PROFILE 3 Teachers Book

I ' f • '.'" . ' . • Upper-Intermediate Teacher's Book Mark Tulip Katherine Stannett with additional material by Rachel Appleby OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRES...

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• Upper-Intermediate Teacher's Book Mark Tulip Katherine Stannett with additional material by Rachel Appleby



Great Clarendon Street. Oxford OU 60p Oxford University Press is a department of the Universi(}' of Oxford. It furthen the University's objective of excellence in research. scholarship. and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York

Auckland cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Thipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austri.a Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Thrkey Uk:raine Vietnam OXFORD and OXFORD ENGLISH are registered ttade marks of

Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries CI Oxford University Press 2005 The moral rights of the author have been asserted Database right Oxford University Press (maker)

First published 2005 2.009 200S 2007 2006

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced. stored in a retrieval system. or transmitted. in any form or by any means. without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press (with the sole exception of photocopying carried out under the conditions stated in the paragraph headed 'Photocopying'), or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the ELT Rights Department. Oxford University Press. at the address above You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer

Photocopying The Publisher grants permission for the photocopying of those pages marked 'photocopiable' according to the following conditions. Individual purchasers may make copies for their own use or for use by classes that they teach. School purchasers may make copies for use by staff and students, but this permission does not extend to additional schools or branches Under no circumstances may any part of this book be photocopied for resale Any websites referred to in this publication are in the public domain and their addresses are provided by Oxford University Press for information only. Oxford University Press disclaims any responsibility for the content IS8N-13: 978 019457589 8 IS8N-lO: 0194575896

Printed in Spain by UnigrafS. L


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Contents Introd uction



Target markets



Triumph and disaster









Company culture



Supply and demand






Staying competitive



International business



Human resources



Business start-up





Tests answer key


Test 1


Test 2


Test 3


Test 4


Photocopiable activities: teacher's notes


Photocopiable activities 1-12



Introduction Profile 3 is an upper-intermediate-Ievel integrated skills

course in business English for a variety of learners. It provides students at the start of their career with the specialist language knowledge and professional communication skills they will need in their jobs. It is also suitable for students who are studying towards a business qualification and want a compatible and complementary language course. ProFile 3 is also suitable for in-work students wishing to follow a tightly structured course that progresses at a measured pace and does not make assumptions about their business knowledge. ProFile 3 assumes that students will have a good basic knowledge of general English, but that they need to be able to express business concepts in English. The course aims to introduce key business vocabulary, and revise important grammatical structures and functional areas, while developing the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

The course is committed to a practical communicative

methodology. Tasks and questions are designed to help students unlock the meaning and main points of listening passages and reading texts. The guided discovery approach to grammar leads students to a clearer understanding of the forms and underlying concepts of English. Clear communicative practice is provided in concrete speaking and writing tasks, which employ appropriate functional language and expressions. The consistent use of information-gap activities and case studies aims to develop practical use of English and develop fluency.

The book is organized into twelve wide-ranging topic-based units. Earlier units focus on marketing and advertising,

situations. They can therefore be used to help students with little knowledge of the business world or, alternatively, to complement and draw responses from the more experienced in-work students. Regular Tip boxes in the Student's Book introduce or remind students of key concepts in business management. for example, approaches to advertising, consumer profiles, or dealing with customers.

USING THE STUDENT'S BOOK How a unit works Each unit begins by introducing students to the core theme of the urut. This is then reinforced as students work with stimulating listening and reading texts containing key vocabulary. Information-gap and discussion activities, roleplays and creative writing tasks provide students with the opportunity to use the language they have learnt as well as to test their understanding of the areas of business covered in each unit. Case studies and activities relating to the topic of each unit provide extended practice. The units are designed to be worked through in sequence. However, they are sufficiently discrete to allow for flexibility in cases where unit topics may need to be covered in a different order to that suggested. The contents pages at the start of the Student's Book contain details of what is covered in each unit. The twelve units are organized in four two-page sections, plus a onepage writing section and a self study page for use with the video CD-ROM (see below). Each two-page section contains enough material for up to two hours' teaching, although this will vary according to the ability and size of your class.

business success and failure, time management,

globalization, company culture, and supply and demand. As the course progresses, negotiations are dealt with, as well as competition, international trade, recruitment, starting a business, and brand reputations. The spoken business skills focus on meetings, presentations, and telephoning. The listening and reading texts are chosen to be interesting and motivating, and are largely drawn from, or based on, authentic sources such as newspaper and magazine articles, books, websites, and real company

Course components



AUDIO CD OR CASSETTE This CD contains recordings for the Listening and Speaking sections as well as any pronunciation work. Students will hear a variety of international accents on this CD which are representative of the range of English speakers that they are


Introduction likely to encounter in the workplace. Native speakers are used for all recordings intended as models for speaking activities. A listening icon indicates that a recording is to be used, both in the Student's Book and in the Teacher's Book.


Revision tests There are photocopiable revision tests for every three units of the Student's Book (pages 68-79) . The key for the tests can be found on pages 65-67.

Photocopiable activities CD-ROM The CD-ROM in the back of the Student's Book contains a video interview for each unit. These are authentic interviews

with professionals from a variety of different organizations and across a range of industries. You can encourage your students to use the CD-ROM for further self study when they get to the end of a unit. You may also use it in the classroom, to review and extend the vocabulary and language from a particular unit. There are accompanying exercises at the end of each unit, and an answer key (pages 159-163) at the back of the Student's Book. The exercises have been graded, so that students develop their listening skills and gain confidence in listening to real English. They are divided into three sections:

VIDEO CD-ROM INTERVIEW - focuses on the video interview

LANGUAGE REVIEW - looks at authentic use of the new language from the unit WORDBANK - reviews and extends the unit's key vocabulary, and practises pronunciation.

WORKBOOK The Workbook contains practice exercises and activities to reinforce and extend language covered in the Student's Book. All units have reading texts which are based on the topic of the corresponding units in the Student's Book and are drawn from authentic sources. The answer key is included at the back of the book so that it can be used for self study. The key contains sample answers for writing activities.

THIS TEACHER'S BOOK Each unit begins with a brief introduction to what is covered in the Student's Book unit. Suggested lesson procedure notes contain the answer key: where possible, sample answers have been given for some of the more open activities such as discussion and writing tasks. Suggestions for extended exploitation of the material are given at appropriate stages in the lesson. The numbering of instructions corresponds to the numbering of the exercises in the Student's Book. Listening symbols are shown where the CD or cassette needs to be used.

There are twelve additional photocopiable activities which are included for extension work alongside a particular unit or for general review and revision. These have separate teaching notes.



Target markets This unit looks at the work of marketing and advertising with products and markets that are in constant evolution. Present tenses are reviewed and students practise language for giving opinions.

2 It helps to determine which media the agency chooses to advertise in, and means that the advertisement will be tailored to appeal to the target audience.




1 Students work in groups to read the text and discuss a possible advertising strategy. Encourage them to think about who would buy the aGO product.



Lead-in (opt ional)

Before listening to part A, ask students to list the different roles in an advertising agency. Write all students' suggestions on the board. Then play the recording once and ask students to tick the positions mentioned. (The following are mentioned: copywriter, art director, media buyer, account manager.) 1

( GD) Students listen to part A and answer the questions. Allow them to compare their ideas in pairs before checking answers as a class.

Answers 1 Copywriters are creative - they come up with the ideas and write the ads and slogans. Account managers plan the campaign with the client and make sure everything goes smoothly. 2 The actress booked to record a radio advertisement has cancelled at very short notice, so Joan has to find a replacement.

2 ( GD) Students work in pairs to answer the questions. Play part B of the recording twice if necessary before checking answers as a class.

Answers 1 Market segment, target audience. She mentions A-B business travellers; this refers to a marketing classification based on occupation, under which social groups A and B are professional people with high incomes who are likely to travel business class.

« GD) Before listening to part C, students should predict the answers in pairs. Invite suggestions but don't correct at this stage. Students listen for key information to complete the notes. Allow them to compare their answers before checking answers as a class. Answers 1 who's seen the ad and how many times 2 and after studies 3 have been favourably influenced by the ads

4 Students work in groups of three, looking for nouns (Student A), verbs (Student B) and adjectives (Student C). The groups then exchange information on their findings. Draw the skeleton spidergram on the board. Offer the pen to a student to conduct the class feedback. You could then discuss spidergrams as a method of recording and remembering vocabulary.

Answers Nouns (excluding job titles): client, idea, ad, slogan, campaign, radio spot, voiceover, instinct, segment,

market, product, media, image, magazine, customer, programme, message, target audience, agency, tracking studies, sample, commercial, service, before-and-after studies, attitude. Verbs: come up with (ideas), write, create, buy, plan, endorse, appeal, determine, select, target, put across (a message), tailor, prove, sell, interview, influence. Adjectives: creative, interesting, stressfuJ, scientific, upmarket, target, successful.



1 Ask students to work alone for this matching exercise. Check the answers as a class.

Answers I d

2 a


3 c

4 b

2 Check the tense names.


Target markets Answers a present simple b present perfect

c present continuous d present perfect continuous

3 Students work in groups of three or four to find the tenses (one student could find both present continuous and present perfect continuous). The group then exchange the examples they've found. Check examples as a class.

1 The aim of this first exercise is for students to get the key information. Students read the display text and the article quickly. You could set a time limit (e.g. two minutes) to ensure that students are skim-reading for general meaning. Ask students which generation they belong to, and if they think the analysis is true of themselves.

Answer Generation Y is the 60 miUion children born in the West between 1979 and 1994. New generations don't think or behave in the same way as their parents so they may not consume in the same way. Generation Y is potentially a very big market.

Answers Presellt simple: is a director, what are the different roles, there's the creative side, this includes, the art directors work alongside them, there are the people, we plan the campaigns, and make sure that everything, there's a lot of pressure. Present perfect she has worked, have you had, we've booked studio time. Present continuous: she is currently working, I'm trying to sort out a problem. Present perfect continuous: we've been looking, we've been playing.


b 3 a b 4 a b


opinion) = Tell me your thoughts. (a temporary situation) = He is an unreasonable person. = He is being unreasonable now. = You are emphasizing a completed event. = You are emphasizing a trend, an ongoing situation .

Remind students that stative verbs, for example, know, understand, are normally in the simple form. Students choose the correct answer in pairs.


Children are not necessarily interested in the same brands as their parents. 2 They are fighting falling sales in the teen market. 3 There are far more of them; they have a very practical world view and are involved in family purchases. 4 They are cynical and show a lack of interest in Baby Boomer brands.


Students should try to predict the answers to questions a-f before reading the rest of the article. Ask them to provide quotes from the text for the 'false' answers.

Answers I


F: 'It doesn't matter to me that Michael lordan has endorsed Nikes', 'Sprite has scored with ads that make fun of celebrity endorsers .. .'

b T c d


e f


F: 'Asked what brands are cool, these teens give a list of names', 'Although stiU popular among teens, the brand .. .', 'This doesn't mean that Generation Yers aren't brand conscious.'

Answers I sounds 2 cause 3 been interviewing 4 works, is working

Students read the first three paragraphs to find the answers to questions 1-4.


4 Students discuss the question in pairs. Answers I a = What's your job? b = What are you doing at this moment? 2 a = What's your opinion of this? (a general


5 6 7 8

been writing don't know, mean 'm going visited

F: 'Most important is the rise of the Internet, which has sped up the fashion life cycle .. .' 2 The companies are using teams of young people to talk to them.

4 Students match the words from the text with their


definitions. pageS

Lead-in (optional) The text is about how the popularity of brands can change across generations. Begin by asking the class: Who buys well·known brands of clothes? Why? Who doesn't care which brands they buy? Why? How obout your porents? What brands do they buy?

Answers Id 2g







5 Students work in small groups and discuss the questions.

Target markets






page 11


This section looks at Adbusters, a Canadian pressure group which lobbies against the existing balance of power in the world and its effects on culture, economy, and ecology. Their activities include attacking current advertising and branding.


1 Students discuss the advertising controls in their country. You could ask them to think about controls on: style and content of the advertisements, times of day that advertisements are shown, the actual products advertised.

Students listen for the gist of the conversation, without reading the transcript in 2. You could ask them to say which speakers agree with each other (Martin and Carol agree, Megan doesn't). Play the recording again for students to fill in the gaps. Students can check their answers with the listening script on page 146.

Answers 1 whaCs your view on absolutely ridiculous agree As far as I'm concerned in my opinion Don't you agree up to a point I hear what you're saying Come off it

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

3 Students work individually, or in pairs, to match the expressions in 2 with their functions.

Answers Introduce opinions: I think, as far as I'm concerned, in my opInion

Invite other people's opinions: what's your view on, don't you agree Agree: I agree Disagree: ... up to a point, Come off it! Acknowledge what someone has said: I hear what you're saying

4 Students can work in pairs or small groups to brainstorm as many other opinion-giving phrases as possible. Set a time limit for this and collate all students' suggestions onto the board.

Extra activities Ask students to decide if the expressions they found in 3 and 4 are formal or informal, or both. 2 Ask students to imagine they are in an informal discussion with friends or colleagues. Ask them to work in groups and exchange opinions on a topical issue (prices/ inflation, traffic in their town, an item from the news) or a well·known personality (a politician, an actor, their principal or boss). 3 Now ask students to imagine they are in a more formal, work·based meeting with people they don't know well. Ask them to exchange opinions on similar issues.

As a follow·up, ask students which expressions they used in which situations, and why.

2 Lead in with the description of Adbusters, then direct the students to the 'uncommercial'. To explain the meaning of turn offin this context, give a quick example of when you were turned off by a particular food or drink, or a subject at school. Elicit one or two similar experiences from the students. Students discuss questions 1-3 in pairs.

Possible answers Adbusters will have estimated the number of hours of TV per day children in the USA watch, calculated the yearly figure and multiplied by 18 (age for graduating from high school). Working backwards from 350,000 suggests an average of around 50 commercials per day. It is not stated how scientific the calculation is. 2 Research shows wide differences of opinion on the effects of TV advertising on children. Some suggest that children as young as two absorb advertising, while others minimize its importance compared with the influence of family and friends. The market shows that children certainly react to advertising aimed at them and this is supported by huge investment in advertising by manufacturers. Sweden and Norway ban advertising directed at children under twelve, although it could be argued that older children are the group most affected since there are more ways of influencing them. 3 Some would say advertising stimulates sales and production and is therefore good for the economy. It informs the public of new products on the market. It can have some artistic value.

3 Give students enough time to think about the image and caption, and elicit answers from the class.

Possible answer The company represented in an advertisement pays the advertiser who convinces us to spend money on the product, so we have been 'bought'. Advertisers and the multinationals behind them are manipulating us. They can shape our attitudes and even our values in order to make us buy.

Target markets 4 If you have a large class you may need more than one of each group A and B. You could remind students that they don't necessarily have to believe in what they're arguing for. If the groups are short of ideas. suggest some possible arguments. Possible arguments for: The big corporations behind advertising have too much power. too much political influence. and too much authority over how we live and think. They are only motivated by profits so they are irresponsible. Brands are far too important in our culture. Possible arguments against: Advertising is a very important part of business. It helps to sell products and stimulate production so it creates jobs and wealth. We aren't machines - we can decide for ourselves what to




The Boston Matrix is a marketing tool developed by The Boston Consulting Group for classifying product. service. or even company performance. It classifies these on the basis of their market share relative to their competitors (horizontal axis). and to the rate of growth of the whole market (vertical axis). Products are positioned on the graph as circles (the diameter is proportional to their sales revenue). and fall into the four categories described in the

2 Students answer the question in pairs. You could ask students to think of products that have been relaunched recently and discuss how they were relaunched.

Answer A relaunch can involve repackaging a product. renaming it. changing some of the product's features. rethinking its target market. and developing a new marketing strategy for the relaunched product.

2 Students read about the Boston Matrix and then look at how the categories relate to a product's life cycle. I

Answers I Stars appear in the growth stage. Cash cows are normally mature products. Question marks are associated with the launch or growth stages. and Dogs are products in decline. 2 Students work in groups to exchange their ideas on products. If you have a single-nationality class you could bring some well-established products to the class or quickly present a variety of advertising material, e.g. from newspapers, magazines, or even

recorded TV advertising. Groups can then choose products for discussion. If you have students who are in work or on work placements. ask them to place their products (or services) on the matrix and explain. in groups. their background. development. and probable progress.

information box: stars, cash cows, question marks, or dogs.

In this case study. students use it to help them decide the way forward for a games company.

With books closed, draw the two axes of a graph on the board (or OHP) with the vertical axis representing sales volumes and the horizontal - time. Ask students to copy the graph and draw what they think is the typical life cycle of a product, then compare their graphs with the one on page 12.

1 Students study the graph and answer the questions. I Students label the graph and describe the progress of a product in pairs.

Answers launch growth peak maturity

3 Ask students to name some board games (e.g. Monopoly, Scrabble) or computer games and place them on the matrix.

Lead-in (opt ional)

1 2 3 4

Students need time to read about the four categories and look at the graph of the product life cycle again.

5 decline 6 relaunch 7 final decline and death

Students read the notes for background information. 2

.(e.) Students need time to read the questions. Play the recording. Students check their answers in pairs.

Answers Gangstaz: dog Wordsters: question mark 3

Sherlock: cash cow Sketchit: star


Give students time to read the questions before playing the recording again.

Answers Sketchit has won a large share of the market in its first year. Gangstaz has been a big disappointment. Sherlock should have a special edition. Wordsters finds itself in a saturated market.


Target markets


4 Students read the information about the three games and decide. Check answers with the class before going on to the next exercise.

Answers Who's there? - young children Empire - teenagers Bidders - adults I young adults

5 Students work in groups of three to read their Files and prepare for a brainstorming session. Remind them to use the language of the unit: present tenses, giving opinions, advertising and marketing vocabulary. Tell students that they should spend a few minutes thinking about the three questions, then share their ideas with the rest of the group. Nobody should criticize the ideas at this stage. Groups appoint a note-taker I chairperson who should keep the session going. Give a time limit of ten minutes for the discussion. At the end, ask the groups to choose their two best ideas for each game. Each group then reports back to the class. 6 Students discuss ideas for other board games. Remind them to think about their target audience, rival board games, length of life of the product, cost of production, and marketing strategy.


page 14

Model answers A Business magazine for young urban professionals

In the background of a photograph, young city workers are standing in the rain at a bus stop. The BMW is in the foreground ridden by a smiling, well-dressed, young office worker. Tag line: Alex doesn't want to look smug, but he can't help it. Be on time, dry and comfortable this autumn with the new BMW City Scooter. Further information at the bottom of the ad: Riding the stylish City Scooter, you will be the envy of all your colleagues. Now you can avoid the traffic jams and still look smart and cool when you arrive at the office. Finding out more couldn't be easier - call free on [telephone no.) or email us at [email address) and we'll send you all the details - including how to contact your nearest dealer, who'll be pleased to give you a trial ride. Autumn starting to look a bit brighter? B The motoring section of a Sunday newspaper Photograph of gleaming BMW scooter under a sunbeam with rainy background. Forty-to-fifty-year-old middle-class woman / man on board. Tag line: A Chinese proverb says there's nothing new under the sun. How about under the rain? Product information: BMW's latest scooter is all you would expect from one of the world's most reliable motor manufacturers. Our engineers have produced a lightweight two-wheeled vehicle that can be ridden easily and with the safety features of a small car: an aluminium frame and seat belts. At this price, you can feel safe whoever in the family is riding the BMW scooter.

1 Give students time to read about the AIDA principles before focusing on the advertisement. Answer The correct order is: e, f, b, d,

3, C

2 Make sure students understand that Unique Selling Points (USPs) are the features of a product which make it different from other similar products. Answer The City Scooter's USPs are its safety (aluminium frame, seat-belts), its convenience (weather protection, can cut through city traffic) and its economy (low fuel consumption, cheap tax).

3 Divide the class into three groups. If possible, give each group some copies of the kind of publication they are being asked to write for. Students discuss their ideas in groups, then write up their copy. If a group finishes early, you could ask them to think about designing the page layout and art work.

But see for yourself, call freephone [telephone no.) or write to us at [email address) and we'll be pleased to arrange a demonstration with your local dealer. C A magazine for students Split photograph of Jill (left) with BMW scooter and Jack right with racy secondhand car in poor condition and exhaust cloud. Top tag line: Do opposites attract? Under Jack photo: jack enjoys life on the road in his old wreck. So what if it keeps breaking down and burns petrol and oil like there was no tomorrow? Under Jill photo: jill's not so sure about this. Her clean machine - the new BMW scooter, has low fuel consumption and is cheap for tax and insurance and the aluminium frame and seat-belts mean jill's not heading for hospital in a hurry. Get on the back, jack. Small photograph of Jill and Jack riding off together. Phone our free hot line now to find out more. Lines are open 24 hours a day from now to 30th September.



Triumph and disaster This unit looks at success and failure in the business world. It raises the issues of debt, debt management, and bankruptcy, and looks at vocabulary associated with managing finances. Students read about one entrepreneur's route to success. The unit also focuses on language for

Students compare individual and business debt, thinking about differences and similarities. Students can discuss in pairs or as a class. 2

apologies, criticism, and deduction.


Students need a few minutes to read carefully through the three questions before listening to the recording. Play the recording twice if necessary, before checking answers with the whole class.




Lead-in (optional) Ask students to think about the ways that debt can be built up. Brainstorm ideas onto the board. Possible answers are: hire purchase agreements, credit cards, store cards, car loans,

mortgages, utility bills.


Give students a few minutes to study the cartoons and identify the different types of debt I financial management I spending shown. Students then match the cartoons to the statements.

Answers Ib





pairs to discuss which ones they most or least agree with. You could ask them to rank the statements from a-f, where a is 'agree totally' and f is 'disagree totally'.


page 17


Students can try to match the words and the definitions before listening to the recording, then listen to check their answers. Go through the answers with the whole class, checking that they understand all the definitions.

Answers 1 h 2 d

3 a 4 b

5 f 6 e

7 c 8

Not necessarily; they are the result of cash-flow problems. b When they start to grow. c A CD shop which did not react quickly enough to a

change in the business environment.

3 ,{e.)

Students listen to a second interview dealing with individual debt. Again, allow a couple of minutes to read through the questions before playing the recording.

Answers 1 An unexpected event, like losing a job. 2 He helps them to prioritize their debts. 3 A builder whose work stopped when interest rates rose.

4 This could be done in small groups or as a class. You


2 Students read through the statements again and work in



9 g 10 i

2 This interview with an accountant specializing in business bankruptcy focuses on the key issues of managing cashflow and balancing groW1h and expenditure.

could lead on to a discussion of how far business people are responsible for their business debts in students' own countries. Can they think of any high-profile business bankrupts in their country? Where are they now? In the UK and the USA, sole traders are personally responsible for their debts. Partners are jointly responsible, so depending on the type of partnership, you may be responsible for your partner's debts. Company directors are not personally responsible unless they are trading fraudulently.

Extra activity Students work in groups to discuss their personal attitudes to debt, which can vary greatly between individuals. Encourage them to address questions such as: Is being in debt a fact of life? Should young people be encouraged to avoid debt and save their money? What is it acceptable to go into debt for (e.g. to buy a house or car, to finance your studies)? Is it too easy to get credit these days? Who is responsible when individuals get into financial difficulty - the borrower or the lender?

Triumph and disaster


entrepreneur: individual who organizes and manages his or her own business

Your Turn!

This activity encourages students to analyse the different ways in which an individual or company can fall into debt and to find solutions. The first exercise looks at individual debt and the second looks at company debt. Students read the information about Peter Forbes. Ask them to list the different debts and outgoings mentioned in the text. Students then work in pairs to think up solutions to Peter's debt problems. Possible advice might include: sell the car and use the money to payoff as many of the hire purchase debts as possible, negotiate lower hire purchase repayments, tear up the credit and store cards and set up a direct debit to pay them off over the next couple of years, investigate cheaper gym membership or take up iogging instead, negotiate a salary rise, set a strict budget on clothes spending and stick to it. 2

Students now work in pairs to discuss a situation involving company debt, using the information in File 4 on page 126.


Answers 1 No, they are ordinary people. 2 Energy, passion, and belief. 3 He left his job before opening his shop and took out a large bank loan. 4 Very big: failure would have meant bankruptcy and massive debt. Success has meant a business with 46 stores and sales of £40 million. Your Turn!

Encourage students to discuss the question, then share their ideas with the class.



Remind students during the exercises that follow, that they can refer to the Grammar guide starting on page 135 for extra help. page 18

1 Ask students to identify the verb tenses in sentences 1-4. They should have encountered the forms before, but may not be familiar with the names of the tenses. If they are having difficulties, write the names of the tenses on the board to make this a straightforward matching activity.

Lead-in (optional) With books closed, elicit from the class the names of any business people from their country who created very successful businesses with very little money to start with and how the student thinks they managed to do this.

Answers 1 The activities in questions I and 2 encourage students to


use all available clues, not just textual ones, to help them predict and understand the content of a piece of text. Give students a time limit for question 3, to ensure that they read the article carefully and not in detail.


minutes, to ensure that students are skim-reading the article, not stopping to read it in detail.

2 Students read the article in detail and answer the

3 past continuous 4 past perfect continuous

2 Students match the tenses with the descriptions. Answers

1,2 Students work in pairs and make predictions about the type of shop from the objects shown in the pictures.

3 Students read the text quickly. Set a time limit of two

past simple past perfect

a b


past perfect past continuous

c d

past simple past perfect continuous

Encourage students to read the whole text first before they ftll the gaps. This should give them a clearer sense of the sequence of events. Students do the exercise individually, and could compare answers in pairs before checking answers with the whole class.



If necessary, check that students understand the following vocabulary before they read the article in detail. You could divide the words and definitions for students to do as a matching exercise. innovative: introducing new ideas, methods retailer: a business selling to the general public stocked: stored gap in the marker. an unsatisfied market demand

1 2 3 4

demonstrated spent sold was working 5 travelled 6 built up 7 were becoming

8 realized 9 was still working 10 11 12 13 14

was approached had been looking for offered had always been started

Triumph and disaster Your Turn! This activity gives students more practice in using different narrative past tenses. Refer students to their files. They should not show each other their pictures until they've finished ordering them.

4 Students read through the situations, help each other with vocabulary where possible, then decide on their roles before each dialogue. Remind them to use the language of Language for. It should not be necessary to write the dialogues.

Possible answers:

Fred Smith left the air force in 1985 and went to work in an office. He had been dreaming of flying again when he inherited £20,000. Fred went to an auction, bought himself a light aircraft, and set up a business. At first, Fred started ferrying business people to Holland and Germany, but then had the idea of transporting parcels and formed the company ABC parcels. Within ten years Fred had built up the business to twenty planes, but he still wanted to expand. In order to raise the cash to do this, he created a public company. ABC's shares rose, Fred became a public figure, and his company was winning awards. However, an American rival, XYZ, entered the European market. ABC's profits began to fall. Fred was beginning to think that his business was finished, when a merger between ABC and XYZ saved the day.


Extra activity Ask students to prepare one or two dialogues (depending on class size) in more detail and with any extensions they like. They could then perform these while you audio- or video-record them. In the subsequent feedback session, students should be encouraged to comment on each other's performances.


1 Students do the ranking exercise alone.


1 Ask students to think of different examples of things

2 Students do the matching exercise alone, then check answers with the class. For more information on past modal forms see the Grammar guide page 139.

Answers a 2,5,6 b 4,7,8 c 1,3


Students discuss the answers in pairs before feedback to the class. Answers will vary; encourage explanation of differences of opinion, for example, The guide is most

responsible because he / she should not have taken the group anywhere near the chemical storage area. The manager is least responsible because he / she was not on the scene at the time.


which could go wrong in a business context. For example: mistakes in a letter sent out to clients, incorrect figures presented at a meeting, an order not being supplied in time, a wrong order being sent out. You could then ask students to think about when it is appropriate to make a formal apology (for example, from a supplier to a client), and when an informal apology might be better (for example, between colleagues).

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Divide students into groups of the same role, i.e. one group of managers, one group of guides, and one group of fork-lift truck drivers. Ask each group to read only their role description and prepare together what they are going to say in the meeting with the others. Students now meet in groups of the three different roles: manager, guide, driver. They could have their role title on folded card in front of them so the others can identify them. Assign the manager as chairperson in each group. Allow some time for class feedback on the outcome of the meetings and the groups' performance.

Do this quickly as a class exercise.



With books closed, tell the students about an important decision you have to make, or had to make in the past. Wbat would their advice be on how to solve this problem? Do they take different approaches to finding a solution? Elicit from the class any decisions they have made which they subsequently regretted. Do they think they made a mistake in the decision-making process?

continue a complaint or criticism: a, f politely refuse responsibility: b, e, g accept an apology: c, d



Triumph and disaster


Tell students they are now going to make some business decisions. Divide the class into pairs. Students read the case study instructions and begin their discussions. Note that depending on their choice at each stage, the point they need to go to next will either be on pages 22 and 23 or in File 29 on page 134 of the Student's Book.

