PROFILE 3 Workbook

Business Jon Naunton -. Upper-Intermediate 3Workbook OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS OXFORD UN IV E RSITY "RESS Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 60p Oxford ...

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Business

Jon Naunton

-. Upper-Intermediate

3 Workbook

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

OXFORD UN IV E RS ITY "RESS

Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6 0p Oxford University Press is a department of the University orOxford. It furthers the University's objective ofexcellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York

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Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain o the r countries «:I Oxford University Press 2005

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No unauthorized photocopying All righ ts reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford Univers ity Press or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the ap propriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries con cerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the ELT Rig hts Department, Oxford University Press, at the address abo ve You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer Any websites referred to in this publication are in the public domain and their addresses are provided by Oxford University Press for information only. Oxford University Press disclaim s any respon sibility for the content ISBN:

0194575861

Typeset by Oxford University Press in Minion and Mahsuri Printed in Spain by UnigrafS. L

AC K NO WLEDGEMEN TS

The authors and publisher are gratejUl to those who have given pennission to rL'produce the follOWing L'xtracts and adaptations of copyright tIUIlerial: p7 'Beware of beauties in bars (and othe r stealth marketing tricks)' by Maurice Chittenden and John Harlow © The Sunday Times 9 September 2001. Reproduced by permission of Times Newspapers Limited. p 12 'Gadget poised for b ig things' from Evening News, 23 March 2004. Reproduced by permission of Cambridge Evening News. p22 'Wal around th e world' © The Economist 8 December 2001. Reproduced by permission of The Economist Newspaper Limited, London. p24 Extract from The Leadership Moment by Michael Useem, © 1998 by Michael Useem. Reproduced by pennission of Times Books, a division of Random House, Inc. p28 'Contemplating the perks of rhe job' © Diana Cambridge! The Times 10 December 2001. Re produced by permission of Times Newspapers Limited. p33 'Planting trouble' © The Economist Newspaper Limited, London, 13 December 2003. Reproduced by permission of The Economist. p37 'It's Thursday, so I must be worth a pay rise' by Kate Watson·Smyth, The Independent 12 October 2000. Re produced by permission of Independent Newspapers (UK) limited. p42 'Hamley's make-or·break time' by Nigel Cope, The Independent 10 December 200 1. Reproduced by permission of Independent Newspapers (UK) Limited. p47 'Baggin g Some Big New Markets' fro m BusinessWeek, 24 March 2004 © 2004 by The McGraw·HiIl Companies. Reproduced by permission of Business Week. p52 'Word Perfect' by Kate Taylor, 16 August 2004 © Guardian Newspaper s Ltd 2004. Reproduced by permission of Guard ian Newspapers Ltd. p57 'Wom en's touch wanted' by Alison Coleman, Mail on Sunday 13 May 2001. Reproduced by permission of Atlantic Syndication ! Daily Mail.

The author and publisher would like to thank thL' followingfor the use oJphotOb'Taphs: Berentzen Gruppe AG p7; CameoD p12; Clear Vision Trust p27; Corbis UK Ltd. pp8 (Lawrence Manning), 9 (Russell Underwood), 10 (Charles O'Rear), 13 (Hurewitz Creative), 19 (Gerhard Steiner), 22 (Stravato Micahel Sygma), 25 (Dave C. Houser), 33c (Macduff Everton), 33t (Steve Raymer). 34 (Owen Franken), 58b (Lawrence Manning), 58t (RNf Productions), 60 (Bill Alkofer Sygma), 62 (Larry Williams), 63 (Steve Raymer), 65 (Chris BlandjEye Ubiquitous); Getty Images pp14 (Christian Hoehn{fhe Image Bank), 23 (Shuji Kobayashi/Stone), 29 (FPC Internatio nal /Bryan Peterson), 44 (Rya n stock{faxi), 53 Uill Sabella{faxi), 54 (Chabruken{faxi), 59 (Ron Krisel! The Image Ba nk); (2000 The Image Works{fopham p24; Mary Evans Picture Library p16; Oxford University Press pp28; 58c; Rex Features pp33b (Sun set), 35 (RiChard Austin ), 42 (Nicholas Bailey), 4 7 (Rich ard Young), 50 (Reso), 64 (Ulander); Zooid Pictures pp6, 15 (Dan Sinclair), 57

Illustrations by: Claire Clements ppll. 26, 3 1, 38 Mark Draiseypp 17, 37, 41. 6 1 Mark Duffin p1 2 Sophie Exton p46 Fred van Deelen p49 Sophie Grillet pp36, 39, 52 , 56 Ben Kirchnerppl8, 4 3, 51, 63

r

I

Contents Vocabulary-learning tips

4

1

Target markets

6

2

Triumph and di saster

11

3

Prioritizing

16

4

Globalization

21

5

Company cu lture

26

6

Supply and demand

31

7

Negotiations

36

8

Staying competitive

41

9

Fair exchanges

46

10

Human reso urces

51

11

Business start-up

56

12

Reputations

61

Answer key

66

I,

I

4

VOCABULARY-LEARNING TIPS

Organizing vocabulary

ProFile 3 Upper-intermediate helps yo u expand and develop

1

Use a notebook to create an alphabetical list for quick and easy reference. Note new words as you come across them . Include a definition, the word's part of speech, and, if necessary an example of its use and a note on when the word may be used, i.e. is it formal or informal? For example:

your vocabulary. Each unit of the Wo rkbook has a Vocabulary section which reviews the vocabulary from the Student's Book. Here are a few tips to help make vocabula ry learning a more valuable and enjoyable experience.

Learning vocabulary in context

S HAR.e'

SACK.

To acquire new bus iness vocabulary yo u can ...

read newspapers and magazines like The Economist or Business Week

11\..

tll\.vestOY$ but1 slolayes, til\. Q CDIII.<':PQlI\,.tj

(tll\.foY1'\o\.Ql) :;:::: to (i(is~~ solll.<.to~ fyo~ thety job.. oftell\. because of thety p OOl"

petforw.all\..Ce seCOND-HAND

listen and watch business news programmes.

adj.

Oy

thetl" beh(wi.oKI"

All"eA(i(!:j IA,.SW btl soVl.t.tbo(i(tj else, II\.Ot

"""'W.

Use the context to help you guess the meanings of unknown words. For example:

11\.. solM..ttht~ thAt peoplt Aye gtvell\,. to tytl oy taste. "".""'pl.!, We lilw> the free s .....pl.! the

Hodgkins have beell purveyors of fine foods for 170 years, and members of the royal family are among their most valued

SOI'\l\.t I'\A.,()l"t.

.sAMPLe'

sAlts~A""'"

gAve

t.(.$..

so we dectded. to ot'du

customers.

We can guess that purveyors has a meaning similar to seller or provider. As well as learning new wo rds or phrases in co ntext, it is also i_mportant to use them actively wherever possible, in

2

Use another notebook to record new vocabulary in memorable groups.

Note wo rds on the same topic together.

conversa ti o n or in written work. This will enable yo u to test

their use and approp riacy in a range of different contexts.

Using dictionaries A monolingual dictionary such as the Oxford Dictionary of Business English or the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary will provide a more thorough understanding of a new word than a bilingual dictionary. It will also provide information

At>V6R.nSI NCi COpYWR.IT6R. = • pe",o", w~1O wlites the woms for .avertiselM.t1M:< ."'" oo"""",rciais. She ~s

"V'tR.Ci6T

6 similar or co ntrasting words.

Wh at information can yo u find in the following dictionary definition?

income f' IDkAml ll [C,U] money obtained through return on investment o r as a sa lary, usuall y received on a regular basis: i t's (1 fa mily with two incomes as the

husband and wife botl! work. Compare EXPENDITURE

best co-p~wri.teY; snt comts up w~tn

= to ehoose • grol<.p of eo",""I<.""'''' for a

pYoaL(.ct

01" StYVL.c.t.

We h.ve aee,aecl to target peopl.! '''' the over-55 age grol<.]>. we th, ...... that these """,w el'lA.ise hol,a'!:js shol<.l.e;( appeal to the"".

on: 1 pronunc iati o n; for example: invoice /mv':Jls/ 2 stress; for example: invoice /' mv'Jls/ is stressed on the

first syllable; pioneer /, paI~ ' I1I~ ( r)/ is stressed mainly on the third, but also on the first syllable 3 parts of speech n, v, adv, adj 4 whether a noun is countable [C] or uncountable [U] 5 examples of use

OL(.Y

rtall!:j gooa ,aeas for .avertiselM.t"'ts ."'" slog .......

2

You can also build vocab ulary aro und a particular concept. For example:

CONC6P". VALlA.6 waste of t'IM.t, e.g. Thejob ''''ten/'ew w.s • w.ste of t'IM.t. I fol<."'" Ol<.t that the!:j haa g,ve", the job to solM.to""", alre.a!:j worleL"0 '''' the oo""P''''!:j' ~lI\..vaw.ablt = vertf valL(.ablt!! The ~lI\..foytl\(,"tl..oj.l\,

t10t.(. gave u.s WAS ~lI\..valL(.ablt. Wt COL(.l.l;i nAVe lI\Il.Ade A poor cl1o~ce wttnout ~t .

worthLess

= "'" vall<.e at all.

Snares ~II\. tne COY"t.:pAj.I\,~ An /l\.CW worthLtss.

I",vesto", h.ve lost eve'1jth'''0.

Another way of recording new vocabulary items is according to their grammar. For example:

7

Note any groups of words that commonly go together. For example: verb patterns: t:10u tQ~ SOVlA..ttVl~""9 ~""to aCCoL<.""t

AJ::I6cnVI3.S OF 1'6RSONALrry eOll\.Sc~e~.,tiot.(S~ t"el~Ctble~ pl.<.V\.CtlA.Ql~ tl"1.<.StwOrtVlt:1

nouns + prepositional phrases:

I'ftRASAL V6RSS:

jobs c. "" be ''''' jeOj> • .-oIt!; """"er t"re.t

sot "1" tst.bLLs" / fo"vccI • bus,,,,,,,,,,

Note any commonly occurring three-part collocations. For example:

h-<.t"li\. Ctt"OUM: SQVe Q fQ~L~~ bKSt~

go "",dey: f.'L / go b."""n
eCOIl\.oOM~C

!4

covered

",.. pottt!

8

fw.Lttj eompn~~eL-\.S~ve

Qc:(justey

INSt.{RANC6../-_ _

lA.~trwri.ttr

N O IA.NS

pol,et!

~v\'slA.rClII\...C' broluy pollet! "older be~"''1:J

L~Qb~L~ttl

covey

ClCtw.Cltt:! V 6R.'&.S

tQIu OL.(.t

~1I\.SL<.rQi'\.oCt

I'\.\.Q~ Cl cUt~1'\.\.

Lu\..c:(erwnte g~Vt

Q

Be selective. You don't have to learn or record every new word you come across. Here are some tips:

List new words which frequently occur, and which are useful for yo ur own situation . Divide the list into new vocabulary items you just want to be able to recognize in context, and those yo u wan t to reproduce yourself. Write short definitions for the words yo u just want to recognize, and fuller definitions and examples of use for those you want to use actively.

;>E'O;>LE'

5

=

L~QbLt

Vl.(.Qri."-t

cl&4~V\.tS

ZO/l'\..t =

Q""'''''L<.Ql + perfol'1'\o4.Ql'\.Ge + yevi.ew Q """"t.(.Q l perfOYl'\ot..A l'\.Ge rev~ew

A~E'CT1V6S

6S O F !N S IA.RANC E'

+ ~evel.crp~~t +

eCOIl\.oOM~C developlM.lY\.t ZO/l'\..t

A spidergram is a memorable way of grouping new vocabulary. You can add new words to it when you like.

Recording extra information

qL.(.otQtl.oli\.

1 As you record new vocabulary, note the base form, together with other words in the same family. For example:

Note in which situations a new word is used. Does a new word have a negative or positive connotation? For example:

clever

(+)

c""""","'0 (-) "'."'"ge (v); "'.""'ge""-t.-t (""); "'.""'ge".l (.dj) .dvettLse (v); .dvertLse""-t.-t ("'); .dvert's''''0 ("")

2

Is a new word used formally or informally? For example: ~."'0 0"" ('''''f0C'''-.l)

6

Record words with the same stress and number of syllables together. For example: 000

ODOO

adverttse

Ct~vertL.seV\A.t""t

ca",,~~dQte

",-
3

=

w.'t

Is a new word used idiomatically or metaphorically? For example: Fot" tjeQYS~

s"'e "'a5 bee"" acti.veLtj e""9Qge~ i."" WOVlA.t",,'S

crus. de for eq".l p.t! .vccI covccl't'o"'-S. The literal meaning of crusade is a religious war, but here it is being used metaphorically to refer to a campaign for the improvement of a situation.

6

Target markets VOCABULARY 1

Find 15 words to do with marketin g and advertising.

YEN D 0 R 5 E K H N A NW L D C T C 5 A T U RAT E R GPOSPONSOR X MWP LRMKALQKKWPHI I AOM L C FW GVA HNE I UMEWCS EGMENTPM NORCOPYWR ITERA CTCIUMEDIADCFG HI I WB I RONYSNTE SOA E MQCAMPAIGN YN LL XCG ISXHAJZ J K V 0 I CE 0 V E R W X H NVZFPEYHSLOGAN E Q BRA N D G E R X 0 U P 2

Match some of the words fo und in 1 to these defi nitions. 1

The voice of an actor which you hear in an advertisement.

2

An advertising strategy with long-term .aims. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3

What someone famous does when they publicly approve a particular product.

4

A kind of hUlllour often used in advertising where a sentence has a double meaning. _ _ _ _ _

5

A weU-known and easily recognizable make of product. _ _ _ _ _

6

To introduce a new product into the market through advertising and promotion.

7

A section of a market representing a certain type of consumer.

8

A memorable phrase which is used to advert ise a product. _ _ _ _ _ _

9

To completely fi ll a market so it cannot absorb any more of a given product.

-----,----

10 The overall impression a product creates in the minds of consumers. 11 The person who writes the text for ad vertisements. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 12 An advertisement. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

,

Target markets

READING 1

Read the article abo ut new ways advertisers are using to reach their audiences, and decide whether these statements are true (1) or false (P).

People can be so exposed to advertising that they are no longer aware of it. . 2

The TiVo box is a special piece of equipment for showing advertisements ..

3

Undercover marketing in bars is aimed at corporate employers.

4 5

Advertisers need to find new ways of reaching the young. ... Sol understands the need for new approaches to reach British consumers ..

6 7

Product placement is a recent phenomenon in the US film industry. . Product placement is banned on British TV. .

8

jonathan Ressler bel ieves that ordinary people will mostly replace superstars in the endorsement of products . ......

in the United Stares suggests that a tee nager is exposed to lip to 3,000 television ads a da}~ These ads can become white noi se,

barely noticeable. The huge growth of sa tellite ~hannel s and the introduction of the TiVo box, which can record programmes while filtering our the ads, has

reduced the reach of the television commercial even more. As a result, brands are turning increasingly to undercover m arke tin g. In Ame rica, actresses are hired to go into bars ro offer stra ngers particular brands of alcohol, ciga retres or sna cks. They never reveal the truth of their mission, bur the intention s are [Q h elp foster a feel-good image for their corporate empl oyers. This stealth advertisin g is aimed particu la rly at youn g consu mers who are no longer inAuenced by the heavy sell with which they have grown up.

Brita in is not far behind the USA with this technique. Last night in London, party lovers co uld li sten on their mobile phones to a li st of places to go out under the slogan 'Solo n a mission'. When they relax in front of the soa p opera Hollyoaks, they will see actors drinking from bottles of Sol Mexican beer. It is all part of a £lm campa ign by Sol, which is rejectin g normal advertising in favour of more covert methods. 'Today's youth arc very cynica l,' sa id Zoe Smith, Sol's brand manager in Britain. 'You cannot be toO obvious. They like somethi ng a litrle bit different that challenges th em .' In H ollywood, product placemem has been arou nd for decades. Producers ca n colleer upwards of £75,000 a time from co mpanies wanting their product to be seen on the sc reen. To an extent, the same is true of television, although the methods are more subtl e. British TV co mpani es face heavy fines from the Ind epe nd ent Television Com missi on if they accept payment for product placement. Market in g firm s

have therefore relabelled this as 'prop provision' . The Sol beer in Holl yoa ks is used as a realistic prop. No money is paid to t he programme-makers. ' It sound s an ifici al for a character to walk into a pub and ask for a cola drink,' sa id the lTC 's Hel ena Hird. Some ente rpri sin g consumers are findin g novel ways of exploiring the urge to brand a nything that moves. A Dutch student, hirch-hiking round rhe world, is naming on his website diary th e horel s that give him free accommodat ion . Jonathan Re ss ler, whose agency has helped to pioneer product placement meth od s. says this is JUSt the beginning. 'You're definitely go ing to see rea l people being sponsored by compa nies. It 's not going to be a superstar like Michael Jordan, it's going to be Mr Joe Average. And it'll be cheaper, more effective and carry far more credibiliry,' he sa id. We've had realiry television, he argues, so what's wrong with reality advertising?

The Times

2 Find words or expressions in the text which mean ... a background sound that is so constan t yo u don't notice it

3

2

removing something by passin g it through special equipment

3

advertising which relies on making a product visible in a fi lm or on TV .

4 5

an object which is used by actors in a film or play . the ordinary person in the street .

Find the words from the box below in the text you have just read. Which words suggest the idea of ... 1 2

newness and originality? secrecy?

covert

pioneer

undercover

novel

stealth

enterprising

7

Target markets

8

GRAMMAR 1

Complete the art icle with an app ropriate form of the verbs in brackets. Hundreds of people 1 •••••••••.•••.•••••.••••.••

(stand) in

the street and 1 .......•.. _ .........•.....

(applaud)

because they

advertising. 'TV ads and even radio commercials

..

........... (cost) an absolute fortune,' lucy says.

'8ut if a stunt

............... ... (catch) the attention of the

11

media, then it (watch)

12 .•.•• .••••.••••. .•• ... •••..

(get) the same coverage for

free.' The campaign she n ........................... (currently work on)

something incredible. In

should generate three times as much air time and newspaper

the centre of the road is

coverage as a conventional newspaper campaign. In her

lucy Garnett, and if she

career, she

(look) tired, who can blame her?

stunts which

4 .••••..••.•••• .••••.••••.••

6ecause since last Friday evening, she 5 ••.••••.••..•••.•••• .. ••..•

16

14 _

. _••• __ •••.••••• .

(run) a number of successful

IS •••• .••••.•••••.••••.••••••

....•.... •

(pay) dividends. She

(cover) a london bus with wallpaper for a

manufacturer, and

17._

•.•.•••••••••••

(even go) 'Street

(dance) non·stop. She came up with the concept of a dance

mountaineering'. This new 'sport'

marathon as a publicity stunt to launch a new night-club. So

crawling along the high street in full climbing equipment,

far, both she and her client ' .......................... (be) delighted

roped together with her partners! To help her, she

with the coverage they

7 .••••.•••..•• .•••• .••••.••

(receive) from the

press and local TV. graduated, and since then, she ' .............

usually

19 •••.••.•••••••••.••••••••••

18 ....... .... ... .............

(involve)

(employ) students from the local

art school or drama college; or else young actors who

lucy started her company, PReecentric, shortly after she

2

much better use of an advertising budget than unfocused

... (think up)

20 •• ..••••••••..•..••••.•••..

(look) for more interesting part time

work. than fast-food restaurants. However, when she

clever ideas to draw attention to her clients' businesses and

21 ..........................

(not be) 'surreal' for her job, lucy

products. lucy 9 .•.••..••••••••••••••••••.• (believe) that her service -

22 .. ... .... .... .......... _ ..

(be) a calculating bUSinesswoman, as at

an unusual combination of PR and street theatre - can be a

home in a suit as in a giant banana costume.

Before writing the article in 1, a journalist went to in terview Lucy_ Use the p rom pts to write his questions. IN TE RVIE WER :

How long / you / dance?

4

How / you / find new employees at PReccentric?

INTERVIEWER:

, lUCY :

2

Since yesterday evening - I feel exhausted.

When / know / if / advertising campaign / be successful?

lU CY:

INTERV IEWE R:

5

Often through adverts in trade newspapers.

INTERVIEWER:

What campaigns you / run at the

moment?

lUCY: We normally know by the end of the first week of the campaign.

3

Which / your campaigns / you think / be / most successful?

INTERV IE WER:

The one for Vaxis Chemists was amazingly successful. In 1999, I think it was.

lUCY:

One for a local theme park and one for a chain of leisure centres.

lUCY;

,

-

..,

Target markets

SPEAKING 1

Correct the mistakes in these sentences. Absolutely! J am agree with everything you've sa id.

2

2

According to me, they make the streets look bright a nd cheerfuL

3

I'm not sure what do I believe any more.

4

By far as we're concerned, it's not true.

5

In the other hand, you could have right.

6

Aren't you agreed that it's an absolutely scandal?

7

From my opinion, we should do someth ing about it.

8

When I sec it, the yout h of today are easily brainwashed.

Some friends arc discussing advertising. Complete th eir conversation with expressions from the box.

up to a pomt to be!!!" with

come off it a that aside

we agree on what

c~

thing

JOANNA: If I were President, I would ban all

advertisements. KE VIN: Why would you do that? JOAN NA:

Because they make us too materialistic.

DAVID: 1 __ ______ ___ ___ __ _....... _..

, Joanna! You of all people,

you're very fashion-conscious. KE VIN:

Yeah.

2 .............. __ ___ _____ ___ _ to

suggest.

DAVID:

What would happen if there were no

advertisements? KEVIN'

Well,

............. ' people wouldn't know

3

about new products. DAVID:

And the economy would fall to pieces.

JOANNA:

People would still find out by word of

mouth. KEVIN :

Eventually they would, but it would be very slow.

OAVID: 4 JOANNA:

....... __.__ .__ ___ __ ' don't you think they make our lives brighter? Well,s ........................... I do, but J just think it's a shame that so much creativity

is wasted on selling soap powder. KEVIN:

Yes, I agree with that, but without the commercial break, we would miss part of

the film or t he programme if we wanted to get a drink. JOANNA : DAVID:

You're right.

At last

6

....... somet hing!

