extract 1.2 from "How Myers-Briggs Conquered the Office" BBC Radio 4, copyright © The BBC; Quote 1.3 from Alan Bennett, 'N3.tional Portrait Gallery, Interviews with artists and sitters', www.npg.org. uk, copyright © Forelake Ltd . Used by permission of United Agents, www.unitedagents.co.uk on behalf of Forelake Ltd; Quote 1.3 from Germaine Greer ' Natio nal Portrait Gallery, Interviews with artists and sitters', www.npg.org.uk. Reproduced with permission from Aitken Alexander Associates, agents for Germaine Greer; Quote I .3 from Kazuo Ishigu ro 'National Portrait Gallery, Interviews with artists and sitters', www.npg.org. uk , copyright © Kazuo Ishiguro. Reproduced by permission of the author c/o Rogers, Coleridge & White Ltd, 20 Powis Mews, London, WII IJN ; Quotes 2.3 from "'Trusted' professions asked about faith in politicians", The BBC, 28/ 03120 I0 by Dr David Bai ley, GP, Bedwas, Caerphilly, Mary Davis, Assistant Headteacher, Bryn Hafren Comprehensive School, Barry, and Professor Justin Lewis, Head of th e School of Journalism, Med ia & Cultural Studies, Cardiff University, http://news.bbc.co.uk. Reproduced with kind permission of Dr David Bailey, Mary Davis and Professor Justin Lewis; Extracts 3.1 from "Postcards: Where You've Been and What You 've

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