Extra activity Put students into new pairs and ask them to outline the route they took through the maze. and why they made the decisions they did. Their partner should then sympathize. criticize. or congratulate.


Model answer Grazia Can I have an address list for all my main customers ASAP. Pis contact Sergio Albero, the sales manager, and send him the agenda for next week's meeting (encl). BTW, I'm leaving 10 minutes early today for a dentist's appt. Thanks Bob (Note: appt is the abb reviation for appointment.)

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This section looks at abbreviations, a common feature of emails. Remind students that emails often use less formal language than letters, and are frequently written in a seminate style.

1 Students match the abbreviations to the definitions.

They could compare their answers in pairs before checking with the whole class.

Answers Ie






2 Ask students to tell you what other abbreviations they use, particularly in em ails and memos. Write students' suggestions on the board and then ask them to look at the email on page 24 and see if their ideas are included. Point out that the email on page 24 is an example of a 'forwarded' email. Gary (G) has received an email from Ludmilla and he has forwarded this, with his own message added, to John. Students give the meanings of the abbreviations in the email.

Answers FYI: for your information G: this is an abbreviation for Gary, the sender of the email. Students cannot know this in advance, but they can deduce it from reading the original forwarded email from Ludmilla. ASAP: as soon as possible pis: please BTW: by the way

3 Students now write their own email.using the information given.




Prioritizi ng This unit looks at the theme of time management. Students are asked to think about the division between work and leisure hours and study ways of prioritizing and scheduling their time. Future tenses are revised and students practise language for requests and offers.


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l ead-i n (optional) Check the relevance of the unit title - i.e., having an understanding of the relative importance of things to be done. Before students open their books, you could draw a pie chart on the board of your typical weekday showing sleep, work, travel, etc. Ask students to do the same and compare their pie charts with a partner. Are they happy with the way their time is divided up?

1 Lead a brief class discussion on working hours now and in the future. Statistics seem to show that employees in the west, particularly graduates, are spending more and more time at work. Mobiles, laptops, and faxes mean people can continue to work after their office closes. Many companies prefer to have a low number of full-time workers who do overtime rather than increase the number of these contracted employees and all the payment of benefits this involves.

2 Students discuss these points in small groups or pairs. During feedback to the class they should explain the reasoning behind their choices.

3 Students work alone, allocating numbers of hours to the different categories in the box. They can then compare their answers in pairs or small groups, seeing who wanted the most free time and who wanted the longest working hours.


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«$ ) Ask students to suggest the kinds of international projects that Franco Ardovini might be involved in. Then give them a few minutes to read through the questions before playing part A. Be prepared to play the recording twice if necessary.

Answers 1 Big civil engineering projects, for example, dams, power stations, and airports. 2 A realistic time scale. 3 Promising to deliver on an unrealistic schedule, particularly if they don't have any previous experience of that type of project. 4 Some contracts contain targets linked with penalty clauses. This means that some of the company's fee will be withheld or forfeited if they don't complete the project on time. S An airport project.

2 «$)) Go through the eight difficulties listed, and ask students to suggest an example situation for each one. Play part B once for students to tick the problems mentioned and then again for them to note down the details in each case.

Answers Archaeological problems: A port-building project has been held up because they have discovered an archaeological site and now have to wait until the archaeologists have finished . Environmental problems: The team is abo ut to dynamite a hill but they don't know if they will hit rock or water. Technical problems: things take longer than anticipated. Political problems: The price of raw materials goes up. Strikes: There are rumours that the electricians' union is going to go on strike.



1 Students work in pairs to match the different tenses with their future meanings.

Answers If








2 Students do this exercise alone, then compare answers with a partner. Check the answers with a show of hands, which should give you an idea of how comfortable they are with these tenses.

Answers I are going to 2 will give 3 is meeting

3 Draw three columns on the board, one for each of the types. Elicit an example of what 'Tomorrows' should do. Then put students into small groups or pairs to discuss the practical advice that could be given to the three types. During feedback collect their ideas on the board.


4 does 5 will have left 6 will be working

Tomorrows: should break down big tasks into small tasks, set a deadline for the whole task, draw up a to-do list for the short term, medium term, and long term, make a work schedule, handle each piece of paper only once. Disorganized types: should prioritize work with colour coding and a year planner chart, stick to one task and finish it, record messages in one place, group together less important tasks and treat them as a single task. Poor delegators: should renegotiate unrealistic deadlines or delegate the task; if delegating a task, explain what needs to be done and leave the person to get on with it; learn to say 'no'.

3 This exercise focuses on adjectives which can have a future meaning. I

Do this as a class exercise.

Answers a arranged b quite possible c certain 2 Students work in pairs to find the other examples of these words.

4 Ask students to turn their books over. Read out the sentences one by one, eliciting which of the three types is speaking.

Answers We are due to meet the union leaders on Thursday. I think it's likely that we'll be able to stop the strike. We don't know if we are going to hit rock or water but we're bound to meet at least one or the other.

Answers I

poor delegator

2 disorganized type 3 tomorrow

4 tomorrow 5 disorganized type 6 poor delegator

Your Turn! This activity encourages students to think about their own plans for the future and discuss them using different forms of the future. 1 You could write a list of your own life and career milestones on the board, using some of the ideas given and some of your own ideas, as a model for the students. Encourage students to think up their own personal goals as well as those listed in the book. 2

Students work in pairs to discuss their answers to 1. Go round, monitoring the activity and checking that they are using the different future forms correctly.


Students discuss the questions with a partner and give reasons for their answers.

6 Give students time to do this alone or in pairs. Check answers quickly with the whole class.

Answers I


2 delegate 3 4 5 6 7

prioritize postpone schedule anticipates any problems waste time

7 Students work in pairs. When you've checked the



1 Discuss the questions with the whole class. 2 Before reading, elicit from students what they think the answers to I and 2 might be. Students then read the first paragraph to confirm their ideas.

Answers I stress-related problems 2 ourselves

exercise you could ask why fall behind and get on with are different from the other verbs in the list. (They belong to a category of phrasal verbs that cannot be split - see Grammar guide page 142).

Answers I 2 3 4

taken on fallen behind put (it) off catch up

5 6 7 8

make up drawn up broken (it) down get on with

Prioritizing Answers

8 Students work in pairs.

Possible answers 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Then we'll have to adjust the plans. Would you like me to contact them? I don't think that will be very popular. That's fine. Could I have a copy of that, please? Which is the most serious? Sorry, but I have just come back from holiday.

9 Students work in small groups to plan and prepare for the seminar. Encourage them to use the information from the reading passage, but present it in a different way. Brainstorm some useful tips from the whole class onto the board. Finally, ask one representative from each group to take it in turns to make a short three-minute presentation on time management. Encourage the other students to make useful suggestions and ask questions.



lead-in (optional) Focus students' attention on the cartoon, and ask them to discuss in pairs why they think it is funny. (The boss is using inappropriately over-polite language towards his employee.) Ask students to suggest more appropriate language for the boss to use.

1 Students work alone to match the expressions with the sentences. then compare answers with a partner.

Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6


I was wondering Do you think you could Can yo u ring Would you mind I'd like you to I So if you'd like to So if you'd like to I I'd like you to I Do you think you could

a b c d e f

Do you think you could post these letters? Would you mind filing these documents? I'd like you to tidy up the office. Could you I Do you think you could answer this fax? So if you'd like to book your own taxi and we will reimburse you. I was wondering if you could take me to the airport.

5 Students match the responses to the requests from


Answers 1 2 3 4

request 1 request 3 request 4 request 5 (or possibly request 2)

6(C.~ Students read the replies from 5 again, and

predict how the words in bold will be pronounced before listening to the recording. Then play the recording for them to check their predictions. Go over each sentence, pointing out how the stress changes the pronunciation of the word. In sentence I, am is usually pronounced /, ~mI, but when stressed, it is pronounced /'reml. In sentence 2, could is usually pronounced Ik~, but when stressed, it is pronounced Ikud/. In sentence 3, would is usually pronounced /w~, but when stressed, it is pronounced /wud/. In sentence 4, will is stressed, and is pronounced /wJl/.

Answers I The words in bold are stressed because they are effectively short answers. 2 They are stressed because they are being used to emphasize that the speaker is either agreeing to or refusing the request made.

7 Students work in pairs to read the questions and answers, and underline the words which they think should be stressed. Check the answers with the whole class before students go on to read out the dialogues. Go round, monitoring the activity and ensuring that students are stressing the correct words.

2 (C4J))) Play the recording, pausing after each sentence to check students' answers and possible alternatives.

3 This question highlights a very common mistake made by learners of English. The answer is No because it means No, J wouldn't mind, J will do what you're asking.

Answer Would you mind .. . 4 Students work alone to rephrase the orders using more polite language, then compare answers with a partner.


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1 Check students understand petty cash (money for small items or services) and brochure (a short publication providing information). Students read Jude James's notes, then work in small groups or pairs to prioritize the tasks. Draw up a list on the board according to the general opinion of the class and leave it on the board for exercise 2.


Prioritizing Possible answer

Possible answer

To be dealt with immediately: Book restaurant for dinner, confirm flights for Astrid Winter, write a memo to staff about recent thefts, send brochure to printers. To be dealt with soon: Talk to Stuart about job ad . Less important. Order samples for new carpet, questionnaire for Christmas, get card signed for Catherine Moore and buy present, ask for brochures for new office photocopiers.

If we say each month has four complete weeks and the event is at the end of December, then one arrangement could be as follows. End February: visit venues. First week April: shortlist venues. Last week April: select venue. Start May: book venue and contact TV. Mid-June: print invitations for celebrities. Start July: invite celebrities. Start August: advertise event. First week October: print tickets. Mid-October: decide menu. Start November: send requests fo r prize nominations; send tickets, and approach caterers. Mid-December: deadline for nominations. Third week December: decorate venue.

2 Assign roles and remind students to use the language of requests and offers from the Language for section .



Explain that in this section students are going to be planning a project. Ask if anybody has ever organized an event with a large number of people - a business event, a holiday, a wedding, a party, etc. Did they plan it carefully? Did anything go wrong? Would they plan it differently now? 1 Students read the tip on critical path analysis. Note that critical path analysis, or CPA, is about finding the best path through a maze. With its origins in mathematics, today it is widely used in activities such as routing telephone calls, the production of printed circuit boards, and project planning. It's especially effective for prioritizing in complex projects with deadlines. The essential concept is that some planned activities depend on others being completed first . These are 'sequential tasks'. The 'critical path' is the shortest sequence of dependent activities leading to the completion of the task. 2 Students read the text and brainstorm, as a class, things that could go wrong.

5 Groups present and compare their CPAs. Encourage comments and questions from the other groups. 6 Under Murphy's Law, if something bad can go wrong, it will go wrong. So if you put jam on a piece of bread and accidentally drop it, it will land with the jam side down. Murphy's identity is not known. 7

(e.) Students should stay in groups for this exercise. I Students listen for the main ideas of the problems and complete the chart, then take it in turns to summarize the problems to each other. Check answers as a class.

Answers I FOllr months before: Sammy Webb cancels. 2 Two months before: There's a spelling mistake in the programme. 3 Six weeks before: There are 800 guests but the fire officer says the maximum is 600, for safety reasons. 4 One week before: The caterers might be going out of business.

Possible answer You can't find a venue, Sammy Webb doesn't turn up, the food doesn't arrive, the tickets aren't printed, the guests don't confirm, the guests don't pay, there's no publicity, etc.

3 & 4 Divide the class into groups of three or four and give them enough time (approximately fifteen minutes) to complete the task. Explain that the event is to be held on 31 December, that all of the stages are critical to the awards ceremony, and that the schedule should last as short a time as possible. This is free practice and answers will vary.

2 Students continue to work in their groups to discuss and suggest solutions to the problems. Check answers as a class.

Suggested answers I Get somebody else, quickly, though four months should be easily enough time. Invite Webb's agent to find a replacement. 2 There's time to reprint it or leave it as it is. 3 Ring to find out how many are coming. If there are more than 600, don't panic! Consider hiring a marquee. 4

Contact caterers for assurances. Arrange a back-up for cold food at short notice.




1 Check the meanings of debtor and creditor with the class.

Answer A debtor owes money and a creditor is owed money. 2 Elicit ideas from the class on the reasons for slow payment.

Possible answers Many businesses follow the practice of collecting receivables, or credit, as quickly as possible while settling payables, or debts, as slowly as possible. This is good for the cash flow situation in a company, meaning they have enough cash to keep the business running smoothly. Any spare cash can earn interest.

3 Give students a couple of minutes to read the letter quickly and assess its general tone.

Answer The letter is supportive. 4 Students work alone to find these words in the letter, then compare their answers with a partner

Answers a b c d e f g h

fell due a simple oversight disregard on condition that outstanding are in receipt of payment be obliged to settled

5 Elicit ideas from the class. Encourage the use of the past modal forms : might've, could've, and may've.

Possible answer Reasons for non-payment include cash flow problems, bankruptcy, obtaining goods fraudulently. The supplier could have insured itself against such an event or obtained a negative credit rating on the customer and, as a result, not entered into business with them .

6 Students work in pairs or small groups of three, where possible, for this exercise. Ask them to discuss the tone of the letter: will it be aggressive or supportive? (Since Skunkx records is a long-term customer, who has never delayed payment previously, the letter should be supportive.) Students draft a rough version of the letter, deciding what information to include in each paragraph, and using the ex1ract in 3 as their model. They then write a final version of the letter. Ask groups to exchange letters and check each other's letters for spelling, grammar, vocabulary, and punctuation.

Model answer Dear Sirs I am writing to you concerning your order for 200,000 blank CDs. As agreed, we supplied these CDs to you immediately, on the understanding that the invoice would be paid within ten working days. The invoice, which fell due two weeks ago, is still outstanding. If you are experiencing difficulty in paying this account, please contact me so that we may discuss alternative ways of settling it. We have always enjoyed an excellent relationship with you in the past, and would deeply regret having to take any further action. However, unless we are in receipt of payment within three working days, we shall have to consider taking legal action to recover the debt. We look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully




Globalization This unit looks at the international expansion of business and communications. Students study different views on and approaches to globalization. The unit reviews language for describing habits and routines, and allows students to practise speaking effectively and with conviction in a debate.


Answers 1 People in the West I in developed countries have most to fear from globalization. 2 Parents are worried that their children's lives will be harder than their own. There are also people who have become unemployed because their jobs have gone abroad. 3 Labour-saving efficiencies, not companies moving abroad.



1 Students discuss the two quotes in small groups or pairs and decide which opinion they agree with. Explain that for peanuts means for very little money. You could then hold a class vote to see which opinion is more popular.


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1 Students work in pairs to brainstorm predictions about the speaker's views before listening to the recording. Making predictions about a listening or reading text can be a very effective way of focusing students' attention on the key information. For a brainstorming session, it is important to accept all students' suggestions and write them on the board, without criticism or evaluation. Feedback should not be given until after students have listened to check their predictions.


,CC. )

1 She does not agree that globalization is the new face of colonialism. On the contrary, she thinks that it is the best way of fighting poverty. 2 Workers will eventually demand social reforms and conditions will improve. Poor working conditions are the effect of poverty in the country itself, not of globalization. 3 Multinationals take advantage of commodityproducing countries and dictate low prices which do not reflect the value of the products.


Allow students time to read the questions fo r part C before playing the recording.

Answers 1 If poorer countries gain knowledge, they can overtake rich countries because they will have both the knowhow and cheaper labour and production costs. 2 She thinks that the service sector will not be enough to support a developed economy; it needs manufacturing as well. 3 They can maintain their world position by continuing to invest in innovation. 5 Direct students' attention back to the predictions they made for 1, and discuss how close they were to Indira's actual views. Draw a scale of 1-5 on the board; 1 representing 'totally agree' and 5 representing 'totally disagree'. In pairs or small groups, students discuss Indira's views and mark the scale according to how closely they agree or disagree with her.

Students listen to check their predictions in 1.



Allow students time to read the questions and think about the answers Indira might give, before playing the recording. Be prepared to play the recording again, if necessary.



1 Students read the adverbs and adverbial phrases in context and deduce their meaning. At this level students should have encountered at least some of these adverbs I adverbial phrases before, so treat this as a review and extension of their knowledge. The chart they complete in 2 will help to clarify the differences in frequency.

Possible answer hardly ever - almost never as a rule - nearly always most of the time - about 60 to 75% of the time rarely - very infrequently generally - usually seldom - not often from time to time - infrequently, occasionally

Globalization 2 Students compare their answers, then check them on a board diagram.

Possible answer as a rule, most of the time, generally, now and again,

from time to time, seldom, rarely, hardly ever

3 Students match as a whole class. Note that sentence a demonstrates quite a coUoquial way of making a suggestion in which always is usually preceded by could or can.

Answers 1b


4 Students work alone on these exercises, then check answers with a partner before reporting back to the class.

2 Check students understand: fertile: fruitful, productive to strive for: to try hard to achieve (something) prudent very careful to avoid undesired consequences turnover: total annual gross sales GDP: Gross Domestic Product, a nation's total annual product (compare GNP - Gross National Product = GOP + total income from abroad) distribution channels: aU the methods of making your products available to the market hurdles: obstacles, difficulties to be cleared before you can proceed Students read the text quickly. Check if these companies are aU present in the students' country. Then students scan the text to find the significance of certain numbers.

Answers L'Oreal, Giorgio Armani, Maybelline, Lanc6me, Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hyatt, Glaxo WeUcome, Siemens 2 600: the number of women the L'Oreal researchers watched taking a shower $995 bn: GOP of China £2.7 bn: the value of the Chinese cosmetics market 50 miles: the distance from Shanghai to the new economic development zone 365 m: the urban population of China 235: the number of McDonald's in Chinese cities 80 million: the number of purchasers of L'Oreal products in China 200: the number of products L'Oreal tested I

Answers a b c 2 a b c 3 a b

a past habit or state that no longer happens become familiar be familiar with something infinitive -ing form -ing form Everyone used to wear jackets and ties to work. When Markus first lived in the UK, he used to find driving on the left difficult I he wasn't used to driving on the left. c I am not used to dealing with computers. d I found it hard to get used to the new computer system. e Isn't that the house where you used to live? 4 Students discuss the question in groups. If possible, give the groups some pictures from books, magazines, postcards, the [ntemet, etc. to help with ideas for the discussion. I

3 Students read the text again to find the information. They could divide the questions with a partner and exchange answers before reporting back to the class.

Answers I




1 Students should already be familiar with the meaning of 'globalization' from the Talking Business and Listening sections. They can work in small groups to write a clear definition of the term. Ask each group to write their definition on the board and then, as a class, decide on

3 4 5


the most accurate one.

7 8 9

It intends to discover how Chinese women use the products L'Oreal is promoting. The company is interested in using pharmacies as points of sale. It is a very large market with a growing spending power. It has opened a new economic development zone. Before the early 1990s it thought that the average incomes were too low and the distribution channels poor. It tested about 200 products, launched a joint venture with a medical college, and started an extensive R&D programme. It helped them to reformulate their products for the Chinese market. They are aimed at different target markets, who will make their purchases from different sales outlets. The difficulty is in finding the right personnel since marketing is new to the country. Gasparini thinks having the right staff is the key to becoming market leader.




4 Students work alone, then compare answers with a partner. Alternatively, you could do this as a game: caU out the words from box A and ask students to give you an immediate match from box B.


1 Students discuss the questions as a class.

Possible answer


Email has had a marked effect on business behaviour, speeding up communication at all levels from sale traders to multinational corporations. Commerce can now be conducted over the Internet, and it has become an integral part of marketing and logistics and a new medium for advertising. Apart from improving efficiency, speed, and cost, the Internet has provided another channel to the consumer. However, a lot of the information on the Internet is not verified, and may be setting up a division between the relatively few people in the world who have computers and those who can't afford them. In terms of effect on the environment, figures show that it has so far not had much effect on reducing the amount of paper being consumed. There are some hopes that road traffic may be reduced since the chain of distribution can be much shorter with the Internet but this could be offset by an increase in air traffic emissions as global e-commerce increases.

outstanding potential economic outlook production facility distribution channel development zone consumer base joint venture disposable income 5 Students complete the sentences alone, then compare answers with a partner.

Answers 1 development zone consumer base 3 production facility 4 economic outlook 5 disposable income 6 joint venture 7 distribution channel 8 outstanding potential 2

Your Turn! Students read the quotation and answer the questions. You could do this exercise as a class, or ask students to discuss in small groups before feeding back to a class discussion. Suggested answers

Idiosyncratic differences: the particular features of a country's market that differentiates it from others. Universal drive: something that attracts or interests all of us. 2

Levitt says global companies should concentrate on the similarities not the differences between countries and

cultures. The big companies in the article are certainly doing this, in many cases simply transferring already winning formulae for 'universal drive' products to the Chinese market. L'Oreal believes that when economic conditions permit, luxury goods are in universal demand too. They have, however, also paid attention to 'idiosyncratic

differences', such as Asian and European hair types. 3 L'Oreal: luxury goods, McDonald's: food, Coca-Cola: drink



.«(1))) You could ask the students if they've ever taken part in, or been in the audience, at a debate. What was the subject? Check students understand the title of the debate (from religion - a blessing is something good, a curse is the opposite) . Students listen carefully and decide which side of the debate Andrew is on. Play the recording once and check their ideas. Students then read the questions and try to answer them from memory. If necessary, play the recording again. Answers Andrew is arguing that the Internet is a curse. 1 It wastes time with junk email and overwhelms us with information. 2 It's risky getting into business with people you don't know weU enough. It's difficult to know what's behind a business website. There is a security problem. 3 It's true that there is an impressive amount of information available on the web but it's open to corruption and difficult to control. It's just a medium for information with the emphasis on quantity rather than quality.

3 «(I))) Students work in small groups or pairs. Answers I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

what does the Internet, It means, loss of I strongly believe, face-to-face, virtual This is surely It's true that, who knows what is lurking susceptible to fall into the wrong hands ourselves, the Internet actually giant filing cabinet


4 Students read the tip on rhetoric, then work in small groups or pairs to find the examples. They could divide this work amongst themselves, then exchange information before checking with the whole class.

Answers lists of three: hours wasted by junk email, the loss of human contact, and drowning in a sea of information rhetorical questions: what does the lnternet really mean; who knows what is lurking; What does the Internet actually produce? contrasting pairs of ideas: face-to-face, not virtual; there are millions of impressive websites which provide useful information, but who knows what is lurking behind them? metaphors: drowning in a sea of information; fall into the wrong hands similes: like a giant filing cabinet


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1 Brainstorm further arguments in support of the Internet from the class and write them on the board.

Possible answers It can be used to: advertise products and services, advertise jobs, bring down prices, allow customers to interact automatically with the company, operate twenty-four hours a day, and to transmit data between databases. 2 Students should aim to answer Andrew's speech using at least one example of rhetoric. 3 Students can work in pairs, looking through the listening script and writing questions about the arguments using the phrases provided . Go round the class, asking different pairs of students to read out their questions. Encourage them to think about their tone of voice as they speak; they should try to sound assertive and self-assured, but not aggressive. 4 Ensure that the students choose topics on which there is some disagreement. There should be one person to argue in favour of the topic, one person to argue against, and one person to listen as a member of the audience and ask questions. The fourth person should be the chairperson, who will invite the others to speak and ensure that everyone gets a chance to express their opinion. When they have finished, groups can reorganize to start debates on the other topics.


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1 Students read the information about Greenglade and look at its current advertisement. 2 Students work in small groups. If there are any marketing specialists in the class, you could distribute them amongst the groups.

Possible answer The product has a natural, country, traditional image. As a provider of a testimonial, the Robin Hood character is known by everybody in the market, costs nothing to hire, and has a positive image. 'Bitter-sweet' combines the two sides of Robin Hood: stealing from the rich and giving to the poor. Both men and women are seen consuming the product. It is shown to go well with food. It's great for drinking in large quantities to quench the thirst of hard-working, deserving people
Possible answers 1 The number three in 'Three Feathers' has negative associations. 2 There are dogs in the advertisement. 3 Maid Marion is wearing blue. 4 Robin Hood and his men are in green and Greenglade is the company name. S 'Thirst' is in the tag-line. 6 A traditional image is not attractive. 7 The 'thumbs-up' sign is used in the ad. Students work in small groups to read through the statistics on Caronesia and draw up a marketing plan for Greenglade.

Possible answers What changes will Greenglade need to make to the product? The number 'three' in 'Three Feathers' has negative associations, so this should change. Apples may be considered an exotic fruit and be unfamiliar, so perhaps the drink should be made from a local tropical fruit. Consumers prefer bottles to cans, so the drink should be bottled, not sold in cans. Where should it be sold and how should it be priced?




It could be sold first to smaller outlets such as hotels. to test the market. then to the modern trade. e.g. supermarkets. The price should be relatively low for a cost-sensitive market.

How can shopkeepers be encouraged to adopt the product? Co-operative advertising (money paid to a dealer as part of an agreement to stock your product). quantity discounts.

How should it be promoted? In-store demos, competitions, free gifts, vouchers, direct marketing. three-for-two offers. sponsorships.

How can Greenglade test the market before making an important financial commitment? Sell the product to smaller outlets. such as hotels. first. Other considerations: Unless this is against company policy. they should enter into a joint venture with a copacker to reduce costs; distribution should be outsourced to a distribution company. as company lorries are too expensive.


page 44

1 In this exercise. students read an email concerning the possible expansion of a market into South Africa. which presents both sides of an argument. Write two headings on the board: For and Against. Ask students to come up to the board and write the information from the email under the correct heading.

Answers For. a very large market with great potential. can use Dutch reps to help enter the Afrikaans market. the paints for the European market will transfer to Africa without problem. totally feasible financially. Against no local knowledge or experience of any African venture. Afrikaans and Dutch languages are quite different. hotter conditions will lead to problems with the paint. there will be problems with the local tax system.

2 Students now study the language for presenting different sides of an argument in more detail. Students work alone to answer the questions before checking answers with the whole class.

Answers 1 while. yet. though 2 in his view, according to 3 no 4 no 3 Students write their own email. using all of the italicized phrases from the email in 1. You could ask students to exchange their emails and check each other's work for appropriacy of language. grammar. spelling. and punctuation.

Model answer Dear Cristiano Regarding the possible development of a new brand of cashew nuts for sale in cocktail bars: on the one hand. sales of existing nut products are falling; on the other. existing nut products do have a good brand awareness. I've contacted the different European offices; in the British office's view there is a market for a new snack, though according to the Danish office. we should promote the existing product and not produce a new range. while the French office also feels that there is no need for a new snack. Looking at the target market. Marco Costinha believes that the snack should appeal to wealthy customers aged 30+. yet George Freehouse thinks that the snack should be marketed at the 18-25 age group. Regarding packaging: there are two options. foil or paper. The paper option is cheap. though it is not popular in certain markets like the UK and the Republic of Ireland. On the financial side. cashews are cheap to buy from suppliers in South America and they sell at a high price in Europe. This is just a quick summary. Please refer to the attached document with deals with these arguments in more depth. Regards


Company culture This unit looks at company culture - the personality of a company. Students look at mission statements and learn about different organizational cultures. The unit reviews the modal auxiliary verbs could, should, and would, and practises language for expressing obligation and necessity.



page 47

1 Students read the organizational culture types, then match the descriptions with a partner. If your students work for an organization at the moment, does it fit one of these culture types? Why do they think so?

Answers page46

lead-in (optional) You could ask students if their own company has a mission statement. Do they feel that this statement is a good refl ection of their company's way of working? Could they write a mission statement for their English class? 1 Students work in small groups or pairs to identify the logos and emblems, and match the mission statements to the companies and organizations.

Answers Red Cross and Red Crescent to prevent and alleviate human suffering wherever it may be found, to protect life and health and to ensure respect for the human being. Intel: do a great job for our customers, employees and stockholders, by being the preeminent building block supplier to the worldwide digital economy. BMW: to promote brand values and customer service above all else. Greenpeace: to further public understanding in world ecology and the natural environment. 2 Students discuss the question in small groups, before leading on to a class discussion.

3 Ask students to think about the qualities and values that might be associated with the WWF and how this might benefit the licensing companies.

Possible answer The WWF will benefit financially from licensing its logo. If it chooses the companies carefully, it will benefit from the brand awareness globally of the companies that carry its logo. The licensing company will benefit by associating itself with a charity and thus gaining a reputation as a caring company which is not interested in profits alone.

I 2 3 4

Family Incubator Eiffel Tower Guided missile

2 {e.

) Students will hear four people talking about the kind of organization they work for. Check students understand: line manager: the manager an employee is directly responsible to don't bother: don't make the effort stock options: the right to buy a number of shares in the company at a fixed price within a certain time period stiff. rigid dare: have the courage (to). 1 Play the recording all the way through once. Students should justify their choice of cultures.

Answers A B C D

Guided Missile Incubator Eiffel Tower Family


(e. ) Play the recording again, pausing after each section to give students time to underline key words and phrases in the listening script.