9

10

Target markets

WRITING ~~~~~;eb~: introduction to a piece of advertising copy with words and expressions

1

and

if all of thIS

copacar.com You wouldn't play poker with a pro, would you? 1••••.••••..••••.••••. _ •••..• that is exactly what we do when we buy a new car from a showroom. On average, we buy a car every five years, 2 a lOp salesman sells five a week. J h .......................... . ........_.................... ow on earth can we expect to make a deal in our favour? :he short answer is. we can't: 4 •• ___ .. •.•. .. ••... ••••. ..•••. ' we don't stand a chance . ........___ ........._....... most of us leave {he showroom hundreds. if nOt is thousands, of pounds poorer than we needed (0 be. 6

depressingly familiar, don't despair - help is just a click·~~;;.····· At copacar.com our fi rst price is our one-and·only price. A price you'll find hard to beat anywhere, No hassle. no haggle.

2

Now use the headings and notes below to write the rest of the copy,

I I

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-tiu,

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3

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!!AoV

if ~ ekrJ.

Dllv pVII!.L is thL f nal pvir:u.., 4-N]) .J:F iDU NEt]) 4- H t LP.J:Nq H4-N]) '" WL'VL p AYt oj <\; IMJ.e.Y' In~ a.nrJ. insllvltJ7t!.LJ Vovp. WL I!A.n p VDV'ik (J.D/7IpLtdivL ,nltJ7t!.L afirJ. t!.AY insvv(.V?(U., P.upl.e. who li,tL ~sit.:J /:to C!AY) htlt h<\;u h(~:2J'it.:J) shovjrJ. a./ie,t on M V wus;u.,

• 11

Triumph and disaster VOCABULARY Use the clues to complete the puzzle. Find the mystery word: the arrangement you have with the bank when you need to draw more money than is in your account.

7. 1

2

3

4

5

6

/ )

8

/ 9

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Another word for b{lIIkrupt. The fixed costs that any business has to pay. A long-term loan to buy a house or a flat. The buildings or offices frOIll where you operate your business. Someone you owe money to. A way of paying for expensive goods, e.g a car or a washing machine, over a period of time. (two words) Regular payments as part of the con tract for 6. Money entering and leaving a business on a regula r basis. A healthy company is able to meet its liabilities with these.

)

12

Triumph and disaster

READING 1

Read the article about a new invention and decide if statements 1-7 are true or fa lse (F). 1

The binary actuator is Danny ChapchaJ's finest invention.

2 3 4

The device has global protection against illegal copying. .... . The binary actuator increases the speed of jets and car motors . . International firms are actively involved in trying out the device. ..

S 6 7

Wygnanski took less than a year to produce the gadget. ...... Its biggest drawback is that it consumes large amounts of energy. ...... Christopher McDouall believes the actuator has a brilliant future . .... ..

(n

Winner - business innovation Danny Chapcha\, chairman of Camcon TechnoLogy, has a nice story to teLL about his company, winner of this yea(s Business Innovation Award. When he took over as chairman it was to raise money for the firm which has worLd-wide patents on the binary actuator. The bina'Y actuator? Does this sound very exciting? CertainLy not to the first venture capitaL organization Mr ChapchaL approached. Within days of receiving the company's offer they wrote back saying 'we cannot see the market for this technoLogy'. Mr ChapchaL thinks they wilL end up in the same position as the company that turned down the Beatles. The binary actuator is a vaLve; a simpLe but brilliant re-invention of the valve, and a step-change in technoLogy that wiLL make rippLes around the worLd . A vaLve is a simpLe device that controls the movement of a Liquid or gas in a system, preventing the liquid from moving in more than one direction. Imagine something that couLd reduce jet engine noise by 9O"t. and alLow ambulances to go over speed bumps without sLowing down ... these appLications are just a beginning. Camcon TechnoLogy is now the

destination for top management from the world's big companies, many of which are piLoting the new valve. The binary actuator was invented by Polish sound engineer and academic, Wladyslaw Wygnanski, who has spent more than two decades perfecting what at first seems to be the most simple of gadgets. The vaLve works by using magnets and springs and very Little power. It works for a Long time and at great speed. These quaLities are what peopLe who use vaLves have been searching for, and there is every chance that Camcon wilt make the big time. Christopher McDouaU, a director of the company says: 'This is the beginning of something that over the next 25 years wilL become extremely significant: He shouLd know; he began his career with the Legendary Barnes Wallis - inventor of the jet engine and was also invoLved in the early days of Concorde. Mr McDouaU adds; 'You can't say it is Like the transistor, but it is similar to the effect it will have: Commenting on the award, Mr Wygnanski said: 'This is proof that inventors and the business community in (ambridge is truly international:

-2 3

- --

Find the names of these fou r technical items a-d in the text. Fin d the words and expressions in thc article which mean: 1

2 3 4 5

a kind of licence which gives the right to make use or sell an invention for a certain period (paragraph I) a counting system which consists of zero and I (paragraph I) an effect, like \. . hen a stone is dropped into water (paragraph 3) uses (n ) (paragraph 4) a clever, new, small technological device (paragraph 5)

Triumph and disaster

GRAMMAR 1 Complete the text using a suitable narrative for m of the ve rbs in b rackets.

When Donno Wallis

I

.............. (work) as

different City of london businesses she

0

2

Usc the prompts to make sentences with a similar meaning to the ones given. 1

Martin dropped us off. We realized we were at the wrong terminal. We J only J realize I we be I al wrong terminal I after Martin I drop us off.

2

We waited for three hours. They finally called our flight number. We J wait I three hours I they fina lly call J our flight number.

3

The plane took off. The emergency light came on. No sooner I plane take off I than J emergency light I come on.

4

Dming the drive from the airport am taxi broke down. While I we J drive J airport I taxi I break down .

PA in

2 _•••••...•.•.•..••.•••• ..•••

(often ask) to arrange receptions and parties. She eventually 3 .

.... ____ ...

(know) exactly which venues

and personnel 10 hire and by her fovrth firm, she

5

~ ............................ (become) the acknowledged expert in

her field. One day while she

$ . ________ _..................

Everybody left. \Ne got to the office.

By the time we J get I office I everybody / already J leave.

(arrange)

a special launch for a publishing firm, she suddenly



...... (hove) a brainwave. She

7

....•.. ••••. ...•..•

(realize) thot for the post five years

she

B .••••. ••••••• ..•.•••••.•....•

(waste) her time as a PA and thot

she

9

(can offer) her services to other

.... ... __ ..... " ...

businesses for a fat fee. So she up) her iob and

11 ....•••. ... •.•...•.••••..•. •

firms where she once business

12 ..

13 ...... .. .....•.••.••.• .. ....

10

...•••...•.••

16 .. .... ....•••••• .•.. .....••.

Carlos worked in the Barcelona branch seven years. His boss decided to promote him. Carlos / work I seven years J before his boss J decide I promote him.

.............. (work). The (grow) so quickly that three

(e~pand) even further and

(transfer) her know -how into

conference organization.

7

(approach) all the

of opening her own office. Within a couple of years IS ..•.•••••••••••...••.••••••.•

I forgot to pack any shirts. I unpacked my sui tcase. When J 1 / unpack suitcase / I realize J that J I forget J pack / any shirts.

(give

years later she u ............................ (take) the logical step

she

6

13

14

Triumph and disaster

SPEAKING 1 Use the prom pts to complete the conversat ion. I / make / terrible gaffe / at / party. I I I ask Terry I why I he I leave I

ANGELA:

old job.

2

2

I..m.Q(/.f..Q..t.f.(ripJf.. g.Qf[f..!!.Uh.f.. P.Q.f1Y.·..!. .Q~~!t!!.. T.my...w.t!yll.e.:r!..l.fJfi..!Jh.QI.r!.jgJ!,................... CLAUDIO: oh dear / you I not know / he / be / sacked?

3

ANGELA:

4

CLAUOIO:

5

ANGELA :

6

CLAUDIO:

no / and / he / can't I like I be / reminded / it. well / I / be / sure / you / not mean / upset / him.

all / same / he / must / be / embarrassed. th ings / happen. I I / not worry I it / if I I I be / you.

Pat Jones is speaking to Harry Morris about the latc delivery of an order. Rearrange the words in italics to complete their conversation. 1

PAT:

I've only just received my order. it - hove - courier - should - senl - by - been.

!t .#JJ!.I!.!.c!.. h.f!y.f..kf.~!J..~~OJ .hy. . ~Q.l!.[i~[; ...... _..................................................................

2

HAR RY:

PAT:

3

I'm sorry; I - realize - do - we - thot - arranged - had - to - didn 1

But this is unbelievable! It's written on my order!

HARRY:

appreciate - angry-I - you - how - Pot - are, but there's nothing about a

courier on my copy. Isn't there? well - there - 1- a - suppose - have - mix-up - might - been.

4

PAT:

5

HARRY:

6

PAT: worry - it's - probably - those - just - don't - things - of - well- one.

Oh dear. do - hope - J- will- fault - you - forgive - our - if - it's - us.

Triumph and disaster

WRITING 1

In mobile phone text messages, a word m ay be shortened by removing the vowels (a, e, i, 0, II). for example: meetitlg = mmg. Sometimes letters which rhyme with a word arc used, for example: b = be. The first leiter of a word may be used as an abbreviatio n, fo r example: IV = w/rere. Match these ab breviations to their meanings 1-14 below.

c

r

L8

2

2moro

4

spk

L8r

cub

ftt

thnx

wru

u

1

latc

8

thanks

2

speak ......

9

late r

3

10

fo' .. .

4

'"b,

11

where are you _..

S

(ree to talk

12

MO I

6

call yo u back ...... tomorrow

13

you .

14

'"

7

2

b

..

Now 'translate' th e ordinary English.

l ex!

to

messages below between Carl and Jenny into

C ARL:

2

JENNY:

3

CARL:

4

JENNY:

S

CAR L:

6

JENNY :

7

CA RL :

8

JENNY :

r u ok. es thnx

. . . . . . ....... . .

€ffiffi~~

......."'"

~~

......................................... .

15

16

Prioritizing VOCABULARY 1

Choose the COf f cc t word to complete the sentences.

Please be punctual. I'd like the meeting to start in I all lime. The feasib ility study is like / likely to be finished by Thursday. Construction work is already six weeks behind timetable / schedule. The train is due 10 / for leave at twelve tomorrow. We'll miss the deadlille I time limit for this project if we're nOI careful. Why don't we postpone / callce/ lhe meeting to a later date? She begins each day by o pening the post and checking her email. It's always the sa me schedule I routine. a We should finis h th is task without furth er dcadl;lIe / delay. 9 If we IIl1rry lip / catch lip we'll be able to join the o thers. 10 You should never call off / pllt offlo tomorrow something you can do today. 11 We have really fallen out / behind with this project; we need to catch liP / make lip the time we have lost. 12 Your account is still outstanding / understandillg. Please pay within the next five working days. 1

2 3 4 S 6 7

2

Replace the words in hajjes with a word or expression fro m the box. time to time..

meantime

a time it's time to

a waste of time

2

In the old days children used to work in these mines . ............................. She earned money for her holiday by working a lot of extra hOllrs.

3

I wish J hadn't gone to the meet ing - it was completely useless.

4

You write to the bank.

5 6

Oemsiof/ally we have some customers who don't pay. ........................... . J don't want to work forty /rollrs a week so I'm o rgan izing a job-share.

7

Six o'clock! Let's go . ........................... .

1

3

overtime

lui

~Vllile YOII're

doillg tllat, I'll phone the suppliers.

Contin ue the second sentence so th at it means the same as the first one. 1

J couldn't fin d a taxi fo r ages. It took.

2

......................................................................

The in terviews start at 2.00 and finish at 4.00. The interviews last ................................ .

3

We discussed his proposal for three hou rs. We spent ......................................................................

4

Robert phoned during Lily's meeting with Joe. Robert phoned wh ile ..... .....................

........................................................................ .



Prioritizing

17

READING 1

Read the art ide and choose a, b, or c to complete statemcnlS 1-5. The mantlgers ......... a were kcen to learn from the academic world.

b had been on many such courses. c

regarded the presente r with a lot of respect.

2

By the end of the presentation the audience's attitude had changed from ... . a enthusiasm to boredom. b horror \0 interest. c amusement to disgust.

3

She filled the container to the lOp ... a twice. b three limes. c four times.

4

The message some of the managers understood was ... a there is a limit to what we can do. b we must squeeze more into each day. e we must always have a list of priorities.

5

The presenter's message to the managers was ... a always focus on what's important first. b YOll can always make time if you want to. c small problems can grow into big ones.

N expert on time management was once invited to give a talk to a group of senior managers on a training day. Veterans o f decade:; of front-l ine management, they looked at her with a seen-it-all, heard-it-before scepticism wonderi ng whal of any practical value a university academic could possibly tell them. With no introduction, she bega n, 'Today, we are going to do a little practical experiment.' A couple of less polite members of her audience sighed, while others inward ly groaned at the though t of filli ng in time sheets and yea r planners. From unde r her desk she took a large t'artht'nware container with a large open neck. Then she picked up a bucket which had exact ly fiftet'n rocks in it - each one was about the size of a child's fist. One by one she dropped the rocks into the container. Her audience looked at each other in disbelit'f. 'What is th is crazy wOlllan dOi ng?' they wondered. Once all the rocks had been placed into the ja r, the last one had reached the top. 'Is the jar full?' she asked. 'Yes,' one of her audience replied. ' It looks full to me, unless of course it has a faist' bottom to it.' A few of the other mem bers of the group smiled at the comment.

'\I\'e'll s('{',' she said. Once again, she bent down and picked up another bucket wh ich contained several handfuls of gravel. Carefully, she poured the gravel into the contai ner until, once again, it reache-
-

however many engagements th ere are, we can always find time to fi t in another meeting or complete another task.' 'Yes,' another colleague added, 'a working day is just like thiS container. With a little mo re imagination, we can use the time to do mo re and more.' 'Mm, in teresti ng theo ries,' the woman responded. 'But what this t'xperiment proves to me is someth ing entirely d ifferent. What it says to me is Ih is: we have to develop a true sense of priorities and decide what our most important d uties are. These arc like the big rocks. Wou ld we have been able to fit them all into the jar if we had fi lled it with gravel, sand, and water fi rst? Of cou rse not. But th is is what h appens so often in our working lives. We get so caught up with the gravel, the sand, and the wate r, that we forget thai ou r mission is 10 deal with the big rocks.' And with that, she quietly tha n ked h er audience and lefl lhe room .•

18

Prioritizin g

2

Look at this list of events from a senior manager's day. Decide what, for you, would be 'big rocks', 'gravel ', 'sand', o r simply 'water'. Think of reasons for your decision ill each casco

1

opening and sort ing mail

2

signing a 'Gel well soon' card for a colleague who's in hospital

3

approving the design of next year's sales catalogue

4

having lunch with a new c ustomer

5

filling in claim forms for expenses

6

signing everyday letters

7

replying to emails

8

greeling a group of child ren who are visiting the factory I offices

9

discussing the st rategy for next year's sales promotions

10 havi ng coffee with the staff 11 conducting an appraisal interview with a member of staff 12 reading the business pages of a national newspaper 13 answering the phone each time it rings

GRAMMAR Complete these sentences with an appropriate futu re verb form. 1

This time ti me to morrow my plane .....

.................. (touch down ) at Dull es

Airport. 2 3

I've just heard that Marisa ..... ..................... (have) a baby! ........... (recruit) thirty Because the compa ny is expanding so much, we ..... new employees.

........ (be promoted ) to the Board.

4

By this time next year I ................

5

I've got some good news about your new car. It ............... ............. (be ready) for you to pick it up tomo rrow.

6

I don't think I

7

think I ..................... ..... (j ust go) home instead. I can't go to the meeting because I

.................. (join) you for a drink after work. I'm so tired that I (drive) to Sco tland this

afternoon. 8

Yvan is furiou s about his tiny pay rise! I'm sure he .......

............. (resign ).

1

·If

Prioritizing

SPEAKING 1

Cheryl Wyatt, from a temporary staff agency. is speaking to Gary Coates, a very busy ma nager in an advertising agency. Expand the prompts where necessar y, and then put their conversation in the right order. CHERYl:

.. GARY:

course / not / it / be / pleasure .

Goodness me! The advert! How could I forget it? Yes, we mustn't miss the deadline. / you mind / ask / Frieda lehman / Human Resources / check it? OK. Incidentally, / what / you like me / do / this advert? It / look / important.

. CHERYl:

OK Gary. Now, / I / wonder / you / spare / two minutes / go through / 'to do' list / I / find / Antonia's desk. I / like you / help me decide what / deal / first .

..... CHERYl:

.. GARY:

Then if you I fax it I them, I I be eternally grateful.

CHERYl:

. GARY:

..... GARY:

Certainly. I / put it I top / fist.

I'm pleased to meet you, Cheryl. Call me Gary, By the way, I'm very glad you've been able to come at such short notice . After that, I you ask Brian from Marketing / go / Heathrow I meet our visitors / on I morning flight I Bologna? He's already seen them once before. It's due to land at 16.35 . Good morning, Mr Coates. I'm Cheryl Wyatt, the temp sent by the agency. I'm standing in for Antonia while she's on maternity leave .

.. CHERYl:

..... GARY:

2

Right. Let's have a look then. Ah, now, the most important thing is the cover for the brochure. It's already behind schedule and the printers have been screaming for it since yesterday. I you think I you I organize I courier / take it I them?

Mrs Hogg has a very poor reputation for dealing with her staff and colleagues. 2

I-low should she rephrase her instruct ions to get the best out of people? What \>lould her colleagues say in each case if they wanted to offer to do these things for her? INSTRUCTIONS

a Phone for a cab! b Close the door! c Fix the photocopier! d Buy me a sandwich! e Bring me that file! f

Pay this bill!

POtiTe REQUEST

OffER

'9

20

Prioritizing

WRITING 1

Match the pieces to fo r m words which commonly appear in letters to do with bills.

settle g:? ment , g:? will' iQ mittance , iQ voice ' 're'=;;o --=-r=o~u-'t'=i;--=-r o iQ ===re=a=-rs-"

~

over ~

~

I under ;0 iQ sight ;0 ~ Igood- ~

iQ ment ' :-::iQ:-t--'ak=e=>', =

i=:===---'===;-r===-,

iQ standing

I I pay ;0

'--=------='-'

2

l over

Stod.""Wclls is a wholesaler wh ich sells pet food directly to dog breeders. Karen Joh nso n,

the manager, has been obliged to write a strong letter 10 a customer with a poor payment history. Put sentences a-h in the correct order to recreat e her letter.

" StockJllells Dear Ms Wilkes 1 am writing regarding our outstanding invoice fo r pet food and supplies.

a

. '

We now require you \0 seule t hiS second bill ...... wilhin five working days.

However, as of Ihis morning, payment is now three weeks overdue. We supplied you with your regular order on 14 january lasl. In addition, I must also point out.that for
b

,

,

Yours sincerely I<~ Jc.,,","'J<>'"'

,

Manager

3

Study the notcs and write a s im ila r Ic tte r from Mr Bob Marx of Kelso Build ing Supplics to M r Derm o t C lancy o f JMW builde rs. !~'--A

TM.yll -

Can )'t;7IJ. ........ile Il (u,1l1 IeIW- 10 JMW b.t.iklers o.boul Ihis u,,,,oice"( 6i....e /hem one leul J.onc.e.. I( we don'l kve !heir &11 pa.ymenl by !l·.,js fi.-icb.y we 'n Ink€ !hem b «>VI.

An W!Tf

disa.~led wiln lhem... We supplied MIlIeria.Is u, ~

u .... ..-c~

b<.;\~ .. ...e....J c....,-r~ (.,~IA'''e­ c.~R.t..c\ bo..,..~ .re-t~)

juw

5o-1'1'1;e.d, 1'1"'...... b;,,~ ~i~-r ~ ..........-re-.-i....I., ..

"....t....e.. er . . "e-

€. ~).., 00

-\1-..e.-. .....

faith

Aa-i"· ""0,e..1

".".,

o....-i;S",,-1

Bob

10"1.

A,-;c..o...,,-r ;.f bill 1"'-'<=\ -ro c\o ~;.,.

~.....

1'",,_,~

i... ..toic.t.- ')e-.-l- !~ f"e.-b. ""Re.»-I~ ')e-.-r , ~-n.. "". . s ..nll

.-e""'.

"D

....-e-1'11.

,..,

21

Globalization VOCABULARY 1

Complete these sen tences with a ppropriate collocat io ns.

1

2

The spending money yo u have, once you have paid for life's basic necessities. dis _ _ _ _ _ _ _ In _ _ _ _ Area with tax advantages o r incent ives for new enterprises. z __ _

ec _ _ _ _ _ _ d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3

A large business with branches in d ifferent countries or continents. m~

___ _ ______

= ____ _ _ _ _

4

Place where goods are manufactured. pro _ _ _ _ _ _ _ f3 _ _ _ _ _ _

5

An enterprise where companies work in partnership. J _ __ _ v _____ _

6

A way of getting yo ur goods \0 the end consumer: it could be a supermarket,

direct mail, etc. d is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ch _ _ _ _ _ 7

A limited number of top stores allowed to siock your good s. ex _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ou _ _ _ _

8

Showing exceptional opportu nity fo r development in the future. ~t

9



________

~

______ _

Money you must pay to someone. fi _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ______ _

10 The future prospe([s for the busi ness and financial world.

ec _ _ _ _ _ _

2

ou _ _ _ _ _

Replace the words in italics in these sentences with an appropriate fo rm of the verb take combined with a word or phrase from the spidergram. 1

2

3 4

5

6 7

8 9

L'Oreal is trying 10 exploit the world's biggest market. .lakc..ruiYiIIJJagc.oiMultinational companies have to look after their expatriate staff very carefully. Guess what ! Mrs Smith Il(Is started to practise Tai Chi . .................... . They participated ill the last strike for better working conditions. Ant hea lias replaced Graham as t he new market ing manager. . ...._................. Sales have iI/creased drall/afically since the advertising ca mp3ign. The part y \\las held in a new Japanese restau rant. ............................. We need to employ more people during the tourist season. She Ilsed tire occasioll to network wi th prospective customers.

advantage ca re

of place

of off

on

up

over from p a rt m

the opportunity

22

Globalization

READING 1

2

WaJ-Mart is the world's largest retailer. Scan the text to find the significance of these figures. 1

$4bn

2

31

3

60%

4

£6.7bn

5

17%

6

nine

Now read the text and answer the questions. 1

\'Vh y don't analysIs share Mr Scott's optimism about Wal-Mart 's US growth?

2

""here does Wan Street think that Wal-Mart's future growth will come from?

3

How did Wal-Mart become number three in Britain?

4

What mistakes did it make in Indonesia?

5

What useful expertise has Wal-Mart obtained from Asda?

6

\oVhy does Wal-Mart need to achieve greater scale internationally?

7

How could the acquisitio n of a European competitor help Wal-Mart's personnel problems?

In tess than four de
retail sales and 7-8% 01 tolal (Oflsumer spending (exduding cars arid wI1ite goods), Its pre-lax profits haw grown by 15% over the last d«.ade to $9.3bn in 2000. No other global relail(1T ((Ime5 dose when me.a5ured by sates. H lee $(ott (Wal· Mart's CEO) says future growth will (orne from aggressive new store openings, plus a Il1O\'e into food and inlo such Sl!fVices as banking. 'Is there some reason we couldn', be three times this size?' Ile asks. However.

analysts WOIl}l about saturation in America and expect domestic growth to slow. Wall Street is plnning its hopes instead on Wal-Mart's overseas efforts. Founded only a decade ago, the international division already Mcounts lor 17% of sales and 11 % of profits;. Wal-Mart is already the biggest retailer in Canada and Mexico. It bought itself the number three position in Britain with its £6.7bn acquisition of Asda and is now pushing into China. But its ventures in Argentina, Indonesia, and Germany have !>fen flops, accompanied by heavy losses. With a presence in nine countries, Wal-Mart is in fact less international than other aspiring global retailers such as France's Carrefour, which has stores in 31

countries. Most ofWal·Mart's overseas problems were avoidable. In the 19905 it made the mistake of exporting its culture wholesale, rather tnan adapting to local markets. When it moved into Indonesia, it shipped in an entire wareoouse on a barge. Wal· Mart is at least leaming from its experience. Unlike its small, neM)US steps into some foreign markets, the acquisition of AscIa was bold. providing crucial experience in selling food. Wal·Mart is also becoming more culturally astute, evefl importing good ideas from overseas into its domestic business. But Wal-Mart's biggesl problem is its lila of 'human capital', says Coleman Petmon, head of personl"lel. The group has been at pains to replace

expatriates with locals, and every overseas country leam except China's is now led by a non-American. Yet it is expanding faster than it can train people internally, and has lost highquality local managers to rivals. This leads to another problem: that the international division still law scale.To exploit savings from sourcing globally, Will· Mart needs to make more acquisitions. Buying Carrefour would be its boldest move. However, Wal-Mart is more likely to buy the hypennarket businesses of Germany's Metro, worth $4bn. Buying even part of Metro would bring Wal-Mart Iluge c.Iout with European suppliers, and also some more experienced European managers. The Economist

2

5

3

Globalization

Match words from the text with these defin itions. 1

large electrical goods for the home, such as washing-machines and refrigerators

2

what a market suffers from when it becomes so full it can no longer grow

3

a flat -bottomed boat often used on canals and rivers ............................ .

4 5 6

daring ............................ . essential able to make intelligent judgements

7

nationals of a country who live and work overseas ............................ . power and influence ............... ..

8

GRAMMAR 1 Rewrite these sentences using th e words in brackets. 1

Nowadays, we almost never go the cinema. (HARDLY EVER)

2

I nearly always take the 7.32 morning train.

3

After graduating with a language degree, Aidan O' Brien was recruited by an international bank. He spent two years t raining at an associate bank in Osaka. Read what Aidan says about life in Japan. Then use forms of would, /lsed to, be /lsed to, and get IIsed to to write a list of sentences about Aidan's experiences.

(AS A RULE)

2

3

He keeps borrowing my mobi le.

(ALWAYS)

4

We don't often have problems with late payments. (ONLY ONCE IN A W HI LE)

5

[('s rare For us to sell a lot in the first three mon ths of the year. (SELDOM)

6

He could ask them to supply us if there's no ot her alternative. (A LWAYS)

Complete these sentences using (ge t) !lsed to or wOllld with an appropriate form of the verb in brackets. 1

When he slarted his new job, he kept arriving late because be wasn't

.............. .... (gel up ) so ea rly.

2

They .................... ........ (employ) apprentices straigh t fro m school, but now they only take on trained staff.

3

Once upon a time, customers ............................. (pay) in cash; now most use some kind of card. This new system is difficult at first, but you'l! soon

4 5

............ (operate) it. Wilen I was a girl, there .. a wide choice of ca reer.

lived in a hostel with the other male trainees. As the only westerner, I had to adapl to Japanese ways very quickly. As a child and student, I'd always had my own room and liked to spend time on my own. So al first il was hard to live in a dormitory; it seemed just like a boarding school. The trainees did everything together, and several times a week we went to a communal bathhouse. At first I found this very hard, as bathing had always been a very private thing, but I soon overcame my shyness and self-consciousness. At work everyone stayed late. Nobody dreamt of leaving until the last person had finished. It was very different from working in a western company, where it's every man for himself and where employees think about their own personal career. If anyone made a mistake, then the other members covered up for them or did their work for them. 1 really learned what teamwork and loyalty meant. However. at times I did find it hard to have to show people respect just because of their age and the number of years they had been working for the company. Promotion in a Japanese company still depends a lot 00 seniority, you see.

I

A.i4.(lI.' .!.!$.f.dN..hy.f..i.1! ..(l.l!fW.fJ..\y.i.!h.Il!f:..o.rll~r. .... wlJ.f.t:..!.IJ!.i U.f.f.J.......

.... (not be) such

A ••••••

23

Globalization

I SPEAKING 1

When world-famous investm ent specialist Warren Buffet became the head of Salomon h e gave a speech to the firm 's employees. Read his speech a nd complete gaps A-F with extracts 1-6 below. 1

... but we want them to get rich through the firm and not off the firm.

2

... it docs not preclude . ..

3

I th ink in the end we'l[ be more proud of Ihis company than you've ever been

4

\ ¥hat kind of firm can come out of th is?

5

'First-class b usiness in a first-class way:

6

. . . have the right vicw of ou rselves.

before.

S~~~~~~~~~~;~:~:NOW'

the important thing is that we A..... If we have [he right view of ourselves, that will lead to deeds that will eventually give the world the right view of us.... I don't think we can do any better than to go back to J P Morgan: 'First-class business in a first-class way. ' You know, if you have anything that you think about in the morning before you go to work, just repeat that: B...... ... Also, I expect you to go out and do a lot of business. 'First-class business in a finlt-dass way' does not preclude in any way doing a lot of business; C...... doing profitable business and it doesn't preclude gutsy business. It just means that you keep the ball rolling down the middle of the court. If you lose

deeds rulil/ess pree/flde

2 LISTS OF THREE

CONTRASTING PAIRS OF IDEAS

the rigllt I-ie-.vof oW'-seh-es (xl); tile right view of lIS

brave or heroic acts merciless and unforgiving exclude

money for the firm by bad decisions, like I've done plenty of times, I will be very understandi ng. If you lose reputation for the firm I will be ruthless .... 0 ... Well, in that regard I may have a loftier vision than virtually anyone, because I think great things can come out of this.... We have a chance to preserve all of the strengths of the past and have people look at us with a ncw cye .... We want people basically to get rich around here, E...... We want them to get rich through the stock, frankly, and that message will eventually get out to investors and that 's the kind of thing they want to hear ... F ..... .

I

' The L eadership M omem' by Michael Useem

gutsy lofty

showing courage high

Find examples o f rhetorical devices in Warren Buffet's speech and p ut th em under the headings in the table.

I

RHETORICAt QUESTIONS

OPTIM ISTIC ENDING

I

METAPHORS

I

ADVERBS

I,.

Globalization

WRITING 1 Nadia Henderson and Melinda King have a chain of beauty products shops. They arc expanding into central and eastern Europe with different European partners and franchisees. Nadia has been on a visit to Prague to d iscuss the premises their Czech partners have fou nd. Complete Nadia's email to Melinda with words from the box.

altfiOUgh

yet

POlnte(j out

on the one hand according to

regarding

the other

while

eo To:

Melinda King

Re:

From: Nadia Hender son

Prague visit

Dale: June 28

Oear Melinda, As promised, I am writing to bring you up to date with the discussion I had with Nevin Havel and Katja Sidor development.

2 ................ ,

Square is periect, but on the shop front accepted. permission,

5

_.......

................. the Prague centre

1

they both fee l that its location nearWenceslas

3 .... ... ......•........... 4 •••

..... .......... .•

it will be difficult to get our plans for

.......... Nevin we will eventua lly obtain this is likely to involve lengthy negotiations. As

far as the financial side is concerned, I have discussed matters with Petra Gruber and Gabor Lukacs.

6 ••••.•.••••..••••••..•••.•

they agree that we should go

ahead, we do need to be much more realistic about costs. They

, 8

................. that the Budapest project was costed carefully, and .......

even then it finally went well over budget.

All the best. Nadia

2



Frances, Helena, and Graham are discussing whether they should translate their brochure in order to seU their products in Indonesia. Read th eir discussion and then write a report summarizing their opinions. It's a complete waste of money to translate our brochure. English is practically the second language in Indonesia. GRAHAM: True, but we can impress our clients by printing brochures in their own language. FRANCES: And we can put our costs against tax. GRAHAM : We do need to make sure that our sales literature is culturally sensitive too. Our translators will help pick up anything that could be offensive. FRANCES: Yes, I've read that plenty of Western companies have had problems through being lax about these things. HELEN A : Fine, but why leave it to the translators? Why not hire a specialist consultant to help with these cross·cultural issues? HELENA:

25

26

Company culture VOCABULARY Complete these sentences wi th words from the box. authoritarian

malistic

seIf-exp

co....rvative

IiIOrardl 1m

T hese arc creat ive workers a nd we need 10 give them space for _..................

I

2

I did everything I could to make ou r business relationship morc fTicndly: dinners, social events, but nothing worked. I suppose they must prefer to keep the

I

3

relationship ............. . II was an old-fashioned, .................... ,........ fir m, where the boss decided what was best for everybody. : anyone can rise to the lOp.

4

The company structure is extremely ............. . from the secretary to the managers.

5

The management structure here is rcally ............................. . People have vcry little freedom to act o n their own initiative.

6

He was an extremely ............................. boss. He made the decisions and expected everyone else to follow them without question .

7

The com pany has sti ll got a very

culture where staff must wear a

suit and tie.

READING 1

Read th e article opposite, which describes an unusual office cult ure. Then complete the table which follows it.

2

Read the article again and continue the sentences. 1

Pay is low, but Caroline and most of her colleagues.

2

However, perks and holidays aren't too bad; for instance ....................................................

3

People at the Trust live cheaply by ......................

4

Promotion in the normal sense doesn't exist, but if you want more responsibility you have to .......................................... .

Company culture

F

LIRTING is frowned on. the pay is poor. but there are some perks to a job in !I Buddhist office. So says Clltherille Hopper. who works at the Ckar Vision Trust. a Buddhist charity in Manchester \\hich provides videos and teaching aids for religious education in schools. !--o r example, where else do you begin your working day wilh a chanting ritual? Ms Hopper, 38, who used to work at the Tate Gallery in London. says there is a healthy culture of trust at work. 'First, I deal with my emails. busincss and personal. Dealing with personal ~Iuff is fine. We work hard but no one looks ovcr your shoulder to sec if you're scnding emails 10 friends.' she says.

Her job im'oivcs arranging visits to schools. planning training days for teachers and organizing trips around the Buddhist centre. ' I send out letters of confirmation. make bookings. and respond to inquiries.' Lunch is very sociable: 'We always mt'Cl our friends - we never have working lunehcs or breakfasts. Buddhists do not believe in doing IWO things al once: In the afternoon she does correspondence. BUI if something intervenes - a friend recently needed her bike mending - then it is not frowned on fo r staff 10 help in office hou rs, provided the rest of the te;tm does not objcct. ' I had to move house suddenly and ,\ couple of people here helIX'd me - we all

too k the day off without having to use our holiday entitlement.' The downside is that she and her co-workers all earn £60 a week. Most have an altemath·e source of income - a house thai they rent out, for example, while sharing cheaper flats with fellow Budd hists. Thcy also get a £900 all0'0wlIlcc for retreats and \.\'Orkrelated training. and eight weeks' holiday. ' 1 don'l see low pay as too much of a problem. In fact J live rather well; says Ms Hopper.. , share with four women and cat vegelarian food. I mostly shop at second-hand stores and drop hints for luxuries as birthday gifts. We believe in being paid according to our needs r.uhcr tha n wa nts. although somctimt'S il would be nice to have a little more." 'We do not take anything unless il is freely given; so there is no nicking paperclips or envelopes. ' Sarcasm and office gossip are not part of the wo rk culture, and nor is deliberate mrting. Drugs and drink - anything that clouds the mind are not permitted. Similarly, there is no Buddhist work concept of promotion. but she wants morc responsibility. 'To be a business director, you need to be ordained; she says. 'Training takes six or seven years aod you have to go on seven two-week retreats. More responsibility is seen as part of yo ur spirit ual growth." The TimeS

IN A TYPICAL OFFICE

AT THE CLEAR VISION TRUST

EVIDENCE FROM THE TEX T

1 You are not supposed to use email for personal use.

It is fine to deal with personal business during work.

'No·one looks over your shoulder to see if you 're sending emails to friends. '

2 You are only allowed to do work·related activities in work time. 3 Business lunches and meals are common. 4 Employees sometimes take stationery for personal use. 5 Flirting and gossip may be part of office life. 6 Promotion;s usually part of the company's career structure.

27

28

Company cu lture

GRAMMAR

I

Write sentences in response to these situations using cOllld, !Vollld, or sl,ouM. 1

I

You're at the station and someone asks you when the next train will arrive. You know that a train normally comes in about two minutes. JJ!m;.~bmM._~.Q. 1.m.i!I. i.!I.f'--(illip.k .Qft!.!i!J.!IJ~ ........ ...........................

2

You have been invited to your annual school reunion. Normally you go, but this year it is impossible because you are too busy al work.

3

You want 10 leave work I class ten minutes early for an appointment with the dentist. What do you say to your boss I tcacher?

4

You are talking to someone who works in another company. They are talking about supplying an old customer of yours who you no longer supply because they are bad payers. What advice do you give? .W~K.l. .~'!f!IY. .i{.~_1!9l!g.{l!J.!IX_b.!!~iu.~ ..iI.!I!. __

5

You have been asked to organize flights for an overseas conference. Unfortunately, all the economy class seats have already been sold. There arc some se;l ts left in business class. Wh;lt do you say to your boss? tm.(lfm.i4... _

6

You are tell ing a young child about how people normally dealt with their money ten years ago . .~tll-'-.f~dl!.tQ.(qgy_I_\.'I]$.'!~!. {§. ®'!J!.I.oo.l {g/.l.,Y.f.(!u..(lgQ..rn-..it._~.!.Q.tjm.\. Pwp.k.

7

You arc talking to your colleague about an important order you are expecting. Your supplier promised to send it to you, but unfortunately it 's late . .V.l~.l&. ~. J!I!lJ:Iw.Nt;;, .!/.1.t;y.Jo.it1.#!~y. ....

Company culture

SPEAKING 1

Simon Beard is an engineer who used to work in a mine in Northern Ireland. Study the rules of employment. Then complete th e interview, using appropriate verb fo rms to express obligation and necessity. RULES OF EMPLOYMENT ALL EMPLOYEES TO B[ SCANNED

NO JEWELLERY TO BE WORN

BEFORE AND AFTER EACH SH IFT REGULAR MEDICAL CHECK-UPS TO BE (ARlnEO OUT NO PERSONAL PROPERTY OF ANY FORM IN TH[ MINE

NO SMOKING ANYBODY WHO TI\KES MATCHES. LIGHTERS, OR I
USE OF SAfETY EQUIPMENT AT ALL TIMES. INCLUDING HELMET, BOOTS, AND WHERE APPROPRIATE, SAFETY HARNESS

DISMISSAL

INTERVIEWER: What were employment conditions like in the mine? SIMON : Well, we 1 ____ .. __ .............. ____ fo llow strict rules. There were safety procedures

and procedures to make sure the workers stayed healthy. INTE RVI EWER:

I see. So what did these involve?

Well, we 2 .................. to start our shift in the mine without being scanned by a detector.

SI MON

INTERV IE WER: SI MON: 3

A detector! So how did you feel about that?

Well we didn't really have a choice. The company would never .....................

us stay in the mine if they found any jewellery on us. They

were afraid it might catch in the machinery and interfere with the security checks. INTERVIEWER: SI MON: 5

And were you

4

...............

to buy your own equipment?

No. When I first arrived, I bought my own helmet and boots, but I .........................

bothered. Everything was supplied by the company. We

• __ ___ ____ ................ _to take anything personal into the mine. INTERVIEWER : I SI MON:

Oh no! Alcohol and smoking were

INTERVIEWER: SI MON:

1 ............................

,you see.

Didn't that bother you?

It was nothing personal; it was just part of the job. We were also

• 2

see. Not even a nice cold beer?

__ .. undergo regular medical check·ups.

Words of more than one syllable can carry stress on different syllables. For example. employee is a three-syllable word, which is stressed on the second syllable. Put these words from I into the table according to their stress pattern, as in the example. e mployee property jewelle",

employment alcoho1

000

000 0000 000

employee

dismlssaf personal procedures

engineer machinery security

29

30

Company cultu re

WRITING You are a personal assistant in a computer services com pany. and you have just found two notes which the managing director has left you. Use them to write two global emails to the whole staff.

:r.

do?t't tki-.,./< tkis dress-dow-K Fl'"ioo.15 polic~ is WO!'"l(i-xa-- . . t.11 wt.l1. Th.t. otMI'" 00.» :! wt.--Kt i-xto tM skownx"". Il...w tMre wen people wt!-lll'"i-xa--je.ll-xs. Pe.ople. kA. . e ~t to 1A-xde.l'"sh...,d tkAt i.f tke.15 1lYe. dea1'i""a-- witk tM publiCI tkt.15 kA . .e. to loo/< rellSo")tllbl» SNtrt. Ctt..., re.. i...w e.. . e11fHU!. w£.o.At tM poliC» is? Th.t. r"1de. is SNtl'"t ~ dress . Pe.l'"kAps ea-x S1.4a--(tt.st tkAt it is" (tood ide" -toy pe.ople to /
r

I

I

r

Mall To;

from: ....................................

__ ._ .....................

Date:

A few months ago. we introduced the dress-down Friday concept to the firm . This has been a mixed success ...

:I. kA . . e. bee....,. tk;-x/
pr-oble ..s ke.1'"e.. :! tki-x" we.

.sf.-I..01Ald e....w tke. po1iC11 o.f nse.rved p"'l'"l(i-Xn SfX\US .for 1'!.Ot.'I1Ot.3"e.~-xt. Sot....e. people do-x't 1-Cse tke... / Il...,d Il lot of 1-CS ea..., co..e. ke.re o-x p1-Cblic tr"""sport. "Th.e.n t>.n t>. .fe.w people. wM C-4A-x Iffll}1" (tet to war/< ~ Ct>.1'"/ 11M :r. tki'M/< we .sko1-tld /.Us .for "Th.e. nst O.f tkt. sp"ce.s s{.-t..o1.(ld be. 0..., " .fil'"st-co,....e.--til'"st-se.rveo bt:J.sis/ j $ . i.f 1101-C w"...,t

rke. ...

r'll

• spou ""ve to ~et "p e.dll "Th.e ,,",st i"f"""t• ."t tk''''~ is tk.tlt we I(e.e.p tke. c1-
--

Mail TO:

from: .......... _..............................

..._.......... __

Dale:

After great consideration and consultation, we have decided ...

31

Supply and demand VOCABULARY 1

Choose a, b, or

If we

C to

1Ila/c/1 /

complete sentences.

set I do the price too high, nobody \"ill buy the product.

2

Their new portable copier fetches / se/ls / priced al just €JOO.

3

The industry watchdog accused the airline of predatory I Cllt I retail pricing over

4

The price of raw / crl/de / comlllodity oil rocketed in the 19705.

5

If we want to benefit from economies of elasticity /size / scale, we need to

the C hristmas period .

increase our production . 6

We need to sell 10.000 copies to cover our costs and break el'cn / II/rough / dowlI.

7

There's nothing we can do about our fixed costs, but cou ld we cut our varied / variable / variety ones, I wonder? The problem with skinning / skipping / skimming the market is you can upset

8

ea rly adopters who paid the top price. 9

Prices keep going up - illj1mioll / reccssioll / GDP is now running at 12%.

10 Three supermarket chains have been prosecuted for organizing a price-fixing

monopoly / C(lrtel / boycott and cheating consumers.

2

Complete these sen tences with the words in the box.

invaluable value



pricey worthwhile

worthy

intless

costly rewardin

1

I fi nd my personal organizer absolutely

worthless riceless ....... ; I'd be lost withou t it.

2

BMW's takeover of Rover proved to be a

3

This restaurant's rather ............................. ; why don't we try the other one?

4

Nursing is poorly paid, but is a socially ot her ways.

5

The vase we bought at the auction turned out to be a .....

6

The painting is ............................. . Nobody can put a value on it.

7

[n theory, publishing ai ms to add ............................. 10 ink and paper.

S

I thought the management training weekend was a com p letely .......

mistake. ................. job, and .........................

m

... imitation.

exercise; it didn't seem to have any aims at all . 9

We have been searching for a replacement for Mrs Thomas but we are finding it difficult to find a

successor.

32

Supply and demand

READING 1

Read the article about coffee production in Viet nam and find the following informat ion . the period which saw a dramatic interest in the price of coffee 2

Vietnam's \vorld position as a coffee producer JO years before the article was written

2

I

I

3

Vietnam's position at the time of the article

4

the area of arabica bushes farmed by Vo Danh Ke

........... ........

5

the percentage of arabica bushes of overall coffee cultivation in Vietnam

6

what has happened to arabica production since 2000 ............................ .

Write answers for these q uestions. 1

Why is Khe Sahn's success a paradox?

2

What effect did Vietnam help to cause when it decided to become an imponant coffee producer?

3

According to Oxfam, what has happened in some coffee-producing countries like Ethiopia?