Answers A I work in teams on specific projects I we're all pretty much on the same level I you don't bother to get to know each other Bit's " . a way of life I I can't really teU you where my working life ends and my social life begins I the rest of us have bought into her dream I we certainly don't coun t the hours I we've all got stock options C organizational chart I everybody knows exactly what they have to do and where their responsibilities begin and end I stiff and formal D Mr Jones ... keeps everyone together I paternalistic I authoritarian I people here reaUy do care about each other I intense I suffocating

Company culture


3 Students work in pairs. Check answers to the matching

3 Because Merck's development and free distribution of the drug Mectizan has helped to prevent river blindness, thus ensuring that young people like the boy in the statue will not go blind.

exercise before they move on to discuss the adjectives.

Answers Id






3 Students read the first paragraph alone. Check answers with the whole class.

4 Students remain in their pairs to discuss the adjectives.


Answers hierarchiC11l: Eiffel Tower, Family familiar. Family, [ncubator informal: Guided Missile, [ncubator egalitarian: Guided Missile, [ncubator cOllservative: Family, Eiffel Tower paternalistic: Family impersonal: Eiffel Tower, Guided Missile unfriendly. Eiffel Tower authoritarian: Family, Eiffel Tower


Research on microbes from soil samples revealed a molecule which was effective against parasites in animals. It was later found that by adapting it, it could be used to treat river blindness in humans. Note: River blindness is found mainly in Africa but also in the Americas. The blackfly carrying the disease lives near rivers. 2 It shows that companies should be prepared to adapt their research criteria to take into account

unexpected discoveries. Research generally begins without a specific aim. [t may take many years to find a practical application for a discovery.

Your Turn! 1 If you have a mixed nationality class, divide the class into small groups to discuss the questions. If you have a single nationality class, lead a class discussion. 2 Ask students why they would personally prefer a particular culture. This could lead to a discussion of which culture they think produces the best results. Would it depend on what kind of business the company was in?

4 Before students go on to read the rest of the text, check they understand: benefit from: to get an advantage from donate: to give without charge philanthropic: helping those in need disincentive: something that discourages you from an action .

3 Students discuss the questions in small groups. If your students are in work, ask them to talk about their personal

Allow students time to read the questions. They then read the text and answer the questions in pairs.




[ The people who needed Mectizan couldn't afford to pay for it. 2 Whether to donate the drug or charge for it; a possible expectation that all drugs for the developing world would be donated; what risks the company would face if people reacted badly to the drug. 3 It might be expected that other new drugs would also be donated and this could slow research. 4 Other organizations were unable or unwilling to finance the project since they either didn't have the money or had other priorities. 5 The company's philosophy is to prioritize the benefits of medicine for people, out of which will come profit. 6 The decision had far-reaching consequences; historic in this context means significant and very unusual.

page 48

1 Allow students time to read the introductory text. Students work in pairs to think of a definition for sabbatiC111. You could ask students if they have felt the same way as described in the text.

Answer sabbatical: A period of time, usually a year, spent away from one's employer doing other things. The time is unpaid, but the employer guarantees to take the employee back in the same job at the end of the sabbatical.

Your Turn!

2 Students discuss the questions in pairs.

Students work in small groups or pairs to discuss the questions.


Possible answers

I The statue shows a young boy leading a blind man along a path in an African village. 2 Because it demonstrates, by showing the reliance of the man on the young boy, the importance of sight. [t highlights the fact that the young boy can see, whereas the older man cannot.

For Friedman's argument

Only people have social responsibilities, not business, as long as it acts within the rules.

It's the government's job to look after other matters - that's one of the reasons why business pays taxes.


• A company has duties to its shareholders; spending their money on good social causes would amount to taxing them - a company has no right to do this, only a sole owner. Against Friedman's argument

• Business is part of the local community and greater society; its staff should have a social conscience like everybody else.

Company culture Extra activity Ask students to write three real questions to ask another student using could, would, and should in one of the uses described in this section. They can then use these for a 'mill drill' - asking and answering several other students in the class.

• It assumes shareholders are not socially responsible. Other points •

How Merck's shareholders felt would depend on their attitude to Friedman's argument.

• A strong sense of mission could be motivating, stimulating, and encourage teamwork. • The pharmaceutical industry is directly involved with people's welfare. Most would agree that welfare should not be subject to market forces so it is reasonable to expect that pharmaceutical companies can be expected to behave differently to others. However, in a market economy where they are not assisted by government, it is important for these companies to make a profit to fund future research.





Lead-in (optional) With books closed, elicit from the students what they think it's important to do when you start a new job, e.g. be on time, be elear about your responsibilities, learn who's who in the new workplace, where the various departments are. 1


Students read the different categories before listening, then compare their notes in pairs before checking with the whole class.

Answers dress: don't have to wear jacket and tie name tags: must wear 10 tag the R&D section: must not bring anyone in without approval

smoking; no smoking on the premises or outside the 1 Students work in pairs and check answers with the class.

Answers I b 2a

telephoning; should use pay phone for calls, shouldn't make personal phone calls from workstations 3c

2 Students work in pairs and check answers with the class.

Answers Ie





Students do the same with should.

2 Students work alone, then compare answers with a partner. Note: the present forms of needn't have (needn't) and didn't need to (don't need to) can be used interchangeably.

Answers If






Answers Ic



Extra activity If you have a monolingual class you could ask students to translate the example sentences. Do could, would, and should translate in the same way in all the examples? 4 Students stay in pairs for this exercise. When you check the answers, ask them to justify their choices.

Answers I 2 3 4

would should Would should

5 could would 7 Could


3 Set a time limit for this activity to encourage students to scan the listening script, rather than read it through in detail.

Answer don't have to: needn't mustn't: not allowed to


Company culture


4 (G))) Aim to get students responding to the recording at a natural speed. Pause the recording after each sentence.

Answers I You didn't need to send your CV. 2 You've really got to wear boots and hard hats. 3 You're not supposed to smoke in the canteen. 4 You have to I You're supposed to wear a tie. S You mustn't ever take home confidential documents. 6 You needn't wear your 10 tag all the time.



If you have students who are in work, ask them if their organization has undergone recent changes. What kind of changes? Have they been well accepted by the staff? Why I why not?

Extra activity

Ask students to look at the advertisement, and say what this company deals in exactly (offices for people's homes). Brainstorm with the class ways of selling home offices, e.g. permanent sales force, via the company website, advertising in the press, agents, mail order catalogues, direct selling (in customer's house), cold calling.

Ask students to discuss in pairs the rules of the place where they work or study. Are some rules more strictly enforced than others?

1 Allow students time to read the introductory text before they look at the table. Ask them to predict what kind of changes Malcolm Frost might have made before his retirement.


page 51

1 Allow students time to read through the intranet rulebook before they think about the questions. They can then discuss the questions in pairs. Go round the class, asking different pairs for their opinions about the rulebook.

Extra activity Ask students to read through the rulebook again and underline all the verbs of obligation and necessity used. Answers

have to, are expected to, is not permitted, should

2 Students work in small groups of three or four. They can choose one of the two options. Ask them to think about the kinds of people that might be working for their fictional company and the types of staff management problems that the company might experience. Remind them to use language from the rulebook on this page as well as from the Language for section to write their rules.

Students read the information in the chart and think about how these changes would affect the staff specifically and the company as a whole.

2 ,( GO) Students listen to five employees talking about the new system and summarize their opinions. Check students understand: morale: enthusiastic and confident mental attitude staff turnover. the number of people entering or leaving employment intimidating: making you feel small and frightened absenteeism: members of staff frequently being away from work, often for no good reason. Play the recording twice if necessary. Students compare their answers with a partner before checking answers with the class.

Answers I the team spirit has gone, people just want to meet sales targets, there is too much paperwork, the money is better 2 other staff are unapproachable, feels isolated, office is impersonal, doesn't think she'll stay long 3 doesn't want to hear complaints from salespeople, thinks they are paid far more than the factory workers 4 finds it difficult to cope financially without a basic salary, preferred the old system which gave better rapport with customers, finds it more difficult to close a sale now S ratio of sales per leads is falling, sickness and absenteeism is up, and morale is very low

3 Students work in small groups. Each group should appoint a chairperson to run the meeting. They should study the agenda and prepare a presentation to give to the class, using the following framework.

Company cu lture Identification of the problems 2 Possible solutions 3 Recommended action Questions and discussion during the presen tation should be encouraged. Other groups can also offer comments in this respect. With a large class, groups could present to other groups. If you have the facilities, students could be video-recorded for feedbac k. Alternatively, students could write a report in groups, using the following framewo rk Summary of background to cha nges 2 Problems identified 3 Conclusions and recommendations In class, students agree an outline o f what they are each going to write. They write the reports at home and exchange their work with each other for reading and comments in the following lesson, before handing in the complete report.


page 54

1 El icit answers from the class. 2

t<. )

Students read the questions before listening. Play the recording more than once if necessary. Students check thei r answers wit h a partner befo re doing so with the class.

Answers 1 Most of the staff wan ted a total ban on smoking. Some employees have been smoking in the building even though the parking lot is the o nly place where smoking is allowed. 2 75% 3 Employees who have recently been hired. 4 They might allocate a room to smokers. A letter will be put up on the notice boards and emails sent to everyone informing them in strong terms of the new rules. S They'll have to leave.

3 Students work in pa irs to match the spoken and written expressions.

Answers a I am writing to express my concern about. b There are a number of em ployees smoking on the premises despite the no-smoking ban. c It has recently come to our notice that ... d Failure to comply with the new regulations will lead to serious action. e This has implications for our insurance. f .. . state that smoking is not permitted.

4 Refer students to the text box on page 54 containing phrases they can use in writing the email. Note that students will probably not be able to use all the phrases in their letter.

Model answer I am writing to everyone to express my concern that the rules regard ing visitors are not being followed. I must state aga in that visitors must be accompanied at all times, and must wear guest ID at all times. There have been a number of occasions recently when visitors failed both to sign in and sign out on arrival and departure despite the company's clear policy. Note also that visitors must sign an agreement not to reveal any confidential info rmation they learn whilst o n company premises. Failure to comply with this regulation wiJl lead to serious action.



Supply and demand This unit addresses la rge-scale business issues on pricing and commodity trading. Students learn about the elasticity


of demand, price-fixing, loss leaders, and the importance of commodity prices. The unit also looks at the use of conjunctions, and language for participating in meetings and discussions.


Allow students time to read the q uestions before they listen to part A of the recording. Play the recording morc than once if necessary. Students compare their answers with a partner before checking answers with the class.

Answers page 56

1 As an ordinary citizen, she was furious. She hasn't been back there since. As an economist, she adm ired hi m. By raisin g his price he controlled demand, otherwise he wo uld have run out of stock in a couple of hours. 2 The law of supply a nd demand. Changing the nature of the supply changed the demand. Generally, the higher the price of a product, the lower the demand. In this case, the demand did not decrease because customers considered it essential. 3 The short-term benefits were an increase in profits and not running out of stock. The long-term conseq uence was a loss of customers.

lead-in (optional) You could start this lesson with books closed, offering to sell something quite substantial of yours to the class, e.g. a bike, a car, or a computer. Describe the object for sale and ask students to write down a price on a piece of paper. Collect the papers and put the lowest and highest offers on the board. Discuss why these are or are not reasonable offers from both the seller's and buyer's point of view.


Refer students to the t itle of the unit and invite suggestions for a definition of the law of supply and demand. Tell students that there is an expression in English: Everytl,illg has its price. Are there sim ilar expressions in students' own languages? Students answer the questionnaire alone before comparing their answers with a partner. You could then ask for a show of hands on the responses and briefly discuss reasons fo r disagreement.


«. )

Check students understand: admire: to look up to, to respect rational: logical, sensible.

page 56

1 Students read the tip about elasticity of demand and answer the question as a class.

Answer Examples of highly elastic goods include foreign travel, meals in restaurants, or a particular brand of car. Goods with low elasticity include petrol, salt, coffee, and cars in general. If you have students in work, are any of their products or services sensitive to elasticity of demand?


Ask students what pricing policy is and what might influence a business in its decision to set prices. Possible answers include: current demand, target market, company image, a new product.

«. »

Play part B of the recording, more than once if necessary. Studen ts compare their answers with a part ner before checking answers with the class.

Answers 1 He bought a new computer and six months later the market price was abou t half what he had paid for it. 2 Ta ra says that when Jay bought his computer the company was 'skimming' the m arkel, in other words, targeting customers who value new prod ucts precisely because they a re new and scarce. 3 Many companies charge high prices for a new product to skim the market, to help to break even on manufacturin g costs, and to recover development costs. After this level of demand has been filled, the price can be d ropped to penetrate the market further.

4 :(C. )

Allow st udents time to read questions 1-6. Play the recording aU the way through, pa using to allow students to check and explain fa lse a nswers.

Answers F: Depart ment stores can be made to respect the price lists and guidelines.

2 T

Supply and demand some products than others. People will tend to buy the usual quantity of more essential products, such as bread, despite price changes. This would not be true of perfume, for example.

3 F: Supermarkets buy luxury brands on the grey market" . 4 F: No, but they'll work at a much lower margin than a department store.

S T 6 F: No, they may even take the su permarket to court. • The grey market is also known as 'parallel imports'. When there are wide price differences across coun try borders, some products are bought in one country and sold in another without the authorization of the manufacturers. Typical products of this kind are cars, motorbikes, computers, chemicals. and CDs. Legally, manufacturers have some protection over the first sale but not so much on resale.

4 A loss leader: A product sold at a loss in order to attract customers to buy other products. For example a large furn iture retailer may advertise an extremely cheap chair in its catalogue in order to get customers into the store. S Predatory pricing: This is asking a very high price for an essential product, knowing that customers can't buy it elsewhere. For example, if you were the only supplier of aspirin to a market, you could charge a very high price.

5 Students work alone, then check their answers with a partner.

Answers 1 2 3 4

raisi ng charged me match set 5 dictate 6 fetched 7 fix



page 58

1 Write commodities in large letters in the middle of the boa rd, and brainstorm ideas from students to create a wordweb. Students scan the text quickly to find out which of the words on the board are mentioned in the text.

2 Allow students time to read the q uestions and predict

Students work in pairs or small groups. Alternatively, run this as a whole class exercise with st udents racing to fi nd the matching expressions.

what the answers might be. Students read the text carefully and answer the questions. They compare answers with a partner before checking answers with the class.

Answers 1 cut price

Answers 1 Because paper was an expensive commodity at the time and as the book was very long. they wa nted to spread out the cost and risk over three volumes. 2 If a cheaper supply is found elsewhere, o r a synthetic substitute is found , this will reduce demand fo r the original product. The producers of the prod uct will then be forced to drop their prices to maintain their market. 3 The competing forces of the petroleum multinationals against the OPEC oil-producing nations. When OPEC nations decided to limit the output of oil in their countries, oil prices rosc. This affected the cost of other manufactured goods and led to price increases throughout (inf1ation ). The increased prices meant that demand fell (because people could not afford to buy goods) and that t riggered a global recession. 4 The growth of the Chinese economy.

2 asking price 3 price war 4 price range 5 retail price

Your Turn! Students work in pairs to define the concepts, then take it in turns to read out their definitions to the ctass. Possible answers 1

The grey market: On the black market it is simply illegal to buy or sell. On the grey market. however, the key word is unauthorized rather than illegal; it's about the unauthorized sale of new products to other countries. For example, someone could buy a thousand models of a camera in a country where they're low-priced and sell them in another where the retail price is much higher.


Skimming the market: If you have a good new product, it makes marketing sense to ask a high price for it in the period followin g the launch in order to attract buyers who like the fact that it is new and that not many people have them, e.g. early mobile phones.

3 Elasticity af demand: The higher the price you charge for a product. the less people want to buy it. This is truer for


Students read the text again to extract vocabulary meaning a lot and a little.

Answers a lot: high, soar, glut, massive, vastly, jump. plentiful a little: low, fall , drop, scarce, low


Supply and demand



4 Students work in pairs o r smaU groups to write their definitions. They should refer back to the text to help them with the meaning.

Possible answers commodity. something that can be bought or sold cartel: a group of countries, producers, o r manufacturers who joi n together to fix prices recession: a time of economic slowdown, where very little

although - followed by subject and verb despite / in spite of- followed by gerund

4 Students rewrite their sentences and compare their answers with a partner before checking answers with the class.


is bought or sold monopoly: exclusive control of the supply of a product inflntiorl: a progressive increase in prices


a b

Your Turn!

2 a

Students discuss the questions in groups. These could then feed

2 b

back to a class discussion. A nswers will vary; t he notes below could be used to help the discussion along.

2 c

Possible answers 1

It's necessary to define 'essential commodity'. Certainty both producers and buyers of essential commodities have the right not t o be exploited . If you agree wi th the Darwinian

3 a

'survival of the fittest' applied to the free market. producing

3 b

countries have as much right to control the supply of essent ial commodities as manufacturing countries have to


supply essential fin ished goods.

2 This depends on your political point of view. If you believe in


Plastic is not a commodity in the usual sense. Nevertheless. people have started to treat it as one. Although plastic is not a commodity in the usual sense, people have started to treat it as one. Although there are oil reserves in the North Sea, it is too expensive to drill for them. Despite the presence of I Despite there being oil reserves in the North Sea. it is too expensive to drill for them. There are oil reserves in the North Sea. However. it is too expensive to drill for them. Even tho ugh anyone is able to speculate on commodity prices. we should leave this to the experts. Despite the ability of anyone I Despite anyone being able to speculate on commodity prices, we should leave this to the experts. Anyone is able to speculate on commodity prices. Nevertheless, we should leave this to the experts.

a free market economy then government intervention is seen as something which influences the laws of supply and demand and d istorts the market. It could be argued, however. that even in the free market. there are occasions when governments should intervene. for example, on such issues as monopolistic pricing in the public service sector.



1 &:G)) Students listen to identify the problem.

3 Students' own answers.

Answer They are discussing the problem of rising costs of paper, ink, and printing, and the effect that this will have on staff bonuses.



1 Give students time to find and underline the extracts in the reading text. These are not given in the order in which they appear in the text. 2 Students focus o n the conjunctions used in the extracts and categorize them according to function.

Answers Even though and ;'1 spite ofshow a contrast between two ideas in the nYo parts of the sentence. Nevertheless and 110wever modify something thai has been slated.

3 Refer students to the Grammar Guide. page 144.


Students work in pairs to match the expressions with their functions.

Answers Id







3 Students work in the same pai rs to complete the table.

Answers Making a contribution: Can I just say that ... , I'd like to come in here

Asking for clarification: Sorry. I don't quite follow what you're saying, If I understand correctly ... Clarifying: I'm sorry, let me run through it again, The point I'm trying to make is ...


,. 4 Students discuss the situations in pairs, then report back to the class.

Answers I Sorry, I don', quite follow what you're saying. 2 So, 10 recap. the cost of distribution in Canada is ... I Does anyone have a nything further 10 add about the cost of distribution in Canada? 3 I'd just like to say I Can I just say that I don't think we should make a decision yet? We should wait and see what happens.


page 61

lead-in (optional)

Supply and demand

4 Students decide on their roles and turn to their information fi les. Befo re they hold the meeting, check students understand their roles and explain to the class and the team leaders in particular, some procedures: the chairperson I team leader will open the meeting. run through the agenda, make sure everybody participates. summarize, and close the meeting.



You could begin with a brief class d iscussion o n state-ofthe-art ha ndheld computer devices: palmtop computers, electronic notebooks, palmtops combined with mo biles, etc. What can they do? Do any of your students have these? Do they recommend them?

If you have students in work, ask them what part t eamwork plays in their organization. Wou ld they like more or less of this?

Do they consider themselves good 'team players'?

1 Stude nts read the description of Virfen's Caxton Reader and answer the questions as a class.

Possible answers

1 Elicit a description from the class of somebody who is not a team player. Possible characteristics: individualistic. likes to work alone, likes to set his I her own goals, doesn't appreciate suggestions from others, competitive rather then co-operative. doesn't trust other people's judgement, thinks he I she is always right. Focus st udents' attention on the question about the importance of being a team player.

Possible answer Teamwork in business is generally considered the best way to work wherever it can be implemented, and its supporters claim benefits ranging from increased productivity and im proved quality to reducin g stress in the workforce. 2 Students read the key roles, and write down which one best suits thei r character, and which one they think suits their partner. They then compare and discuss their assessm ents in pairs. 3 Students read the extract and discuss the questions in pairs. Check students understand shoehorn: force somebody I something into an inadequate space.

Possible answers I

It's important to understand and adapt to the new cuhure. You should make an effort to be o pen to change, to meet new people in the organization, and to understand clearly what is expected of you in your new role. 2 Students' own answers. 3 Co-ordinator I implementer; team leader I external contact; critic I inspector all share similar characteristics.


People who: like to buy the latest technology, are will ing to change their habits, have the disposable income to afford o ne, use the Inte rnet , spend a lot of time travelling, or reading. 2 Relies on downloading from the Internet, unlike its competi tor Paston Voyager; similar products due to come o ut soon which will bring prices down; need to price high to cover high development costs. 2 Allow students time to read the tip on costs. Students work in pairs to explain the four co ncepts. Allow· students more time to read through the information about target customer g ro ups and projected first year's sales before moving o n to 3.


Studen ts work in three g roups, A, B, and C. Gro up A discuss the first point in the agenda, What markets shall we target?, Group B d iscuss the second point in the agenda, SolllhlarJd, and Group C discuss the third point in the agenda, Promotioll. The groups then rearrange themselves with o ne student fro m each original group for the meeting simulation. Each group should appoint a chairperson to present the agenda and manage the meeting. At the end, groups can report back to the class o n the decisions they came to.


Supply and demand




.«. ) Students look at the graph. Ask a couple of quick questions to check that they understa nd the information it represents: How many monitors were sold in December? ( 1(0) Mill( month sllOwed the Ilighest sales? (November). Students listen and study the g raph . Allow them a few minutes to answer the questions. before playing thc recording agai n to check their answers.

Answers 1

I remained steady 2 crept up 3 to fluctuat e 4 slump 5 soared 6 peaki ng at 7 plummeted

8 levelled off 2 a peak, soar, creep up b plummet, slump c remain steady, level off 3 crept 4 peak, slump

Model answer City analysts are predicting a period of firm recovery for GFV after the dramatic market flu ctuations of recent years. The appointmen t of Cheri Carbone as CEO on the departure of Wilfred O' Leary was received well by the market. Ms Carbone, aged 38, of American-Italian origin is a keen tenn is player and was previously head of research at JKL Chemicals. recently acquired by GFV. Her appointment and the launch of a new anti -ageing cream prompted sha re prices to creep up. Poor publicity as a result of animal rights protests at the G FV laboratories caused shares to plummet. but this was followed by the announcement of the HTY acq uisition and sha res then soared to an aU-time high. The market reacted badly to news of the withdrawal of the anti-ageing product due to allergic reactions and share prices began to slump again, but Carbone's instant withdrawal of the product and the launch of a TV ad vert ising campaign restored confid ence in GFV. Prices have now returned to their previous high level and are remaining steady.

2 Students work alone to categorize the adjectives. They then check their answers with a partner.

Answers small ch(mge: slight, steady large chmlge:. dramatic, sha rp, steep


Discuss the questions with the whole class.

Answer In the first sentence, the subject is the rise in price. In the second, the subject is the price. The diffe rence requires the use of an adjective in the fi rst sen tence and an adverb in the second. 4 Students work alo ne to complete the sentences. They then check their answers with a partner before checking answers with the class.

Answers 2 collapsed dramaticall y last year. 3 steep climb in fuel prices over the past six months. 4 have increased steadily since the introductjon of the euro. 5 You could set this writing task for homework.



Negotiations This unit looks at the theme of negotiation. Students are asked to think about the qualities needed for a good negotiator and read about different negotiating techniques. Conditionals are reviewed, and students practise language for dealing with customer complaints.



1 Students look at the cartoon and read abou t Barry and Martha's situation. This is known as ' the prisoner's dilemma', Ask differe nt students in the class to suggest how Barry and Martha should act. There are no right or wrong answers; Barry and Martha will each have to try to predict what the other person will do in order to decide whether or not to confess. The authori ties are exploiting Barry and Martha's inability to commun icate with each ot her as a powerful device in the negotiation .



«. )

In part A a negotiator describes the characteristics of a successful negotiation. Can the students predict what he might say about this? Introduce Eric Perrol. Note: cllips in US English is crisps in British English; chips in British English is Frellch fries in US English. Check students understand: compromise: the settlement of a disagreement by each side making concessions overcome an objection: satisfacto rily answer an expression of opposition cosy: comfortable and warm. Play the recording more than once if necessary. Students take notes, then compare answers wi th a partner before checking answers with the whole class.

Answers being prepared: understanding the buyer's expectations, knowing what is negotiable and the most you can allow the other side lVilinillg or losing a l1egotiatiorl: you shouldn't aim to win o r lose, but reach a deal which suits both sides

compal1ies' policy towards tlleir bllyers: most companies rotate their buyers regularly so that they don't form too strong a relationship with the supplier 2

«. )

In part B the negotiator discusses the skills needed to be a good negotiator. What skills do the students think are important? Check students understand: take the initiative: to be the first to take action aggressive: offensive, attacking confromatiotl: an aggressive position against the other side. Play the recordi ng twice if necessary. Students compare answers with a partner.

Answers 1 Be a good listener, have some psychological awareness and understand ' buy' signs. 2 Not very important: if they a re satisfied by the overall contract, they will accept it. 3 The quiet ones, because it's difficult to build a rapport with them. He deals with them by leaving gaps in his presentation to get them to communicate by questioning. 4 Very controlled - he never loses his temper. 3 ;~« .)) Play part C. Students compare answers with a partner.

Answers Financial assistance with an ad campaign. Eric provided €20.000 in exchange for a larger order. 2 The other side can take advantage of your positio n. 3 The price of potatoes suddenly rosc. Eric did not try to re-negotiate the contract.

4 Give students a few minutes to read the listening script and find the words from the box. They work in pairs to com plete the sente nces, then compare their answers with another pair.

Answers a confrontation b persuasive c concessio n d negotiable e comprom ise f proposal

Negotiat ions


5 Students remain in their pairs for this task. Check answers with the whole class.

Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

overcome down

out of reached lost take outcome out of

Art icle B envy: feeling of discontent caused by somebody else's better fortune locked iI/to the logic: mentally trapped by somebody's line of argumen t work alit: arrange territory: area of land ruled by a person, a state, elC.

The two groups complete their columns. Encourage students to help each other to find the information.

Answers Article A

Your Turn! Give students a few minutes to read the quotation. The language

is a little confusing because of the use of the double negative. You can explain it more Simply by wri ting: unprofitable business arrangement for A = unprofitable business arrangement (or 8 on the board. Students discuss the two points in pairs or ~all groups.



Lead-in (optional) With books closed you CQuid introduce the concept of

negotiations by proposing a sharp increase in the amount of homework the class does. Will they all accept it? Why not? find out what they will accept. Are you both happy with the deal?

1 Discuss the questions with the whole class.

Possible answer This is a 'win-wi n' situation. If what you're getting is worth more to each of you than what you're giving, then you've both won. A simple barter of goods is an example: I have a fridge J don't need, but I want a cooker; you have a cooker YOIl don't need, bllt yOIl want a fridge. A good range of techniques can be useful in order to apply the most suitable one to a specific situation. 2 Divide the class in hvO groups to read either article A or B. You may prefer to check the following vocabulary with each group in turn. Alternatively. you could divide the vocabulary items and defini tions below and give them to pairs of students to do as a matching exercise. Article A

deadlocked: a situation where no progress can be made to bond: to tie two things together sOllnd bite: a short memorable comment cOl/gellial: agreeable, pleasant to haggle: to persistently dispute a deal testament: evidence or proof of something

People involved: The writer, Swiss entrepreneur (writer's friend), French government official, golf client. Object of negotiation: To sell merchandise to the French governmen t. Obstacle: They can't move on some major issues. Formal /informal: Informal. Level of experience: They handled it well and seemed experienced. Techniques used: Getting the person to relax out of his office, introduci ng people he would like to know, subtle suggestion. Direct / indirect style of negotiation: Indirect. How an agreement was reached: At the end of a round of golf, in the club house, written on a napkin. Willller / loser of the negotiatiOfI: unclear, although the Swiss entrepreneur was certainly a winner. Article B People iI/valved: The writer, young tennis professional, used-car dealer. Object of negotiation: To buy a camper va n at a good price. Obstacle: The price of the camper. Formal/informal: Informal. Level of experience: He was experienced, she wasn't. Techniques used: Threatening to sell to another buyer, leading the customer to think she's getting a bargain, negotiating with the salesman off his territory. Direct / iudirect style of negotiation: Direct. How an agreemelll was reached: By phone, the next day. Wi,mer / loser of the lIegotiatioll: The tennis player was the winner - she got the camper van at a lower price. 3 A and B students exchange information, then answer the questions and check answers with the whole class.

Possible answers A: Getting away from the negotiating table can be valuable since it enables people to achieve their main aim more easily, i.e. reach an agreement. B: It's important to stay calm but determined and, if possible, get the other side off his or her own territory. 2 A: The setting was very important in getting the government official to relax. B: The setting was essential to achieving the aim of the tcnn is player, as the dealer would have referred her 10 other models if she'd offered a lower price on his territory.