4

How have major global companies stimulated the planting of arabica bushes in Vietnam?

5

How has this affeCled the life of a simple farmer such as Va Danh Ke?

6

According to Doan Trieu Nhan, why does Vietnam havc a competitive advantage in coffee production?

7

Why does VICOFA think that its future lies in the cultivation of arabica bushes?

8

According to the article, why is this shift to arabica cultivation not such a good idea?

3

Join begin nings of sentences 1-6 wi th endings a-f to form definitions of the words in hold. 1 2 3 4

S 6

W hen there is a glut of something ...... \¥hen we formulate a strategy . When business is booming ... _.. During a slump ...... When people prosper If you give something a boost

a b

c d

e f

it grows fast and it's a good time to make a lot of money. they arc successful and earn lots of money. we make a plan for the future. production greatly exceeds demand. you encourage it to develop and go forward. econom ic activity is severely de pressed.

!,.

-

The village of Khe Sanh, a former



Supply and demand

Khe Sanh, who have prospered, and in

battleground in the hills of central

the process prompted a nationwide

Vietnam, is a booming coffee town

recovery scheme. The key to Khe

amid a global coffee slump. During

Sanh's survival is arabica, a pricier

the mid-1990s, when coffee prices

bean than the robusta variety most

soared, Vietnamese farmers planted

Vietnamese farmers grow. A special

coffee beans with abandon. In a

training scheme, whereby big

decade, the country grew from the

international buyers such as Kraft and

world's sixteenth-biggest exporter to

Sara lee teach growers how to meet

the second, helping to create a

their quality standards, also promoted

worldwide coffee glut in the process.

the spread of arabica in Khe Sanh. Va

This week, as coffee farmers and

Oanh Ke, who owns 2.7 hectares of

V[COFA, the Vietnamese growers'

industry officials gathered in Geneva

arabica bushes near the village, says

association. Doan Trieu Nhan,

for a crisis meeting, the Vietnamese

they earned him the money to buy a

VICOFA's chairman, explains that

are pushing ahead with a new strategy

new motorcycle, a television, floor tiles

cheap labour and high productivity

- one that could shake up the market

and roofing.

make Vietnam one of the world's

all over again .

At the moment arabica accounts

lowest cost producers of coffee of all

for less than 5% of the coffee bushes

varieties. So he reasons the solution to

brought ruin to many farmers

in the country. But production has

low prices is not to stop growing

worldwide. According to a new report

doubled since 2000, according to

coffee, but to improve quality and

The plunge in coffee prices

by Oxfam, a British aid group, the

switch to varieties with higher

slump is boosting the drugs trade. In

margins. VICOFA is encouraging

Ethiopia, which produces some of the

struggling robusta farmers t o change

finest coffee, many growers have

to arabica. Mr Nhan hopes the same

uprooted their bushes to grow khat,

factors that made Vietnam the world's

which can be chewed as a narcotic

biggest robusta producer will propel

and sold for more money.

an expansion of arabica. That is easier

Vietnamese coffee-growers have

said than done. Most of Vietnam's

also su ffered because of the glut in

coffee grows in the south, where the

the market. But not the farmers in

climate is not suited to arabica.

33

Supply and demand

34

GRAMMAR 1

Decide whether these sentences are correct (.t) or incorrect (X).

2

Join these senten ces using the conjunction in brackets. Make any other changes which are necessary. 1

The tickets cost just €30. We had to pay €50 fo r each one. (EVEN TH OUG H)

suffered.

2

Even though they accepted the goods, they were three months late. Its inhabitants aTC poor nevertheless Ihe country has

Thei r transportation prices are high. They arc extremely reliable. (H OWEVER)

3

We carried o n supplying them . They hadn't paid our other invoice. (NEVERTHELESS)

4

Ou r profits went up. The cost of our raw material increased. (DESPITE)

5

Our lorry broke down . We managed to deliver the goods on time. (A LTHOUG H)

6

There was a dockers' strike. T he ship was un loaded . (IN SPITE OF)

Alt hough the supply of o il increased, the price ke pt

on rising . ......

2 3 4

However their exports rose the domestic market

fabulous natural resou rces.

~

I

5

They o ften pay their bills lale. However, they arc o ur

6

biggest customer. .... . Despite the country has tough customs regulations, we managed to export our machinery. ......

SPEAKING Read the excerpt s from a meeting. A clothes store has been losing market share to its competitors. Com plete the excerpts with phrases from the box.

talk US throuSh what you're suggesting this meeting is to discuss

what you're saying wouldn't it be gOod idea

a

.... havenl heanI anyIhinS do you mind c:IarifyinC ........... does anyone ""'" anythinS else to add the point I'm 1rYinII t o _

So ' ............................ the worrying sales figures leading up to Christmas. Jeremy is going to 2............................. some of the reasons. JE RE M Y: Well , there is one very simple reason: our priCes are too high, ARNOLD: I'm not quite sure 3............................. , Jeremy. We've always had cheaper competitors but we've managed to stay ahead on quality, JEREMY: Well. 4 ••••.••••..••••.••••••••••.•• is that this is no longer the case, You see, they're matching our quality at much lower prices by having their goods made in low-cost labour markets. ROBERT: ~ .................. _ ......... for me here? Exactly how much higher are UK costs? JEREMY: Easily 30%, more than the industry average. U SA: I'd like to hear some other opinions. 6............ ..... from you yet, Sebastian. SEBASTIAN: 7 ............................. to approach some oversea s manufacturers for some quotes. ROBERT: SO 8............................. is that if we receive some reasonable quotes, we should consider changing our suppliers? SEBASTIAN: Exactly. LISA On that note, I think we've covered all that needs to be said. 9 ? No? In that case, if you all agree, Sebastian. you'll research other suppliers and then we'll have a further meeting to discuss your findings. LISA:

Supply and demand

WRITING lckets.

1 Use the prompts to write sentences describing trends. 1

roc

th,

there I be I dramatic I rise I cost I car insurance I next year

.TJ:wr.t;..\y.i!!.~.lJ..dmwmif. ~.h! . !.~!f..{.wJlfm./:. im.l.frl1!1.g;.t1.t;?;1.~n./:,..............................................._

2

2

HDT Pharmaceuticals' J fortunes I increase ' steady' past six mont hs

3

Today's rumours I Britain's en try I euro I see I sharp drop I val ue of sterling

4

sales' digital TVs I rise steeply I recently I last year's dramatic increase' availability of new channels

5

slight rail I profits I Stomex shares' not as bad' predicted

Complete the text with a variety or verbs and adjectival ' adverbial phrases for describing movements and trends. The verbs and phrases you use should be similar in mean ing to those in brackets.

time, egg sales 7 __ _••.•.•.. __••• __ ._••.••••• __••• (slowly increased) but a lot of farmers went out of business as prices " .................................... (went up and down) due to over-production. Egg prices eventually 9 .... _•••.. _•... ... ••. (stayed the same) but demand to .................................... (was down). Farmers responded to the public's

fears by producing eggs in less factory-like conditions. Sales of more naturally-produced eggs 11 •..•••.••••••••••••••..•. .••• _ ••• _ (continuously went up) in the early 1990s and

eventually overall egg sales Egg consumption 1 ..•..•••.••.~.i?~!ed (went up a [at) in the 19805. In addition , prices 2 __ •.• . _ __ .......... _•••.•• (stayed more or less the same) even though people had more money to spend on food. So in real terms, there had been a 3 (great fall) in the cost of eggs for the average family. This was helped by changes in farmi ng practices, which

meant that production



............... _......... (went up a lot), even if the conditions that hens were kept in were far from ideal. Then in 1989 there was the first of many food scandals, and the market for eggs 5 .••• ...•...•...•.•.•. __ ••..•••.. . (fell from one da y to the next). After one TV documentary, sales 6 ... .. .. (fell) by half in just one week. Over

12 .•. __ .•. _...•.. _..• __.••.•...•• ..••• (went up slowly) too. By the year 2000, total egg sales

(were twice as high) in comparison to the time of the food scare eleven years ea rlier, and the public continues to demand cheap food. Si nce then, prices and 13 ........ ...................•...... _

production have 14 •• .•••..•. ••.•••• .. ••• .••••••••••• _ (kept at marc or less the same level).

• • ••• •



36

Negotiations VOCABULARY 1

I

I 2

Complete these sentences with an appropriate form of the word in brackets. 1

There is never any point in having a .. __ _.. (CO N FRONT)

2

Sometimes yOll have to make a small ....... __ .... ___ ... __ .... __ . to show you r good will. (CONCEDE)

3

Tony is an extremely _.... __ ..................... person who knows how to get what he wants. (MAN1PULATE)

4 5

Noth ing is ever fixed: everything is ............................. . (NEGOTIATE ) He is one of the most people J have eveT met. (PERSUADE)

6

I do apologize for the terrible .................

7

I am convinced that we can reach a (PROF1T)

8

We will seriously consider any concrete ....

...... with a passenger.

which has occurred. (UNDERSTAND _... arrangement for all concerned. ._. you make. (PROPOSE)

Complete the collocations in these sentences.

2 3

We finally managed to r ~...a. -'... lL a C...Q.1l1...J!...L...Q _11.1.1 -1.1 over the terms of the contract. The shop assistant was so rude that James I _ _ _ his t _ _ _ _ _ and started shouting. Ever since the price of wheat rose J've been trying to g _ _ 0 _ _ of the

4

contract to buy two cargo shipments of it, but they won't agree to ca ncel it! Allow the customer to believe that he is t _ _ _ _ _ Ihe i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ by letting him ask a question.

S

We've b _ _ _ _ a good r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ with our suppliers.

6

It's a real pleasure to do business together. They were hard negotiations but we finally b _ _ _ them d _ _ _ on the price and paid 50% less than they originally asked for.

READING 1

Read the article opposite abou t different types of boss. Decide whether statements 1-6 are true (T ) or fa lse (F). 1

With a dictatorial boss, you have to show how much you enjoy your job. _..

2

Bureaucra tic bosses don't know how to deal with unusual problems . .

3

A charismatic boss strives for personal ambition above all else . ..... .

4

Consultative bosses need to be liked and respected by their staff. ..... .

S

L.1issez-faire bosses focus on detail.

6

It is difficult to gct an abdicatorial boss to make a decision . ... __

'.

-. -

Negotiations

Boss types: how to identify them and how to cope with them

DICTATORIAL Profile: They are

CHARISMATIC

LAISSEz-FAIRE

charge for a reason - they

Profile: They motivate stall to achieve Ihe

are the best person for the Job - and must

tampan's goals rather than their own. They

therefore tell evef)'one else what to do and how to do It. They are motivated by the need to win

lead by personal example and they inspIre loyalty. They are drIVen by the nced to act for the

every argument. They rely on reward and

company's greater good al the expense of

Profi le: Make conscious deCISions to leaye the staff to get on With iI, having observed thallhey are working well on Ihelr own. Probably assume people are working because they want to, and are self·motlvated How to cope: By shOWing Ihal you can be Il"Usted to get on with It and send regular progress memos Don't bother them wlIh trlYla.

In

punishment. How to cope: Always ask their permission

before domg anythlllg and demonstrate thai you are fullilhng their orders With enthusiasm.

2

persona l deSires How to cope: Be enthUSiastiC about their dreams and show that you. too. put the company first.

BUREAUCRATIC

CONSULTATIVE

ABDICATORIAL

Profil e. Got where they are today by follOWing the rules and see no reason to change now lack ability to take risks. and take responslblllly seriously. Problems dealt With by referring to the rulebook. How to cope By giving them the rules when a decision is necessary and submitting any requests In writing

Profile: Highly concerned about establishing and keeping close personal and emotional relallonshlps likely to consult staff at every turn. Afraid of making solo deCISions and prefer to share the burden of power How to cop e: By not being afraid to give an opmlOn and Inyolye them by laking them out to lunch. or to the pub after work.

Profi le: Do 1'101 care enough to gel Involved with the staff. leave them 10 II beCCIuse difficult poSitions have to be aVOided. Staff have to make decisions and handle problems that are the boss's responSibility How to cope: By askmg for formal meetings to diSCUSS issues and getting permission for projects where possible

Read the article again. Which type of boss is being described in these sentences?

1

He was a real inspiration; people would have done anything for him, He built the

2

company from nothing by getting people to buy into his beliefs . ..................................._ She's a really lovely person and always asks us for our views. But she does get

3

upset if the staff don't involve her in evenings Oul. He gives the impression he wouldn't worry if the building burnt down, A lot of the time we have to do his job for him, I always insist on sitting him down to talk through decisions, although getting him to have a proper meeting is another problem, _

4

I don't think she's ever made a decision without checking it in lhe staff manual. She's the last person I'd ask for a creat ive answer to an unusual problem,

5

She doesn't interfere and lets you do your job in your own way, All the same, she is there if you need her, even if she doesn't like being bothered by lillie things.

6

I think he's got a power complex; he wants to control everyth ing. If )'ou want a quiet life, just do whatever he wanls with a smile on your face, BuI never, under any circumstances, do anything without checking wit h him firs t.

J7

Negotiations

38

GRAMMAR 1

Correct the mistakes in these sentences. 1

2

If we wou ldn't have given the discount, we wouldn't have their order.

Match these conditio nal forms to the sen tences in 1.

zero conditional

3rd conditional

1st condi tional

mixed condi tio nal

2nd conditional

3 2

If she would look smarter, it woul d help her get a better job.

Complete these sentences with an appropriate form of the verbs in brackets.

1

If she

................ (act) more reasonably

we ..................... __ ............. (can find ) a compro mise which suited everybody. 3

If they wi ll pull out o f the negotiat ions, we'll just have to accept it.

2

instance, we .... _._............................. __ __ _ (contribute) to

I

I

__ __ _........ (you say) if, for

So what your expenses?

3 4

If he hadn't been so suspicious, we could sign the contract last week.

in less formal sur roundings. 4 5

5

... (work) Negotiations gene rally __ ....................... . conducted ) (be b etter if they ................ .. _._.__ ..........

I ........................ ___ ...... (see) yo u at the sa me time next ... (hear) from you . week, unless I ................ _ It's a shame you weren't at the meeting. If you

In this company e mployees will h ave to ask their boss for perm ission if they want to leave early.

....... (go ) to it , things ........ (may work out ) differently.

6

I wish we'd checked his bank references befo re. If we ._.__ ................... (have), we ..................................._ (will n ot ) still be chasing h im for payment.

7

There's no doubt about it, if I . __ ___ __ (make) a (run) the company, I ....................... lot of changes. But I'm just the messenger boy.

4

Continue the second sentence so that il means the same as the first onc.

1

o (!) G ===

Sally was in such a hurry that she forgot to take her briefcase. IfSally ........ .

2

He does n't know the answer. He won't get the job. Ifhc ................ _............................. __

3

It's a p ity that we d idn't get the con tract, because now we're in such a terrible mess. Ifwe

.,

Negotiations

SPEAKING 1 Lorna from Customer Services is talki ng on the telephone with an extremely irate customer, Mrs Wallace. Decide which sentences a-o are spoken by Lorna, and which ones are said by Mrs Wallace. Write Lor W in the first gap. a

Don't tell me your problems: I've got enough of my own. Why on earth didn't somebody call me?

b

Another date! As far as I'm concerned, you can deliver it today or you can cancel my order.

c

Oh dear. Do you happen to have your order number, Mrs Wallace?

d

Once again, I'm extremely sorry, Mrs Wallace. On behalf of Greenwood's, I can only apologize for any inconvenience you've suffered.

e

..L.. .J.. Customer Services. l orna speaking, how may I help? I can fully appreciate your frustration, Mrs Wallace. Would you let me arrange another date and time for you?

g

Well, it simply isn't good enough.

h

Just a moment, I've got it written down somewhere. Yes it's BHY / 8976 .

.W..L

Good morning, my name's Wallace, Mrs Isabelle Wallace. I'm calling about a sofa delivery. I've been waiting in all morning and it still hasn't arrived. That's lovely. I'm just calling your details up on the screen. Ah yes, according to this, it should have been delivered first thing this morning.

k

I'm afraid I don't know; I don't deal with the deliveries myself. I suppose so, I've already wasted three hours. I'll make sure that I'm in.

m

Yes, I already know that. I've taken the day off work to be here. I'm extremely cross. I see, Mrs Wallace. If you bear with me a moment, I'll see what I can do. Would this afternoon between four and five suit you?

o

,

2

I do understand Mrs Wallace, but unfortunately two of our drivers are off sick.

Now number their conversation in the correct order.

39

Negotiations

WRITING

t~~ h'~e Agne~ to the manager of a theatre. Then

Read the letter of complaint written b S write an appro priate reply which shm:s phrases in the box below as you can .

lanager s concern. Include as many of the

I was extremely concerned I hope you will accept my si'~erest I would like to assure you ..• apologies ...

into die matter dosety ... on behalf of ...

.......

As a token of our

unfortunatel~

"l"\-.e ma."Q.~

Ctt",et 1""\-.e
I

I

ve

0... IBIoI.-, "3"Q.",W1'<""1 :t. v.s'Ioed "l"\-.e C'ffl"",a T"\-.ea.Io "";101.-, Q. '}...-." <>.f'...,e ............. e 10<> see Io\.-,e ....~ Cy-&e'<' ~o.....t.kev. ()....V ....a....... _10;...0..10...." -4'<.'<" seet",} I;:\.-,e ....v..s;,..O.O...Sl -.JQ.S 1;:\.,0..1;: il;: f'ea.Io....... $ Sl;:e#i a,,,,d me.i "3"<>y"c.e. -/' ..."..... I;:'->e e

~q-e ~v;e.....~. ~

~o.."d

,....-.11

,8-a."d T"....otst:ed

S
"*' !l",e so--e .r"d<>.... t\.-,e ... s-et ...."f' 0..1:: 5--3a Q..-.. i", ..'<"de'<" 1::<> o..,<",<"i...e i",

As

ee

I::"-e flov I::\..,e ....a.1::......

-pev-4'<.v....a.~ ·

:t. M1",'t I::ill y-, "-" d>s
"*'

~'<" ..........,. 1::\.,0..1:: ~y. ~t'$ ...-'<"e. -&ef'ove ..&-Jc.......,. t\.-,e I::",.has J:. o....<'-t~y l::e.Ilep\""'",ed ...-"'-/'........ Iol.,dt ./fotl.-, I::l.,dt da.Y·

~

J:.

e><"f'~0..

o..~~

s."'~s

,. Jo••,JM

t\.-.e ja..dy ...... t\.-,e

.&e "''''

.a-

to

sta.~

.,#\..c.e -4'<.'<"

~v....a.~,

a." ....Q.1::""" Q.""tev t\.-.e s\.-.e ve-p!l.ed t\.,o..10 $'->e dOd.... Io j........... t\.-,e vea..S<>" -4'<.v I::\.-.ei'<" 0...8-~ 'm"l ~v;e.....~ a.",d J;. 'iJ-ot t\.-.e ......" v e$s....'" 1::1.-,0.."

s-et

s\.-,e dOc\,,'t vea...2.2-t .L
.$e 0.. ....ea,j. Q."I::.--""!l,............. J;. 1::1-,i".J.. it's .... ~y """"o"''} flo .... l::\.-.eo.. l:: ...es to O"f'I?"<"o..te ',,, tl.-,·os ...",.y. Q."d 1;:0 \.,o..ve I::I.-,is ..k'",d """ Q.tt~. N.:.t o..Jt d;.\ ...e I;: ...o..d Q. j"",,. <..:AY t o see t\.-,e ....v..s\.L4.i. .$v.t ...,e oJ.so s-pe....1:: Q. j,,1;: o.f' _ ....e-t 0 ..... _v da.y ""'t, .flo'<" t\..ea.I::'<"e t",.ke l::s Q.....d

tvo..d. 'vJe $~ ,LC't"l::o..i"jy I::I.-,•.,..J.. ........'<"e.f'vJl!ly .$ef-o'<"e Q. .........."',.....'} o....... y .f'u.t....'<"e ~ t<> y__v

t\..ea.tve. 'vJe ~ tl.-,o..\:: y__ ...;.ll ~ tl.-,is ....a.I::Ioev y--'<"

.L
o..tte....t..."'. Q.",d .'" d<>'''''}

......t<> ...-V\$ide'<"Q.\::......... t\.-.e

d
.$0,

.,.....-"'...e....;e...,...:.e

...,;.i.Q to...ke Q.",d

r

Cygnet Theatre

will ...

Staying competitive J n

VOCABULARY 1

Complete the text with a n appropriate fo r m of the words in brackets.

l\ lanagemcm

1 •••.....••..••••..••••. .•••.•

(consult) is a growing business in times when many

companies suffer from a lack of 2............................. (compete). T here arc fi rms which __ , (recruit) or marketing, although rhe most prestigious specialize in J ." ... concentrate on strategic planning. This may involve advising fi r lllS O\'cr mergers o r 4 .............••••......••..•

(acquire), or whether or not to follow a policy of diversification. __ (coosu1£) can spend months examining the business and

A team of 5 gathering market 6.... j\lthough all employees are often

____ . (intelligent), and develop different scenarios. afC

7 ............. ....... ... .. ....

expected to co-operate throughout the process there

(rival) and office politics to deal with . TIlis can make the

job of an)' person from outside the company 8 ............................. (stress), although the profession is nOt without its compensations! Top practitioners can command a high salary in return for their 9 ............................ (expert) and commitment.

2

Look at these sentences and decide whethe r the words o r expressions in italics are describing successes (5), or failures (F) . 1

There must have been a breakdowll in comm un ication; I never got your

2

message. ...... She's a realllig/! flyer, she'll probably be running the fi rm in a couple of years.


His cunning plan backfired and he was given the sack. ...... I'd like to thank everyone who worked on the launch. It WC/lt like clockwork.

S

Scien tists have made a breakr/!rollg/! in the quest for a cu re for this terrible

3

disease . ._

3

Match the words and expressions in italics in 2 to these definitions. 1 2 3

had the opposite effect to the one intended ............. _..... . an important development which usually comes after a period of d ifficulty, or a long wait ............................ . a dynamic and ambitious person who may have a bright and successful future


worked perfectly and according to plan _.

S

a collapse or failure which prevents further progress

What message?

42

Staying compet it ive

READING 1

Hamleys is Britain's most fa mous toy shop. It is located in the West End of London. famous for its theatres, expensive shops. and department stores. Read the article and complete paragraphs A- F with these init ial sentences.

2 3 4 5 6

I

Mr Bu rke brought back the basics of retailing with a focus on range, value, service, and the store environment. The success of The Bear Factory will help reduce Hamleys' reliance on the flagship sto re. Two weeks before Christmas and Simon Burke, tbe chairman of Hamleys, is strid ing around Brit ain's best-known toy store looking anxious. Indeed he has strong views on the toy industry including the faet thaI many hot sellers are not up to much. ' [ used to play games like Diplomacy and war games (as a child). Services like VIP shopping have been introduced, as well as a home delivery service. 8 _ . [ th ink that with the degree of branding that is prevalent in the toy industry. the adml playing Quality of the item is often overlooked. You'lI get what a re sometimes Quite poor toys that will sell very well because they happen to have the right brand or because they are supported by massive advertising:

I

A _ This is a make-or-break time for the company which makes nearly all its money in the last three months of the year. But you realize that he doesn't look half as anxious as some of the shoppers. 'When it gets close to Christmas Eve people will, within reason. buy just about anything,' he says. Hamleys is enjoying a renaissance under the 43-}'Car-old ;'Ir Burke but the former Virgin executive who joined the finn two years ago, is no starry-eyed kid in the candy store.

2

C _ It was all strategy games, rather than games of chance where there's lots of dice-rolling involved.' The fo rme r war game player has needed all his st rategic skill to revive the fortunes of Hamleys which was an under-invested has-bee n when he was brought in two years ago. With four chief executives in the previous four years the business had become confused. And the acquisition of Toystack, a chain of shopping mall toy stores. had proved disastrous. D _ He has cut out cheap rubbish and put in more own brand products including traditional wooden toys. 'And we have more big-ticket items such as a £ 16,000 4x4 mini car with a petrol driven engine. [ don't expect to sell many of them. but we're the ultimate toy

store so we should have the ultimate toys.' E _ Hamleys has also started an expert hotline where customers can ask questions about specialist areas like model rai lways. Prices are more competitive and the flagship store has been gi\'en an additional £2.6m makeover to make it closer to the fantasyland it should be. Meanwhile the fai led Toystack stores are gradually being turned into branches of The Bear Factory. which sells custom-made teddy bears with voice-recorded messages. F _ It will also cut the group's reliance on tourist,spending. All of which brings Mr Burke to an issue he clearly feels very strongly about. It is the decline of London's West End. 'It is quite a challenge to trade in the West End now. Time was when people would have given anything for a West End site. But now you have to ask some questions. There is a fundamental t ransport problem and there are an increasing number o( alternati\'e5 with free parking. The West End has to pull its socks up.'

Find wo rds and expressions in the text to match these definitions.

2

a crucial period determining success or failure . a naive child

3 4 5

a sweet shop .............. products which are selling extremely well cubes with dots used in a game of chance .

6 7 8 9

expensively-priced goods ............................ . a complete change of image .................. _... . the most important of a group of shops make an effort to improve performance .

1

Staying competitive

3

Read the text again and answer these questions. Why are the weeks before Christmas so important for Hamleys?

2

What theory does Burke ha\'e about the success of some toys of poor qualifY?

3

What connection does the writer make between Burke's chi ldhood hobbies and his actions as a manager?

4

How do we know that Hamleys was in a poor state before Burke arrived?

5

What is The Bear Factory's USP?

6

Why is The Bear Factory so important for the London store?

7

What worrying key issue is beyond Burke's control?

GRAMMAR Complete these sentences with an appropriate form of the verb in brackets. 1

Generally speaking, I like

...... (sort out ) my

expenses once a week.

2

' [ hope you remembered ... __ 'Oh no! I mean t I forgot .....

____ .... (fax) that report: (send) it, but in the end

.............. (do) it.'

3

When the computer crashed, it meant ............................. (reinstall) all the software.

"

She began her career .................. (fill ) shelves but then .... (become) Managing Director. went on

5

I'm not used 10

..... (speak) in public so I need

..................... (practise) my presentation. 6

The last time I used my card? Well, I remember ............................. (use) it .

7

__ (pay) for some petrol.

... (smoke) is banned throughout the building.

B

We've tried ___ .. (relaunch ) and . (rep.lckage) the product but nothing seems (work).

9

That's the office where I used . _____.... ____....

(work).

43

Staying competitive

SPEAKING 1

Use the prompts to form the introduction to a presentation. Good morning everybody. As you be I aware I object / today's meeting I be 1 10 presen t I results l our research I share our thoughts with you. First I aliI I I outline I company's current position I talk you through I facts . Afterwards, I I propose I urgent aclion l should take. Finally, we I put forward f suggestions I mediulll term I explore I alternatives. However I before I begin. J like f thank you ali I your co-operation. [ know I I speak I behalf I my entire group.

I

I

2

Rearrange the words to make sentences followin g on (rom the int roduction in 1. 1

what - so - important - can - this - we - lessons - learn - from?

2

will - through - talking - strategy - Cathy - you - be - our - medium-term.

3

latest - going - we - right - are - to -start - running - the - through - by results.

4

attention -

5

brings - scheme - us - this - topic - to - the - the - pension - of.

6

start - the -let's - by - we -looki ng - at - fact s - and - shall - figures?

7

I -like - to - head - YOll - would - communications - of - hand - to - ourCathy Black - over.

8

if -look - so - ha ndout - eight - you - would -like - graph - to - the - aton - page - of - the.

9

graph - you - see - further - can - two - this - features - reveals - asencouraging.

J-

like - statistics - four - would - draw - to - your - to - key.

10 time - turn - most - now - our - to - its - recommendations - important - to.



WRITING

Staying competitive

The Bloomsgrovc corporation has a residential training centre for employees. It receives ISO people at anyone lime. There have been complaints about the catering and a committee has been asked to come up with ways of improving the service. Using the notes, write a report on the committee's findings under these headings. Title

Back round

Recommendations an

CKrYeiM" S.~tKt:l tt.DII\..

Cow.w.~ttee fo~

6v'eruol".t l1as. to tat

,

Fi)(lA -

sa~ l".\.taL. No

~aL tt.~. wa~ttt'

~ten...g

,,

to !..oaR tv..to COI%-pLai.lo'I.ts about cateti....g.

services aye

ntVl.

I

el1oke.

'I

seYVice - ca ..... be veru sLow. btj 'BLoow.sgrOV't ew.pLo\::jus.

CoI%IMi.ttu gave qKtsti.w"l".&Iirts to 600 parti.c.t.'P"III.ts. oLd-fasr.~v...u(

(.1M

SOl<\<..tti1i.~ w-oye

-

'M~

-

"'0

f.v.d

v.o..t~

fD~"L

-

~

tau tya« i.twv...Ql Qtv.ws'Pi1eyt,

50~

wav..t

i.....fo~j;lL; 1.~ 'AOv..' t RMWS'. K.....i:w.agi.v...&tti.ve. ti1e rest thi.v..k i.t's OK..

vegetllrial'\S were il".terviewed . Net;lr\.u t;lLL foK~ the v~ett;l~1I\.. ~II\..K

KlI\..tlcceptt;lbLU poot: people of ~t.ffen:v..t · v..&Itt.Ov..&lLi.tl.ts thoKght the CQolci.....g ~ t oo 'B.tit~l1.

30

,,(

t

("\

r

(r("("(

("("(«<<

t

\

\,

PosSt.bt.Lt.tt.es. - CcKLd sKb-cov..tyt;lct senlt.ce. Cl1tr.rptr; bKt wl1t;lt t;lbOKt qKt;l utU?

"St;l~

'- '-

foy moyt;l!.t

to n:l'I.<.ove ct;lteti.....g stt;lff?

-

FtA-Ll Ct;lv..tUIl\.. stnlict. l>t:opt.e qKeKe t;l~ ,,"-t;lRt chowe t;lt couv..ttt: Mon: cl1oiu,

but couL~ Ct;lUSt LD.....g qutues.. Not s'Pecit;lL eVl-Ot-tgkJust Li~ scl100L ~t;lts. Wt;lste offoo~.

-

Ccl"-till\..Ue wt.tl1

s,,~

--

people fill ill\..

~I'\M.

situt;ltL.oII\... piffUKlt to senle

ct;lm t;lt

~i.ffen:1"-t

tUl'es. of ~t;ll.

begill\..~.....g ofWU~?

COI%I'I.<.i.ttu's sugges.ti.ovw;

of CQUYSt.

-

f-t"Vt t;l fo"""-,,l ~t;lL t;lt b egi.II\..~.....g t;l~ e~

-

tft;lVt t;l clll"-tulo'. StrVi.ct wt.tl1 stpt;lrt;lte St;lLa~ t;l~ St;l~Wt.e11 bt;ly fo y Li.ght

L\.I.lI\..Cnes. I ~t.II\..~YS. - ALwt;l!js offer t;l vegttt;ltit;lll\.. not As~ 'Pt;lrtl.et.'Pt;lV\ks to fiLL

ill\..

~t;lL.

~I'\M. YeqKes.t t;l~ ~it:tt;l'11 req\.l. t.n:~V\ks 010'.

t;l'P'PLi.c"tt.olo'. fo"""-. S-I%t;li.l fon% to t;lLl tl%pLD!jus.

REPORT The future of catering at the Bloomsgrove Training Centre

46

Fair exchanges VOCABULARY Use the clues to complete the crossword.

The part of the ship where 16 down is

Down 1 The system of mOlley used by a countr y.

kepi.

3

Items which are bought and sold. A documentary lettcr of ...... _ Which is the shortest ... to London from here? Desert traffic. Businessman of the past. A large number of boa ts which travel together, or which are pa rt of the same orga nization. Objects carried by road, rail, or air. A trade association formed by Soulh East Asian nal ions. A ship used to transport petroleum. A large boat or shi p.

4

The part of 5 down where ships stop to load and unload. A bill of ............................. proves that so mething has been put on board a ship.

S

Liverpool used to be an im portant trans
8

Goods which have been sent, but which have not yet arrived are

Across 2

I

6 7



I

11 12 17

18

" 21 22

.,l

f-

1

1

,





-

-"

1

1

1

I

-

-

-

"

1



1

-

20 An abbreviation fo r the European Union .

.---

-

-

.................... ........

16 Goods transported o n a ship or a ircrart.

.---

,

f-

in 10 A machine for lifting cargo on
-

-

"' l-

"

"

f-

f-

I" f-

f-

'-

f-

" f-

"

,

r;;-

f-

ff-

L-

I I

II

,

L-

Fair exchanges

READING

1

Read the article and answer these questio ns. 1

\¥ho are the following people? a Yves Carcel1e ....... "........ _____________ _.............. _ b

Tikka Shatrujit Singh

c d

Melanic Flouquct ........................................................ . Vivian Hung

e

Marc Jacobs _

2

Where does LVMI-I 's name come from?

3

In which order did Louis Vuitton open, or does he plan to open , stores in these countries? China

4

South Africa

Russia

Put these four markets in order of thei r importance to Louis Vuillon. China and Taiwan

Japan ......

Bagging some new markets Indian aristocral:5, business leaders, and BoLLywood stars turned out in force last

March at a glittering reception for an exhibition of antique Luggage used by Maharajas. But the luxurious steamer trunks and cases for swords and turbans weren't on display in a historical museum. The setting was Louis Vuitton's newLyLaunched New Delhi store, its first outlet in India. Vuitton's move into India is part of an expansion that over the past decade has doubLed the size of its retail network to 318 stores in 51 countries. Besides India, it opened its first store in Russia last year and wiLL soon move into South Africa. Tapping new markets is essential to

US

India

Vuitton's drive to maintain double-digit sales growth. And it helps reduce Vuitton's dependence on Japanese customers, who account for more than half of sates worldwide. Vuitton isn't the only luxury group eyeing emerging markets, but it tries to stay ahead of the pack. In his Paris office, Vuitton chief Yves Carcelle keeps a photo of Nanjing road in Shanghai, which was clogged with bicycles in 1992 when Vuitton became the first global luxury group to open a store there. Today, the street is thronged with cars and is the main artery of a bustling business district. In fact, about 8% of Vuitton sales are made to mainland Chinese customers. That includes clients at nine stores in China, as well as Chinese tourists shopping in other countries. Once again in India, Vuitton is the first major lUXUry shop group to set up shop. 'We have one billion [Indians 1 who are just waiting for us: CarceUe says. Yet entering a new country requires painstaking groundwork. Carcelle sent a team to India in 1999 to meet Tikka Shatrujit Singh, a young aristocrat who was the advisor to Vuitton's parent LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton in India, where it was selling Champagne, cognac, and perfumes. Singh introduced them to wealthy businesspeople and socialites. 'There was nothing available in India for the rich to buy. People were flying to

London, Dubai, Sin9apore and New York to shop; Singh recalls. Within a year, Vuitton was scouting for store locations, finaUy settling on retail space in Delhi's luxurious Oberoi Hotel. The company expects to open a second store in Mumbai this year. For Vuitton, these store openings serve a dual purpose. Of course, the company hopes to draw crowds of shoppers. But just as important, the outlets, and the publicity they generate, help to raise the brand's profile with people who may end up shopping for Vuitton when they travel abroad. Londonbased analyst Melanie Ftouquet of J P Morgan says that within fifteen years more than 100 million Chinese will go abroad annualLy. That's why Vuitton plans to open four more stores in China this year. The company says mainland China and Taiwan together are already its third largest market behind Japan and the US. And there are some serious shoppers out there. Vivian Hung, a 34-year-old Hong-Kong native who lives in Beijing, is a devoted Vuitton fan who owns a collection of handbags and the Latest ready-to-wear by Vuitton designer Marc Jacobs. 'Other big brands Like Prada and Gucci are very good, but I choose Louis Vuitton; she says. With clienteLe Like that, Vuitton Looks set for even more globaL growth. Business Week _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Fair exchanges

48

2

Now read the article morc closely a nd answer these questions.

Why is Lou is Vui tton following a policy of opening new stores in emerging markets?

2

How has Shanghai changed sineed Vuitton opened its siore there?

3

What steps did Yves Carcelle follow before opening a New Delhi store?

4

"''hat aff' the {,"'O main reasons for Louis Vui tlon opening new stores in countries like India and China?

I

3

I

Find the word in italics in the text a nd decide whether definition a, b, or c is the closest in meaning.

6

a old and boring glitterillg a exploiting tappillg a free clogged a fast thronged a lively and busy bustlillg pai,Istakillg a uncomfortable

1

scollti"s for

1

2 3 4

5

a guiding

b bright and glamorous

c dark and mysterious

b hitting

c ident ifying

b blocked

c empty

b closed

c crowded

b fast -growing

c loud and threatening

b cruel

c careful

b searching

c find ing

GRAMMAR 1

Complete these sentences with an appropriate form of the passive. Then write a sentence to explain why the passive is used in each case.

2

3

4

2

Rewrite these sentences in the passive. 1

We are exporting more and more of our goods to Sou lh East Asia.

Oh no! My wallet ....

. .M.m:t;.J~u!'{. !!.!9.r.f;..Qfm.!r.g~.(l.~ .bri!.lg .~pgl1.W. If}....................

(steal).

.S9.!!lh.&w.I.\,OO, .................................... 2

They'll have finished the paperwork by this evening.

(open ) by the mayor.

3

BeCore we supplied the goods, someone should have checked their bank references.

The goods . .. ........................... ......... (then transport ) to our central warehouse 80 km away.

4

Officials from Customs examined the container's contents.

Something .. ........................... ............ _ (should do) about this problem right away.

5

Wi th the Internet you can track your consignment every kilometre of the way.

6

PorI officials made our ship wait three weeks for permission to dock.

The new Science Park

"'

49

Fa ir exchanges

SPEA KING 1 Euan McLeish is giving a guided tour of a whisky distillery. Complete his introduction with words and expressions from the box. 'd IIIre to say somethmg

afterwards

nobody has any questions

I'm lOing

as you can see

as I'm sure ou know

before

K Y'1!!'d Hke to

round

I

Good afternoon evcryone,

,

.......................... __ the Glenbrook distillery ..... you all a very warm wekome. J\ ly

name is Euan McLeish and

3 ............................

to be your

craft. Now,

us arc the instruments of the distiller's 7 ....

8 .............................

.._.....

we begin our

l

(OU f ,

aoout the history o f Scotch whisky

guide today. The visit will take about fifty minutes, and

and its production.

............................. you will have the opportunity to sample some of our fine products and to try and resisf

comes from the Gaelic language and means the water of lifel Now,

the many temptations of the distillery shop.

11 ...•....••....••...• ..•.••.•

........................ .... , we are standing in the visitors' centre,

2

I

which was once part of the o riginal distillery;

,

9 .... _ ............•......... ,

1(0 •.•••••.••••..••••.••••...•.•

the word 'whisky'

the first exhibit. I'll

the basic process o f making this mOSf

magical of liq uids. So, if

12 .••..•••...•... ........... ,

I'll begin .

Using the d iagrams to help you, reorder these sentences to form the rest of Euan's presentation of the whisky-maki ng process. The (ermenta tion process converts the mixt ure into someth ing like beer. Afterwards, this liquid is transferred to a fermenti ng container and yeast is added. You see, the wood of these casks is where the whisky gets its colour and character from .

M00

Once it has started growing, it is dried in an oven which uses a natural fuel called peat. This is because many of these barrels have already been used to mature sherry or other alcohol. Let's begin , shall we? Right, basically, malt whisky is made from malted bartey, water, and yeast. First of allihe barley is soaked in waler from our stream for two days. It is allowed 10 Slart growing. g

The smoke from the peat rises up and dries out the barley, giving it ils distinctive flavour.

h

Once distillation has finished, it goes into specially selected oak barrels to age. This water and barley mixture turns into a sugary liquid .

.n k

Finally, all there is to do is wait. After a minimum of three years it can be legally defined as Scotch Whisky, but most whisky matu res (or five years or more before it is bOllled. When the barley is finally dry, it is ground up and mixed with hot water. Next, this beer-like mixture is distilled twice.

barley a type of grain used to make whisky (Iistil the process of turning liquid to vapour, and then collecting the drops or liquid rrom the vapour which has cooled yetlst the living orga nism which helps bread to rise, and alcohol to fermen t fermentation the transformation or suga r to alcohol through a chemical reaction

o

m °

0

o

0

[J)[J)[J)

-

50

Fair exchanges

WRITING 1

Read the text about the advantages fo r exporters and impo rters of pricing goods in different currencies fo r export. Make notes of the key words and ideas.

or exporters, the big advantage of

pricing in their own currency is that F they d on"t get caught out by changes in the exchange rale. Generally speaking. most of an exporter"s costs will be in his own currency, so it's always best to usc this 10 price goods. The danger of pricing in the importer's currency is that if this suddenly devalues. the exporter will receive far less than expected when the sum is converted into his own currency_ Importers might also be worried abo ut the possibility o f a big change in the exchange rate between the time of placing an order and paying the invoice for goods priced in fore ign currency. In particular. importers who live in weaker econo mics where currencies fluc tuate need to proteet themselves. The safest way of doing this is for the importer 10

I

I 2

Pricing goods for import / export

contact 11 bank and fix the price of the currency at the start of the business deal. The importer will have to pay some fees and a special exchange rate for this service. which is known as bllyingjonmfll. Of course, if the currency in which he is buying then weakens he will lose out, because he could have paid less for the currency than he needed. However, the reverse is a lso true: if the importer hadn't taken steps to buy forward. and in the meantime his own currency had weakened. then he could have ended up paying a lot more, Quite sensibly, most businesses don't want to play the currency market. It is a huge gamble and an unnecessary risk to take. This is why exporters tend to price goods in their own currency. and importers prefer to buy forward.

Now tur n the no tes into an eye-catching poster p resentation in the space below. Decid e wh ich of the following style features you want to adopt. arrows and flow , harls key words and bullet points memorable illustrations headings, o r questions which you thcn answer

..

51

Human resources VOCA BULARY 1

Complete the puzzle. Find the myster y word: a letter yo u write for a job.

7.

" 1

2

3

I' 1 1 1 1 1

/

1 1

/ 5 6

,

, , I" 1 1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8

"

Something which is difficuh but satisfying is ... _............... Opposite of temporary. A stage in your career which may not be exactly what you want to do, but which is a step in the right direction. (two words) A financial lemplation to attract new graduates. (two words) Involves a question and answer session . Somebody who is chosen for interview. A positive one is essential for job-hunters. Deserves the time and cfforl spent on it.

9 Describes somebody you

Gill

depend

all.

10 It is important to do this if you want to m
headhunting stepping stone

a

Hello, is that Ma rjorie Howard? If I could just have a minute of your time. This is Jerry Molloy ringing from IVS recruitment. Now, I know that you're probably happy in your present job but I have a clien t who is looking for someone with your skills and experience. I've heard that you're looking for a new driver; well , m y nephew Larry is looking for a job. He's a really good boy. Would YOLl like to meet him? I've really got to leave this place. There are no opportuni ties for promotion or a better salary. There's no future in it at all. \'\'ell , she only stayed for six months. She jllst wanted to get experience in logistics before mov ing on to another com pany. She just used LI S, really.

b c d

3 4

pulling strings dead-end job

NS , . RECRUITl1ENT

52

Human resou rces

READING 1



Read the art icle about writing a CV a nd connect the opinions below with a person from the text: either Margaret Stead (MS), John Richardson (JR), or Nic Owen (NO). 1

The person reading a CV may not laugh at the same things as you.

2

Students often don't present themselves as well as they could . ..... .

3

A very short CV can be effective and m emorable.

4

Job applicants may need to present their experience in a creative way.

S

We should match our achievements to the job we are applying for.

6

CVs which include tricks just to be noticed are irritating.