•• •

Your Turn!

Negot iations Answers The correct order is: c, a, d, f, e, b.

Ask students to think of a successful negotiation that they have made. Remind them that this could be outside the area of work:


Other questions may be acceptable but the recorded questions are (note that some are prompts rather than direct questions): 1 Hello, G reat Outdoors. 2 Custo me r Services, can I help you? 3 And what seems to be the problem ? 4 How long have you had it? 5 Well, you'll need to bring it in to the bra nch so that we can have a look at it, and give you a credit note or a refund. 6 Yes, that's no problem at all, just as long as you've kept the receipt.

a negotiation about domestic chores with a fam ily member, the purchase of a holiday or a car, or a negotiation about deadlines on homework. Students copy the chart from 2 and fill in details about their own negotiation. They then work in pairs and

exchange information about their successful negotiations. deciding together whether the other person involved in the

negotiation was happy or not.




1 Swdents match the cond itio nal sentences to the defin itions, then compare answers wit h a partne r.

Answers I d 2e


Students discuss this question with a partner, then report to the whole class.

Answer Could you put me through ... Can I return it to m y local branch?




4 Studen ts study the use of diplomatic language in dealing 2 Students match the sentences in I to the different conditional forms . Check answers with the whole class.

Answers 1 b 2a

with customer complaints. Students make complete sentences in pairs.

Answers 3c



Ic 2

3 Students work alone, then compare their answers with a partner before checking with the whole class. Remind students to use contracted forms where possible.


(CC. )





Students listen and check their answers.

3 Check answers with the whole class.

Answers Answers I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

a b c d

would you have paid, 'd been sign, 'II give would you say, paid agree, ,,,on't go ahead pay, have to ' 11 accept, replace would've renewed, hadn't been hadn't agreed, wouldn't be

e f

I'll enter your deta ils straightaway. I'm just accessing your details on my screen. Do you happen to have a reference number? I do apologize fo r any inconvenience you've suffered, Mr M iller. You' ll need to bring it into the branch. I can fully appreciate your frustration, Mr Miller.



1 You could begin by leading a brief class discussion on how often the students complain about goods and services. Elicit a few examples of complaints they've made. Did they have any success? Students work in pairs to o rder the d ialogue and think of the questions. Invite pairs to re-enact the dialogue. 2

eCCe »

Students listen and check their answers.

page 71

lead-in (optional) If you have students in work, ask the m what procedures they have for dealing with complaints. How does the business try to keep the custome rs satisfied? 1 Students read the tip o n dealing with customers' co mplaints and discuss the questio ns as a class. 2

Allow students time to read the role-play si tuation. Students work in pairs to do the ro le-play. Stude nts could sit back-to-back for these telephone situations.




3 Students work in different pairs, seated back-Io-back. You could follow this up with cross-class examples of the dialogues. Extra activity Another 'customer' expression is 'The customer is always right'. Do the students have a similar expression in their own

language? Is this a concept they agree with?



Students are going to negotiate a solution to an industrial relations problem at a manufacturing company. You could slart by asking the class if they can think of any high profile industrial disputes in their countries. What caused them? What was the outcome? 1 AJlow students time to read the descriptions of red stylists and blue styl ists. Ask them to think if there are any people they know - a t work or in a more social situation - who are clearly either red or blue stylists. Which kind of negotiator do they think they themselves are? Ask them to think back to Eric Perrot from t he Listening on page 66. Wh ich kind of negotiator was he? (blue) 2 Students work in pairs or small groups, reading the statements and matching them to either blue or red negotiating styles.

Answers 1 red 2 blue 3 red 4 blue 5 blue 3 Allow students one minute to read the three passages in order to identify the grievances.

Answers 1 The blue-collar workers complain that they have to study in their free time - during lu nch breaks or in the evening. 2 The management has decided 10 cut the financial support to the factory's sports and social club. 3 The workers don't appreciate the way the technical manager treats them. They say she's aggressive and undervalues their skills and experience.

4 Divide the class into four groups of: senior managers (A), senior managers (8 ), union reps (C), and union reps (D ). All the As read their relevant information file section together and help each other to understand and formulate their arguments. Similarly, all the Bs, all the Cs, and all the Ds read their respective files together and discuss the information. Go round the four groups, helping with any queries as necessary. 5 Students work in new groups of A, B, C, and D. Remind them to use the language of negotiation from the unit in their discussions and to think about which style of negotiating they will use. For fu ture feedback, video recording is recommended.



1 Check students understand: discourteously: impolitely voucher: a document you exchange for goods or services. Students read the letter to decide the cause of complaint.

Answer The customer was treated with discourtesy, making her visit 10 the store difficult and unpleasant. 2 Students read the letter again in more detail and discuss the questions in pairs.

Answers I Yes, there is an unconditional apology. 2

extremely concerned,fully share your displeasure, hope YOIl will accept my sincerest apologies

3 Ask for suggestions from the whole class fo r spoken English versions of the phrases in bold.

Possible answers

1 was extremely concerned to receive: I was very unhappy to hear about

looked into tile matter very closely: found out as much as possible about this

1 1I0pe yOIl will accept my sincerest apologies: I really am very sorry

1 would like to assure YOIl that: I can assure you that assist: help ensure: be sure



4 Students discuss the questions as a whole class.





By offering the customer a £100 voucher and ensuring that someone will be available to assist her personally next time, the Customer Services Manager is entici ng the customer back into the shop and creating an



opportunity fo r her to spend morc money there.

ind " in

5 Students write a draft lctter first using the letter o n page 74 as a modeL Give feedback on individual letters. Students then write a final version, checking it carefull y for errors.

Model letter



Dear Mr Ball I was extremely concerned to receive your Ictter and have looked into this matter very carefully. I fully share your displeasure and dissatisfaction with the treatment YO ll received. I hope you will accept my sincere apologies on behalf of Minty's nightclub. I have d iscussed this matter with the individuals concerned. While this is no excuse, the door staff who dealt with you that evening had only recently joined our company and had not yet completed their training. While we are legally obliged to ask you ng people for ID as proof of age, I accept that you were not treated with the courtesy and respect that we would expect our staff to show towards all our customers. I would like to assure you that we take customer care very seriously and will be reviewing our door staffing policy in the light of your complai nt. To be absol utely certain of avoiding any future difficulty at our nightclub, I have enclosed my personal card. Do not hesitate to ring me the next time you are planning a visit to our club so that 1 can ensure that there will be someone available to greet you at the door and show YOli into the club. 1 hope you will accept as a token of our goodwill, the enclosed voucher enti tling you and a guest to free entry to o ur nightclub and a free drink each. Once again, I hope you will accept my most sincere apologies for this unfortunate incident. 1 look forward to meeting you in person the next time you visit us. With very best wishes Yours sincerely Derek Fletcher Manager



Staying competitive Answers

This unit examines how companies must adapt to a changing business environment. Students hear a management consultant talking about his work, discuss mergers and acquisitions. and look al ways of revitalizing flaggin g brands. They also study verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives, and practise language for making presentations.

1 Their competitiveness has suffered, thei r market position is being challenged. 2 Students' own answers. 3 Advice on acquiring or merging with another com pany o r moving into a different market. 3


page 76

,«. )) Students read the questio ns. Play the recording more than once if necessary before students check their answers together. Answers

1 Students read the passage and discuss the different inven tions as a class. There arc no r ight o r wrong answers, but the most likely ' killer' invention here is probably the digital camera, c.

I Quite intimidated. 2 In his late twenties. 3 With suspicion - ' like a man from Mars'. 4 Because he was trained in techniques that were often unknown in Britain and because they were experts in management theories and gathering market intelligence. S Very closely, in o rder to gain their confidence in the outcome.

2 Brainsto rm students' ideas o nto the board. Once you have about fifteen or twenty inventions written on Ihe board, you could hold a vote to find out which one is the most im portant, in the class's opinion. 4


page 76

1 Put the first question to the class before students discuss

Play part C while students take notes.

the other points in pairs and report back.


Possibl e answers


A consultant is an expert in a professional fi eld who is generally not an employee of an organization and who can therefore offer impartial advice. A management consultant will offer high-level advice to companies. 1 Companies generally call in management consulta nts when they are in difficulty, possibly to advise o n organizational I process planning, headhunting. mergers and acquisitions. downsizing. starting up o rganizations. running training sessions. 2 Management consultants are oflen qualified accountants, they need excellent academic results and should be analytical, objective, sensitive, and able to empathize. 2

\«_ )) Students guess the mea ning of up-or-out. This is explained in part C. Check st udents understand: brutal: cruel, savage conventional: according to usual practice.

«_ )) Check students understand the fo llowing vocabulary from part A: objective: able to view matters witho ut being affected by feelings or opinions strategy plan, policy.

If you aren't asked to become a partner then you're told to leave. 2 a They will either become a partner at McKinsey or they will be headhunted or join a business they have already advised. 2 b Long hours, lots of travel, enormous amounts of preparation. 2 c As well as gaining a fascinating insight into all sorts of organiza tions, it's stimulating, challenging, pays well . and you become known by top companies. 5 Ask students to give reasons for their answers. If you have students at work, you could ask if they have any experience of consultants at work. Why were they there? What effect did they have? Were they generally considered worth the fee? 6 Students can work in pairs to complete this vocabulary exercise. They then check their answers on page 154.

An swers Play part A while student's take notes and compare answers with a partner.


2 competitiveness 3 rivalry

• •

4 professionalism 5 strategic 6 recruitment 7 recommendations 8 intelligence

Your Turn! If the students agree with the quotation, you could discuss why

it is true for organizations. (People become anxious about the future. people who have power are afraid to lose it, some

people are naturally conservative, older people tend to become

more resistant to change, if change is necessary then you must be doing something wrong, mistrust of outsiders, etc.), Students

Stayin g competitive I tried doing something means" experimented', e.g. J tried speaking to the boss but she couldn't help me either. 4 We meant to means 'we intended to', e.g. We meant to tell yOIl not to go to the meeting but we forgot. Mean + -ing involves adding an extra complication, e.g. The meeting meant i"forming her she'd lost her job. S Slle went on to means 'She moved from o ne situation to another', e.g. After leaving the consultancy slle went on to work for One of tlleir competitors. She went on doing means 'she continued doing an action', e.g. She went 011 workirlgfor tile same company for the next thirty years.

4 Students work in pairs. Student A should identify

can then discuss the two questions in pairs or small groups.

examples of the gerund and say why they're used. Student 8 should do the same with infinitives.


Gerunds as a no un form: the day-to-day rmltliflg after prepositions: things like moving into new markets by confirming what it already knows experts in gatllering the stress of preparing and giving presentations a great way of getting noticed they had been involved in formulating after certain verbs: How did it feel going in to a company and advisirlg I'll never forget going ... and being it means working closely Why don't we try doing it Infinitive after certain verbs: started to suffer needs to be done tries to introduce they are told to leave after certain adjectives: are happy to have after too + adjective: too bllSy .. . to stop to think as an abbreviated form of in o,.de,. to: will give management the courage to diversify or launch develop different plans to meet challenging circumstances

Answers page77

1 Students answer the question as a class.

An swer tries is followed by an infinitive mealls is followed by the gerund

2 Check the verbs in the box with the whole class.

Answers infinitive: agree, plan, hope, manage, refuse. tend, finish, enjoy gerund: avoid. finish. look forward to, enjoy. suggest, be interested in, tend 1 Students work in pairs to answer the question. 2 Students work alone to write sentences, then compare their sentences in pairs. 3 Students work in pairs to discuss the differences in meaning. Check answers as a class.

Answers 1 stop to do something means you're stopping one activity to start another, e.g. We stopped to think abOl1t strategy. stop doillg means you're ending that activity, e.g. We stopped thinking about strategy at the end of the plamlillg phase. 2 I didn't remember to do something means 'I made a mistake, I forgot', e.g. J didn't remember to bring the report (I left it at home, I don't have it here). I don't remember doing something means', don't have a memory of something in the past', e.g. J don't remember bringing the report (therefore' am su rprised to find it). 3 I tried to do something means ' made an effort to do something with difficulty', e.g. J tried to speak to the boss bllt her PA wouldn't lei me ill.



1 If your students are all from one country. discuss the questions as a class. If your students a re from different coun tries, ask them to work in small groups to exchange information about the biggest drinks manufacturers and their promotion techniques in their respective coun tries.


Staying com petit ive


2 AJlow students time to read the lext and answer the quest ions in pairs. Students Ihen compare answers with other pairs.

specific reason, to sell a particular product, for example, and is not intended to be a permanent situation. 2

Reasons for mergers include: competition, economies of scale. to increase the number of markets. fear of being taken over. to avoid losing customers, over-optimism. over· confidence.


Students' own answers. This will probably depend on the answer they gave for 5.


Government control is usually currently limited to ensuring that the company post-merger will not have a monopoly of the market. (This is usually considered to be over 40% of a market.) Other legal restrictions apply to insider trading: this is when people within the company know that a merger or acquisition is about to take place, and buy or sell shares based on this restricted knowledge.

Answers I Because it makes

Budweise ~, which is the world's biggest-sell ing beer. 2 It merged with Brazil's AmBev, Latin America's largest brewer. 3 Anheuser-Busch Brmuls: Budweiser". Tsinglaoill Strengths: dominance of US market; products sell in 80 markets; Budweiser® brand; strong balance sheet; clear lines of management Weaknesses: stuck in the US market (which is stagnating), overseas ventures have been tentative, overrelia nce on Budweiser brand

Geograpllicnl i"flilence: US, Mexico, China Interb rewAmBev

8"mds: Stella Artois*, Beck'soll, Brahma® Strengths: world's largest brewer by volume; has global influence; fas t growth Weaknesses: may be growing too fast; hasn't integrated previous acquisitions well Geograpllical influence: Belgium, Brazil (and the rest of Latin America), the Netherlands, Canada, the UK, Germany


Studen ts discuss the question in small groups. Ask them to think of reasons to justify thei r answer.

Possible answer Probably InterbrewAmBev, as it is not stuck in a stagnating market, and has spread its influence over a greater number of markets globally. It doesn't rely on just one strong brand, but has several well-known brands.

4 Students work alone, then compare answers with a partner.



1 Studen ts look at the three presentation stages and predict possible phrases, then read the text to check their answers.

Answers I A.5 you know, I'm here today to 2 First of all, Next, Finally 3 I'd like to thank you all

2 Students work in pairs. Answers Ic 2i 9 flOe

3 (C.))







Students listen to check their answers. t

Answers Ic 2b


b 3e



Students read the text about types of merger. Discuss the two questions as a class. Ask students to think of examples from their own country or industry.

Answer The merger described in the text is a horizontal merger. You r Turn ! Students discuss the questions as a class. Encourage any students with personal experience of mergers or joint ventures to talk about them. Possible answers A merger is a long·term jOining together of two companies. A joint venture is set up between two companies for a



page 81

1 1 Discuss the questions as a class. If you have a mixed nationality class, you could quickly discuss differences in coffee-making between different countries.

Answers The range of products available seems 10 have expanded and the machines have become more sophisticated. The greater choice of models reflects the different ways of preparing coffee (though this mar be morc truc of the UK than students' own cou ntries). 2 This would depend on what you are used to buying. Price and quality have probably stayed more or less constant for standard models but there are now more luxury models on the market with high price tags. I



Staying competitive 2 The modern book market has been affected by the entry of large new onli ne sellers and the bargaining power o f the consumers may mean they will go for the cheapest option, i.e. that of the biggest online retailers. T here is also rivalry among existing booksellers to stay in the market. Michael Porter's comments o n competition here do no t mention the importance of being able to invest, in this case, in new technology. In the case of Bibliofile, as they reacted too late to the th reat of the Inte rnet, their competitors would have benefited ( rival ry among existing firms ) and they face growing pressure from online booksellers (threat of new entran ts).

2 Students work in groups to i:J.bel the graphs. Check that students know which kind of graph I chart is used fo r which purpose. They then go on to st udy the abbreviations used in the notes.

Possible answ ers 1 Graph a: sales Graph b: production costs Graph c: share of income from Caetano's prod ucts 2 v. = very imp!. = important wI = with

3 Students work in small groups to prepare the presentation. Tell students they can take notes or write cards to help them du ring the presentation, but they shouldn't write the whole text and read it o ut. They could use the fo llowing presentation structure: • Introduce yourself. your position, and subject. • Explain how you've organized your presentatio n, say how long it sho uld last, and welcome questions. • Background information to the problem a nd research. • Explai n the optio ns an d recommendatio ns. • Close the presentation and invite questions.

2 Allow students time to read the employees' comments, then ma rk each comment '0' for optimistic, 'N' fo r neutral, or 'P' fo r pessimistic. What is the balance of feeling at Bibliofile? (Probably neutral, bordering o n pessimistic.) Students vote on how tlley feel about Bibliofile's fut ure, ra ting th eir feelings from 1 (very pessimistic) to 5 (very optimistic). Ask fo r a show of hands for each number and write the results on the boa rd. Studen ts calculate the genera l feel ing of the class.


Groups make their presentations. Students in the audience should be encouraged to ask q uestions and pa rticipate in feedback about language use.


Students wo rk in small groups to create a stra tegy fo r Bibliofile. Different members of the group can present the various parts of the strategy.


page 84


1 Students work in pairs.

In this case study, studen ts take on the role of management consultants to analyse a company's business and suggest ways in which it can im prove. The case study involves a magazine publisher and mail-order book com pany which is being overtaken by its online com petitors. Introduce the topic by asking students if they buy books online or in booksto res. Why might they prefer to buy online? Why might they prefer to buy in a bookstore?

2 Students read the tip about the language of reports.

1 Students read the background information on


Bibliofile and look at the tip, then discuss their answers as a class.

Possible answe rs I

Bibliofile has fa iled to respond qu ickly enough to the changing pricing strategies now operat ing in the UK. It has also failed to foresee the importance of onli ne sales and has not invested enough money o r expertise in setting up its own websi te.

Answers options: b, e. recommelldatiollS atld conclusions: d , g background: f. a results: c, h

Students work in pairs to find examples of the language mentioned in the tip.

Answers all adverbial phrase: Clearly (a) passive voice: action must be taken (a). we were invited to evaluate (f) tile illfillitive used to illtroduce new optiotls: o ne possibility is to design (b), one possibility is to find (e) 4 Studen ts read the sentences again to match the forma l and informal vocabulary.

Answers asked: invited



Staying competitive make slIre: guarantee bought: purchased give a job to: hi re t"ink about: consider do (research): conduct

5 Students work together to produce the reports in class or for ho mework. Small groups decide who will write which sections. Studen ts could then pass their written

work to the others in their group to comment on in terms of content and accuracy.

Model report Confidential Report: the way ahead for Althrops

Background Althrops has long been a household name fo r its high quality cookware. However. at the extraordinary general meeting of 15 January the board accepted the resignations of five senior managers. FoUowing the resignation of the old management team, we were invited to evaluate the company's position. Research We cond ucted research among consumers of a wide age range. Some had purchased Althrops' products. Others had purchased cookware from o ther manufacturers within the past year. Please see Appendix I for details of research methodology. Results The cha rts and g raphs below illustrate our principal findings: • production costs a re 12% higher than the industry average • net income has fallen by 38% in the last three years • A1lhrops cookware is perceived as old-fashioned and expensive by 75% of consumers between the ages of twenty-five and fi fty • the top purchasing priorities for today's consumers are: price, design, and durabili ty Options In our consideration, the above find ings should be cause for alarm to the board. The options available to us then, necessarily reflect the urgency of this si tuation and are listed below: • to find a buyer for the Althrops name and trade m ark, or a company to manufacture under licence • to enter into a merger with one of our major competitors • to consolidate the positive aspects of our position by reducing o ur overall operation and concentrating on our up-market ra nge • to create a strategy which will ultimately enable Althrops to re-establish itself as market leader

Recommendations and conclusions Once a n innovative and pionee ring company, A1thro ps has relied too heavily on its established range of products. O ur team has seen no reason why the trend of d ecline in sales outl ined above should stop, if no action is taken to halt it. However, we have been impressed with the commitm enl and enthusiasm shown by the new management team and recommend the latter of the options above to the board. T he new management should be in no doubt that immediate action must be taken in order to guarantee short-term survival, we therefore recommend: • a totally new Research and Development programme should be set up without d elay. • A1throps sho uld immediately recruit a world class designer to produce a new range of products to be backed up by an advertising cam paign fea turing a celeb rity chef. • Current costs are unacceptable. Head office and p roduction fac ility costs must be cut - see Appendix II. In the longer term , we believe the company should: • be read y to launch a new product within three years. • launch an economy range o nce the new p roduct has established itself in the market. This report was submhted to Ms Penn y Althrop. Chief Executive Officer of A1throps Cookware on 4th April.

3 Yo Stu Thi! pas! ag d; wh

1I 1


q to

International busi ness

ls of n ith


This unit addresses international trade. Students lo ok at export and import documentation and read about container


Trust. The exporter wants to be paid im mediately for the goods they have sent. 2 Trust. The im porter wants to be sure of receiving the goods before paying fo r them. 3 A letter of credit is used.

shipping. Passive forms are reviewed and stu dents practise language for welcoming visitors to their company. They also practise describing processes and analyse poster presentations.




«. )

Students listen and check their a nswers in pairs.



The letter of credit is a promise from the importer's bank that the exporter will be paid. 2 The bill of lading is a document which accompanies the goods from their sta rting point to their destination. It entitles the buyer to collect the goods. I

1 Allow students lime to read th e text, then discuss as a



Possible answer If sectors of public services and the economy are being seriously depleted by the brain drai n, thcn there would seem to be good rcason for the govern ment to be concerned. In New Zealand there is a part icular problem with IT professionals leaving. There is, however, such a thing as ' brain circulation' between countries, where highly ed ucated workers leave their country of origin for a period before returning. New Zealand might have to attract the kind of businesses that can pay these people the salaries they expect in order to keep them there, o r persuade them to come back.

2 Ask students what 'the brain drain' is (the loss of skilled personnel and academics through emigration). Students then work in small groups to talk about their own country's experience of the brain drain. Ask each gro u p to feed back to the whole class.


c(. » Students work in pairs to order the stages correctly.

An swers Ic








1 Stu del1(s work alone to m atch the definitions. then check answers as a class.

Answers Ib



2 Students find the phrases in listening script 9. 1 on page 3 Students discuss their personal experiences in pai rs. Your Turn! Students study the businessman's comments and discuss the m. This provides an opportunity for them to think about the possible problems involved in sell ing to overseas markets and is a good introduction to the listening activity. Students can discuss their ideas in small groups or pairs before leading on to a whole class discussion.


I SS. then analyse the use of the passive. T hey can look back at the definitions in I to help them.

Answers I

We are more interested in what bo th sides have to d o, tha n who makes them do it. 2 The agent is assumed . 3 We are interested in what happens to the letter rather than who uses it. 3 Students work in pairs to find present, future. perfect. o r modal examples.

Answers page86

( (I))) Students work in small groups to read the questions and predict the a nswers. Students then listen to check their predictions.

Present passive when tile goods are sellt by the exporter; the letter of credit is set IIp by the buyer; the documents are presented Future passive you can never be sure that YOIl will be paid Perfect passive

International business


after the order lias been agreed Modal passive they \Valli to be paid immediately; which documents lleet! to be preseme(/

40: The length, in feet , of a container that would today cost $2,200 to ship from North America 10 Europe. 40 feet = approximately 13 metres. 7,000: The number of standard containers that ships can carry. 2,500: The cost in dollars of transporting a 40 ft container from North America 10 Eu rope in 1980.

4 Students work alone, then compare answers in pairs.

Answers 2 Everything is being done to speed up your o rder. 3 Your request for a leiter of cred it has been processed. 4 The goods were stolen while they were in transit. 5 My exports are dealt with by a freight forwarder. 6 The cargo was lifted from the hold with a crane. 7 A way should be fou nd of making it more efficient.

5 St udents work alone, then compare answers in pairs.


Students read the text again and answer the questions, then compare answers with a partner.

Answers I

2 3

Answers 1 by from 3 on 4 with 5 with 6 by 7 of

4 S



7 S



1 Draw a table on the board with three rows, road, silip, and air, and two column headings, benefits and risks. Brainstorm ideas from the students to complete the table.

Possible answers






slow, traffic delays


a lot o f space

slow, weather dependent



expensive. limited space

Set a clea r time limit to encourage students to scan the text and not to read every word. Check answers with the whole class.

Answers 8 tlr: A si mple box is the 8 th wonder of the world.

100.000,000,000: The value in dollars of the shipping industry. 1960s: The time when containers transformed seaborne freight . 8-JO: The annual expansion in percentage of goods shipped in conta iners. 3: the percentage by which expansion of container shipping outstrips growth in world economy per year. 10: The number of hours it can take for a ship to be in and out of a port.

Because it has massively reduced the cost of shipping goods in the last thir ty yea rs. In the 1960s. It has allowed operators to reduce their paperwork and cut out the middleman and enables customers to track their consignments mo re closely. By about eight to ten per cent a year. It didn't protect the goods against theft or bad weather. By using a specially built crane to lift the co ntainer out of the ship. No, they have fa llen. It has enabled manufacturers to site their production in countries where labour is cheaper, and it has enabled foreign traders to compete with local traders.

4 St udents work alone, then compare answers with a partner.

Answers I docks 2 cranes 3 paperwork 4 consignment 5 cargo 6 freight 7 vessel

5 Allow students time to find the words in the article.

Answers shrunk (paragraph I ) vibrant (paragraph 2) 3 knot (paragraph 2) 4 track (paragraph 2) 5 boo ming (paragraph 3) 6 fe tch (paragraph 6) I 2

Your Turn! Students should enjoy this opportunity to think about other wonders of the modern and business world. They can discuss their ideas in groups before making a presentation to the rest of the class to explain the reasons for their choice.

International business


page 90

page 91

lead-in (optional)

lead-in (optional)

Ask students what t hey know about sil k production. Can they

You could start by eliciting from students what they already know about chocolate production. without going into too much detail. Where is it produced? What are the ingredients? How is it priced in students' countries?

outline the main stages? Writ e up their ideas on the board, t hen ask them to look at the illustrations in 2 on page 90. Are their ideas represented in the illustrations?

1 Students work alone, then compare answers with a partner. 2 to


«. ) Students listen to check their answers. Answers Ie 2d







3 Remind students to use the pictures as visual dues fo r the ordering activity. Allow them a few minutes to put the process into the correct order, then check their answers with a partner before checking answers with the

whole class.

Answers Ie







4 If st udents need morc help. you could ask these concept questions: What hatches into silkworms? (eggs), What creates a fille thread? (carefully undoing the cocoon).

Answers In the fi rst sentence, wllich refers to a single word (eggs). In the second sentence, which refers to a clause (Each cocoon is carefully llndone.) 5 Before students begin , remind them of the different relative pronouns: whidl, who, where. whell, fllat, etc. Students work in pairs, analysing the sentences in 3, then check answers with the whole class.

Answers a b c d e f g h

which refers to a clause no relative pronouns which refers to a clause that refers to a word which refers to a word where refers to a word that refers to a word no relative pronouns

1 Students work in pairs to prepare their presentation. Refer them to Mei's talk in Lallguage for and ask them to prepare what they're going to say before starting. Rem ind students to usc the passive fo rm to describe the process, and to use relative pronouns where necessary.



& 2 Students read the backgro und information first. Check that they understand the situation: Where are the compollcllfs CIIrrelltly mallufactured? (abroad), Wllere are the components currently assembled? (in Canada), Why does it watlt to construct its own productioll facility abroad? (because it has been having problems with the suppliers of (he components). Divide the class into three groups: A. B, an d C. The A students read about the first potential market, Asia, the B studen ts read about Latin America, and the C students read about Europe. In their groups, students discuss the information and draw up a list of the risks and benefits attached to their potential market. Allow about ten minutes for this preparatory work. Reorganize into groups of mixed A, B, and C st udents. The groups exchange information about the risks and benefits of locating a pla nt in each of the three markets, then decide where the factory should be built and whether it should be a small or large fa cto ry. Each group reports back to the class, giving reasons for their decision.

Possible answers As the chances of a growing ma rket are o nly assessed as being 60%, students may reach the conclusion that Kasada should start cautiously by building a small fac tory. This would also e nable the company to staff the facto ry at management and core level mainly with expatriate Canadians initially, giving them a couple of years to assess the success of th e factory before moving on to employ local staff. There are risks and benefits associated with each potential market:



International business A - risks • possible political instability may lead to labour problems • bad publicity at home if seen 10 use child labour • unreliability of port facilities may affect shipping of goods back to Canada A - benefits • cheap labour • low initial financial outlay, with tax incentives • well·educated, computer· literate local staff available • opportunity to learn from other Canadian companies' experience in this market B - risks • unstable economic situation will make production costs difficult to predict • possible political instability may make economic si tuation worse • earthquake • difficulty in retaining IT staff B - benefits • low labour and production costs • excellent transport infrastructure • well·educated local staff ava ilable C- risks • high ini tial financial outlay required • possibility of political change, affecting tax incentives • high transportation costs • large amounts of papenvork may reduce the efficiency of the transportation links • high wage costs • strong unions and employment laws may limit productivity of staff C - benefits • very stable government • tax incentives • excellent transport links • well·educated local staff

• • • •

putting a limit on the amount of cash that can be deposited demanding stricter banking laws and closely mo nitoring staff looking out fo r the involvement of unusual financial institutions in transactions keeping informed about client's business.