7

CVs of more than two pages are probably

8

Who you really are shou ld come out of your CV. ..... . your potential employer is looking for and then match approximately five from your portfolio. If you're going for your first job, you might not feel you have five achievements under your belt, but it can be just a question of looking at your experience in the right way. 'lots of students undersell themselves,' says John Richardson, careers consultant at Manchester University. 'When they say they've done nothing you want to scream at them. You've worked in a bar on a Saturday night in Manchester? You've got experience handling conflict.' The same applies to any attempt to make your CV stand out from the crowd. When it comes to quirky touches, 'Do it for a reason,' says Nic Owen, account director at advertising agency M&C Saatchi. 'If there's a reason for it then it can be powerful but gimmicks for their own sake are annoying.' Ms Stead fondly remembers a CV that turned up with a tea bag attached and an invitation to 'have a cup of tea while you read my CV!' But she agrees that you can't rely on the person who reads your CV sharing your sense of humour. As a general rule, Stead says, tricks like printing your CV

I

I

'Writing a 01 is like eating an elephant. You have to do it chunk by chunk: says Margaret Stead, CEO of careers consultancy careersnet.com. She feels that all too often we take a daunting, one-size-fits-all approach to compiling a CV. When it comes to CVs, the key is to make it relevant. Ms Stead recommends that, rather than writing a generic chronological CV, you should build up a portfolio of achievements. When applying for a job, identify the achievements that demonstrate skills

2

100

long.

on neon yellow paper are 'wrong, wrong, wrong.' What about length? Must you keep everything on one page? Is it OK to stretch to three? Mr Richardson feels that two pages are pretty standard for the UK, and that busy recruiters won't read anything much longer than that. 'The key is to be pithy' says Mr Owen, 'I saw a CV recenUy that was so simple. It was about 10 lines long. Just: I went to this university, I'm interested in these things, I want to work in advertising for these reasons. It was very impressive.' With all this, you're probably running out of space. The good news is that you don't need to include references. It's perfectly acceptable to put 'references available on request' at the bottom. Mr Owen also thinks humour can help. He says it's important to let your personality come across. 'People think they have to be so serious. You shouldn't be flippant, but the best CVs are the ones where you warm to the person. In the end you just have to be yourself. If you lie about who you are now and get the job, you will have to be that person for the rest of your career.'

The article includes a Jot of advice about what the person reading your CV is looking for. Mark these statements true (T) or false ( F), according to the text. 1

The first thing potential employers want is information about you from your prevIOus company. . .

2

A CV doesn't have to be completel y serious . .

3

Employers arc looking for people skills as much as hands-on experience . ..... .

4

Potential employers want as much information in the CV as possible. .

Human reso urces

3

Match words 1-6 from the Icxllo definitions a-f. chunk

a

lacking seriousness for an important or serious mailer

something unusual and fun

3

daunting ...... portfolio

b

c

discouragingly difficult o r challenging

4

pithy ......

d

a large thick piece cuI from a larger piece

5

flippant

e

a collection of examples of work or achievement

6

quirky _

f

short, memorable and 10 the point

1

2

'.

I

Match sentences 1-4 with definitions of take offa-d. I'll take ofT 5% if you pay by cash o r cheque.

2

3

2

Sales took off after the advertising campaign.

3

The plane took off half an hour latc . ...... .

4

J'm going to take a couple of weeks off.

a

have a holiday

b

suddenly increase and become popuhu

deduct

d

leave the ground

Rewrite these sentences replacing the words in italics with a pronoun. You may have to change the word order. 1

He really took in tile imerviewers wilh his clever talk.

2

Hang o n to your ticket; they may ask you for it later.

Look at the sentences in 1. Decide whether take off is transitive or intransitive. Write (n or (I) in the second gap.

Match the phrasal verbs in italics to their synonyms in the box.

refuse have a relationship compensate

4

H.t;.J.t;.Q.!!y ..((J.g.~ ..t.l!.I;.{!!..i!.!..\y.i.~!J. .hi$. . r;/!';.l!.f.[..W.!k..

c

deduct

I

l

GRAMMAR 1

53

go upwardS continue mention lower the volume

.""""

It's time we paid off our debts.

4

We need to sort Oll t the problem before the weekend.

raise

5

2

AI last! Sales have sta rted to take off. .... $!J.!m.!'POOL .. 1 might consider your offer if you fake off the delivery

3

charge.. .................... . Slap talking and get all witll your work . .

4

How are you getting 011 witl! your new boss?

5

She tlmlcd the job dow" because she got a better offer.

6

We should iJring Ihe mailer liP al

7

They've made lip another excuse for the late delivery.

8

Can I leave early today? I'll make up the time next

9

Could you film dowlI the TV, I'm trying to sleep.

Oll r

3

next meeting.

week.

10 He was brol/gllt lip on a farm in the countryside.

I'm looking forward to our IIext meetillg.

54

Human resources

SPEAKING 1

I

I 2

Keith Rickman is being interviewed for a job as a manager in Customer Services. Rearrange the interviewer's jumbled questions. 1

yo u - in - see - what - time - doing - yourself - years' - do - three?

2

the - made - is - mistake - w hat - you - worst - ever - have?

3

deal - you - would - rather - customer's - with - a - yourself - problem?

4

you - think - is - that - do - right - the - customer - always?

5

new systems - well - how - think - with - you - you - cope - do -lea rning?

6

is - there - like - you - anything - would - to - us - thaI - ask?

7

has - prompted - what - to - job -look - you - for - another?

8

would - is - you - telling - greatest - u s - what - mind - you r - weakness?

Complete the interview with the questions from 1. ?

INTERVIEWER; Tell us, 1 ............................................... . KEITH:

Well, basically, I have enjoyed working in myoid firm and have learnt an

enormous amount, but now I'd like a new challenge and a position in management.

?

INTERVIEWER: 2 KEITH:

Mm, taking things too personally, I suppose. I really hate it if a customer goes

away and I haven't been able to help her or him. INTERVIEWER: KEITH:

So,

3 ........................................................

INTERVIEWER: ' ••.•••..........•.••........... __ .......•....... KEITH:

?

No I don't, but we should remember that the customer is always the customer. .. . or let someone else handle it?

I get a real buzz out of solving a customer's problem, but as a manager you've

got to take a wider view and trust your staff to deal with it just as well as you.

?

INTERVIEWER : S KEITH:

I don't think I've ever made a disastrous mistake at work. But on a personal

level. I think it was dropping out of university before I graduated. INTERVIEWER:

We have quite a complex information system here.



?

KEITH: With the right support, I am confident I could find my way round it quickly. We had many different databases in my previous firm. INTERVIEWER:

And finally,

7 ...................................... .

?

KEITH : Well, that's a difficult Question, but I think I'd like to move into the coaching and training side. I like sharing my experience, and working with people. INTERV IEWER:

Great. And

8

,

KEITH: Yes there is, I've got a short list of Questions if you don't mind ...



WRITING

Human resources

lenny Walters is looking for a new job. She has just found an advertisement for a position in a London-based hotel group. Use the advertisement and Jenny's notes to write her leiter of application. Invent any furth er details you feel are necessary.

ASSISTANT MANAGERS REQUIRED A well-known chain of international hotels is seeking a number of assistant managers lor its flagship operation in the heart of London's West End. Successful applicants will have a recognized qualification in holel management, and several years' post-qualification experience in an international context. In return, successful applicants will receive an excellent salary and employment package, together with a career path which could lead to overall responsibility

for one of the hotels in the chain. Interest will be shown in candidates who are able to otter fluency in at least ooe other European language. Ideally, candidates will also otter a working knowledge in Japanese, Arabic or Mandarin Chinese. Applicanls should send a handwritten letter of applicalion on not more than one side of A4 paper, and an up-la-dale CV. Bethany Strong

Silver Service Appointments, PO Box 760

--

..).....,1 ~ R,i-\ <>t o1'1'o..-1" ...i1j 1" ~"""e- be.-e-. looR,i~ fD>'"'· .f"~1 1"'....... ~i ",-., ..lc>.A<, to..- .... 1.,1' 1..",,··te-1. l., 1-'"':1 old,. 5cJ"IOOi i... 'I-'......-i') .......d, "R_e-. 1"...1~-r..,... •.J ]l....cc....\....... ~-re.-. ~ 1"",,)1..-r,,1e.- - ~i"...\e.....1 of ]lit ~~ i ... \-.p"\"""e.-I _~e.-e-.1. L-' ...&re.-I c\I.. 1'......-c.. ? .....-i') - ~ 'fe-"--'"':1 f...--..-r de--')"Il. e.-1-~' (e,j£..r..-r-.1lj ~.te- ...-e-')"fC>O'')ibilni fo..- .,...e,. o-t n., .-v,-r................-r.,.) S1""".. a~ ~..-...bic. ;.., .,~ ;,-.£..-. ~ ~~ ...-r t;.te--.,-r.....- h.o-re.-I ;\bu. """ll~....bi. c~.e,..f ~,..r..,...i')-r. "Re.-.,,..,.....,ibilni to"- ...-u............-r_e-.-r o-t ::'''''''00..- ~vr..,...

,r,,,

e......:i>loje--') ,J;\l """1'1'1j "- ..-e-f~.

c...~-r

,

~-r........c.-r e-..d.') i............ <'"'t.-t.- .............11-.')

-r.-.£..-. ~O<><"\ d,.,.I_ ...-r>c ..,R,i\\., - ~ -f\.,v,e.. i ... fi"e--')-r.....- h.o-re.-I ..);1)... a.-........ai...~ ;...-r~-r..,......1 d~1e.-Ie.-. ~ ""'-.te- fl....e,.....-r I\"..-o...boc. e ..............

.,i...0">C~

""'.....a-...Io.A<,;...,~

...

55

I

I

I

56

Business start-up VOCABULARY 1

Complete these sentences with an appropriate form of a phrasal verb from the box. stay on into

I

II out hand over

stand down

take over

1

It's time you

2

When she refused to

.......... the reins to someone younger. ___ ,_... the family business, her parents stopped her

allowance.

I

3

There was a row about who was going to ............................. as managing director.

4

The board of directors fo rced her to

5

It's a bad idea for people to . ........................ once they reach the age of 65. over succession issues. Families often

6

2

........................ after thirty yea rs in the joh.

Complete these sentences with an appropriate form of the word in brackets. 1

Potential ............................ have to pay a joining fee of €80,000.

2

Choosing his ............................. is going to cause a lot of headaches.

3 4

They wasted their ............................ money on a stupid scheme. (REDUNDA NT) to make a success of the venture. (EXPERT) She has the .................

5

I am concerned abou t just how realistic this project is. I think we should carry out

6

a ............................. study. (FEASIBLE) Applicants are selected for their

(FRANC HI SE) (SUCCEED)

and

(ENTHUSIASTIC; COMM IT ) 7

............................ flair can't be taugh t; you either have it or you don't.

(ENTREPRENEUR)

3

Complete the text with words from the box. You may use a dictionary to help you.

stake

forecasts searchi

~I

When smaU businesses grow. they

elsewhere and may approach

for expansion. Family and friends

............................. capitalists. who can be persuaded to invesr in a business

frequently do not have the means,

with bright

or wish, to invest. Bank loans can

arE' naturally (, ............................. ' and before parting with their money.

provide finance. but interest costs can place a heavy 2 .......... ________ .•••••.... on a new business. This is why firms often look for

3

S •••••••••••.•••••.••••••••••.•

They

they will examine the business plan closely and ask 1 ........................... . questions to assess if the scheme is

feasibility burden

capital fundin

8 ..............•.......... •

,

They will want to see studies and sales

and cash flow 10 ... .......... ..••••... They will want to know what the

"

on their investment

will be. They will also expect a subsrantial 11 in the company and insist on an important say in its running.

Business start-up

57

READING 1

Read the article a bout three women who have chosen fran chising as a way of going into business. Who ... has previous experience of advertising? .

2

already had direct experience of the franc hise she later bought? ..............

3

turned to franchising after losing her job? ............................ . tells us she had to learn a lot of new skills? _ doesn't mention family considera tions? _____________ _______ .... _...


5

7

emphasizes the importance of selecting the right staff? ............................. talks about the back-up she has received from the fra nchiser?

8

was initia ll y nervous about goi ng into business on her own?

6

2

Which franchise ...

, 2

is shop-based? .... ....................... . appea rs to promise the greatest turnover? .

3

involves printing? .

4

helps people who ca n't look after themselves? ............................ . has an educational aim?

5

3

"'

Join words 1-7 with words a-g to form coUocations which appear in the text.

, ,

sales

,

success

b

rate

3 4

set-up "H" di re" ma il

c

capital

d

costs

5

annual

e

camp.ugn

6

computer .

7

working .

software

executive

g

turnover

advertising sales executive J an Edwards

to more than £1 00.000 by year thr ee. Jan says, 'This type of fran chise IS Ideal If you

rethink her future . She attended a franchise

have a family because it is quite fleXible. It is

• Last year, redundancy made fo r mer

exhibition and found Australian franchise 1m·

also a big investment. but that IS what drives

Press PromotIOns which has 43 UK franchises

you on to succeed, and I am now seeing the rewards.'

reproducing logos and graphics on products from key rings to T·shlrts and mugs. Jan. 45,

Anna 'arnall, 36, worked as a toy for

educational·toy

retail

Sally Fowler , 27. is a franchisee of

launched her lm·Press franchise from her

distr ibutor

Carewatch, offering a domestic care service

home in Telford, Shropshire. last January

fra nchise For mat ive Fun, before taking out

for elderly and dlsabfed people m the

'The bUSiness idea and the set·up Just clicked

community. She employs 35 people only seven

with me. though starting up was scary,' she

her own franchise in Petersfield, Hampshire In 1998. '1 never thought I would run my own

months after starting up in Trowbridge,

says '1 had never been self·employed and I

business,' she says, 'but working for the

Wiltshire. Sally explains, 'The busmess IS

had a tot to learn - not just the printing

company and knowing the products and the

growmg so fast because there IS a huge

process, but accountancy, markettng, and

customers gave me an advantage: Set-up

computer software.'

costs, including the franchise fee, were about

demand, and most of the time I manage It rather than pfOVlde -hands on- care, but With

Mother·of·four Jan IS the only one of 250

£40,000. Mother-of·two Anne, who has four

the training and support Carewatch prOVides,

Im·Press franChisees to have a 100 per cent

franchising has been the best option for me:

success rate from a direct mail campaign.

part·time staff, has an annual turnover of £200,000. 'Recrulting is one of the hardest

'That stems from my advertiSing backgr ound:

things about runnmg a busmess: she says.

Sally spent another £30.000 getting her business up and running. The prOjected

A Carewatch franchise costs £17,000 and

she says. An Im·Press frenchlse costs £25.000

'But once you have the right people, you can

before working capi tal, and franchisees can

run the shop to suit yourself, and for me that

annual turnover for a franchise providing 750

expect a first·year turnover of £35,000, rising

means spending time with my childr en:

hours of care a week is £292,000.

-

-

f

58

Business start-up

GRAMMAR Keith Baker, the founder of a successful climbing and cam ping shop, wants to retire but there is no obvious successor. Look at the details of his three children. 1

2

Who would you choose to take over from Keith, and why? Write a few sen tences, compari ng the three under

the headings a-c below. Use as many of the words and phrases from Ihe box as you can.

more enough

a

cons for less such

.101hardly

so

Personality and relationshi ps

b

Abilities and business skills

c

Dedication to the company

Martin: age 34. Well-known climber. Excellent knowledge of equipment. Gives expert advice to climbers. Looks like a climber and full of confidence. Attracts customers. Quite bright but unreliable. Enthusiastic but moody. Can be difficult and upset people. Bad with money and paperwork. Ambitious plans for the development of the company, but is he capable of turning his plans into reality? Dorian: age 27. Quiet and solid worker. Joined company after school. Reliable but dull, a lot of people find him boring. Lots of common sense. Mature and careful and quite easy-going. Liked by suppliers. Can cope with Martin's moods. A safe manager, but docs he have enough vision? M elanie: age 30. An accountant for another company. Bright with a good head for business. Very little interest in outdoor activities. Not a good advertisement for an outdoor activities shop! Often appears over-confident and arrogant. Less mature than Dorian. Gets on badly with Marlin. Sees the business as a ' cash cow' and not very interested in developing it further.

Business start-up

SPEAKING Luisa Gon\alves is discussing the detaiJs of an investment project with Fern Rogers. Reorder the words in italics to complete their conversation. LUISA: thing - be - we - need - certain - the - is - to - that there will be a good return on our investment.

2

FERN: Naturally, we share your concern. can - you - checked - assure - everythinghave - J - that - we.

LUISA: And you've sorted out all the problems. 3

FERN: Absolutely. con - we - thot - the - viable - 100% - guarantee - project - is.

tulSA: That's reall y great news.

there - that's - else - anything - is - you - bothering?

4

FERN:

5

tUlSA: Actually there is. Before one - we - on - f - thing - move - should-

mention - just.

f ERN: Go on. Tell me what's on your mind. 6

tUlSA: Basically, not - commit - able - we're - to - ourselves - until our architects have looked at the plans.

7

FERN: give - set - you - a

-1'11- con - you - take back to Zurich.

LUISA: And we'd also like to check the patent applications with our lawyers. 8

FERN: afraid - remain -I'm - confidential - have -

to - they for the time being. I

hope that doesn't pose a problem.

9

tUlSA: That'll probably be OK. But if don't - you - that - mind - I'd - to - check-

like - with - head office this afternoon.

Right, that's settled. $0 why don't we get some lunch and you can call head office later.

FERN:

10

That's an excellent idea. was - f - myself - going - to - the - make some - suggestion.

LUISA:

59

60

Business start-up

WRITING 1

Read the letter in which two professionals arc asking for financial backing for their project. Complete the text with words or expressions from the box below.

thiS correspondence with that in mind a device in the meantime

therefore this next stage at this stage the one

this aim this this distance our invention

its in anticipation t hose

Dear Sir I Madam , A We are writing 10 yo u as we wo uld like 10 propose an inveSlmeni opportunity. My partner and I have combined experience in the emergenq' services which has made us keen ly aware of Ihe need to reduce motorillg accidents. In our "iew the most effectil'e way o f ac hieving

B

............... is 10 make mOlOrists more aware of braking distances.

I

! . .. .... ....... ... .. .... .. ... ,

aher

'Ill

extensive pt:riod of research, we have cOllie up with the

Braking Safety Device, or Back Scat Driver,

............... which makes llIOlOring safer.

J

.... sensors calculate the braking distance between the drive r's vehicle and . ... .. ........... ahead. If ~ ............................ is considered 100 small, Ihe device gives a spoken message 10 Ihe driver 10 slow d own .

e

7

.. ..........

who han- piloted the device in trials all reported that they felt

much safer as a result of the wa rni llg message.

......... was parrieularl y the case

8 ....••••

where the BSD's inlegrate(] voice chip ]1:1d been programmed wit h a familia r voice such as Ihat of a parcnt, o r spouse, for example. Havi ng demonstrated the BSD's effectiveness, we would now like to develop

9 ... . ••. ... •....••. . ..••

for a wider market.

D Howel'er, we arc conscious that ac hieving fill ancial support and have

II .

IQ ........... .. ...... . ......

will also require

............. ... taken the decision 10 approach your

organization. We would welcome an opporllmity 10 discuss o ur proposal with you in furth er detail. I'lease find enclosed our CVs and business plall for your cOllsideratio n.

With the greenhouse effect and global warming, more and more homes in low-lying areas have become vulnerable to flooding. You have invented a device which can be placed across doorways in Urnes 01 flooding.

E

confidentiality of

we do not feel in a position to

to

rel'e:)] the technology we h,we

give pill a practical demonstnuion o f how the 10

respect the

14

We thank yo u

[ j •••

.................. for )'our timc and interest and look forward

to

heari ng from you. Yours fa ilhfully,

2

In which paragraph of the leiter does the writer:

2

request financial backing? ..... . present conclusions from research carried out? .

3

present the background to the project? .

4

express hope of possible future co-operation and contact?

5

explain the device in detail? ..... .

1

be replaced more suitable material. You do not have the money to redesign the floodguard in this material.

...••• ...•••...•••.• ,

BSD functions at a future date. II ................ .. .. ..... we would ask yo u

It consists of a central panel with extending side panels which can be Quickly clipped around a doorway. A special sealing device means that it can provide a watertight protection against rising water. The floodguard can be fitted in just a couple of minutes, protecting you and your family from flood water. The sealant needs to be tested. The material used in your design was iron. You are worried aoou! rust and thiok that il should

12

em ployed, but we wo uld be delighted

3

You have come up with a new idea and want to obtain financial backing. Read the description of your invention on the left, then write to a venture capital organization presenting your project. Use the prompts in 2 to help you structure you r letter.

61

Reputati ons VOCABULARY 1

Complete t he adjectives in these sentences on the topic of reput ation. Some of her sales exploits became so Ie _ _ _ _ _ _ _ that they e ntered

2

the culture o f the company. Professor Williams is an em _ _ _ _ _ expert on consumer behaviour.

3

Even though the old model has been much rna _ _ _ _ _ _ by critics. it

4

remains popular with users. Everyone believed that he was If _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , but in fact he had been givi ng away company secrets to our main rival.

5

We keep getting lOis co mplaints abou t this DVD player. We really need to make it

morerc _ _ _ _ _ _ 6

Stud ying at a pr _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ business school like Harvard is a

passport 7

\0

a successful career.

The region became no _ _ _ _ _ _ _ fo r its production of counterfei t

goods. 8

How come these sa les resul ts are so 10 _ _ _ ? There's absolutely no excuse for this.

2

Match 1- 5 with a-e to form collocations to do with fame.

a b

profile

3

market

c

name

4

rising ...... world

d

star

e

leader

2

5

3

class

hi gh ...... household

1

Choose the correct alte rnative to complete the sentences. 1

An expensive pen is an affordable example of a s/{/(us symbol / slIob appeal.

2

We should resurreCl / revitalize the brand name from the 1980s.1t may have stopped being used in 1981 but it's still remembered today.

3

How many yea rs will it take the firm to live dowlI / boil dowll the fai led mineral water launch? The company managed to shake off! five down any long-term c riticism by organizing an immediate product recalL

/I

5 6

The revival! tumaroulld in 70s fas hion means we can use retro-designs for our appliances. Six month s ago, th e company was o n the brin k of ba nk ruptcy, but sin ce the n the MD has performed an extraordinary tllrnarolllui! revival.

62

Reputations

READING 1

Read this newspaper report about a musician whose reputation is ill danger. Choose a, b, or c to complete statements 1-4. 1

Ki lbern Records .. . a is co-defenda nt in a cou rt case. b is suing Harriet Stokes. c has been taken to cou rt by Charlene McGuire.

2

Harriet Stokes' lawyers tried to prove that there were si milarities between the two songs III . . . a the lyrics. b the m usic. c both the lyrics and music.