2 Before students turn to File 16 on page 130, ask them to look again at the poster and analyse the way that the information is presented. Draw their attention to the use of humorous illustrations to enliven the poster. and the 'chunking' of information into short bullet points.

Students work in pa irs to discuss the information in File 16, think about how they can divide it into short bullet points, and al so how it can be illustrated.

3 Students work in groups of three or four for this activity. Hand out poster·size paper and colour pens to each group. Allow groups about ten minutes to prepare a draft o f their poster. Students can complete their final version posters in class, o r for homework if you run oul of time. Each group should present the information on the poster to the rest of the class. Encourage the audience to ask questions and participate in giving feedback.


Model answer This is a How-diagram to show the passage of a web page through the Internet. How a web page is transferred over the Internet

CD It is broken up into many same-sized pieces, called packets.

CD A header is added to each packet, explaining where WRITING

the packet comes from and where it should go.

page 94

Students look at ways to present information in a large format. This is common in presentations and may use the medium of an enlarged computer screen image, a transparency projection, a flip chart. or a poster. At the end of this section students will prepare a poster themselves so you'll need poster·size paper and coloured pens.


Each packet makes its own route through a web of computers until it reaches its destination.


If any packets a re missing or damaged, the destination sends a message back to the original location, asking for the packet to be resent.

1 Students discuss the questions as a class.

Answers I To inform the banking sector about money laundering and how they ca n fight it. 2 The poster mentions the followin g ways of combating money laundering: • making ID checks of all people depositing money in their bank



; pI

The packets are then put back together to form a web page again. using the information in the headers.



a The software for receiving, sending, and checking these packets is called TCPII P (Transmission Control ProtocoUlnternet Protocol). Every computer connected to the Internet has this software.



Human resources This unit looks at recruitment fro m the points of view of both employers and job applicants. Students discuss CV fraud and interview techniques and read about employers' methods for ensuring staff loyalty. They study phrasal verbs and practise handling questions in job interviews.




1 If your class has little work experience. elicit answers from the whole class. If they have work experience. they can discuss the points in pairs. Do they have any p refe rred method of job searching? Why?


tt:<. ))

on the walls of the classroom. The English language press can provide plenty of these, often dedicating different days of the

Check students understand: on tile grtlpevine: through word of mouth , the way rumours a re communicated brain drtlin: a country's loss of highly trained personnel or academics abroad work placement: a period of practical training in a workplace.

week to particular fields. If you have access to the Internet. you


page 96

lead·in (optional) You could begin by putting up a vari ety of job advertisements

can find many other job positions, often listed on company

websites under Jobs or Vacancies.

1 Students read the text and discuss the questions as a class. Check students understa nd: embellishments: unreliable additions to create a better impression.

Possible answers I It's so common because of the desperation of applicants to get shortlisted in an increasingly competitive job market. 2 Businesses naturally don't want d isho nest staff. 3 This is a question of degree, and perhaps also what is being exaggerated. It would be dishonest to lie about qualifications, but understandable to exaggerate interest in social activities which might be considered desirable for a job - playing a team sport, for example.

\ 2 You could write up the fo llowing different examples of



'embellishments' on the board: lying about qualifications lying about 1I0bbies exaggerating one's role in a company making up details to jill embarrassing gaps in your CV pretellding to be in cllarge of a larger team than you really are

using a !rie"d I re/ative as a referee. but pretending tlley are tI work connection. Students work in pairs or small groups and discuss which of these they would or would not use.

Students listen a nd complete the 'method' column.

2 Students listen again and complete the rest of the table. then compare answers with a partner before checking with the whole class.

Answers Person a method: 6 being headhunted how he I she feels about the job: flatte red, pleased how he I she is rewarded: golden hello, better prospects, more money Person b method: 2 famil y contacts how he I she feels about the job: it's OK. but would have liked to work outside the family company first. can move on if wants to how he I she is rewarded: profit share Person c metllod: 3 networking a nd professional contacts how he I slle feels about the job: pleased although job is demanding how lie I slle is rewarded: good company reputation, amazing bonuses Person d method: 5 speculative application made by app roaching organizations di rectly how he I she feels about the job: it's OK, but the job's not very exciting how he / she is rewarded: good pay Person e method: I careers and placement services how he / she feels tlbout the job: pleased - it's a cool company how he I she is rewarded: good training possibilities, opportunities for promotion Person f method: 4 responding to advertisements

Human resources


how he / slle [eels about tile job: happy, although fi nancial rewards aren't good

how he / slle is rewarded: a worthwhile career 3

If your students arc all from o ne country, discuss this as a whole class. If they are from different countries. they can discuss in small grou ps, exchanging infor mation about their own country.

3 Students work alone, then compare answers with a partner.

Answers 1 A demanding job requires a lot of effort from you; a challerlging job is stimulating and invites you to make a success of it. 2 A worthwhile job has a good p urpose, and a rewardillgone provides satisfaction. 3 A person who is skilled has learnt a lot about the job, while a Inlet/ted person shows natural ability. 4 A dead-end job is onc with no future, in o ther words, no prospects. 5 The next nmg on a ladder is a move up in a career structure, while a stepping stone is a means to reach another goal. 6 To pull strings for someone is to use your influence in an o rga nization to do them a favour; to head/llmt them is to persuade them to take a new job. 7 Aptitude is a natural talent for something; an attitude is a fixed way o f thinking or behaving. 8 A golden hello is a sum of m oney paid to a new recruit when they join the com pany; golden handcuffs is a high salary intended to stop the employee looking for a new job.

Your Turn! 1 Students work in pairs to read and comment on the elevator

test. 2

Groups appoint a timekeeper. Each student says which job they're going to ask for. Students take t urns to pitch for the job in sixty seconds. At the end, groups report to the class on their winners and why they were chosen,



1 Students d iscuss the first text in pairs, Would they put their own lives at risk to hel p a friend? Note: Ke rry Packer, at the time of writing, is the r ichest man in Australia. Surviving child hood polio, he greatly increased the family wealth through his dealings in the media industry. He owns Channel Nine 1V network a nd publishes about 60% of all the magazines sold in Australia.


2 Check students understand: sectors of the economy, Economies m ay be divided into three sectors: primary- agriculture and the extraction of minerals secondary- manufacturing, induding related services tertiary- services, induding distribution, health, education. Students discuss the questions in small groups.

Possible answers In Britain, at least, most shortages are in the secon,j"ri and tertiary sectors. A recent report daims that nearly two-thirds of British firms are experiencing shortages of skilled staff, 62% in services in general, 58% in manufactu ring, 54% in dist ribu tion and 62% in Dubhel services. The technology and engineering fields been particularly seriously affected. 2 All kinds of organizations and businesses can have staff turnover. These would typically have low pay generall y, or low pay compared with the same work in other organizations, low morale, no career structure, minimal benefits, a poor work environmen t, long hours, low company prestige, etc. 3 To encourage staff to stay, companies could increase salaries and benefits such as health insurance and pensions, as well as incentives such as bonus schemes; they could offer in-house training, personal career development consultation, and generally improve the work ellvironment. I

3 Check students understand: a will: a document stating who your property passes to in the event of your death wise: sensible, knowledgeable diversity of lifestyles: different ways of living serf worker with low pay and few rights. Allow studen ts time to read the questions and scan the article for the information. Studen ts compare answers with a partner.

Answers I So they can payoff student loans more easily. 2 Because different people have different lifestyles and will therefo re appreciate different benefits. 3 The answer to this question probably depends on how badly the company needs its employees and how difficult recruitment is. The more difficult recruitment is, and the more a company relics on its employees, the more that employee will have the advantage over the employer and can expect to be treated like a customer as weU as an employee. 4 They try to look after their staff as if they were unive rsity students. It seems very successful if only 8% turnover is a result of the policy. 5 They try to make the office more like home. 6 You may end up working longer and longer hours without overtime payments. 7 The phrase More worryillg still indicates that he has negative feelings about it.

4 Students discuss the questions in groups.


•• page99

Human resources


Elicit the difference in meanings from the whole class.



1 Students read the explanation of phrasal verbs, then look back at the Reading passage on page 98 to find the ph rasal verbs in bold . Studen ts read the sentences containing the phrasal verbs so they understand the con text in which they are used. Students then do the matching activity alone, before checking answers with a partner.


6 St udents work in pairs. then check their ideas in a d ictionary. Remind students that phrasal verbs are ext remely commo n in English, and that their fl uency will improve if they can learn and use a large bank of phrasal verbs.

Answers I a picked up means learnt informally b pick up means improve 2 a make out means read I understand 2 b made Ollt means pretended 3 a take off means to remove clothing 3 b took off means began to fly 4 a put up means increased 4 b put someone IIp means to offer them a room to


high in

get on with: have a good relationshi p with someone build up: develop payoff. fin ish repaying a debt hold onto: keep /umditlg Ollt: giving I distributing go for: choose come lip with: have the idea of stay on: remai n after normal leaving time look after: take care of sort out organi ze I solve a problem end lip: eventually fin ish laid Ollt: arrange

stay in 7 Students work in pairs or small groups to identify the grammatical d ifferences.

2 Students complete the sentences alone. then check answers with the whole class.

Answers I a b 2 a 2 b 3 a 3 b 4 a 4 b

Answers ·m

I to pay it off 2 stay on 3 ended up


4 hold onto them 5 sort them out 6 go for

3 Students complete the sentences in pairs, then check answers wi th the whole class. If necessary, find the first phrasal verb with the whole class.

the ph rasal verb is used transitively the phrasal verb is used intransitively the object separates the phrasal verb the phrasal verb is used intransitively the object separates the phrasal verb the phrasal verb is used intransitively the object comes after the phrasal verb the object separates the phrasal verb

Answers a payoff, hold onto, sort out, go for b stay on, end up c hold onto, go for


page1 00

1 Students co mplete the questions in pairs. 4 The sentences highlight a va riety of different grammatical errors: word order, wrong a uxiliary verb, and incorrect verb fo rm. Give students time to identify and correct the errors. Students compare their answers with a partner before checking answers with the whole class.


Students listen to check their answers.

Answers I 2 3 4 5 6 7 S

Answers I Sentence b is wrong. It should be: The value of shares has gone up. 2 Sentence a is wrong. It should be: The applicatio n fo rm was sent back because he hadn't filled it in properly. 3 Sentence b is wrong. It should be: If we increase our sales fo rce, we'll be able to break illto the market. 4 Sentence b is wrong. It should be: I am looking fo rward to hearillg fro m you next week.



What do you see yourself ... How quickly do you learn What was the most important thing you learnt ... Would you rather be ... Do you thi nk you could ... Could you tell us ... I'd like you to describe .. . Would you mind telling us .

(C. ) Allow students time to read through the replies and match them to the interview questions. Students listen to check their answers.



Human resources

Answers Ie 2c








4 Students work in small groups to comment on the replies in 3 before checking answers with the whole class.

Answers I 2 3 4

Possible answers a This is a negative way of talking about office-based work. It would be better for the interviewee to comment on positive and negative aspects of both office-based and non-office-based work. b This sounds as if it might be rather deceitful. It's also not really highlighting a skill. It would be better to give an example that shows off a particular skill like managing people, dealing with deadlines, sticking to budgets, etc. e OK. but the interviewer has asked about a skill, not a specific example. d OK. e This answer may come across as rather arrogant. It also shows that the candidate is not intending to stay at the company long-term if they are thinking about setting up their own business. f This may come across as abrupt and rude. If the candidate is unwilling to discuss salary, they can use a more subtle avoidance technique, for example: 'Well, rather than give an exact figure, let's say if's in the region of 30-40 thousand euros: g OK. h This is not a bad answer. However, the ideal 'greatest weaknesses' response will actually highlight a strength. For example: 'I find it very difficult to deal with people who are not as exacting in their standards as I am', or ' I can sometimes overlook the finer details of a job because I am dedicated to achieving the deadlines: 5 Students might be able to use some of the ideas they came up with in their groups when discussing the questions in 4. Encourage students to role-play an interview, with one student playing the part of the interviewer and the other the part of the candidate. Ask the interviewer to make notes about the candidate's responses and then feed back to the candidate after the interview is over.


«. )

Allow students one minute to read the descriptions and identify the interview types. Students listen and m atch.

Karl: panel interview Eija: serial interview Maria Alejandra: one-to-one interview Brian: group interview

3 Students discuss the methods in pairs.

Possible answers The most stressful for candidates: The panel interview is probably the most stressful for the candidate as if's more difficult to create a rapport with a panel than a single interviewer. However, if the candidate is Jacking in confidence, a serial interview may be more daunting. Gives the most accurate impression of a candidate: If the employer is looking for someone who will get on with people and work well in a team, the serial interview may be more appropriate. If they are looking for people to play different roles in the company, a group interview may be better. Panel interviews often demonstrate a candidate's ability to perform weU under pressure.


Students work in groups, each preparing questions for one of the jobs. I

Students prepare the questions together with one person writing them down.

2 Make sure students understand that they're going to be interviewers for o ne job but cand idates for another. The graphic designers and customer service candidates should be interviewed by panels, while the PA could be interviewed by the serial one-to-one method. If possible use three different rooms. One student from each group moves to another group to be interviewed at the same time. When the interview is over, the candidates return to their original group and the next interview begins. At the end. each group selects the strongest candidate, giving reasons for their choice.



page 101

1 You could expand this into a general discussion of interview experiences. Discuss what form the interview(s) took (Was it one-to-one or were there more people involved?). Do they think the interview reflected how they perform in their current job. or would bave performed if they had got the job? Why?

1 AJlow students time to read the information about Drivers Sport. Students brainstorm the qualities of an ideal candidate for the post. Accept all students' suggestions and write them on the board. Students work in pairs to rank the qualities in order of importance.


2 Students discuss the applicants' details and shortlist two candidates. Encourage them to explain the reasons for their choice. 3 In groups, students decide who will be the interviewers and who will be the candidates. If possible, candidates should prepare for their interview in another room while interviewers prepa re their questions. Candidates wait outside the 'interview room: Ask the interviewers to begin with some small talk: the candidate's travel arrangements, their hotel, etc. Specify a time limit for each interview and try to ensure that each round of interviews starts and fi nishes together. At the end, groups report back on which candidate they selected. and why.


page 104

1 Students read the three definitions on the left-hand side of the page before starting the task. Students work in pairs to identify the three letters and put the sentences in the correct order, then compare their answers with another pair. When the correct order has been established, students can write down the three extracts in the correct order to use as models for the next activity.

Answers An application letter I am writing to express an interest in the post of website analyst which was advertised in last week's edition of Bizztalk. I am a twenty-fou r-year-old Computer Science graduate with two years' work experience. r am currently working in a computer start-up. r have been searching for exactly this type of opportunity for a long time and r believe that I could have the combination of the right academic background and experience for this post. An invitation to an interview day

Further to your application we would like to invite you to attend an interview day at our assessment centre on 23 rd June. The day will begin at 9.45 with two one-hour aptitude and psychometric tests. After lunch there will be a group task which will be observed by members of our team. At some point in the day you will have the opportunity to discuss your application with a member of the Human Resources department. We should have finished by 17.45 at the latest.

Human resources

A;ob offer r have pleasure in informing you that you r job application fo r the above post has been successful. We would like to make you a provisional job offer depending on the reception of satisfactory references and original copies of your qualifications. This appointment will be at scale three of our general management grade and the starting salary is currently £23,000. reviewed after six months. This is a permanent post subject to the completion of our standard threemonth trial period. If you still wish to take up this offer please sign and return the letter of acceptance to us by 18 th September.

2 Students use the model texts from 1 to write thei r own letters, based o n the information given. They can choose o ne of the three letters described. Remind students of the following rules for formal letter-writing. • Correct layout: sender's address in the top right hand corner, addressee's address below this on the left. •

Use Dear Sir / Madam at the beginning of the letter and Yours faithfully at the end, if you don't know the addressee's name.

Use Dear Mr / Ms ... at the begi nnjng of the letter and Yours sincerely at the end, if you do know the addressee's name. • Remember to include the date and any reference number that might have been used in the original correspondence. • Divide the letter into topic paragraphs. •

Students can write up their letters for homework and then bring them into the next lesson to compare with a partner and correct.


Human resources

Model letters 3

15th April Dear Sir I Madam International Summer Camps Manager s I am writing to ap ply for the post o f summer camp manager which was advertised in yesterday's edition of The Swansea Herald. I am a twe nty-one-year-old Bulgarian and am currently completing the final year of my degree in Sports Science at the University of Swansea in Wales. I have previous teaching experience. having worked as a teaching assistan t in a school in Burgas before I started my degree. Having lived in Wales for three years, my English is excellent and I am an en thusiastic sportsperson, playing football, tenn is, and basketball regularly. I am very keen to work with people from all kinds of different backgrounds and cuhures, and feel that my own experience, as a teacher, a sports science student, and as a foreign national working abroad will be very relevant fo r this post. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully Georgi Petrov


18th April Dear Mr Petrov lntemational Summer Camps Managers Thank you fo r your letter of 15th April, applying for the post of Summer Camp Manager. Further to your application, we would like to invite you 10 attend an interview d ay at our assessment centre on 28 th April. The day will begin al 8.45 with a o ne-hour fitness test. Following a short break, there will then be a one and a half hour aptitude test. After lunch there will be a group task for which you will be required to demonstrate your team work skills and show your ability to interact with people of different backgrounds, abilities, and cultures. At some point in the day you will have the opportuni ty to d iscuss your application with a member of the Personnel Department. We a im to have finished by 17.00 at the latest. Please let me know if you will be available to attend this interview d ay as soon as possible. Yours sincerely Helen Dunsmore

Helen Dunsmore Personnel Manager The Beacon Organization PO Box 765 30th Apri l

fa< Dear Mr Petrov International Summer Camps Managers I have pleasure in informing you that your job application for the above post has been successful. We would like to make you a provisional job offer depending on the reception o f satisfactory references and original copies of your qualifications. This appointment will be at scale nYo of our general management grade and the salary will be €2,400 per month. This is a three· month post, running from July 27 th to October 27 th . If you still wish to take up this offer please sign a nd return the letter o f acceptance to us by 12th May. We look forward to welco m ing you to the Beacon Organization. Yours sincerely Helen Dunsmore

T 1 2

Extra activity Students individually choose a real English language job advertisement that interests them and write a letter of application.

LI 1


Business start-up


This unit looks at the challenge of running your own business. Students learn about fran chises and read about \~o rking in a famil y business. They study adjective and adverb patterns and language for responding to requests and suggestions, and also practise writing a letter applying for financial backing.



I You're supported to a certain extent by the franchisor. The business plan has been t ried and tested elsewhere and it's worked, so you have a greater probability of success. You can start the business operating in a relatively short time. 2 a 33% b 500,000 c £10 billion 3 Students could try to answer without listening to the recording again. Ask them to explain their false answers.

page 106

Answers I T 2 F: True entrepreneurs will not want to follow other people's rules. 3 T

1 Allow students a few minutes to rcad the text. 2 Students work in pairs to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of self-employment. 3

Possible answers Advantages; You are your own boss. You can work the hours to suit yourself. You will b e highly motivated. You will benefit directly from pro fits made by you r company. Disadvalltages: You won't have the security of a guaranteed month ly salary. Working from home can be disruptive to home life. No other employment benefits: pension, sick pay, holiday pay, etc. Can be very stressful. Will be competing with large, well-establ ished companies.


Ask students to guess the initial min imum investment for a McDonald 's franc hise in Great Britain. This was £250,000 in 2002. Students read the questions before listening to part B.

Answers I

From a few hundred to hundreds of thousands of pounds. 2 The franchisor takes a cut of the turnover, not the profi t. 3 She mentions: national advertising, competitive buying power, management systems, a logo, reputation. She also mentions that the franchisor will help with training. know-how, and offer help and advice on any problems Ihal may arise. 4 Wi th a fra nchise you gel the brand's repu(ation and competitive sales power.

4 .«.


page 106

)) Students read the questions and prediCl the answe rs befo re listening to part C. Answers

1 Students read the tip about fran chises, then discuss the questions with a part ner.

Possible answer The franchisor is guaranteed a sum of money from the franchisee without being reliant on the franchisee's success. The franchisee is given control of an operation which is already successful withou t having to risk a large amount of money o n start-up costs. 2

,,«. ))

Student's read the questions and predict the answers, then listen to part A. Students compare answers with a partner, before checking answers with the whole class.

1 Look for a sector wh ich is growing and where there's not too much com petition. Also go to exhibitions, buy magazines, and talk to people. 2 Find o ut how long they've been operating and talk to existing franchi sees. 3 Be suspicious.



1 Studen ts work alone to match the definitions, then check answers as a class.

Business start-up


Answers I a hardly;:;; adverb: amy just I b hard::: adjective: difficult 2 a late:::: adjective: the opposite of 011 time 2 b lately = adverb: recently 3 a nearly =adverb: almost 3 b 1Iear =adjective: opposite of far (in this context it means the exam wiU be soon)

2 Students work in groups of three to find examples in parts A, B. and C of listening script 11 .1, then exchange

2 At first I thought that he was an excellent candidate, but eventually I came to the conclusion that he lacks confidence. 3 The more roads we build, the more devastated the countryside will become. 4 I've ha rdly noticed any improvement in my com~'ut'''' since the extra memory was installed. I The extra memory has made hardly any difference to the performance of my computer. S Travelling by train has been far quicker than d riving would have been.

information and create further sentences using the adjectives and adverbs. Check answers with the whole

class. Students will have met these adjectives and adverbs before but some can cause confusion as 'false friends' (i.e. they are similar to words in the student's own language but have a different meaning). Check students understand: actual: real, e.g. This is all actual / realls"'-cel1t11ry Queen

Anne chair. actually: in fact (not at the mometrt), e.g. Actually, I've 1Iever seen her before in my life. really: in reality, similar to actually but stronger, e.g. This is really /lot slIch a difficult exercise; very, e.g. It's really cold today, isn't it? eventlltl/: coming in the end as a result, e.g. Their i1labi/ity to cotltrol spe/ldi/lg led to their eventual ba/lkruptcy. evetltually: in the end (not if tlecessary, possibly), e.g. They evetltllally solved their problems by hiri1lg a matlagement cO/lsllltan!. shortly: soon, e.g. Shortly after the meeting she was told to look for a tlew job. 3 Students work alone, then compare answers in pairs.

Answers 1 Sentence b: hardly any (adverb + determiner) is stronger than not mild, (adjective) and suggests almost no difference. 2 Sentence d: The positive far less (ad\'erb + adjective) is stronger than Ilot qllite as (adverb + preposition). 3 Sentence f: The negative 110 easier (comparati\'e adjective) is stronger than the easiest (superlative adje
Possible answers I

There is no better way of going into business than word of mouth.


page 108

1 Students work in pairs to discuss the question. 2 Check A students understand: illusions. false hopes reap the rewards. gain the benefi ts reserJtment: bitter feelings surveyor. somebody who measures and maps land before constructio n policy: a line o f action followed by a company, e.g. not to accept expensive gifts from clients. Check B students understand: feud: a prolonged and bitter dispute trend: general d irection or tendency offspri1lg: a person's children (for mal) committee: a bod y of people who take decisions on a particular matter drift; move slowly without any particular direction keep a lid 011 samet/ling: keep a potentially dangerous situation under control. Students read their questions, then scan the article and note down the answers.

Answers Text A 1 You don't get the recognition you deserve and can be resented by other people in the business. You don't have any experience of work outside the family business. You don't have the opportunity to learn how to fail and make mistakes. 2 They are resented by other people in the busi ness who feel that they lack the experience fo r the job that they're doing. 3 They should insist that their children gain work experience outside the family firm first. They should ensure that thei r children do every job in the business to gain all-round experience, to get to know everyone, and to earn respect from the other workers.



TextS I There can be terrible fe uds between different family members. Siblings can be very competitive. There can be arguments when the company founder stays on past retirement or when the owner manager cannot decide on a successor. 2 They should start an early d iscussion about passing on the business, involve someone who is not directly involved in the firm, and think about the future of the business before selecting a successor. 3 They may not leave a clear succession plan, leading to conflict and power struggles. 3 Students work in A I B pairs and exchange information about the texts they have read. Remind them that they should not refer to the texts themselves, only to the notes they have made.

4 Students' own answers. 5 Students complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb.

Answers 1 step down 2 go into 3 sort out 4 put {me} off 5 hand {the business} over 6 end up

6 Students analyse the phrasal verbs using the grammar information on page 99. They need to see if the phrasal verb is transitive f intransitive. separable f unseparable.

Answers step down does not have an object go into needs an object sort Ollt needs an object and separates pill off needs an object and separates hand over needs an object and separates end up does not have an object (in the example sentence)

7 Students find words in the two texts to match the definitions.

Answers Text A setbacks. problems that stop progress reaped the rewards: to gain the advantages of something recognition: public acknowledgement that you have done something well resentment negative feelings caused by unfair treatment policy: an official and principled way of doing something TextB feud: a long· term. unpleasant and personal argument pitfall: a bad situation you can easily get into a business vacuum: a time in a company where there is no leadership or direction a successor: a person who is promoted into another o ne's old position

Business start-up



1 You could give students the following adjectives and ask which ones they think would best describe the atmosphere of the meeting: forma~ light-Irearted, seriolls, carefree, relaxed, tense. (Although James is asking for risk capitaJ, the relationship between the two men is collaborative and positive.) Students read the questions and predict the answers.

2 t{> Students listen to check their answers to 1. Answers 1 By presenting him with a sound business model based on similar hotels in the area, the tourist numbers in the area, and the growth that has been forecast. He also shows that his figures are based on detailed research by the government. 2 He wants to keep some of the figures private for the time being.

3 «
Answers a b c d e f g h

we need to be sure assure you that, It's quite viable given are based on detailed research do believe, welcome the chance not prepared to afraid that, remain confidential don't mind. put off, until later the same thing myself

4 Students work in pairs to match the definitions, then check answers as a class.

Answers Express sometlring certain: I can assure you that. we do believe that Agree: I was going to suggest the same thing myself. Soften a statement I'm afraid that, If you don't mind, I should mention that


Business start-up



Note: galore comes after a noun to indicate more than plenty of something, e.g. Flowers galore!

page 111

At the time of writing, 3.5 million yen is approximately

1 Discuss the questions as a class.


2 Students work in pairs and exchange opinions about

Possible answers USPs: Top Hole is fo r excl usively long-range driving

Jubiolation . 3

practice in a restricted space, under cover, and so protected from British weather. At presen t, the concept would be unique in the UK, though not of course in Japan where the idea originated. Puddings Galore offers a n international choice o f desserts served in large portions. Potet/tial cllstomer groups: Top Hole would be mainly targeting men and speci fically, male middle-class com muters. The main target category for Puddings Galo re would be younger women. Suitability: Angela and Maurice's age, and their experience as City executives, may mean that they will have more in common with and therefore more understanding of the Top Hole market. However, from the info rmation so far provided, Puddings Galore Illay be a safer opt ion as it already has good recognition.

Explain that students are going to role-playa meeting between the founde rs of lubiolation and potential investors, Gravesen Inc. Studen ts read the ext racts from Jubiolation's business pla n.

4 Students work in A and B groups (two or three students per group) to prepare what they're going to say in the meeting. Allow about ten minutes for this stage. If

possible, split the Jubiolation and Gravesen groups into separate rooms. 5 The lubiolation and Gravescn representatives meet a nd discuss their plans. Remind students to use the words a nd phrases fro m th e Language for section.

3 Extra activity During monitoring you may like to look closely at the language the two sides use when parting. Useful expressions include: It's been a pleasure (meeting you), Mr Nailer. Nice to have met you too, Ms Smith. / It's been very interesting to hove met you too, Ms Smith. Well, thonks (or coming and tolking to us. we'll contact you again very soon / we'll get back to you soon an your proposal. Ha ve a good journey.



You could begin by telling the students they have each just been given an unexpected cheque for £100,000 (about €140,OOO). Brainstorm ideas with groups or the who le class to find out wha t they wo uld do to make this money work for them.

1 Allow students time to read about the Butlers and check that they understand the situation.

Students work in pai rs to read details of the franchise offers and decide on their advice to Angela and Mau rice. Tell students they will have to present their findings to the class, so they should consider the best way of communicating their ideas, e.g. if possible, they could prepare their work on overhead transparencies.

Possible answers Requires tire biggest investmem: Excl uding the 10% slice of turnover from both businesses, Top Hole requires a total investment of £226,000 while Puddings Galore, assumi ng the hiring of two extra slafT, would need £103,000. Has the greatest potelltial: Students should consider the followi ng positive and negative points: Puddings Galore

Positive poinrs: There's a chance of expa nding to another branch if successful. The position would be very accessible. There may well be a lot of people trying it for the novelty.

Negative points: There's a lot of fast food competition in London. There's much less profit per customer than Top Hole. Top Ho le

Positive points: Answer They have been made redundant and awarded £100,000 in redundancy payments. They can't find new jobs, so have decided to invest in a franchise. 2 Students work in pairs to read the articles and discuss the questions.

It should attract players who don't have the time for a rou nd of golf. People can play despite poor weather and darkness. The combined bar should attract more customers.

Negative poillts: There are a 101 of relatively inexpensive golf courses in Britain. The market is saturated in many parts. Players are practising only a few kinds of shots, which makes it less likely that they will return regularly.

There's Htde chance of expansion. There would be little o r no passing trade.

4 Students work in pai rs to find at least six synonym s or pronouns.

It would be difficult to sell the business to anyone wishing to convert the property.

Has more chalice of breaking even quickly: This, of cou.rse, depends on how well the businesses perform. Without taking variable costs such as lax, depreciation, elc. into account, the break even points arc as follows. Top Hole - after 22,600 customers (£226,000 divided by



Puddings Galore - after 31,212 customers (£ 103,000 divided by £3.30). 4 Pairs take turns to make a short presentation on thei r recommendations to Angela and Maurice.

Do the students have any ideas on a franchise that might work in their country or countries? Hand out or display details of

franchises for the students to skim through and choose one that interests them. If you have access to the Internet there are several sites which provide lists and information on available franchises . There are also specialist magazines and directories. When the groups have decided, ask them to prepare answers to the following Questions: Why did they choose their franchise? Whot would they need to do to bring it into operation? What risks are involved?

In a subseQuent lesson, the groups should meet to present their plans and comment on those of other groups.


page 114

1 Students read the background informatio n and discuss the questions as a class.

2 Allow students a few minutes to complete the exercise alone before comparing their answers with a partner.

Answers Jd


Answer All of the following pronouns and phrases refer to the boot: a prototype boot, it, this dream, a business investment opportunity, a concept. the inventio n, a boot. the device.

5 Remind students of Jubiolation in the Speaking section of this unit. Students work in pairs or grou ps to compose a written proposal for the juice bar. based on the model from Rudi Jacobson in 3. You may wish to give students this writing task for homework.

Model letter

Extra activit y


Busi ness start-up







3 Students work in pairs.

Answer These words and phrases refer back to other phrases or ideas in the text and consequently show us how the different sentences are linked together.

Dear Sirs We are a group of business people who are writing to you with a business investment opportunity that we feel sure will be of interest. I have a background in financial services at a well-known bank and another of my partners is a professional chef with an innovative approach to modern food preparation. Together we feel we have made a real breakthrough in the food away-from-home market. This enterprise initially resulted from our observations of the success of juice bars in the USA. We decided it could be a winning move to combine this with the sale of sa ndwiches made exclusively from organically produced ingredients. In this belief we opened ' Jubiolation' in the Covent Garden area of Lond on. There is no clearer indication of the success of this outlet than the long queues to be seen there on any weekday and an inspection of our accounts would simply confirm its excellent fina ncial health. Having proved that this business can work, our ambition is now to expand the number of branches to certain European cities where we feel confident it will perform well. However, we recognize that doing so will req uire the financial backing of an organization such as yours, which shares our vision and enthusiasm. We believe that you r financial expertise together with our clear understanding of what the market wants in this area can bring this dream to fruition. I enclose a preliminary business plan for your consideration. We would welcome the opportunity to see you in person and discuss our plans and requirements in further detail. In the meantime, we trust you will respect the confidentiality of all aspects of our discussion. Yours faithfully Enc. Business plan



Reputations This unit addresses the importance of building and maintaining a good reputation in business. Students look at exam ples of b usinesses like Skoda and Puma which have turned their repu tations around, and learn about VA LS classifications. The use of articles is reviewed. Students practise language for clarifying and checking facts and information, and work on a case study developing arguments for a nd against compensation claims.



1 Students discuss the questions in pa irs. French producers claim that only the sparkling wine produced in a delimited region north and east of Par is and known as Cham pagne, is en titled to bear the name. O ther sparkling wines made in France may not use the name, and the name Champagne is also protected by treaty with other European (and many other) wine-producing nations around the world.



Lead-in (optional) Write the name Skoda in large letters on the board. Then ask the class to think of words or phrases associated wi th Skoda cars, now and in the past. Accept all suggestions and write them

Answers The Skoda Superb was the original. legendary prestigious car, which stopped production when Skoda was brought under state control in the fo rmer Czechoslovakia. It has now been resurrected by Volkswagen a nd is being marketed as a luxury car, competing with Jaguar and BMW. It is different fro m other vehicles in the Skoda ra nge because it targets a different market: the upper- middle market, as opposed to the non-status-conscious 'ordina ry people' market. 3 Find out what students know about how businesses classify different groups of consumers. Students read the tip about VALS classifi cations and try to th ink of at least one person they know fo r each category. Do they think that the classifications are useful for marketing purposes? Can they think of any other types of people that could be added to the list?

2 &<. ))

Students work in pairs, then listen to part B again to check their answers.

Answers aclJievers: more luxurious cars such as Jaguars or BMWs emulators: Jaguars or BMWs, possibly the Skoda Superb survivors: the old pre-Volkswagen Skodas 4 St udents work in pairs, d ividing up the words between them. Then they compare their answers wi th another pair before checking as a whole class.

Answers I notorious, maligned 2 unreliable, untrustworthy

on the board. Ask students to assess the words and phrases: are they mainly negative. positive, or neutral?


)) Students read the questions a nd work in pairs to pred ict the answers. Students listen to part A to check their predictions. Answers

1 It is possible. but it requi res time and commitment. 2 Very bad - it was known as ' the brand from hell' and there were many jokes about Skoda cars. 3 It was taken over by Volkswagen in 1991. 4 It appealed to the buyer's rational side, emphasized the reliabili ty. safety, and good value o f the car, and used an ironic advertising campaign. 2

«. )

Students listen to part B and compare their answers with a partner before checking answers with the whole class.

Possible answers 3 renowned: well-known and respected prestigious: of high status notorious: fam ous fo r being bad legendary. very famous and ad mired maligned: something which is maligned has had negative, sometimes unfair things said abou t it eminent: well known and very highly thought of reliable: something that won't break down, or a person who won't let you down tfllstworthy: honest (of a person), reliable, and dependable

Reputations 5 If your students are all fro m o ne country, you can do this as a whole class activity. If you have students from different countries. they can analyse the words in small groups, work out d efinitions in English, and then volunteer their own language versions of the exp ressio ns. Remind students of the importance o f understanding idiomatic expressions, but also that they can be difficult to use in exactly the right con text and can sound odd if


Answers personnet He reduced the workfo rce by nearly 50%, getting rid of many of the top managerial staff. marketing: He targeted consumer segments like snowboarders, car-racing fans, and yoga enthusiastsi he catered to the varying tastes of Asian, North American. and European consu mers; he forced the company to think m ore about the consumer. production: He shifted production to contractors in China, Vietnam, and Taiwan; he made the production managers move away from expensive German production methods.

used incorrectly.

Answers lousy poor, bad shake off: get rid of, remove resurrected: literally this means brought back to life; metaphorically it m eans brought back into use status symbols. possessions that shows someone's high rank or wealth

boils dowtl to: actually means snob appeal: high status pretensions Your Turn!


This activity focuses students' attention on the importance of reputation. Students work alone to complete the sentences, then compare answers with a partner. If your students are from different countries, this activity would probably work better if they focused on globally known manufacturers.



Ask students what they know about the Puma brand. What kinds of clothes does Puma prod uce? What reputation d oes the company have? Would the students want to wear Pum a clothes? Refer students back to the VALS classifications on page 11 7 and ask them to identify the type of consumers they think would wear Puma clothes. 1 Students scan the text to find the numbers and work out what they refer to. Set a time limit for this activity.

Answers 26: The percentage by which German shares of Adidas Saloman have risen since 7 March 2003. 29: The age of Pum a's chief executive. Jochen Zeitz. when he joined the company in March 1993. 60s. The average age of chief executives in Germany. 250,000,000: The amount , in dollars. by which Puma was in debt ten years ago. 1993: The year that Jochen Zei tz becam e chief executive of Puma. 168.71: The share price in euros of Puma's Frankfurttrad ed shares. 1,500,000: T he number of cheap sneakers in the Puma warehouse ten years ago.

Studen ts work in grou ps of three. each student summ arizing the changes in o ne of the key areas. Studen ts exchange inform ation in their groups, then compare answers with the whole class.


Allow students time to look through the text again a nd fin d examples of Puma's changing philosophy. Students compare their answers with a partner before checking answers with the whole class.

Possible answer The company no longer considers Germany to be the centre of the universe, but accepts the need to focus on the needs of different consumers around the world. It has repositioned Puma clothing and footwea r from being exclusively a sportswear brand thai o nly appealed to athletes. to being a leisurewear brand that appeals to many diffe rent consumer segm ents. 4 Students discuss the question in sm aU groups. You could then ask students to suggest other business ' hero es' from their own o r other countries. 5 Students work alone to match the definitio ns, then compare their answers with a partner before checking answers with the whole class.

Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

on the brink o f bankruptcy warehouse morphed shifted production eclectic a me-too brand revitalize

Your Turn! Students discuss the questions in small groups. You could ask each group to name at least five top brands for each of the three categories given, then tell each other how many of these brands they themselves own.





3 Students work in pairs to identify the expressions.


Answers to show tlley dOIl't IlIIderstalld: Visitors? to clarify somethillg: Parki ng specifically, When exactly

1 Students work alone to match the descriptions before checking answers with the whole class.

are they available?

Answers Ie







to c1leck I recap wlult has beell said: As I understood it, I've understood correctly, What does 'a bit of work' entail?


2 Students use the descriptions in I as guidelines to help them decide whether to use the definite. indefinite. or

4 If necessary, students can fin d the ph rases in the

zero a rticle in these sentences. They can work in pairs and then compare answers with another pair before whole class feedback.

listening script on page 158 and study them in context. Students work in pairs or small groups to match the phrases to their funct ions.



1 2 3 4 5

The. a, 0 the, the, a, 0 0 .3., 0 The. the the, a


6 The, a, the, a 7 an, the 8 The. a, The, the 9 The. the. the 10 a, a, a








page 121

1 Ask if any of the students had any uncomfortable


1 Check students understand that a landlord lets a premises to a tenat/t, and the agreement between them is the lease. Students discuss the questions as a class.

Possible answers The rent may be too high, not paid on time, or not paid at all. The conditions of the lease might not be respected or might be unfair towards the tenant. The landlo rd may complain that the tenant doesn't keep the premises clean, and there is often disagreement over maintenance: Is a particular maintenance job necessary? Who should pay for it? Is lhe cost too high?


«<. »

Allow students time to read the q uestions, then students listen to parts A and B to check their answers.

Answers She thinks they're qui te well situated. She likes the reception area and the fact that the offi ces are well lit. b She's worried about the availability of parking spaces fo r visitors. c She thought there was unlimited parking. In fact, there is only parking for 10 vehicles. 2 a It might not be ready by the agreed date of 7U1 April, because there is some building work, including work on dam p and on the roof, to be done. 2 b It is unlikely that she will take the property. A strong indicator of this is the fact that she has no fu rther questions to ask: she has clearly losl interest. I


experiences either ren ting or letting a property. Allow students time to read their information for Meeting Students work in pa irs to enact Meet ing one. them to use phrases from the umgllageforsection.

page 120



Allow students the time to reflect on their language use in Meeting one and note any additional phrases they would like to use. Students work in pairs to enact Meeti ng two. This is a telephone call so studen ts could si l back-to-back.



1 Introduce students to the idea of a court case between a claimant and a defendant. Ask students if they know of any recent court cases involving famous compan ies. What were the court cases about? Who won? Copy the table from page 122 onto the boa rd and fi ll in the first row about Case A with the whole class. Students work alone 10 complete the information about Cases Band C, then check answers with the whole class.

Answers Case A - Claimant: William Hinton; Defendant: Fanshawe Engineering Case B - Claimant: Farinelli Fashions; Defendant Domus supermarkets Case C - Claimant: Salvo's; Defendan t: Eventful Even ts

2 Students work in groups of three to complete columns three and four of the table. Each student looks at one of the cases in more depth and analyses the arguments for and against the claimants and defendants. Groups then share their informat ion.

Answers Casc A


Possible arguments for tile claimant; Hinton should not have been working on this mach ine because of his age. He should have been removed from working on the machine when he was found operating it without goggles. Possible arguments for tile defendant: It would be impossible to ensure that that a m achine operator was wearing goggles all the lime. Hinton had been warned several times. CaseB

pe. ge


Possible arguments for tlie claimant: T he goods were purchased illegally because they WCTe acquired from wholesalers who had broken their cont racts with Farinelli, or from manufacturers who had made illegal quantities of their products. Possible arguments for the defel/dant: Domus had no agreement with FarineJli to break, and is allowed to purchase the products where and al what price it chooses. CaseC Possible argllments for tile claimant: Wil kins agreed to the new price and signed the new contract; she is therefore in breach of contract. Possible arguments for the defefldant: Salvo's had made a mistake in the contract so it was invalid. They put unreasonable pressure o n Wilkins to agree to the new terms. 3 Students work in groups to discuss the three cases together and decide which could possibly be settled out of court.

Suggested answers ea",A a f

Fanshawe Engineering seem clearly gUilty of negligence in allowi ng Hinton the possibility of operating the machine without protective clothing. There would appear to he little chance of a compromise agreement here.

ea", B


It would be difficult to come to a final decision without all the contractual details but Farinelli seem to be unlawfully attempting to restrain the trading r ights of Domus. Farinelli might agree to fina ncially compensate Domus if they withdraw the sale of their products.


CaseC Eventfu l Events made an agreement with an understanding to pay £4,200, so it seems unreasonable to ask them to pay more. The parties might arrive at a compromise sum to be paid by the defendant, e.g. £5,500. Students form new groups with o ne representative from each original group. They compare their decisions and discuss differences of opinion.

4 Students work in the same groups to select o ne of the cases and prepare the argume nt either for the defendant or for the claimant in more detail.

5 Each group takes it in turn to act out the case in front of the rest of the class. Encourage the rest of the class to ask questions and th ink of opposing a rguments. Once the case has been presented and the class has had an opportunity to ask questions, put the final decision to a class vote.

W Rill N G


1 Students work in pairs, then compare their answers with another pair before checking answers with the whole class.

Answers Ib







2 Students now go on to replace phrases with adverbs.

Answers I 2 3 4 5 6

Understandably Hopefully Regrettably Clearly Admittedly Accordingly

3 Allow students time to read the press release. Students work in small g roups to answer the questions.

Answers I Some of their o rganic tomatoes have been contaminated by a chemical spray from a neighbouring farm. 2 She apologizes profusely fo r the contamination and stresses the fuct that immediate action was taken. She finishes the press release by thanking the o rganization that released the information, thus emphasizing that FNF has no intention of trying to cover up its mistakes.


Reputations 3 I Regrettably 2 Clearly 3 Hopefully 4 entirely I completely 5 immediately 6 wholeheartedly 4 Using the FNF press release as a model, students create their own press release to defend Quayside Furniture. Students work in two groups, A and B. Students read their information files and work together to analyse the criticisms and discuss any vocabulary problems. Allow students about ten minutes to read the in fo rmation. Students work in A I B pairs to exchange information and prepare the press release. You could ask students to do this for homework if they run out of time. Students can then exchange press releases wi th another pair and check each other's work for use of adverbs, accuracy, spelling, punctuation, and appropriacy of language.

Model Answer Press release As you may be awa re from recent publicity, Quayside Furniture has been the target of a highly critical television documentary. Understandably, many people have been d ismayed by the apparent poor treatment of staff by Q uayside. We therefore welcome this opportun ity to respond to our critics and clarify some of the points made in the documentary. Quayside is a small, fa mily-run business which is competing with far larger companies. Admittedly, our employees are only paid the minimum wage but, in today's competitive market, regrettably, we cannot afford to pay higher wages. We operate in an area of high unemployment and are proud that we are able to contribute towards the provision of job opportunities in this area. We wholeheartedly agree that our employees should be given the standard benefits available to most staff elsewhere in the industry, including sick pay and paid publ ic holidays - indeed, we do offer these benefits to our five full -time staff. Our casual workers, however. are employed as needed and clea rly they appreciate the advantages attached to this casual work: full y flexib le hours suitable for part-time workers or students seeking holiday employment. We deeply regret the fact that contracts have not yet been issued to all of our staff. This is due to the sudden resignat ion of our secretary and we have prom ised all our employees that we will issue everyone with a contract as soon as we have found a replacement. We at Quayside Furniture would like to assure the public that, in these times of economic uncertainty, we are doing everything possible to ensure that we provide the best possible working conditio ns for our staff, and to apologize if any of our employees feel that they have been unfairly treated.



., ••

Tests Answer Key

Tests Answer Key 7 8


3 b

The reading section has 15 marks. The grammar section has 16 marks. The vocabulary section has 15 marks. The language for section has II marks. The writing section has 18 marks. Each answer receives I mark unless otherwise stated. The total is out of 75.

instalments re-mortgage 9 bankruptcy 10 consider 2 I , 2 d 4



Units 1- 3

otherwise stated. The lotal is out of 75.

READING (2 marks per correct answer)

I ,

g f b ,

Example a nswer I

2 GRAMMAR I grew

2 had been giving I had given 3 was happening I happened I

happens 4 have increasingly been dictating I have increasingly dictated 5 has shaken 6 are marketed 7 are becoming I have become 8 is being allocated I is allocated I has been allocated

9 has been selling

10 is often making II focus 12 have tcnded fie nd J3 have been promoting 14 arc going to continue J will continue

15 will probably develop 16 will we simply be buying


3 4 5


I suppose so sorry I'm late 5 that doesn't matter 6 would you mind 7 Of course not 8 As far as I'm concerned 9 view 10 agree 2 I I appreciate you're upset, but it's nothing to do with me. 2 That's unacceptable! 3 Why weren't you there? 4 I didn't realize I was supposed to be there. 3

paying off outgoings blame fall behind broke aiming






I was wondering if

2 In my opinion

The reading section has 12 marks. The grammar section has 16 marks. The vocabulary section has 15 marks. The language for section has 14 marks. The writing section has 18 marks. Each answer receives 1 mark unless

2 1 4 5 6


5 ,

Marks should be allocated as follows. After two weeks: I am writing to you regarding our invoke 8765/84. (2 marks) According to our records the invoke, which fell due at the beginning of this month, is still outstanding (3 marks). We feel sure that this is a simple oversight on your part (2 marks). As you will remember, we offered you a 10% discount (2 marks) on condition that you paid the invoice within thirty days. (2 marks) Therefore, unless we receive payment within five working days, we shall be obliged to issue a new invoice for the full amount (4 marks). If, in the meantime, you have already settled the original invoke, please disregard this letter. (3 marks)

Units 4-6

lB 4A

5D 6A 2 IT

2F 3T 4F 5T 6F

2 GRAMMAR You could always leave that bill

till next week. 2 In m y last job I would spend 3

4 S


7 8

most Saturdays at work. I'm not used to working with this program. I couldn't contact him in time. The HR manager decided he would personally reorganize the pay structure. The delivery should arrive this afternoon. Although it will cost 520,000, we want to t ry it. He's always leaving meetings to answer his mobile.



2 seldo m 3 turn down 4


5 raising 2


6 to

2 up 1 to

7 by 8 of




5 to

9 in 10 with


Tests Answer Key


4 LANGUAGE FOR 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9 10 11

I'd like to say if we don't act now strongly believe that really need to Can I say something here? that's a good poin t can I j ust finish off Do you really think really got to if I could just come back to what I was saying The point I'm trying to make is

5 WRITING Example answer 1 Allocate I mark for correct layout. 5 marks for each bullet point included, 2 marks for each of the underlined forms included. Up to a maximum of 18.

Email To: All Sales Representatives Date: 15 May

Expense Claims

Despi te recent unremarkable sales there has been a sharp


increase in Sales Representatives' expense claims. I therefore ask you 10 Dote

that. while all travel

expenses remain claimable, ~ following regulations apply: 2nd class train travel only is claimable air tickets must be approved by a Sales Manager prior to booking three star hotel accommodation only, in listed hotels where possible aU expenses to be supported by documen tation or they will not be reimbursed petrol rale remains at 16p per kilometre for the current fina ncial year. Gifts to clients It bas recently come to my attentjon 1hi1 in spite of the clear and widely communicated company policy that gifts can only be made to clients up to a maximum value of € ISO, several representatives have claimed for the value of gifts well in excess of this. As of today no such claims will be approved. If you have any Queries re£ardi ng this please refer the ~ to your Area Sales Manager.


Units 7-9

The reading section has 12 marks. The grammar section has 16 marks. The vocabulary sectio n has 16 marks. The language for section has 13 marks. The writing section has 18 marks. Each answer receives I mark unless otherwise stated. The total is o ut of 75.

1 READING 1 b 2 f 3 4


5 d 6


2 GRAMMAR 1 to import 2 didn't know 3 contacting 4 contacting 5 are required 6 dealing 7 checking 8 is 9 has gone 10 to ship II were 12 to get 13 shipping 14 made 15 have been 16


3 VOCABULARY I ba rgaining 2 issue 3 regret 4 intimidating 5 give in 6 after all 7 running 8 negligible

2 Noun

recrui tment commitment recommendation consultation acquisitioll consumer advice proposal

Verb recmit commit recommend consult acquire consume advise propose

4 LANGUAGE FOR 1 I do apologize 2 As you can see 3 that will bring us to 4 I shall outJine 5 handing you over

6 we'll begin by 7 firs t of all 8 once 2 1 apologize 2


3 happen 4 guarantee 5 appreciate

5 W RITING Example answer I Report Marks should be allocated as follows. Report: Customer Complaints Equ ipmen t a Problems: System crashes, screen freezes. Loss of data. b Causes: Technicians report over 70% of instances are caused by hard faults. (3 marks to include all the above points) 2 Latc delivery times a Problems: Serious delivery delays (ovcr 5 days) reported to 30% of customers in the period March-June. b Causes: Delivery delays from our suppliers. (3 marks to include all the above points) 3 Installation problems a Problems: Equipment to be installed is either incompatible with client's system or wrongly installed. Clearly, the former is the more serious of these. In these cases the whole order is jeopardized if the equipment cannot be operated. The latter is an infrequent but annoying problem fo r the customer. b Causes: Insufficient initial customer consultation is the main cause of equipment incompatibility while wrong installation is due to a lack of trained staff. (6 marks to include all the above points)

Tests Answer Key 4 Poor after sales service

a Problems: Inadequate telephone assistance and long delays in receiving

assistance on-site. h Causes:

Similarly to 3b, the problem of telephone assistance lies in the fact that many of our after-sales slaff do not have the required

skill to deal with many calis,





while on-site assistance delays arc simply caused by the small number of technicians available. (6 marks to include all the above points) 2 letter Allocate 2 marks for layout, 4 marks for each of the points mentioned from the notes.

Dear Sirs Our company has been a customer of yours for four years and in thaI time we have generally been happy with the goods and services provided. However, I now feel obl iged to write and inform you of a recen t alarm ing drop in standards. As you know, we had some problems with two printers which were eventually solved by your technicians, but I am now referring specifically to the installation of the four ZX towe r processors o rdered last June. They were delivered three weeks late, and when they finally arrived your technicians had great difficulty installing and programming them . Soon after they left, the system crashed. As advised, we called your help-line where mo re time was wasted while you r staff offered unhelpful solutions. [t now seems the processors do not have the necessary power to handle the size of data involved. Last June your representatives visited us and left wilh what we tho ught was a clear understand ing of o ur needs. This was clearly not the case. While you arc no doubt aware that payment for these goods is still outstanding, I must inform you that we have no intention of settling un til this m atter is satisfactorily resolved. Yours fai thfully


Units 10-12

The reading section has 12 marks. The grammar section has 15 m arks. The vocabulary section has 13 marks. The language for section has 14 marks. The writi ng section has 21 marks. Each answer receives I mark unless otherwise stated. The total is out of 75.

1 READING I C 2 A 3 D 4 B 5 C 6 C

2 GRAMMAR I 0 2 some 3 0 4 to relaxing 5 up with 6 eventually 7 turn up 8 actually 9 for it 10 ending u p II shortly 12 down 13 hard 14 out 15 eventual


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13

challenging self-confidence on bonuses build up on the grapevine go for resentment redunda nt perma nent post pension plan conscientious and reliable rewarding


3, 4g 5, 6b 7d

2 Id 2, 3g 4f Sa

6c 7b

5 WRITING Exam ple a nswer I

Allocate 2 marks for correct layout, 2 marks for each of the points m entioned from the notes. Add 3 marks fo r beginning and end ing the m emo in an appropriate way. Memo Since our conversation on Tuesday I've done some research into Heath and Brown and will outline some of the benefits and drawbacks of these two o ptions as I see them. You are bound to be aware of Brown's reputation as a worldwide operator and it's true they do offer a huge n umbe r o f warehouses. Nevertheless, I imagine you know how costly they are, and business contacts tell me they've been having a lot of problems w ith their new IT system - I'd make doubly certain they've got that right before you think of e ntering into a ny deal with them. I'd also urge you to consider the speed of their operation; being so big I'm sure their communications can be a problem sometimes. In contrast, Heath are much cheaper and have a good reputation for reliability. They do however have a relatively small operation and you should bear in mind recent rumours of warehouse security and hygiene problems. I would n't let this dissuade you though, an d personally I'd recommend you look into the Heath optio n more closely. Hope this has been some help.



Test 1 Units 1-3 1 READING 1 Read the text from a newspaper article. Complete each gap 1-6 in the text with a sentence from a- g below. There is onc extra sentence which does not fit into any of the gaps. (2 marks for each correct answer) a Get punctual colleagues to explain their feelings to

late ones. b Let people know that meetings will start promptly. c

Don't keep people waiting as a way of suggesting you are important.

d Never be lale if possible. e

Work out the cost oflaten ess.


Interpret lateness.

g Decide your own attitude to lateness.

I How to cope with late colleagues ' ............... If you have twenty people attending a meeting which starts ten minutes behind. you r bu si ness has lost t he equiva lent of half a day's work. If you institutionalize inefficiency in this way. you are subco nsciously telling colleagues they ca n do what they like about meeting deadlines. 2 ............... Either decide to be on time, or accept that meetings and appointments will nearly always drift. You cannot take a middle line, and you cannot tackle anyone else if you are sometimes late. 3 ............... ' It is showing a strong contempt for people: says Clare, who typically has five meetings a day. 'It's rega rded increasing ly badly: says Jo Bond of the Right management consultancy. 'You should think of colleag ues as internal customers. Would you keep exte rnal customers waiting? No.' Bad time-keepers are usually weak administrato rs - poor at m aking -~

decisions, unable to say no to people they are with, incapable of critical p ath analysis, and bad at setting priorities. You have a cho ice between letting them set the tone of you r business or tryi ng to establish a sha rper routine. 4 ............... If you let them begin late, you are penalizing the people who arrive on time. Do this more than once or twice, and you encourage everyone to be late. Resist temptations to recap for latecomers. You could, however, start your meeting with the least important item. 5 ............... The early birds will almost certainly cooperate if, for instance, they arrived for an 8 a.m . m eeti ng and were kept waiting for forty minutes.


.........In Louise Bagshawe's new novel A Kept

Woman, the anti-hero deliberately keeps the hero waiting for th irty minutes but is left looking a fool in f ron t of senior executives when the hero walks out.

Test 1




1 Verb tenses.

1 Choose the word.

Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs

Read the text about attitudes to debt. Underline the correct word in italics.

in brackets. (I mark for each correct answer)

I---·.----.-'"---· ...- -___

(l mark for each correct answer)


- -_ _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _


! Private Labels - past, present, and future

It seems the younger generation worries less about

; It was nOI so long ago that the power was in the hands of the


getting into and

manufacturers in their relationship wi th the retailers; they

{ dictated prices, delivery terms, a nd product placement.


paying out I paying up I paying off I

much less so than t heir grandparents'. An increasing

During the 19805 and 19905 however, things changed.

number seriously fail to match their

I Retaile rs I ..... ......... ... ... ... ........ ... (grow) bigger and stronger, and realized they 2•• ... •••. ... ••. .. ••• ... •••..••• ... •. (give) the brand manufacturers too much say in what


paying into debt than their parents' generation and


outgoings I

savings I investments I expenses with their income, and most of the 3 reason I blame I motive I sin for this lies

J .. •• ... ••. .••• ... •• ..••• ... •• ... ••. .

\ (happen) in their stores. Since then large chains

with their willingness to


falf out I falf behind' fall

through ' fall off on credit card repayment s. So now

.. ...................... (increasingly dictate) terms to the brands,

t hey're s broke I black I red I credit, what are they doing about it? Rather than


aiming ' focusing I

targeting ' concentrating at paying back t heir debts These products

6 .. ........................ .. .... .. ..