3

Ms McGu ire's lawyers argue that . ., a she intentionall y copied the words. b she copied the words by accident. c the resemblance happened by chance.

4

Charlene McGui re ... a never sings other artists' songs. b th inks tha t her reputa tion will be damaged whatever happens. c admits that she consciously copied Ms Stokes' song some time in the past.

last year's success story was undoubtedly Charlene McGuire's debut album Anthems and Lamen's, with its hit single SlTilr.e Me Down. What a difference a year makes. Now the 27year-old singer-songwriter and her pUblisher Kilbern Records risk being struck down in a court case where they are accused of plagiarism and infringement of copyright. Elderly folk singer Harriet Stokes, 77, alleges that McGuire's lyrics copy her own song of the same title from the

2

19605. However, unlike the two million copies of Ms McGuire's album, Ms Stokes' single only sold three hundred privately-produced copies. In court yesterday, Ms Stokes' lawyers played the 1963 recording followed by Ms McGuire's song. They maintain that even though the original song was sung more slowly, its underlying rune and words were still immediately recognizable. Ms McGuire's lawyers Insist that it was extremely unlikely that their client covld have ever heard the song. Not only hod Charlene not been born, but the song hod never been broadcast. Ms Slakes' legal leam nevertheless maintained that the resemblance could nol be explained by coincidence and are demanding subSTantial damages. In response, McGuire's defence pointed out that there was a finite and accepTed number of rhythms which folk and rock artisls employ. As for the title 'Strike me down', they argued that this word combination was port of everyday speech and that Ms Stokes

could not lay claim to the copyright of pari of the English language. Charlene McGuire is adama nt thot she would never knowingly copy another singer. On the occo sions when

she has mode versions of other artisls' work thol she openly acknowledged the fact. 'I'm completely devastated . My reputation is being dragged through the mud. This sort of accusation is extremely difficult 10 live d own. Even if I clear my name, pe ople wilt so y that there's no smoke without fire. It's all so unfair.'

Toby Bockhouse, a dose friend of Charle ne's, admitted thai the artist was even storting to doubt herself. 'Memory

is such a strange thing: he said. 'Charlene is scored thot somewhere in the back of he r mind are the traces of

Harriet's song she somehow heard when she was just a kid.' lawyers will present their flnol arguments tomo rrow, un less, as is suspected, behind-the-scenes moves to reach on out-of-court settlement are successful. •

Can you explain these sayings from the reading? 1

2 3 4 5

being dragged through the mud diffi cult to live down there's no smoke without fi re in the back of her mind behind -the-scenes moves



63

Reputations

GRAMMAR 1

Decide if the use of the definite article in these sentences is correct (./) o r incorrect (X).

2

Complete the text using a / au. tllf!. or 0 (no article necessar y).

I was ,lie IllOsl unhappy with his perfo rmance.

2

These flats are aimed at tile first time buyers . . __

3

The French they speak in Quebec is quite hard to

understand.

o 4

Is this the first time you've visited the Hamburg branch?

5

The time flies like an arrow.

6

Her office was full of the old heavy furniture.

7

This rctro·style toasler is tlJe most popular model in

S

our entire range. ..... . The Cambridge of my student days has mostly

9

disappeared . ..... Have you got the money YOll owe me?

10 I am really scared of tile public speaking. .___ 11 They say that she has the money problems. 12 Is this the information YOll wanted? ..... .

13 She comes from lire Russia. 14 I'm sure the water they served us wasn't bottled water. When I was at

, ,

..... business school,

1

...... course leader o rganized ..... t rip to ~ ............................. Germany. One

day out was to

5 ............................ factory which made agricultural equipment. I am afraid that [ can not recall 7 .. name, but I do remember that it was H _. largest plant in

6

... .•••. .. __ .

9 ............................. 10

_._ .•.................

out of

11

harvesters and

Europe. At one end, in went materials and components, while other came these colossal 12 •••••.••••••.••••.••••.••••.•

tractors. You wou ld

need to visit n ............................. factory to fully appreciate it, as everything was o n 14 •••••. _ ••..•••••.••••••..••• massive scale. IS. ._. people who had worked everything out must have been 16

......•

geniuses. There were

lots of visitors and

18

follow was strictly laid out. By

1, ...•..

route we had to 19 ...... .. ..... .. ..............

end

of 20 ......... .................... toUT, m y feet were killing me: we had walked nearly eight kilometres! 1 had expected to be bored, but instead it was 21 ............................ . experience which will stay with me for ever.

Reputations

SPEAKING 1

A financi al adviser is giving some advice about investment opportunities to a new client. Rearrange the words to form some of their questions and statements. 1

am - completely - I - but - you - sorry - lost - have - me.

2

exactly - by - exposure - is - what - the - meant - term?

3

me - let - for - clarify - that - you.

4

what - so - you're - risk - should - saying - that - is - spread - my - I.

5

so - I've - if - understood - risk-free - you - no - correctly - is - investmententirely.

6

I - shall- run - it - you - through - again - for?

7

exactly - portfolio - yOll - mean - balanced - do - by - what - a?

8

I - afra id - you - am - bu t - I - quite - fo]]o\>/ - don't.

9

through - would - you - go - once - me - like - to - it - more?

10 bonds - you - do - you - are - think - explain - cou ld - what?

2

Which sentences in 1 are used to: a b

say you don't understand?

c

offer to repeat something?

reformulate? .................. .

d

ask for clarification?

,

Reputations

WRITING 1

Replace the words in italics with an adverb from the box.

admittedly wholeheartedly

!Jpp.;..fI!!ly

completely immediately

profusely

entirely

y

I agree with you wilholll doubl or reservation. I have to accept thaI the order was late arriving. We were hit hard by the recession, and as a result we had to make some redundancies. 4 The new campaign was 100% John's idea. S It's a pity tlJar there was a design fau lt in the ncw model. 6 Their accusat ions are 100% ridiculous. 7 If there arc 110 problems, we will be in profit next year. S Please accept our apologies. We will rectify the mistake lVilllOllt hesitation. 9 It 's obvio/ls that we need \0 sort this out as soon as possible. 10 She apologized over (/nd over again for the lale delivery. 1 2 3

2

Which of the adverbs from 1 ... 1

are used to introduce sentences?

2

are used with adjectives o r verbs to make language sound more convincing?

3

Olivia Greenleaf is the president of a company called Weber Plastics. Olivia wa nts to deal with some un pleasa nt rumours abou t one of the company's fac tories. She is talking to Simon Brya nt, a public relations expert. Read their conversation. Then write a press release for the local newspaper, using adverbs from 1.

Thanks for coming in Simon. It's about these rumours to do with the factory; I'm sure you 've heard them. SIM ON: Do you mean the ones about the escape of toxic gases from one of your plants? OLIVIA: You're well-informed. Anyway, we have to put a stop to these stories right away. It needs to be made clear that as a company, it's our policy not to exceed legal limits for pollution levels. We've even had Spearhead, the environmental group, visit the premises. Not even they could find anything to complain about! SI MON: That's a good point; I could mention this in the press release. But you did have a scare about eighteen months ago, didn't you? Wasn't there an explosion at the same factory that's in the news at the moment? OLIV IA : A very small one, yes. Anyway, as a result. I shut it down for 48 hours while we carried out safety checks. SI M ON: That's probably when the rumours started. OLIV I A: It just shows you can't win. If you act responsibly, people think you've got something to hide. Some people are even saying that Weber sends all the dirty and dangerous jobs to this particular factory because of its remote location. SIMON: The local inhabitants can't be very pleased! OLIVIA: What hurts most, is that this is complete nonsense! The manufacturing process follows exactly the same procedures as in all the other plants. Our standards are the strictest in the world. And we have the most advanced filters in the industry. OLIVIA:

You may have heard the stories about the escape of toxic gas from our plant.

, "*""

•.V<¥~.

':".'

..

65

I

Answer key

I are receiving I have received I have been receiving has been thinking up believes cost catches gets I will get is currently working on has run have paid has covered 17 has even gone 18 involves 19 em ploys

UNIT 1 Vocabulary 1

7

B 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

1

y eE N D 0 R 5 E) K H N A'N W Ll( C T C( S A T U RAT E R ~P 0 5 P 0 N 5 0 R) X My!- P L R M KA L QKKWPH I AO M L CFWGVAHNE I C( S E G MEN T) P M UM E N 0 R COPYWRITER A C T C I U(M E D I A )D C F G I RONYSNTE ";i5 0I AI WE MB Q(C AMP A I G N Y N L LXCGISXHAJZ J K V 0 ICE 0 V E R) W X H N V Z F P E Y H( S LOG A N) E Q (B RAN D) G E R X 0 U P

A

,.

W

2 2

3 4 5



voice over cam paign endorse

7 B 9

Irony

"

segment slogan saturate image

11 copywriter 12 commercial

b rand launch

2. are looking 21 is not being 22

2

2 3 4 5

2

1T

2F

3F

5T

6F

7F

1

3 4 S 6 7 8

prop Mr Joe Average

white noise 4 filtering out 5 product placement

2

pio neer, novel, enterprising stealth, undercover, covert

3

1

2

4T 8T

1 2 3

2 2

3 4

Grammar 1

1

2 3

4 5 6

are standing ap plauding are watching I have been watching looks has been dancing are I have been

"

How long have you been dancing? When do you know if an advertising campaign has been successful? Wh ich of your campaigns do you think has been the most successful? How do you find new employees at PReccentric? What cam paigns are you running at th e moment?

Speaking

Reading 1

1

5



Absolutely! I agree with everything you've said. In my opinion I From my point of view, they make the streets look bright and cheerful. I'm not su re what I believe any more. As far as we're concerned, it's not true. On the other hand, you could be right. Don't you agree that it's an absolute scandal? In my opinion , we should do something about it. As I see it, the youth of today are easily brainwashed. Come off it What a crazy thing to begin with Anyway, that aside up to a point we agree on

.7

Answer key

Writing

1 2

And yel while So Sample aI/sIVer;

1 2 3

4

quite simply

5

That's why



UNIT 2 Vocabulary ,

If all of th is

,

7 N

, /VI

How we save you money You're probably wondering how we can offer such incredible prices. The reasons are q uite simple. To begin with we have no expensive showrooms to run o r mOlley tied u p in stock. And because of our huge buying power we a re able to get p rices from the manufacturer which arc normally o nly available to the managers of company fleets.

c

I'f-! I ' IR. ,0 ,

llo

A

A

Matters of trust

YOli may well have heard stories of people losing thousands of pounds th rough entrusting their money to firms on the strengt h of their website. With us, you can be sure that you're not simply dealing wi th an image - we arc part of the Kinesis group, which includes a household name in insu ran ce and financial

services sectors.

N

0

L

v

0

N

T

'0

v

0

R

f-!

0

A

0

R

T

C;

A

C;

0

' J>

R.

0

/VI

, 5

0

R.

'0

T

0

R

C

, f-!

A

5

0

A

L

/VI

0

N

T

F

L

0

w

T

5

" J> R. 5 " T

5 f-! , 5 5 0

" 15 1 51 51

Reading

1

1F 5F

2

a b

No hidden extras There are none of the hidden extras either, which dealers are so fond of quietly adding on to the total cost of a vehicle. W ith us you know that the price you're quoted includes d elivery and metallic paint in a colour of your choice. We even th row in a yea r's road tax and breakd own cover, which includ es the use o f a replacement car if needed. You can be sure that the price we give you is the fina l p rice.

I

5

3

1 2

2T .F magnet valve patent bina ry

4T 7T c spnng

3F

d

transistor

3

ripple applications

4

5

gadget

Grammar 1

1 2

3 4 5

And if you need a helping h a nd ... You can call on us to provide finance and car insurance. If you like choosing a new car but hate haggling, a competitive quote is just a click away.

• 7

8 9

We take the hassle and the haggle out of buying a ca r!

2

1 2

3 4 5

• 7

worked I was working was often asked knew had become was arranging had realized had been wasting could offer

10 gave up 11 approached 12 worked 13 grew 14 took 15 expand ed I had expa nded transferred

"

We on ly realized we were at the wrong terminal after Martin h ad dropped us off. We had been waiting for three hours when they fmally called o ur tlight number. No sooner had the plane taken off than the emergency ligh t came o n. Whi le we were driving from the airport , our taxi broke d own. By the time we got to the office, everybod)' had already left. \\'hen I was unpacking I [ unpacked my suitcase, I realized I had forgotten to pack any shi rts. Carlos had been working in the Barcelona office for seven years before his boss decided to promote him.

Answer key

68

Speaking 1

2

3

4 5 6 2

2 3 4 S 6

Oh dear, didn't you know he had been sacked? No, and he can't have liked being I having been reminded of it. Well , I'm sure you didn't mean 10 upset him . All the sam e, he must have been emba rrassed. These things happen. I wou ldn't worry about it if I were yOli.

I didn't realize we had arranged to do that. I appreciate how angry you are Pat Well, I suppose there might have been a mix-up. If it's our fault, I do hope you will forgive us./ [ do hope you will forgive us if it's our fault. Well, don', worry. it's probably just one of those things.

UNIT 3 Vocabulary 1

4 5 6

routine delay hurry up 10 put off 11 behind; make up

12 outstandi ng

2

1 1 i8

8

thnx

2 3

spk ,

9

i8 ,

4

b 11 wru flt 12 2 13 u cub 2moro 14 c Arc you free to talk? I'm in a meeting. Where are you? At work.

3

4

Are you OK?

5 6

Yes, thanks.

1 2

7

2

1

2 3

7

8

4

See you later on? Could be difficult - perhaps tomorrow? OK. I'll speak to you later.

postpone

8 9

4 5

Once upon a time overtime a waste of lime [n the meantime From time to time

6 7

It's time to go

1 2 3 4

It took ages to find a taxi. The interviews last (for) 1:\'10 hours. We spent three hours discussing his proposal. Robert phoned while Lily \"as in a meeting with Joe.

1

2 3

,.

on likely schedule to deadline

7

Writing

5 6

1

2 3

full~time

Reading 1b

2b

3c

4b

5,

StIlt/em s' OWII answers

Grammar 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

will be touching down is going to have arc recruiting ' will be recruiting I are going to recruit will have been will be ready will join; will just go am driving is going to resign

Speaking 1

Good morning. Mr Coates. I'm Cheryl Wyatt, the temp sent by the agency. I'm standing in for Antonia while she's on maternity leave. GARY: I'm pleased to meet you , Cheryl. Call me Gary. By the way, I'm very glad you've been able to come at such short notice. C HERYl: OK Gary. Now, I was wondering if you could spare (me) two minutes to go through this 'to do' list which I found on Antonia's desk. I'd like you to help me decide what to deal with first. GARY: Right. Let's have a look then. Ah, now, the most CHERYl:

Answer key important thing is the caver for the brochure. It's already behind schedule and the printers have been screaming for it since yesterday. Do you think you could organize a courier to ta ke it to them? CHERYL: Certainly. I'll put it at the top of my list. GARY: After that, can you ask Brian from Marketing to go t o Heathrow to meet our visitors on the morning fli ght

UNIT 4 Vocabulary 1

disposable income econom ic development zone multinational corporation production facilit y joint venture d istribution channel exclusive outlet outstanding potential 9 fina ncial commitment 10 economic outlook

2

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

from Bologna? He's already seen them once before. It's due to land at 16.35. CHER Yl : OK. Incidentally, what would you like me to do

with I about this advert? It looks important. GARY: Goodness me! The advert! How could I forget it? Yes, we mustn't miss the deadline. Would you mind

asking Frieda l ehman in Human Resources to check it? CHERYl: Of course not, it will be a pleasure.

Then if you'd like to fa x it to them, grateful.

GARY:

2

1

2

I'll

be eternally

Request: Cou ld you I Do you think you could phone I close I fi x I buy I bring I pay ... Would you mind closing I fixing ... , etc. Offer: Shall I I Would you like me to close ... ,etc.

Writing 1

2

6g

3

9

take care of has taken up took pa rt in has taken over from have taken off took place take o n took the opportunity

Reading

payment overdue invOIce remittance undertake 1,

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1

arrears outstanding goodwill oversigh t 2b 7,

3f

4h

1

2

3 4

5,

5

8d

Sample answer:

FINAL DEMAND FOR PAYMENT Dear Mr Clancy I am writing regarding ollr outstanding invoice for plumbing materials we supplied. As you will certainly remember, we gave you a 10% discount on the understand ing that you would settle your bill within fifteen days. We issued our original invoi ce on 27 February and sent you a reminder on 13 March. However, as of today, payment is almost two weeks overdue. We are no longer able to tolerate this situation and accordi ngly have issued a new invoice in which the original 10% discount has been added. We now require you to settle this second bill wi thin five working days, otherwise we will have no alternative bu t to put this matter in the hands of our solicitors. We arc always ready to supply new customers, but are extremely disappointed that you have not kept your side of the bargain. We should also tell you that you will be required to pay in cash for any fut ure purchases. Yours sincerely Bob Marx

6

2

1

2 3 4

5 6 7

3

1

2 3 4

The value of Germa ny's Metro stores. The number of countries in which Carrefour operates. The percen tage of Am erica's reta il sales attributed to Wal-Mart. The price Wal-Mart paid for the acquisition of Asda. The percentage of Wal- Mart sales by its in ternational division. The number of coun tries in which Wal -Mart has a presence. Because they think that the market is saturated and that this will lead to slow growth . From its overseas activities. It acquired Asda. It exported culture wholesale rather than adapting to local markets. How to sell food. So that it can benefit from sourcing its supplies globally. It could supply Wal-Mart with experienced managers. white goods saturation barge bold

5 crucial 6 astute 7 expatriates 8 clout

69

70

Answer key

Grammar 1 2 3 4

5 6

2

1

2 3 4

5

3

Nowadays, we hardly ever go to the ci nema. I We hardly ever go to the cinema nowadays. As a rule I take the 7.32 train. I I take the 7.32 train as a rule. He's always borrowing my mobile. It's only once in a while (that) we have problems with late payments. We seldom sell a lot in the first three months of the year. He could always ask them to supply us if there's no o lher alternative.

meta phors: keep the ball rolling down the middle of the court adverbs: basically frankly

Writing 1

1

2 3 4 5

6 7 8

used to getting up used to em ploy would I used to pay get used to operating didn't use to be

2

Sample sentences: He had to get used to Japanese ways very quickly. He used to have I He was used to having his own room . He wasn't used to living in a dormitory. The trainees used to d o everyth ing together. At first Aidan couldn't get used to the communal bathhouse. At work everyone wou ld I used to stay late. Nobody would d ream of leaving until the last person had finished. In a western company, people are used to thinking abou t their own personal careers. In Japan on the other hand, if anyone made a mistake, then the other team members would I used to cover up for them, or did their work for them. However, Aidan couldn't get used to showing people respect just because of thei r age and the number of years they had been working for the com pany. Japanese companies are still used to promoting people on their seniority.

rega rding On the one hand the other According to although While pointed out

yet Sample al1SlVer:

Regarding the translation of the brochure for Indo nesia: on the one hand, Helena felt that it was a complete waste of money to translate the brochu re, as English is practically the second language in the country. On the o ther, Graham pointed out that we could impress our clients by printing brochures in their own language. According to Frances, we can put the translation costs against tax. While Graham felt that the transla tors would be able to pick up anything that could be culturally offensive, Helena suggested hiring a specialist consultant to help with these crosscultural issues.

UNIT 5 Vocabulary 1 2 3 4

self-expression impersonal paternalistic egalitarian

5 6 7

hierarchical authoritarian conservative

Speaking 1 A6

2

85

(2

D4

EI

F3

lists of three: 'First class business in a first class way.' a lot of business; profitable business; gutsy business get rich around here; rich through the firm; rich through the stock contrasting pairs of ideas: If you lose money for the firm by bad decisions .. I will be very understanding. If you lose reputation fo r the firm I will be ruthless. we want them to get rich through the firm a nd not off the firm rhetorical questions: What kind of fi rm can com e out of this? optimist ic ending: I think in the end we'll be more proud of this company than you've ever been before.

Reading 1 2

At the Clear Vision Tr ust: If you really need to do something, you can have time off without using your holiday. Evidence fro m the text: ~ .. took Ihe day off

without havil1g to lise our holiday emitlell/ellt.' 3

At the Clear Vision Trust: This does not happen and lunchtimes are generally spent with friends . Eviden ce from the text: ~ .. BuddTlists do I/Ot

4

At the Clear Vision Trust: This doesn't happen. It goes against the philosophy of the charity. Evidence from the text: 'We do not take

believe ill doillg two tllings at ollce.'

anything unless it is freely given; so there is no nicking paperclips or enve/opes.' 5

At the Clear Vision Trust: This doesn't happen . Evidence from the text: 'Sarcasm and office

Answe r key

6

2 1

2 3 4

gossip are llOt part of tire work clI/tltre, atld tlor is (Ieliberate flirting.' At the Clear Vision Trust: This is not automatic as in ordinary companies. Evidence from the text: 'There is 110 Buddhist work concept of prol/Jotioll. To /'1.' (/ bllsilless (/irector, you nced to be ordaillcd.' .. . have another source of income; i.e. a house or flat that they rent. ... they get eight weeks' holiday and a £900 allowance for retreats and work-related training. ... eating vegetarian food, sharing accommodation, and buying things from second- hand shops. .. . become o rdained, in other words become a priest or monk.

Grammar 2

3 4 5 6 7

What a pity. I would love \0 go, but I simply can't. We're far too busy at work. Do you think I could leave ten minutes early today? 1 have a dental appointment. Well, I know it's none of my busi ness, but I wouldn't if I were you. They're very bad payers. I'm afraid there aren't any economy class seats left , bu t I could always reserve business class if you like. People would I used to have a lot more cash; there were no such things as credit cards. They're so unreliable; they sa id they would send it by now, but it's late.

Speaking 1

1

2 3

1<1

expected I made needn't have weren't allowed 7 not allowed 8 made to property, alcohol, perso nal, jewellery 000 emplo)'ment, dismisS<1l, detector, procedures 000 machinery, security 0000 engmeer 000 4

5 6

2

had to I were made to weren't allowed

Writing Sample answers: To: All staff From: MD Re: Dress code Date: A few months ago, we introduced the dress-down Friday concept to the firm. This has been a mixed success. I would like to remind everyone of the rules. Smart casual clothes may be worn instead of suits and ties. However, those staff who have con tact with the public should ensure that they are always appropriately dressed. You may wish to keep a set of smart clothes in the office for this purpose.