(market) in various

systematically, perhaps by

ways; they may be in a plain package or as a retailer's brand and they may be produced by the big brand manufacturers i

I '



refinance their debts. Those with a great deal to repay

............................. _.... (become) mo re sophisticated and less

may choose to

brand-loyal with the result that more and more shelf space (allocate) to private labels. They are


The private label is particularly well-established in

Britain. One department store, Marks & Spencer,




several decades, and as the big superma rket chains position themselves in the market the c usto mer Ill ....................................

......•••• .... ••• ....••• ....

get out of control when rate s rise sharply.


(sell) o nly its own label products for


full of these products and, indeed,



labelling. In the US A, retailers


the biggest chains


private labels, and they are likely to go on doing so. The


marke t trend in Europe indicates tha t in the future they


morc., and that retailers

(tend) to

remain fa ithful to the big brands but over the last few years

14 ...•...... ..••... ...•• .... •.....•••


12 .•• ... ••. ... ••• .. ••• .. ••• .. ••• .. ••••

IJ ............... ..................

(promote) more

(continue) to grow and diversify still IS •..••• ..••... •••. ..••.. .•••.. •••. ..


develop) up-market labels as well. In ten years' time

1 16 ......••......•••. ...••.... •.• (we simply buy) brands owned by /', _ retailers _ rather than manufacturers? _ _ _ _ _ _- _ _-.J ~_-

Oxford University







Verb-noun collocations. Match the phrasal verbs on the left with the nouns on the right, (I mark fo r each correct answer)

II . .

(focus) their assortment o n suitable products for own


look over' disregard I see over I consider t he

situations may seem manageable but t hey can Quickly




fact that interest rates change, then some debt

different .


buy I sell off I re-mortgage ' rent the ir

failure' bankruptcy ' debt I loans.

If you

diffic ult to persuade customers that your product is really any



homes with an increasing number simply declaring

especially strong in mature product markets where it is


credit card I cheque '

elsewhere to find low interest credit in order to

!hemselves. The fact of the matter is that they

I ..... .... .. ...... ..... .. ....... ....


instalments' a lump sum, many choose to go


I set up 2 go into 3 take on

a a list o f g uidelines uch work ,b yotoourmwork

4 draw up

d politics

5 get on with

e yo ur own business

Test 1



Requests and offers and giving opinio ns. Two colleagues working in different towns meet up again. Underline the m ost appropriate expression in italics to complete the dialogue. ( I mark for each correct answer)

Carl: Hello Alex, nice to see you again. Listen, this meeting is due to finish about eleven and I don't have my car today - it's broken down - I so if you'd like to / J was wondering if you could drop me off a t the station if it's on your way? Alex: Yes, yes of course, no problem. 2 In my opiniotl / 1 agree you're better off without a car these days with all the traffic around ... Carl; Well, 3 1 suppose it / J suppose SO; anyway it'd take me about half an hour to get there otherwise, so thanks a lot ... Ah, here comes Julia, she works with me. Have you met? Alex: No, I don't think we have. Julia: Hello Carl, 4 1 would like to apologize for the delay / sorry I'm late. Carl: Oh, 5 tllat doesn't maNer / I don 't care. The o thers haven't turned up yet anyway. Alex, I don't believe you've met Julia Sammons. Julia, this is Alex Fletcher. Alex: Pleased to meet you, Julia. Julia: Nice to meet you too, Alex. Carl, 6 would yOIl mind / are yOIl mind lending me your no tes o n the Raglan deal? I couldn't print mine out. Carl: 7 Of course / Of course tlot. Now, where are the others? We were supposed to start at nine. 8 As far as I'm concerned / On the otller hand every time somebody's late they should be sent a memo reminding them to be punctual the next time. What's your 9 view / point, Julia? Julia: Dh, I 10 agree / thitlk yes.

2 Apologies and criticisms. Complete this conversation with the expressions in box.. ( I mark for each correct answer) you I appreciate you're upset, but it's nothing to do with me. I didn't realize I was

David: To m, I'm very unhappy about this customer's complaint. He says that he has ordered this part three times and still hasn't received it. Tom:

I ................................................................................... _. The

problem lies with the dispatch department. They're two weeks behi nd schedule. David: What? 2 .... \-¥hat are we going to do about this? Well, they had a meeting about it yesterday, but I don't know what they decided. David: 3



4 ..................................... _... __ ................. __................ __ __ My

department is' Purchase and Orders', not 'Dispatch'. David: Well. please make sure you go to the next one. We need to get this sorted.

5 WRITING 1 Write 200-250 words in answer to the following: (18 marks in total )

Your com pany produces machine parts. You sent the following invoice to a customer:

,---------INVOICE No. 6765/64 Fred Smith Engineering To: Your order no.

Dated: Quantity: Description:

Total Less 10% discount Add VAT 17.5 % Net total

Max Machines, Hove, Sussex 54KPH77 15 May 2002

250 GFT valves £500 £50 £78.75 £528.75

\ Even though the discount allowed depended on prompt payment. the customer hasn't paid. Write the first reminder letter two weeks after non -payment.

'Qif,Ii BH6!M' © Oxford University Press



Test 2

in this

Units 4-6

In the first paragraph the writer says video conferencing: A is run simultaneously via the computer and telephone. B ca nnot connect people over great distan ces.


1 READING 1 Read the article about video confcrencing and choose the correct answer for each of the questions 1-6 opposite. (1 mark fo r each correct answer)

. The

~~:n';:~:i~:=d-:n:--J I

, )

I I ' / 1 {

I ,



Video conferencing is a way of holding meetings without those attending being physically together in the same room, or even in the same country. Participants are connected via video cameras and monitors which allow them to see each other and any necessary data on screen. The systems run either on IP (computer network based) or ISDN (telephone linebased) and may be designed for desktop, small groups, or large groups. The advantages of video conferencing are clear: no travel expenses for the company to pay, increased productivity as the employee is not absent from his I her work, and meetings which tend to be highly focused on the job in hand since the more time that is spent online, the more expensive it is. There are of course disadvantages too. Although prices are coming down, buying a system can still be very expensive in the shorttenn, especially those designed for large groups; it is not surprising that they are most often to be found in the meeting rooms of the more well-off companies. Others who are unwilling, or unable, to meet the cost simply hire the equipment on the occasions they need it. Whichever system you finally decide to employ, you should go through a dry run before the actual meeting as several things can go wrong, e.g. poor sound and lor, picture quality, lighting problems, echoes and so on. If you have a large group, you may have problems fitting them in front of the camera and if you do not have an appropriate stereo system installed, can they hear? In fact, if you have the space and are going to be using this medium more than occasionally it would be advisable to have a room set aside for the purpose with the equipment already in place. Finally, if you happen to be participating in meetings in a foreign language, you will find video conferencing decidedly superior to telephone-only conference calling. Understanding is easier, in spite of the likelihood of encountering the disconcerting difficulty on ISDN systems of a slight time lag between sound and vision, sometimes making it difficult to identify who is speaking.

,------------____- - - -__-4 © ,0 " ,." University Press

e nables users to view both data and people.

D is best used for one-to-one meetings.

2 The writer says the advan tages of video conferencing include: A higher expense claims. B longer. but more efficient. meetings.


a better use of human resources.

D the low cost of systems. 3 Accord ing to the w riter, some companies do not buy a system because: A they generally have meetings with large groups. B they do not want to pay so much for it.


they prefer other means of communication.

D they arc waiting for the price to decrease. 4 The w riter recommends: A preparing a room dedicated to video confe rencing. B using small groups.


using an ISDN system.

D using any system as long as you are comfortable with it. 5 The writer says: A video conferencing is not as clear as telephone conference calling. B you will probably experience a time lag when making a telephone confe rence call.


telephone co nference calls a re better than video conferences for foreign language speakers.


video conferences can sometimes cause confusion.

6 On the whole the writer: A sees advantages to video conferencing but warns that using it can be problematic. B does not think video co nfe renci ng will become very popular.


recommends we buy a video co nferencing system.

D advises us against using video conferencing.

Test 2


2 True or false? Read the article again and decide if these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the writer. ( 1.5 marks for each correct answer) There are t\vo different systems for running a video conference.

2 In meetings held by video conference, it is easy to get distracted from the main subject. 3 Video conferencing equipment is

gradually getting less expensive. 4 Only the better-off companies can afford to hire the necessary equipment. 5 It's a good idea to practise using the equipment before ho lding a video conference.

6 Speaking in a fo reign language over the telephone is difficult because of the time lag.

2GRAMMAR 1 Rewrite the sentences below u sing the words in brackets so that they have a similar meaning. (2 marks for each correct answer)

Why don't you leave that billlill next week? (always)

3VOCAB ULARY 1 Choose the word. Read the text about pricing. Underline the correct word in italics.


( I mark for each correct answer)

--------_ ....,----,,-.

THE PRICE IS RIGHT In the past when a business wanted to I set / ask I put / loy a price for a product they tended to calculate the costs of material, labour, and overheads, then add the desired profit margin. This would hopefully give you the right price to go to market. Unfortunate ly, businesses 2 seldom / generally / hardly / nearly addressed the problem of whether the customer will simply 3 deny / give up I tum down / return your product because it is too expensive. Modern business practice suggests that we should first decide on the correct price and then work backwards from there. This means subtracti ng the profit you wish to make in order to arrive at the production cost you have to 4 bear / stand / hold / lind. If the figure for the real cost you have previously calculated is higher, it could be to time to rethink the whole project rather than simply 5 raising / setting up / rising / going up the selling price.


2 Prepositions. 2 In my last job I spent most Saturdays at work. (would)

Choose the correct preposition from the box to complete these sentences. (1 mark for each correct answer)


I've never worked with this program before so I'm nol finding it very easy. (used to)

4 I wasn't able to contact him in time. (could)

5 The HR manager decided to personally reorganize the pay structure. (would)











I'm not in the office tomorrow - I have a day .................... in lieu.

2 We can't put .................... the price in today's market. 3

I used .................... work for Glaxo but I left last year.


He's always overruling my decisions - I'm fed up .................... it!

5 Increased sales lead

.... greater profits.

6 The delivery is due to arrive this afternoon. (should)

6 According .................... Mary, the office is in Espoo, Finland.

7 It will cost $20,000. Nevertheless, we want to try it . (allhough )

7 The company's sales have slumped .................... 80% to €30,000 over the last five years.

8 It's annoying the way he leaves every meeling to answer his mobile. (always)

8 We never recovered from the collapse ...... main supplier. 9 There's never been such an increase number of sales.

.. .. our

........... the

10 I don't agree .................... that suggestion at all.

'[email protected]!.lHIfIO.©Oxford University Press

_ _ .........

_~p-. · l'-T

Test 2



1 Speaking with conviction and participating in meetings.

1 Write 150-200 words o n the following.

Complete this conversation with the expressions in this

box. (I mark fo r each correct answer) need to really IlOl to if I coukt just come The point I'm tryIna to'-Is bade. to what I was saying Can I say"""""""",? if we don't act now' that's a ..... point can I just finish off I'd lib to say ~y believe that Do ~ .... jy think

Carl: Righ t, so let's kick off with the main pomt o n the agenda - the proposed move to the business park. Before we go round the table on this , ................................................................................... _ I think it's a n excellent idea - the rents are getting far too high in the middle o f town. and 2............................ ...................................................... _. we could face another renl rise in the next year. Julia: No, I disagree. Carl. Our clients are here, aren't they? That's a good enough reason to start with. J 3 ......................... _.... _............... _.................... .............. _ in our kind of business we 4 ... _................................................ ................. ............ _ project a certain image and moving from this beautiful 18th century town house to those plastic prefabrica ted business premises is only going to damage that. The clients .. . Alex: 5................................................................................... _ I'd like 10 know how we're supposed to get to that place. I mean most of us live in the north and .. . Julia: Yes 6_................ _.... __........................................................... _ but

7..................................................................................._ what I

was saying about the clients? Most of them are situated within a kilometre of this office. 8 ................................................................................... _ they are going to go all that way out there to us? I wouldn't. We've loads of competitors nearer. Carl: Yes, OK, I accept that, but the fact remains we've 9 ..........................._....._... _..........._............................ _ make some big cuts, and fas t, if we are going to get through this year - the rent here is astronomical. Alex: I 0................................................................................... _ about distance for a moment, I think if you go ahead with this you're going to make some pretty big cuts with staffing as well. 11 ................................................................................... _ that several of us wouldn't like to travel that far.

Oxford University Press

(18 marks in total) This is the transcript of what your Sales Director has told you about sales representatives' expense claims. Rewrite it as a formal email to all sales staff.

'Expense claims were up 15% last year and sales were down by 10. There's no excuse for it! TeU them that when they go on business trips they can of course claim all travel expenses. but the rate is staying at 16p per kilometre fo r car travel and any repairs have to be made by mechanics the company has chosen. Train travel must be second class as usual and any plane tickets have to be okayed by their Sales Manager. If they aren't, they'll have to pay for them themselves. Hotel expenses have got to come down as well - from now on, three star only and if at all possible, in hotels where we have a discount

agreement. All expenses have to be backed up with documents - receipts. tickets and so on - or they won't be reimbursed. I mean that. Last but not least is the company policy on making gifts to clients - they can't be worth more than €ISO. All the reps should know this, but looking at some of their expense claims they obviously need reminding. I know it's sometimes hard to stick to, but if they want to make an exception it would need to be a special case, and in any case they'd have to see their sales manager first.'


Test 3 Units 7-9 1 READING 1 Read the text from a newspaper article. Complete each gap 1-6 below with a sentence from a-g be1ow.

(2 marks fo r each corrcct answer)


Loyalty schemes all work in the same way.

b O nline retailers are obsessed with customer loyalty. c When the com pany launched this sum mer, it said thai pay-outs would be limited to £20 a month 'until it was sure of its business model.'

d This is usually in the fo rm of a voucher exchangeable for th e compan y's goods or services. e Apart from buying, you can also earn points by fi lling in surveys and looking at ads.


T he most obvious way of ensuring customer loyalty might be to provide decent customer service, you would have thought.

r;;; pt:e::;:~;:atiSfie~-----'1 ...............

I( I

l! )

Sometimes it seems as if they believe their own hype

about how the net shifts the balance of power to the consumer. They're all worried that the competition is 'just a click away' on the net and that if they lose a customer, they could be gone for good. z............... Many net shops are now concentrating more on this and have also introduced all sorts of customer loyalty schemes. 1 ............... You have to register with whoever is running the scheme. You earn points depending on how much you spend: points t hat will earn discounts on future purchases or enable you to buy stuff outright , if you save enough . Some American schemes go further. ~ .............. . Another thing to look out for at the moment is the referral reward. On some sites, if you introduce a set number of friends to the site and they buy something, you get something in return. 5 .•• .. •••••••• ..

2GRAMMAR 1 Read the extract fro m a lecture on importing p rocedures. Underline the correct word in italics. ( I mark for each correCl answer)

' So let's imagine you've agreed 1 to import I importing some products. Now, if you 2 didn't know I hadn 't known where to find these particular goods, I'd advise you to try 3 to contact I contacting the consulates - they're able and will ing to supply lists of companies. The next step is to go to your own consulate in that country and see which agents they suggest 4 to contact / contacting. They'll be able to arrange visits to factories. In some countries you 5 require I are required to go through a trading company rather than the factory itself - this means 6 dealing / to deal with more paperwork of course. Now, the product needs 7 checking I to check so the exporter will send you some samples. If the quality 8 is I will be satisfactory, send them to your agent and he'll check them against the rest of the manufacturer's merchandise. So, provided that everything 9 would go I has gone fine so far you could go on 10 to ship / shipping the goods. If you received the goods and you 11 were / have been unhappy about them for some reason, it would be wise to try 12 to get / getting a reduction on the bill. Otherwise it might mean 13 shipping I to ship them back, which you would find very expensive. This brings us to payment. This can be 14 made / make by Letter of Credit which is usually 'irrevocable' - once the terms of the transaction 15 have been I must be agreed , they cannot 18 be / become changed unless both parties agree. Next, we come to customs clearance

If you want to see if you ca n actually make some money from yet another online giveaway, one UK business will pay you 25p for every hour you spend online, so long as you install a bar at the bottom of your browser t hat will show ads. You get referra l fees if you introduce fri ends to the service. 6•..•••••••.••••


'[email protected]!H+!fimtj © Oxforduniversity Press

Test 3


2 Word forms

1 Read the passage about negotiating a salary increase. Underline the correct word in italics.

( 1 mark per correct word)

(I mark for each correct answer)


"_r--. _ _ . . -

I Asking for a rise decided the time has come to discu ss the

position: you know your job inside o ut. you're a real asset to the company, they're s imply not paying you enou gh - so let's go and talk about ill It's OK to come across as assertive but you don 't want to seem arrogant. saying th in gs you mi ght later J feel sorm I regret I realize l ap%gize, There is no getli ng away from the fact lh at your boss is in the domina nt position here and can be quite


dislionest I misertlll/e I illtimitlmillg I deceitful at

limes, There's no goi ng back now though - you can'l just 5 give ou t I fJo round I give ill I !let tllrollfJ" before you've started. You'll ju st have to prepa re your case a little better. 0 fintllly I tli last I at tile elld I after ,,//. it's nol as if you 're 7 lIavillfJ I makinfJ I




with your boss. You th ink you're in a strong

I r llll1li1lg the risk of h im firing you for askin g - it would cost the company a lot more to hire and train somebody to take your piClce, Anyway, even if he offers you only a 8 negligible I negotiable I redl/ced I smaller increase. or non e at a ll , you'll have made a poin t about your own worth , gOillg



1 argument I debale I isslle I poill£ of your sala ry




I barg(lillillg I de(il;II9 / asking power of a union beh ind you so you're out all your own if you wan i. to ask for a risco But let's say you've


( II



1 l1ayglillg




At mana gement level you don't usua lly h ave the



Complete this table with the correct forms of the words,


_ _ _ _- -_ _-

'© O"'. ,d Uni versity Press

_ _ _.,J

consumer advise propose


Test 3



2 Dealing with complaints. Choose the correct word from the box to complete these sentences.

1 Making presentations. A marketing manager is giving a presentation about extending a company's product lines. Complete his presentation with the expressions in this box. (I mark fo r each correct answer) first of all handing you over

I do apologize

that will bring us to we'll begin by

I shall outline


as y® can see

'Good morning everybody, my name's Vic Wilcox and I'm Group Product Manager here at HTC. 1................................................................................... _ for the slight delay in slarting this morning - there seems to have been a mix-up over rooms, but we're all here now. 2 ..................................................................................• from the title of the presentation, we're going to be looking at the portfolio of products I'm responsible for and discussing various proposals that have been put forward for extending some of these lines. 3 ........................................................................ _ ,
I do ...

......... for this delay, sir.

2 Could you .... ................... with me for a moment, please, madam. 3

Do you _.... __.................... _ to have your order number?

4 I'm afraid that it's no longer under ............................. . 5

.. __ ....... _.... your disappointment with

' can full y our service.

5 WRITING 1 Write 150-200 words o n one of the following: (I8 marks in total )

Your company specializes in supplying offices with computer hardware. There have been several customer complaints recently. Your line manager has asked you to write a brief report describing these complaints and the reasons for them. They include: •

faulty equipment

late delivery times

installation problems

poor after·sales service.

2 Your company is a customer of the computer hardware company in question I above. Write a polite but firm letter of complaint.

point for the new product is our usual finished standard article. So 8 .................................................................................... the product comes off its usual line, it'll be moved o n to be reworked ... •

'[email protected](.!i.!'!bIfi.©Oxford University Press

Test 4


B is a multi-media activity.




Viral marke ting the IKEA way


As any marketing manual will tell you, the mos t effective way of promoting your product is b y wo rd ·of-mou th , but this relati vely h armless activity seems to have taken on a kind of Robocop transformation in recent yea rs to becom e Viral Marketin g. If that ha s you reaching fo r your medicine cabinet, then I should say that its aim is in fact the usual one: to sed uce you into spend ing more - the difference being that the marketers a re dedicating more lime and energy than ever on trying to get us to tell each other how nice they are. I KEA is a mast er in this respect - not content with persuading the public, it also seeks to win the love of its employees. In October 1999, head office decided to hand over a day's profits (Saturday's) to its 40,000 employees worldwide - about 60 million dollars. More recentl y in the U K, ca r park congestion has insp ired the management to present 3,500 employees with a new bicycle each. Now, the idea that treating your staff well will produce bette r results is not a new one. Robert Owen saw the benefits of treating his workers well nearly two centuries ago, even to the point of providing them with hous ing. I KEA may not have deemed it necessary to go quite that far, but the message passed via the media and employees was that this is the place to wo rk - doing wonde rs fo r its image and making staff recruitment a piece of cake. A San Francisco IK EA outlet decided to expand into an I nternet vi ral ca mpaign ; it offered a $75 saving if you sent ten fr iends ten on line postcards, with five postcards getting you a 525 reduction on a S150 purchase. 48 hours and 80,000 cmai ls later though, a lot of complaints s tarted coming in that they were jus t d ist ributing spam . They cancelled the campai gn. Well, if you're going to spread something around , you've got to be sure you r customers want to catch it.










© '0",." University Press


is carried out by word-of-mouth.


aims to tell us how nice we are.

2 According to the writer, IKEA:

Read the article about viral marketing and choose the correct answer for each of the questions 1-6 below.

r .....-_--"----_--~---r---

The first paragraph explains that viral marketing: A is an expensive but successful marketing technique.

Units 10-12

(2 marks for each correct answer)


A tries to get both its clients and staff to speak well of them. B is not satisfied with its relations with the public. C mainly concentrates on staff relations.


is only concerned with what the public thinks of them.

3 The writer suggests that IKEA have been generous with their staff: A because o f high profits and organizational problems. B for historical reasons. C to improve their image and reduce the head count.


to make it easier to hire employees and improve the company image.

4 According to the writer, Robert Owen: A let property to his workers. B did not believe poor treatment of workers improved productivity.


did not treat his workers as well as lKEA.

D gave his workers flat-pack housing. S The San Francisco store promotion: A had a high response but customers were not happy about product quality. B had a very low response.


meant the more you contacted friends the greater the discount you got.


meant the more postcards you bought , the greater the discount you got.

6 The writer suggests viral marketing: A is not really a successful promotional tool. B is best aimed at improving staff relations. C can be effective if handled well. D is out of date.


Test 4



1 Read the article about opting to work for a non-profit organization. Underline the correct word in italics. o means no word is entered in the text.

1 Read what a salesperson a nd an accountant have to say about their jobs. Underline the correct word in italics.

(1 mark for each correct answer)

There tend to be (wo main types of 1 (he I some I @applicants fo r jobs with non-profit-making organ izations: those who have just left further education a nd have little experience, and those who have been in wo rk for 2 (he I some I lillIe time and have decided to 'give something back to 1 @ !the I a society', A few of the latter, instead of looking forward 4 10 relax I relax /10 relaxing for a few years, have taken early reti rement o nly from their previous jobs and have a great deal of experience to otTer. They sbou ld be carefu l, however, that while they may come ~ lip \IIilh flip agaillst/up some great ideas for their new em ployers, applying their profitoriented skills straight onto organizations with very different priorities and cultures can 6 lastly I e l'entually / el'elltual prove to be misguided. Whatever your reasons for pursuing your new career, you can't just 7 tum up I film it up I arrive up at the job on Monday. You should carefully consider why yo u are 8 apparelllly I obviously I aCfllally going into this kind of work , what you have to ofTer, and the amount of time you wa nt to dedicate to it. As with any otber post, you should also loo k carerully at the job description before finall y going 9 for I il for I for il; there would be no point in 10 elld 0111 I eliding up I end up in a job you would be likely to resign from II lately I shortly I recently afterwards, so don't hesitate to lum 12 off I up I down a ny offer you think un su itable. You will have to work just as 13 hardly I hard Ilollg if not harder, and you must also bear in mind that not only will you be poorly paid, but you will probably have to fa ce some emotionally wearing situations you wou ldn't normally face at universi ty o r in the office. You may well have to sort 14 through I down I oul any a nxieties your family may have, and they sho uld be encouraged to be part o f any 15 finally I el'emually I even/ltal decision .

( I mark per correct answer)

Salesperson Sales is not easy: there's no doubt in my mind that it's a really 1 chaf/mgillg / dishonest / borillg job: you need a lot of 2 arrogallce / disbelief / self-collfidellce and energy. You may have to travel a lot, spend a lot of time on the road, and stay 3 to / 011 / up late at the office. Of course the rewards are excellent: good salary, and plenty of opportuni ties to earn 4 wages / penalties / bOlluses. The thing about sales is that it's all down to relationships which you S build up / start up / make up with customers over a long period of time. Sometimes you hear 6 on the grapeviTle / by the way / Olll of the woods of an opportunity for a big cont ract, and you have to 7 go to / go for / go arOllnd it. But fo r good salespeople, customers come to you. Accountant There's a lot of 8 relief/resentment / determination felt by young employees who are worried about losing their jobsbeing made') lIt1employable / fired / redulldam and I think I'm lucky to be one of those who has had a !O pemumellt post / part-time job / temporary position as long as I've wanted it. I'm coming up to retirement now and the company 1I holiday pay / health illSurance / pellSion plall here is a good one. A lot of compan ies these days are abandoning them. You need to be 12 compassiollate alld

caritlg / coIIScielltiolts and reliable / dynamic and imaginative in this job and if you are, you'll find the job a I) rewardillg /

fascinating / paying one.

' © Oxford University Press


Photocopiable Activities Teacher's Notes PHOTOCOPIABlE ACTIVITY 1


Target markets

Problems and solutions

For furth er practice in talking about some of the marketing

For fur ther practice in using language for apologizing, criticizing a nd making ded uctions, make copies of Photocopiable activity 2 o n page 86. Students play in pairs. Each pair will need o ne complete set cut up of either the conference cards or the trade fair cards.

issues in unit I of ProFile 3 Student's Book. make copies of Photocopiable activity I on page 85. You will need onc board

for each group of three to four studen ts. Each group will need a dice, and each student will need a counter. In turn, each student throws the dice, and moves his I her counter fonvard accordingly. St udents must talk about the topic q uestion in the square that their countcr has landed o n. If they land on a 'quest ion mark' sq uare, students ca n ask o ne of the other players any question related to marketing.

2 Encourage stronger students to expand their answers by asking each olher follow- up questions in o rder to develop a co nversatio n.

Remind students of the appropriate functional language on page 20 of ProFile 3 Student's Book. 2 Give each pair of st udents a sel of cards, which they put face down in fro nt of the m. Each pair of students is at a d ifferent event, either the conference o r the trade fair. During the event, a number of things go wrong. These problems a re on the cards. 3 To play, studen ts take it in turns to turn over and read a card. They then role-play the situation together in their pairs explaining and apologizing for the situation.

Photocopiable activities



Offers and requests

The marketing mix

For further practice in m aking requests, offering, and refusing politely, make copies of Photocopiable activity 3 on page 87, one for each group of three to four students. The aim is to collect four of a kind: in this case, a set of four cards from the same office department.

For further practice in describing products, how they are marketed, and language of opinions, m ake a copy of Photocopiable activity 4 on page 88, one for each student.

Remind students of the language for making requests, offering, and refusing politely on page 30 of ProFile 3

Student's Book. 2 Cut up the cards and deal them using one set of four per studen t (each group of three students will play with twelve cards, grou ps of fo ur with sixteen cards). 3 In turn, each player can ask a nyone of the other players to 'carry out a task' from a specific department, but only from a department where he I she already has one task. For exa mple, if a student has the Promotions Department card from the first row on the Pho(ocopiable activity page, he f she can ask: Could you fix f Would you mind fixing a meet ing with the designers, please? 4 If the player asked has that card, he f she must agree o r offer to do the task, and must then give the card to the player who made the request. The player who made the request m ust then, in exchange, give the player he / she asked one of his / her own cards. Players should have four cards at all times. 5 If the playe r asked doesn't have the card, he / she must refuse politely using an appropriate expression. Play then moves to the next student. Encourage students to use the phrases they have studied. 6 The first player to get a set of fo ur cards from one department is the winner.

Students read and revise the inform ation on the marketing mix, the 4 ' P's', which was covered in the case study o n pages 42-43 of ProFile 3 Student's Book.

2 Group students into groups of four a nd give each pair the product information cards, A and B (Spirit and Cooleo). The two pairs must not look a t the same product.

3 Ask them to use the grid to note down info rmation about their product relating to the sub-elem ents o f the marketing mix. Some areas may not be full y known , so you might like to discuss these as they come up. 4

Bring the two pairs together. Ask them to exchange info rmation about their products and complete the rest of the table.

S The two pairs should then compare the marketing mix of the two products a nd decide which product is the stronger of the two and therefo re stands the best chance of making a profit. Remind students of the language of giving o pinions (ProFile 3 Student's Book page 10).



Photocopiable activities



Obligation and necessity

Peaks and troughs

For further practice in talking about rules, what you should and shouldn't do at work, make copies of Photocopiable activity 5 on page 89, one for each group of three to five students. Students read and revise the language for obligation and necessity from ProFile 3 Student's Book, page 50, with further reference to the Grammar Guide on page 139 of ProFile 3 Student's Book.

For more practice of language for describing graphs, make a copy of Photocopiable activity 6 on page 90 for each pair of students.

Divide students into groups of three to five and give each group a board. Each student needs a counter and each group needs a d ice. Students should imagine that they are all new employees at a company. They are on trial for one week, after which the boss will decide if they can stay on. Some squares they land on will indicate they have done something wrong, while others are 'good' squares, which will get them to the end of the week more quickly and effectively. 2 In turn, each student roUs the dice, which indicates how many squares he I she can move. When a studen t lands on an '~' square, he I she must read the situation, and respond, stating what the correct behaviour is or should be, using one of the key words. A second roll of the dice indicates which verb they must use as in the dice chart at the top of the page.

2 Students spend a couplc of minutes studying their graphs. They should not be able to look at each other's graphs at this stage.

For example: First throw: situation: ~ You arrive late. Second throw: I - should(n't) o r ought(n't) to. 'I should have arrived o n time. I I ought to be on time (tomorrow).' o r ' I shouldn't have been late.' 3 The other students must decide if the response is correct. If it is, the player stays on that square, but if it is either grammatically incorrect or an unsuitable response for that situatio n, he , she moves back o ne square (but without responding to the situation on that square). 4 A student landing on a .I square reads the situation, and moves on one square (but without responding to any new situation). If he I she lands on a SAFE ('safe' square), play moves to the next player. S Students move round the board line by line. The firs t studen t to reach the end is the winner.

Divide students into pairs. Give one student part A, the other, part B. Cut up the box of words at the top of the page and place all the cards face- up between the two students. This is the word bank.

3 Student A starts. Student A describes their graph while student B listens. and draws the line on their blank graph. Student A must try to use as many words from the word bank as possible. When a word is used, it is removed fro m the word bank so it cannot be used by student B. 4 Then student B describes his' her graph to student A in the same way. Student B must also try 10 use as many words remaining from the word bank as possible. The winn er is the student who used the most words from the word bank. If there are different st rength students in the class, it is best to give the role A to the weaker students so they have more words to work with.

Photocopiable acti vit ies

PHOTOCOPIABlE ACTIVITY 7 Negotiations For further practice in negotiating, make copies of Pholocopiable activity 7 on page 91. Students work in pairs, Aand B. Divide students into two groups, giving one group role A, the other group role B. Ask students to read the background information to familiarize themselves wi th the company context. Check that students understand the context. (In a nutshell, two co-owners of Inner Sunlite tours, based in Graz, Austria are now dividing their business. The company has been having problems, while the poten tial market fo r its new venture is exciting, though not without the risks any new business faces. The two owners meet to negotiate how they are going to 'separate' thei r business.) 1 Students read through the rest of the information deciding which areas need prioritizing, and working o ut what is important to their partner. Remind students to check the language on conditionals on page 69 of Profile 3 Student's Book. They may also like to consider what tactics to use. 3 Pair off the students - A and B. They will need 20-25 minutes to negotiate the issues. As the issues under negotiation are interconnected, students should link their negotiations of each one. 4 When studen ts have finished, ask them to summarize together each point they discussed to ensure that they are clear on the final arrangement.

2 Place the cards face down in front of the students. In turn, each student turns over two cards. If he I she picks a verb card and a topic card, they should try to make a grammatically and logically correct sentence, using the verb in its appropriate form. For example: forget + Early memories: I' ll never forget going to the seaside for the first time. 3 If a student is able to make a suitable sentence with a verb card and topic card, he I she keeps the cards. Play then moves to the next player. 4 If he I she cannot find suitable pairs of cards, for example if he I she picks up two verb cards, or two topic cards, his I her turn is over. Likewise, if he I she cannot make a good sen tence, his I her turn is over. He I she must place the cards face down where they were originally. Remind students to remember where the cards are! 5 T he player with the most cards at the end is the winner.

PHOTOCOPIABlE ACTIVITY 9 The production process

For more practice in exchanging facts and information related to describing processes, make copies of Photocopiable activity 9 on page 93. Students work in three teams: A, B, and C. Each team is given a q uestion and answer sheet. Ask students to work as a team to try to fo rm correct questions. They need to create one question for each prompt. Give them 10-15 minutes. Students must write their new questions on the papers in the space provided.

5 The winner in each pair is the student who gets the most 'suns' O.

PHOTOCOPIABlE ACTIVITY 8 Gerunds and infinitives

For fu rther practice in using gerunds and infinitives, make copies of Photocopiable activity 8 on page 92, one for each group of 1....0 to four students. Cut up the cards and shuffle them. There are sixteen verb cards, and sixteen topic cards (There are eight topics with two cards each). The aim is for students to pick up a verb card and a topic card and to make a correct sentence. Students read and revise the grammar reference on page 77 and on pages 138-139 of ProFile 3 Student's Book.

2 Each team then takes it in tums to ask the other two teams a question from their paper. The team able to supply the correct answer first scores two points. 3

If one team answers fi rst but makes a m istake, the other team may answer. If they answer correctly, they get one point. Give an extra point for an answer including a passive form used correctly.

4 After the game tell the students to pass their question paper to another group. Explain that you are now going to give poin ts for correct grammar. Every question which is grammatically correct scores one point. Finally, add up the points from stages 2-4 to find the winner of the game.



Photocopiable activities


3 Ask students to decide which information under Issues and considerations they wish to include in the email, and which they would put in a business plan. Give them 10-15 minutes.

Vocabulary mingle

4 When they are ready, ask students to write the email to Gravesen Inc. together in pairs. Give them 10-15 minutes.

For further practice of the language of unit 10. and asking for, and giving information, make a copy of Photocopiable activity lOon page 94 for each group of five to six students. Ideally, you need two to three cards per student. Cut out the cards and scatter the papers face down in front of the group of students. 2 Each studen t takes one card and reads the instruction. He I She must ask different students the appropriate question, until he I she finds someone who can answer 'yes: He I She must then ask that student more questions to find out as much as possible about that person and the related 10pic. 3 On each card there are six tick boxes. For each follow-up question the student asks related to the topic, they may tick a box, up to a maximum o f six. 4 When the studen t has asked aU the questions he I she can, or has ticked aU six boxes, he I she keeps the card, and picks up another and repeats stage 2 above. 5 The game is over after either twenty minutes, or after all the cards have been used. The winner of the game is the person who has ticked the most boxes on their cards.

PHOTOCOPIABlE ACTIVITY 11 Business start-up For further practice in writing emails, and 10 recycle some of the vocabulary and phrases from unit 11 of ProFile 3 Student's Book, make copies of Photocopiable activity li on page 95, one for each pair of students. Remind students of useful language for putting across a business proposal and responding to requests and suggestions (pages 114 and 1 IO of ProFile 3 Student's Book). Tell them they are going to write an email to the venture capital organization, Gravesen Inc.• asking for support and funding for their new idea. Later they will read other 'applications', and reply by 'ema il'. 2 Working in pairs, ask students 10 choose one of the two products A or B at the top of the page (these were used in Photocopiable activity 4). They will need to do some research on the product before approaching the venture capitalist. The Issues and considerations table will help prompt them.

5 When all pairs have finished, they 'send' their emails by exchanging emails with another pair. Then, in the new role of venture capitalist, students read their new 'email', and decide how feasible the proposal is. 6 Students reply to the email they have received.

PHOTOCOPIABlE ACTIVITY 12 Definitions For further practice in defining and describing words. make copies of Photocopiable activity 12 on page 96. Split the class into groups of eight, divided into four pairs. Give each pair one list: either list A, list B, list C, or lisl D. In their pair they should go through the list, and check together that they understand all the words within the context of the unit. 2 Then regroup each group of eight students into two groups of fou r. In each new group there must be one student who looked at list A, list B.list C, and list D. They must llQ1 show each other their list. In turn, each student should define or describe the words, one by one, to the group. The aim is for the olher three students to guess the target word. The group of four to finish first. by eliciting all the words in their correct form, are the winners.



Target markets , Does)'OUr company ~ a 'star' prodllCt? How long do)'Oll fXl'K1 it to rtmaln a



3 'Who are)'OUr «NI1pany's main

., What do )'011 know about~

controls in )'0111 country? If mil. wert in charge, what changes would)'Oll make?


ls)'OUr company's


product I seMa well adwrtistd? What art Iht key {tatures? What could be done 10

What do you lllink about the changing

trends In fashion (cars, dotIIes, mobilt phontS)?

improw it?

7~ ~


What ptrCffluge share 01 the rnartltl does )'OUr company I 0IIf: 01

market. who would it

your produds amntly

prodIIcts. What would


haw? How lias this changed owr the last 12-18 months?

II be?

'9 Do any lamous peopIt

Does )'OUr company lISt any

lISt)'OUr company's products I SoerYices?


accessories to promote products (IIey rings,

mugs, pens)?

24 Congr.llulalions!

'8 How do you know


what Is InI out of

You've passed the one-

fashion? How important is illo you?

come bad IIelt week!

week trial. Please

aMrt )'OU'w SftII I'KtIItIy? WIry?

company that prodllCfd oxygen In a can, how would you martel it!

00 )'011 pay attention 10 TV iCMrts? Haw )'011 Mf


consciously inflUfnctd to buy .something?

'Fashiollablt' ~Iso relates to ~ ~ of life, for example, wheft you take )'OUr IIoIlday. 00

you consider yoursdf to be fashionable~

© Oxford University Press

write a sIogaJIlor

one oI)'QU1' company'$


Does)'OUr company

haw a 'ash Cf1fI' product? How Iont do you aped it to remain a 'ash (OW'?

YI1Iat products were lasIIionable when you were a dlild and art stillu/IioniIbIt now! WIly do)lOll think this is!

Flftm years ago thm lRSII't a marUt lor minmi water. What minrral water do you drink, and why!

WlIal's the worst magazine I poster

'6 If,au me!! for the

8 You've beeft asked to

If there were one {OIIIpe:titor )'OU'd like 10 remow: from the

What's !be worst I best TV adYert you've!oftf1!


Extra Photocopiable

PH OTOCOP IABlE ACTI VITY 2 Problems and solutions At a conference

~-------------------------------r, - ----------------- ----- - --- ------~-------------------- ----- --------.' Conference cant 1

Conference card 2

The Minister for Education, due to open the conference, has cancelled

You have mislaid all the publicity leaflets to be displayed on your

at the last minute because of a

stand, which also need to be given

government reshuffle. You'l! have to welcome participants and open the

out to participants during one of the conference talks. You've already

conference yourself.

been searching for them for an hour. The talk takes place in thirty minutes.

Conference card 3 You need the data projector for the


talk but it is not available. It' s still being used in a plenary session which is running late. The talk about to take place relies on the projector, and already the room is filling up with interested participants.

~----------------------------------~----------------------------------~---------------------------------~ Conference card 4

Conference card 5

Conference card 6

You have been asked to introduce some new clients to one of your guests, a successful international journalist. Unfortunately, the journalist has had more than enough to drink, and you are reluctant to make the introductions.

You spend almost an hour chatting to someone and only later realize she was the plenary speaker you were expected to invite last night for dinner. She mentions that she had spent the evening seeing the city by night and walking along the river.

Your important journalist was due to be signing copies of his latest book at 12 p.m., but unfortunately seems to have slept in. Just before 12 p.m., you get a phone call from his hotel telling you he'll be there at 2 p.m. You already have a long queue of customers waiting.

----------------------------------~-------------------- -------------~---------------------------------"

At a trade fair

~-------- -----------------------~---- ------- - --------- --- - - --------r---------------------------------, , Trade fair card 1

Trade fall' card 2

Trade fair card 3

Your colleagues who were expected to arrive early to set up the stand have been delayed in traffic. They'll now have to set up the stand during the first few hours of the trade fair while customers are already around .

Half the promotional materials you have brought are in the wrong language. They are for the French exhibition next month. You need to get the English versions couriered immediately.

Amongst all the boxes, you can't find the stock of signed copies of a new book you are launching, although you remember seeing them being put in the van yesterday. They must be somewhere.

~----------------------------------~----------------------------------~------------------ - ------ -- ------i

Trade fair card 4

Trade fair card 5

Trade fair card 6

The Bier Keller (also a restaurant), has been double·booked so there is no room there for you to entertain a key author whose book you are launching. You'll have to find somewhere else.

You arrive back at the trade fair, only to discover a local marathon taking place. All the streets are cordoned off making it impossible to park. You end up parking 2 km away and arrive very late.

Overnight, someone has disconnected all your equipment, so that the loop Powerpoint presentation advertising your materials isn't working. Your own technician has left, and you don't know how it works.




--------------------------- - --- - -~-- - -- - - - -- - ------- -- ---------- - --"

© Oxford University Press


PHOTOCOPIABLE ACTIVITY 3 Offers and requests ,,'~.---------------------~-------------------------T-------------------------,-------------------------~ Promotions Department

• draft copy for a new ad • fix a meeting with the designers • get copy translated • call newspaper about advertising space

Finance Department

Sales Department


• finalize end month salaries

• check figures with colleague

• order flowers for reception

• reconcile last

• prepare presentation

quarter's figures • chase up unpaid

on year-end sales • plan sales forecast for

• book venue for staff party • type up new staff list • circulate new office layout for approval


• Ie-calculate figures for budget holders

next year • analyse competitor prices

~-------------------------~------ - --------------- - --~------------ -------- -----~----------------------- - ~

Promotions Department • fix a meeting with the designers • get copy translated • call newspaper about advertising space • draft copy for a new ad

Finance Department • reconcile last quarter's figures • chase up unpaid invoice • re-calculate figures for budget holders • finalize end month salaries

Sales Department • prepare presentation on year-end sales • plan sales forecast for next year • analyse competitor prices • check figures with colleague

Administration • book venue for staff

MtlY • type up new staff list • circulate new office layout for approval • order flowers for reception

- -----------------------~--- --------------------- -~-------------------------~-------- --- - - ------ - --- - ~ ,,~- Promotions Finance Department Sales Department Administration

Department • get copy translated • call newspaper about advertising space • draft copy for a new ad • fix a meeting with the designers

• chase up unpaid invoice • re-calculate figures for budget holders • finalize end month salaries • reconcile last quarter's figures

• plan sales forecast for next year • analyse competitor prices • check figures with colleague • prepare presentation on year-end sales

• type up new staff list • circulate new office layout for approval • order flowers for reception • book venue for staff party

- ----- -~-------------------------~ ------------------------- ~- -- - -------------------,,~-----------------Promotions Finance Department Sales Department Administration


Department • re-calculate figures for budget holders • call newspaper about advertising space • finalize end month • draft copy for a new salaries ad • reconcile last • fix a meeting with the quarter's figures designers • chase up unpaid • get copy translated invoice _____________________ _ ___ L _______ _ _ _ _______ __ ___ __ _

© (.rl.", University Press

• analyse competitor • circulate new office prices layout for approval • check figures with • order flowers for colleague reception • prepare presentation • book venue for staff on year-end sales party • plan sales forecast for • type up new staff list next year __ ________________ _ __ _ ___ J ________________________ _

Extra Photocopiable


PHOTOCOPIABLE ACTIVITY 4 The marketing mix The four Ps:

Product Price Place Promotion

What a re its characteristics: its brand name; its packah,oing?

What is your policy on pricing? Do you offer discounts? Where and how will it be sold? How is the customer going to know a bout this product? YOUR PARTNERS' PRODUCT:


... ............................................. ...... .......

Place: distribution channels location of points of sale

Product: special features

weaknesses I drawbacks packaging service I guarantee

Price: discounts available length of payment period

Promotion: advertising personal selling


'Sprint' - sh oes w h ich can be adapted for

moving muc h faster w he n time is short. The shoes are normal, but w hen you' re in a hurry, you can insert a small capsule into the sole of the shoe, adding bounce and spring to your step, and enabling you to 'walk' three times faster than the rest o f the crowd.


'Coolco' - clothing designed to adapt according to the outside temperature. At the push of a button on the sleeve of a sweater, or waistband of a skirt, or a pair of trousers, the fabric either loosens, or tightens, letting in or out more or less air. The size of the clothing doesn't c hange! Three settings available - cool, normal, warm.

'AM!.IM.!6'fftj © Oxford University Press



Obligation and necessity Use these words to talk a bout rules and regulations. according to the number shown on the dice:


shordd(n't) or ol/gM(II'r ) to


( rIo t) allowed





(Plot) supposed to


have got or have to


~ Tuesday



You arrive late. It's already lO:lS!



Vou park in the director's parking space!



people you'll be working with



Vou leave early to go to the cinema.





You introduce you rself to the directly. Move on one square!



Your boss walks in and sees you looking at film li stings on the Internet.





You turn up in jeans and a T-shirt. The MD from HQ is expected at 11 a.m .!



You ask your boss to pay you in cash on Friday for eight hours overtime.

@'" You suggest a Friday evening drink with some colleagues after work. Move on one square.




You use the


lunch to finish a task. Move on one square.


A friend calls you on your mobile - you chat for over an hour.



You arrange to meet a dient for lunch to discuss a new contract. Move on one square.



You take a threehour lunch break when there are important deadLines!


wrong coffee mug!

CD '"

You work through



Late again!




You leave ina hurry, leaving your desk in a terrible mess. Clients are visiting.

You check your tasks for the day with your boss.

Move on one square.

@ '" You work until 9 p.m. to meet a deadline. Move on one square.

X ®You phone in sick.

@ '"


@ '"


You've worked a 55-hou r week already. You need to improve your time management!

A senior colleague arrives at the same time as you. You let him / her have your parking space. Move on one square.

Congratulations! You've passed the one-week trial. Please come back next week!

FINISH HERE '[email protected]!.!i·[email protected] © OxfordUnlversity Press

Extra Photocopiable



Peaks and troughs ~------------ -- --- - -,----------------------,---------- ------------,---------------------- , : dramatic(ally)

: slight(ly)

: steady/ -ily

: sharp/ ly

:----------------------:------- ------- --------:------------- ---------:----------------------: steep/ ly .:: decrease (vb I n)

: ri se (vb I n)

: fall (vb I n)

: increase (vb I n)


: peak (vb I n)

: soar (vb)

: fluctuate (vb)


,------ --- --- - --- -- --- -,---------------------'------------ --- - ----_,..... _--- --- --------------,, , , ,--- --- --- - ------------'----------------------'--- - ---------- - -------'----- - ----------------, ,





: level off (vb) I

: plummet (vb) ,

: creep up (vb) ,

: remain (vb)






: collapse (n)

: slump (vb I n)

: climb (vb)

: stay th e same


'-------------- --- --- --'----------------------'----------------------'----------------------, ,





'----- ------ --- ---- -- - -'----------------------'----------- -----------~---- - ------- --- ------,

-~----- - --- ---- - -------------------------------- - --- ------------ ----- -- - ---------- --- --- -- ------ -- --- --- -- Student A Describe the graph about last year's sales to student B.

Listen to student B and draw the graph. Company:

Company: Ventura Product: Aminga (drug to help reduce effects of plant allergies)


....., ... , •• • •E






Months, April -7 April A













-~--------- ----------- --- --- ------ - - ------------ ------ - --- - --------- - ------------- --------- --- ------- -----------Student B Listen to student A and draw the graph. Company: ....................................................................


Describe the graph about last year's sa les to student A. Company: Tracks Un limited Product: SCIl ba-divit.g 'JoUdays by th e Red Sea





... 200

. E



'Aif.1Hj.H6mr, © Oxford University Press



BACKGROUND INFORMATION Inner Sunlite. a leading tou r operator based in Graz, Aust ria, in business for 20 years. Co-owned 60:40 by Sam Simon and Niki Schwartz respectively. Financial difficulties since 2001 . AJso publishes a series of guide books, 'Two-Step Guides' - sales have increased lO- fo ld since 2002. Sam and Niki no longer wish to work together. Niki wishes to develop the publishing side of the business. Sam will con tinue wilh the holiday business. Sam and Niki m eet to discuss a deal o n vario us options for ownership in each business, as well as

Sam Simon: As Managing Director of In ner Su nlite tou rs, yo u are

confident that you can get the business back on its feet. YOll wish to have a finan cial interest in the new guide book business. You m3Y be 3ble to encourage you r customers to buy guide books, so your ex-partner may be grateful to have you r continued help he re. Ready cash is short, SO com pensating Niki Schw3rtz fin ancially is difficult, especially in the short term. Yo u may need to consider taking out a bank loan.

compensation payment.




Yo ur ownershi p of Inner Sun lite afte r separation

up to 100%

85 - 99%

85% or less

Payme nt compensation you are offering to Niki

8 00,000 or less

0 01 ,00Q--400,000

€401 ,000 or more

Payme nt compensat ion dates

Up to 20% now, rest after twelve months

20-50% now, rest after six months

51% or more now

Your ownership of Two-Step after separation



25% or less

Your total :

....~-- --- ------ --- --- ---- --- --- ------------------- -- - - ----------------- -- ----- - ---------------------------- - ------


BACKGROUND INFORMATION Inner Su nlite, a leading tour o perator based in G raz. Austria, in business for 20 years. Co-owned 60:40 by Sam Simon and Niki Schwartz respectively. Financial difficulties si nce 2001. Also publishes a series of guide books, 'TwoStep Guides' - sales h3ve increased 10-fold since 2002. S3m 3nd Niki no longer wish to work toge ther. N iki wishes to develop the publishing side of th e business. Sam will continue with the holiday business. Sam and Niki m eet to discuss a deal on various options for ownership in each business, as well as compensation payment.

Niki Schwartz: As Executive Director of Inner Sun lite tou rs, yo u have rece ntly been part of a te3m developing Two-Step Guides. The new ve nt ure is risky, as the market is ve ry new, so you need ready m oney to p ro m ote it fasl. However, having been involved from the start with the 'old' company, you are reluctant to give it up completely, and want to keep a financial interest in it. Clients interested in your guide books may well be interested in the holiday offers yo ur ex-partner can offer.




Your ownership of Inner Sun lite after separation

20% o r more

1 5%

10% or less

Payment compe nsation you are offering to Niki

€500,OOO or more


899,000 or less

Payment compe nsatio n dates

one-off 100% paym e nt now

50-99% now, rest within three month s

Up to 49% now, rest in twelve mo nths

Your ownership of Two-Step after separatio n



74% or less

'[email protected]'H,llflDM © OxforduniversityPress

Your total:

Extra Photocopiable


PHOTOCOPIABlE ACTIVITY 8 Gerunds and infinitives Verb cards

~ ---------------------~-------- - --- --------------~, -- ------ ------ - ------------~------- -- -------- -- ---- ., avoid






__ -_---------- ------------------- --- ----- ----- ----l, -____ ______ _________ __ _____ _____ ___ __ _____________ , ~



,L _______________ _ ________



___________ _ _________ _____



_ __ ___ _ ____________________



______ _ _________ _ _______ -L _ _________ __ _______ ___ _ _ __

L ____ ______ ___ ___ _______


be interested in

stop _ _ ______________________ _ _



look forward to


~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


_________ ____ ______ ___ _


___ __ _________ _ ________ _

Topic cords

~- --------------------~--------------------------~ - -------------- --- ---------~---- ------------------Preferences I Likes and dislikes

Routines I Habits

Instructions I Orders

Early memories ,

~---- ------- --- ----- ----_r --- ----- ---- -- ----------- - ~-------- - ---------------- --~- ----------------------~

Problem that needs solving

Educational career to date

Plans I The future

Business career to date ,

r-----------------------~--------------------------~---------------------------r--------------------- - -~

Preferences I Likes and dislikes

Routines I Habits

r---- --- -------- ---- ----_r --- _____ ___ _______ _____ ___ • __

-- ------ --- ---------- - ---~-------------- -- -------,


Problem that needs solving



Instructions I Orders

Early memories

Educational career to date

" ,,

Plans I The future

Business career to date "

---------------- - -------~------------- ---- --------- ----- - - - --- -- -- ------ --- --~---- ---- ----- --- ---- - -- - . '[email protected]!§!I © Odord University Press



The production process TEAM It Q UESTIONS


1 kilos of olives / one litre extra virgin olive oil?

It takes about five kilos of o lives to make one litre of extra virgin oil.

2 whisky / from oats, barley, rye, wheat?

Whisky is made using barley.

3 silk filaments / one thread of silk? 4-6,12- 14,18-207

12-14 strands of silk filament are used to make one thread of silk.

_. .:r. ___________ ___ ___________________ __ ___________ _____________________________________________________ ___ _____ __ _ TEAM B QUESTIONS


contact lenses /


from polymer and what?

Contact lenses are made from polymer and up to 79% water.

2 valuable Turkish carpet / number knots per square

In a valuable Turkish carpet 1,000 knots are tied per

inch (2.5 em) ?

square inch.

3 Greek feta cheese / sheep's. goat 's, cow's milk or mixture?

Traditional Greek feta cheese is produced from a mixture of goat's and sheep's cheese. Cow's milk

----_ ...................................................................................................................


is too fatty.

.... .:.-:-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------_. TEAM C QUESTIONS


1 Earl Grey tea / black tea fl avoured with?

Earl Grey tea is black tea flavoured with bergamot oil.


................................................................................................. - .

2 grams of ro se petals / one kilo of rose oil?

4,000 kg of ro se petals are required to produce 1 kilo of the finest Bulgarian rose oil.

3 USA state / grow coffee? Hawaii, New Mexico. Alabama?

'[email protected](.jJ.].j6mr'©Odord University Press

Coffee is grown in only one US state, Hawaii.


Extra Photocopiable

PHOTOCOPIABL E AC TIVITY 10 Vocabulary mingle ~----- --- ------------------ ----------------------.------------------------, --------------------------. Find someone who hands out compliments regularly

Find someone who often has to stay on late at work Follow-up que";on,


Follow-up que";on,


r----- --- --- ---- --- ----- -- --------------------------~--------------- - ---------- ---- --- -- ---- ------------ ,

Find someone who has a lot of unfinished work to sort out this week

Find someone who gets on well with his I her boss Follow-up que,,;on,


Follow-up que,,;on,

L _ ___ ___________________ __ ____ ___ _____ ___ ___ ___ ____ _ r

_---------- - - - ----- ---- --- -- ----- - -----------------~

Find someone who dislikes the way his I her office is laid out Follow-up que";on,


Find someone who went for a job in the past which was more interesting than well-paid


Follow-up que";on,

I I I I I I I :, ,

r----------------------- --------- ----- --- ------- ---- ---------------------------------------------------, Find someone who has come up Find someone who recently moved with a new idea for more effective up the ladder at the company working Follow-up que,,;on,


L _________ __ ________________________________________

Find someone who finds his I her job very rewarding Follow-up que,,;on,

Follow-up que,,;on, ~ -

, ,,

I I I I I I I,


_____ _______ ___ ___________ _ ________ _ ______________ ~

Find someone who needs to be very skilled in order to do his I her job Follow-up quest;on,


~-- - ------------------- - - ----- - - --- ----- --- ---------~------------------------------------ - -- ----- ------~' ,

Find someone who ended up working in his I her current job by chance Follow-up questions

I I I I I I I,

Find someone who has pulled strings to help get someone else a job Follow-up que";on,



I I I I I I Ii '

r-------------------------------------- - ------------~------------- - -- --- --------------------------------~

Find someone who has built up an impressive CV Follow-up quest;on, ~


Find someone who fin ds his I her job extremely demanding FOllow-Up que,,;on,


_ ____ ____ _ ___ ____ _ _________________________________ L _ _____ __ _ __ _ _ _________________________ _ ___ _ _______ _

I©O,fo", University Press



Business start-up A 'Sprint' - sh oes which can be adapted for moving much faster when time is short. The

shoes arc normal, but when you 're in a hurry, you can insert a small capsule into the sole of the shoe, adding bounce and spring to your step and enabling you to ' walk' three times faster than the rest of the crowd .

B ' Cooleo' - clothing designed to adapt according to the temperature. At the push of a

button on the sleeve of a sweater, on a waistband of a skirt or pair of trousers, the fabric either loosens or tightens, Ictting in o r out morc o r less air, accordingly. The size of the clothing doesn 't change! Three settings available - cool, normal, warm.

Issues and considerations: Use this chart to help you plan. Decide what information you wish to pass on to the venture capi tal organization. -- ''''-~---PRODUCT I POTENTIAL:

Clearly defined concept - what your product is, how you wi ll establish and grow the company: Potential customer group and how your product will meet their needs:

Potential , and how you w ill m easure success: Your experience in this area: Other: COSTS:

Premises I offices to rent: Furniture and fittings: Equipment: Staff wages p.a. : Advertising : Planned retail price: Breakeven point: Overall investment anticipated : Mise:

-- - ......


Using the table above, write an email proposal for your new product. Address th e ema il to the venture capital organization. Gravcsen Inc.


© Oxford University Press




- _.. ...


Extra Photocopiable

PHOTOCOPIABlE ACTIVITY 12 Definitions .~--------------------------------- ------ --------------,--------------------------------------------------- List A

List B


turning point



status symbol

snob appeal

to live down

to shake off



to appeal

me-too brand


to resurrect

-~--------- ------- ------------ ------------------- - ----- ---------------------------------------------------List C

List 0

act in bad faith


product recall


grey market


to sue




press release

to regain


to let an office

© Oxford University Press


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