To: All staff From: MD Re: Car parking Date: After great considera tion and consultation, we have decided to change the parking policy to reflect the needs of the staff. As you know, parking space is limited. These new recommendations and rules will come into effect from next Monday. where possible, staff members should use public transport reserved parking spaces for managers are to be abolished a small number of spaces will be reserved fo r sl'aff who have no other way of coming to work aU other spaces allocated on a firsl-come-first served basis customer parking spaces are reserved strictly for customers any cars parked illegally in the disabled parking spaces will be clamped I believe that these changes will make our parking policy a much fairer one, and I look forwa rd to your co-operation in this matter.

71

72

Answe r key

UNIT 6

5

Vocabulary 1 2

6

1 set 2 sells 6 even 7 va riable 1 invaluable 2 3 4 5

3 predatory 8 skimm ing

costly

6 7 8 9

4 crude 5 scale 9 inflation 10 ca rtel priceless value pointless worthy

Speaking

Reading

1 2 3 4 5 6

1

8

1 2 3 4 S 6

2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3

ld

pricey rewarding; worthwhile wort hless

7

the mid -1990s sixteen th

9

second 2.7 hectares 5% It has doubled.

3a

1

4f

sb

6e

Grammar 1

1

2

3 4 S 6

2

1

2

3 4

this meetin g is to discuss talk us through what yo u're saying the point I'm trying to make Do you mind clarifying something We haven't heard anything Wouldn't it be a good idea What you're suggesting Does anyone have anything else 10 add

Writing

Khe Sanh is a paradox because while most of the world's coffee producers arc experiencing a slump. it is enjoyi ng a boom. It caused a gl ut: world production exceeded demand. They have slopped making coffee and started planting narcotic plants for drugs. By training farmers in its cultivation. He has been able to buy a lot of material goods: a new motorcycle, a TV, etc. Because labour is cheap a nd productivity high. Because thc margins (profits) are higher with arabica than with the less valuable robusla. Because the climate of southern Vietnam is not ideal for the arabica bush . 2c

raw m:l1erials. Although our lorry broke down, we managed 10 deliver the goods on time. The ship was unloaded in spite of the dockers' strike.

./ X Their exports rose. However, the domestic market suffered. ./ X The country has fabulou s natural resou rces. Nevertheless, its inhabitants are poor. ./ X Despite the country having ! Despite the fac t that the country has tough customs regulations, we managed to export our machinery.

Even though the tickets cost just €30. we had to pay £50 for each one. Their transportation prices are high. However, they are extremely rel iable. They hadn't paid our other invoice. Nevertheless, we carried o n supplying them . Our profits went up despite the cost of our raw materials increasing.! the increase in the cost of our

2

3

4

S

2

2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14

HOT Pharmaceuticals' fortunes have increased! have been increasing steadily over the past six months. Today's rumours concerning ! around Britain's entry into the euro have seen a sharp drop in the value of sterling. Sales of digital TVs have risen! have been rising steeply recently since last year's dramatic increase in the availability of new channels. The slight fall in profits for Slomex shares is nol as bad as predicted. remained steady a dramat ic fall I drop soared! surged plummeted dropped rose slowly J recovered J crept up fluctuated levelled off I stabilized fell rose steadil y crept up J rose slowly I recovered had doubled rema ined steady

Answe r key

UNIT 7

Writing

Vocabulary 1

2

Sample allSlVer:

1

confrontation

S

2 3

concession

4

negotiable lost I temper

misunderstanding 7 profitabl e 8 p ro posal

man ipu lat ive

2 3

persuasive

6

gct out taki ng I in itiat ive bui lt I relationshi p

4 S 6

beal l down

Reading 1

2T sF

1T

4T

2

1

2 3

cha rismat ic consultative abdicatorial

3F

6T 4 bureaucratic S la issez-fa ire 6

dictatorial

Grammar

1

2 3

4

1 2

lfwe hadn't given If she looked smarter

3

If they pull out

4

we co uld have signed

5

employees have to ask

zero 5 1 st 3

2nd 2

3rd 4

mi xed 1

had acted; could have fo und

2 3

WQuid you say; contributed work; are conducted

4 5 6

will i shall sec; hear had gone; might I may have worked out had ; wouldn't

7

Tall I was running; would make

1

If Sally had n't been in such a hurry, she wou ldn't have fo rgotten her briefcase.

2 3

If he knew the answer, he would get the job. [f we'd got the contract, we wouldn't be in such a terrible mess now.

Speaking 1 1

Lorna (L): c, d, e, f, j, k, n, 0 Mrs Wallace (W): a, b, g, h, i, I, m

2 3c 8a 13 n

4h 9k 14 I

5j 10 9 15 d

6m 11 (

10 12 b

Dear Ms Agnew, I was extremely concerned to receive your letter about your recent trip to o ur theatre. I can appreciate that the main reason for yo ur coming to the show was to see Steffi Newland and Mel Joyce live, and I ful ly share your disappointment. ¥ou defini tely deserved an explanation for their non-a ppearance that day and one should certa inly have been forth coming from the box o ffice. I would like to assure you that from now on. should any such situation arise, I will ensure staff are asked to pass on any information they have been given. The reason for Steffi and Mel 's non-appeara nce on that part icular day was due to adverse weather cond itions. The light aircraft in which they were fl ying had to be diverted to another airport. and unfortunately, this meant they were unable to arrive in time fo r the perfo rmance. Nevertheless, I hope that you and your friends enjoyed the show, even if it may have been an an ti-climax fo r you. I hope you will accept my sincerest apologies for what happened . As a token of our goodwill I would like to offer you and your fr iends co mplimentary tickets which can be exchanged for a performance of your choice. Please find enclosed four signed photogr3phs of Steffi and Mel fo r you and your friends. Once again on behalf of the Cygnet The3tre, I would li ke to apologize fo r any disappointment you suffered. Yours sincerely.

73

Answer key

74

Grammar

UNIT 8 Vocabulary 1

1

2 3

• • 5 7

8 9

2 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

consul tancy competitiveness recruitment acquisitions consultants intelligence rivalries stressful expertise 3F

25

1F

9

.5

1

backfired

2 3

breakthrough

high flyer

5

went like clockwork breakdown



55

Speaking 1

Good morning everybody. As you are awa re, the object of loday's meeting is to present the results of our research and to share our thoughts with you. Firsl of all I'll outline the company's current position, then I'll talk you through the facts . Afterwa rds, I shall propose urgent action which should be taken. Finally, we will put forward our suggestions for the medium term and explore the I any alternatives. However, before I begin, I would like to thank you all for your co-operation . I know I speak I am speaking on behalf of my entire group.

2

So what important lessons can we learn from this? Cathy will be talking you through our mediumterm stra tegy. 3 Right, we are going to start by running through the latest results. 4 I would like 10 draw your attention to four key sta tistics. 5 This brings us to the topic of the pension scheme. 6 Let's start by looking at the facts and figures. shall we? 7 I would li ke to hand you over to Cathy Black, our head of communications. I our head of communications, Cat hy Black. 8 So if you would like to look at the graph on page eight of the handout. 9 As YO ll can sec, this graph reveals two further encouraging features. 10 Now it's time to turn to our most important recommendations.

Reading 1 A3

B.

E6

F2

2

1

2 3

• 5

es

01

make·or-break time a starry-eyed kid a candy store

hot sellers dice big-ticket items

• a makeover 7

8 9

3

1

2

3

• 5

• 7

flagship store pull you r socks up

Because it makes nearly all its money in the last three months of the year. They sell because they have the right brand name and are supported by huge advertising. As a child he was in terested in war games and games of strategy. In his present job he has to make important strategic decisions. Because it is described as being an 'under-invested has-been: Its acquisition of a cha in of toy stores was disastrous and there have been four different chief executives in the lasl four years. Each teddy bear is specially made and carries a recorded message. It means that the group is not so dependent on the London sto re's success. The state of shopping in Ihe West End of London, lack of free parking, etc.

to sort out to fax; to send; to do re-installing filling; to become speaking; to practise using; to pay Smoking relau nching; repackaging; to work I to be working to work

1

2

-

75

Answer key

Writing A separate salad a nd sandwich bar should be made available alongside for people who prefer a light lunch or sandwich. Participants should be required to complete a menu preference request form two weeks before the train ing programme and email it to the restaurant manager who will do her best to accommodate the preferences stated. Participants should make known any special dietary requiremen ts at this point.

Sample a"swer: THE FUTURE OF CATER I NG AT THE B LOOMSGROVE

TRAINING CENTRE

Background Following a series of complaints over a prolonged period about the standard of catering at the training centre, a committee was formed to identify and investigate the causes of dissatisfaction and to examine alternatives. The committee consisted of a representative of the canteen learn, course leaders from the training programme, and spokespeople from recent courses. A researcher from Datascarch consultants was used to compile and conduct a questionnaire and to analyse the data. Research Six hundred recent course participants were given a questionna ire to complete. Th e most notable finding was widespread dissatisfaction with the formal waiter service meals which are a feature of these courses. While the committee recognizes that the formal sitdown meal is a long-standing tradition, the majority of Bloomsgrove employees feci there is a lack of choice, and have a desire for greater informality. Waiter service was criticized as being slow and the fixed times of meals too restricting. A substantial minority of respondents nevertheless claimed to enjoy the formality and sense of occasion this provided. A significant number of people found the menu unimaginative while the remainder found it acceptable. Options The committee identified and evaluated the following options. To conti nue with the curren t situation. This was discarded as too many people are clearly unhappy with the current state of affairs. To convert the whole restaurant into a self-service canteen. This would provide more choice, but may also result in unimaginative menus. To sub-contract the running of the entire operation to an ou tside catering team operating on Bloomsgrove premises. However, it would be difficult to guarantee quality.

UNIT 9 Vocabulary

'C

,

HOL

"

0

,

K

4 0 ODS

A R< 0 '

R

R

,

N

N

4

R

A

N

,

N

J!.1

,

A

0

R N R.(:ICiHr

A

" 0

V

L'

T

T

S

M

~ ~

,

0

HA'¢.
I> R. '

A[

n

S

RAVAN

Y

R

"-0" A

,

T

R

L

AN

A AN' 'R

to SSE L

0

R

Reading 1

a b

Yves Carcelle is the chief of Louis Vuitton. Tikka Shat rujit Singh was an ad visor to LVMH in India. C Melanie Flouquet is a London-based analyst for JP Morgan d Vivian Hung lives in Beijing and is an enthusiastic Louis Vuitlon consumer. e Marc Jacobs is a designer fo r Louis Vuitlon. Louis Vuiuon Moet Hennessy (Louis Vuitlon makes luxury luggage and other goods; MOet produces cham pagne; Hennessy produces expensive cognac.) I China. 2 Russia, 3 South Africa In order of importance: Japan , US, China, India

1

2

3 4

2

Because it needs new markets where it can sell its goods. The streets used to be full of bicycles; now it is full of cars and has a thriving business district. He rese'lrched the market carefully and senl a learn to visit it. They al so used the services of an Indian aristocrat, Tikka Shatrujit Singh, to help them. They spent a year searching for the right premises. First of all the new shops att ract customers; secondly they raise the brand imagc of the business so that when people travel abroad they are morc likely to buy LMVH products.

1

2

Recomme ndat ions and conclus io ns The committee arrived at the following recommendations and conclusions. There sho uld be a formal meal at the beginning and end of a course to provide a sense of occasion and create a spirit of unity. A self-service canteen should be introduced where participants can choose from a range of dishes. A vegetarian hoi meal would also be offered.

3

4

3

1

b

2,

3b

4c

5,

6c

7b

Answer key

76

Grammar

Writing

1

2

1 2

3

4

2

2 3

4 5 6

Oh no! My wallet has been sto len. (We don't know who did this. ) The new Science Park was opened by the mayor. (The speaker is focusi ng o n the Science Park rather than the mayor.) The goods are then transported 10 our central warehouse 80 kill away. (The speaker is talking about part of a process and the agent is ei ther unknown o r not significant here. ) Something should be done abou t this problem right away. (The speaker may prefer not to ment ion a specific individual here.) The paperwork will have been finished by this evening. Their bank references should have been checked before we supplied the goods. The container's contents wefe examined by officials from Customs. With the Internet, your consignment can be tracked every kilometre of the way. Our shi p was made to wa it th ree weeks for perm ission to dock (by port officials).

Speaking 1

2

o n behalf of I'd like to wish I'm going 4 aften...a rds 5 As you can see 6 all around 7 before 8 I'd like to say someth ing 9 As I'm sure you know 10 if you'd like to gather round 11 talk you through 12 nobody has any questions 1 2 3

2d

7,

3g 81

4k

9h

Sample a/lSwcr: WHICH CURRENCY FOR EXPORT ?

Advan tages of pricing in own currency: Costs are in own currency. Easier to budget. Advantages of pricing in buyer's currency: Appeals to buyer. Disadvantages of pricing in own currency: May not appeal to buyers. Disadvantages of pricing in buyer's currency: Could lose if buyer's currency devalues. Makes expo rting to weak currency a reas risky. WHICH CURRENCY FOR IMPORT?

Ad vantages of buying goods priced in own currency: No need to worry about currency movements. Advantages of buying goods priced in exporter's currency: Can get goods cheaper if exchange rate moves in your favour. Disadvantages of buying goods priced in exporter's currency: Can lose badly if currency moves against you. For buye rs, risks outweigh benefi ts.

How CAN BUYERS COVER T HEMSELVES? Buying forwa rd. What is buying forward? You agree to buy currency in the future at a rate you fix in the present. Disadvantages of buying forward: You have to pay fees and commissions. If currency moves in your favour you lose out.

50 10 c

6b 11 e

-

An swe r key

UNIT 10

Speaking

Vocabu lary

1

1

2 3

7 IC IH A L

P

"

N C; L " R M A N

IS I T I "

p

p

I ~ I O I L I D I "J N I / I H I "

L

L 0

I

N T

I

N C; I

I N C;

"

N

R

IN

2

"

T H W HI

L

I A

S 1 W 0 R K D H

2d

3b

"

N

4 N " I

5

V

I

"

L

" " L

"

"

W

" 2

6 7 8

Is there anything that you would like to ask us? What has prompted you to look for another job? Wo uld you mind telling us what your greatest weakness is?

1

... what has prompted you to look for another job? Would yOLL mind telling us what your greatest weakness is? ... do you think that the customer is always right? Would you rather deal with a customer's problem yourself ... What is the worst mistake you have ever made? How well do you think you cope with learning new systems? ... what do you see yourself doing in three years' time? . .. is there anything that you would like to ask us?

2

T

3 4,

4

Reading

5 6

MS II<

7

1

1

2 3

NO

8

IR 5 MS 6 MS 7 IR 4

8

2

3

NO

1

F

2 3

T T

4

F

1

,d

2 3

e

4

r

5 6

"b

Grammar 1,2 1 Ci T

3

2 3

2 b; I

3 d; I

4 a; T

deduct continue

4

have a relationship

5 6 7 8

refu se mention invent compensate lo wer Ihe volume

9 10 raise

4

2 3 4

5

Do you think that the customer is always right? How well do you think you cope with learning new

systems? R

R

"

I ' 'I S lA 1,

.

What do you sec yourself doing in three years' time? What is the worst mistake you have ever made? Would you rather deal with a customer's problem

yourself?

T

S T 0

C A N D I D A T D A T TI T W 0

1

Hang on \0 il; Ihey may ask you for it later. It 's time we paid Ihem ofr. We need to sort it out before the weekend. I'm looking forward \0 it.

77

Answer key

78

Writing Sample allswer: Dear Ms Strong, I am writi ng to apply for one of the positions of Assistant Manager advertised in Hospitality World magazine. f feel that I have the right personal qualities. qualifications and experience for this type of post. It has long been m y ambitio n to work in a top hotel group in a key European location. This is exactly the kind of opportun ity I have been looking for, and I feel I could bring my enthusiasm, experience, and capacity fo r hard work to the post. I am a 25-year-old hotel professional with several years of relevant post-qualification experience. I have an international background, havi ng attended schools in Paris and Rome. where I gained an International Baccalaureate. I went on to the Lucerne Institute where I gained a BA equivalent degree in hotel management. During my time at L'H6tel du Pare in Paris, I spent three years o n the fro nt desk. I was also given responsibili ty for one of the hotel's restaurants, and so I feel I have the confidence to take on a managerial role. For the past two years I have been working as chief r«eptionist at a five- star hotel in Abu Dhabi, where I also have responsibility for recruitment of junior reception staff. From my experience of working in Paris and Abu Dhabi I have acq uired a good working knowledge of both French and Arabic, and have developed the diplomatic skills required for dealing with an in ternational clientele. My current contract ends in three months and my employers will willingly supply a reference should you require one. I am available for interview either in the Gulf or in London. I would naturally be prepared to travel for such a meeting. Please fi nd enclosed an up-lo-date CV for your consideration. I look forward to hearing fro m you. Yours sincerely, Jenny Walters

UNIT 11 Vocabulary

1

1 2 3

handed over go into take over

4 stand down 5 stay on 6 fall out

2

1 2 3 4

franchi sees successor red undancy expertise

5 fea sibility 6 enthusiasm; commitment 7 Entrepreneurial

3

1 2

capital burden fund ing venture prospects sceptical

searching 8 viable 9 feasibility forecasts 11 return 12 stake

3 4

5 6

7

,.

Reading 1 2 3

1 Jan 2 Anne 1 2 3 1e

3 Jan 4

Jan

Formative Fun Carewatch 1m-Press 2b

3d

5 Sally 6 Anne 4

5

7 Sally 8 Jan

Carewatch Formative Fun

4e

5g

6,

7c

Grammar Examplc sCllle/lces: a

b

c

Personality and relationships Melanic is probably the least pleasant of the three and unable to get on well with other people in a small business setting. She is less mature than Dorian who gets on better with suppliers and staff, but no one has such a successful personality \vith customers as Marti n. Unfortunately, Martin ca n be moody and is probably slightly less stable than the other two. Dorian is so dull and boring he can hardly be expected to win the respect of customers. However, he is the on ly one to have a working rela tionship with both his brother and sister. Abilities and business sk.il1s Melanie is a lot more qualified than the other two. Even though Martin may be a lot more ambitious for the company and have the best ideas fo r its future, he seems to have fa r less day- to-day business sense than the others and is very poor with paperwork. Although Dorian isn't as charismatic as Martin, he seems to be considerably beller organized and has a better understanding of day-today managcmcnt. Dedication to th e company Melanie is far less interested or dedicated than the other two. After all, she al ready has a good job in another compa ny and hardly has any interest in outdoor sport s. Martin has the best ideas for its future but are they realistic enough, I wonder?

Answer key

Speaking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

3

The thing is, we need to be certain I can assure yOLl that we have checked everythi ng. We ca n guara ntee that the project is 100% viable. Is there anyth ing else that's bothering you? we m ove on, [ should just men tion one thing. we're not able to commit ourselves ,'II give you a sel you can I'm afraid they have to remain confidential jf you don't mind I'd like to check that wi th I was going to make the same suggest ion myself.

Writing 1 2 J 4 S 6 7 8 9

10 11

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13 14 15

2

10

this aim With that in mind a device the one this distance Those This our invent ion this next stage therefore AI this stage In the meanti me this correspondence in anlicipation JA

Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to you as I would like to propose an investment opportunity. Wi th the greenhouse effect and global warming, more and more homes in lowlying areas have become vulnerable to flooding .

[ have invented a floodgua rd which can easily and in a matter of minutes be fitted across doorways in times of flooding. It consists of a central panel with extending side panels which can be quickly clipped around a doorway. A special sealing device provides watertight protection. The seala nt needs to be fully tested, which I propose to do al the next stage of development.

AI presenl the material used in the floodguard is iron, which is not ideal because of the obvious susceptibility to rust. I would like to redesign the device using a more suitable mat erial at the next stage. However, this is likely to require financial support.

,,,

2C

Sample {II/sIVer:

I think that, with the extra resea rch and testing which I have out lined, I can produce a product which will be of enormous benefit and will give a very good return o n investment. I thank yOll for your time and interest and look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully, 4E

s8

79

Answer key

. - - 80

UNIT 1 2 Vocabulary 1

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3 4

5

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7 8 1b

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legendary eminent maligned trustworthy reliable prestigious notorious lousy

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status symbol resurrect l.ive down shake off revival turnaround

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2

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b damaging a reputation with bad news 1 rumour \Vhen your reputation is damaged or you make a mistake, people will never let you forget it. All rumours have some truth behind them. when a thought or idea is hidden or unconscious aclions which are kept secret o r hidden from the public

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Writing

Reading 1

I am sorry but you have completely lost mc. What exactly is meant by the term exposure? Let me clarify that for you. So what you're saying is that I should spread my risk. S So if I've understood you correctly, no investment is entirely risk-free. 6 Shall I run through il again for you? 7 What exactly do you mean by a balanced portfolio? 8 But I am afraid I don't quite follow you. 9 Would you like me 10 go through it once more? 10 Do you think you could explain what bonds arc? 1

2 3 4

12 0 13 the 14 a 15 The

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wholeheartedly completely admittedly 7 hopefully consequently 8 immediately entirely clearly regrettably 10 profusely consequentl y, hopefully, regrettably, clearly, admittedly wholeheartedly, profusely, immediately, entirely, completely StlIllple a/lswer: You may have heard the stories about an escape of toxic gas from our plant. Admittedly, eighteen months ago, there was a small emission. We have never believed in cover-ups, and consequently, we immediately closed the factory for 48 hours so a full range of safety checks could be ca rried out. In addition , we informed the press and apologized profusely to the public for what had happened. Regrettably, this openness seems to have provoked some entirely untrue rumours aboul Weber's activities and we'd like to put the record straight. Weber has never, and will never deliberately exceed the legal pollution levels. As you know, all manufacturing processes involve the production of toxic substances. This is why we have the most advanced filters in the industry. All of our plants fo llow exactly the same high standards wherever they are situated. We also work closely with the environmental group Spearhead and we wholeheartedly support their efforts in protecting the environment. This is why \. . e invited its representatives to have complete access to the plant. In fact, we would like to extend Ihis invi tation to all local councillors and representatives, so they can also gain an insight into the measures that we take to safeguard the environment. It is in everyone's interests that Weber continues to stand by its excellent record.

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