I PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE ATOMIC BOMBINGS I OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI The atonic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki* Manhattan Engineer District. (1945) Th...77 downloads 534 Views 30MB Size
OF THE ATOMIC BOMBINGS I
OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI
The atonic bombings of Hiroshima and
Nagasaki* Manhattan Engineer District.
This Document IS A HOLDING OF THE
ARCHIVES SECTION LIBRARY SERVICES
FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS
DOCUMENT NO. Ihl32XQ,2-n CGSC FORM 160 13 Mar 51
by The Manhattan Engineer District
MAR 2 9 195f
COPY NO. l_..
Armj—CGSC—Pl-1367—20 Mar 51—5M
extreme turbulence 60,000 STRATOSPHERE INVERSION
6-10 Minutes •10-20 Minutes
Point of "burst
PROBABLE POSITION OF RISING CLOUD
AT INTERVALS AFTER EXPLOSION
Probable position of rising cloud
at intervals after explosion
EMERGENCY PROVISIONAL EDITION
HIROSHIMA HIROSHIMA PREFECTURE, HONSHU, JAPAN
HflSHTS IN M C T C R l ; D e m « IN FATHOMS AT NEARLY LOWEST LOW WATER
VERY SEVERE UUUOE PROM BUST AND ABEA-4.6 SQUARE JULES (IKCLDDIJia O.b S « . MI. KIVHl AH£A)
lOXHATE DUIUX FROM BLAST ABD FIRE ASEA-4.2 S4IUKE IDLES
PAXTIAL IMilAOE FRQH BLAST AND/OR FIRB
JUIEA-T.6 SWJABE IDLES (EXCLUDIHG KATER)
EMERGENCY PROVISIONAL EDITION
FOR US£ WITH AAF AIR OBJECTIVE FOLDER. KURE 9 0 . 3 0
JAPAN CITY PUNS 1:12,500
TYPE C-XMS I
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NAGASAKI, JAPAN N3242 E12950/6x5
3.3 Miles Figure k Pre-strlke aerial viev of Hiroshima showing the high density of the "built-up area, "by the Japanese are plainly visible.
Fire lanes cleared
The atomic "bomb explosion over Nagasaki, taken from about 8 miles distance. The height of
the top of the cloud is about ^0,000 feet.
The .Atomic Bomb Explosion over Hiroshima.
Panoramic view of Hiroshima after the bomb
Aerial Viev of Hiroshima after the Bomb.
Panoramic view of Nagasaki after the "bomb. Taken from North of X, looking south. The V-shaped
foundations in the foreground are the remains of the prison. All of this area was thickly covered
with factories and dwellings.
Aerial View of Nagasaki after the Bomb.
General view of Nagasaki taken from about four miles southeast of X. The chimneys in the 'background, are lo cated at the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works. The hills in the right foreground shielded a large part of the
business and residential section from the full effects of the bomb blast. This view shows typical Japanese resi dential construction, consisting of light frame houses with tile roofs, and shows how the hillsldeB are cultivated
and inhabited almost to the tops.
Typical Japanese dwellings with flimsy wooden frames and tile roofs.
Another view of typical Japanese dwellings.
Pre-strike aerial view of Nagasaki. X is Just northeast of the stadium which is visi ble in the upper right portion of the photograph. The main targets were the Mitsubishi-
Urakami Ordnance Works (Torpedo Works) in the upper righthand corner of the picture, and
the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, which is spread out along the east bank of the Urakami
River, in the central part of the picture. Note how the industrial valley is inclosed by
steep hills which tended to shield the main business and residential portion of the city
(righthand portion of the picture) from the full effects of the blast. Fire lanes effected
by the Japanese are also visible.
General panoramic view taken from the Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital, looking southeast. In the fore ground, at the foot of the hill on which the Medical School is located, the double-track street railway loop to
the hospital buildings will be noticed. There was practically no damage to the tracks themselves, but the trolley
wires were knocked down and the tracks covered with debris. The whole area shown in this picture was covered with
industrial buildings and small residences almost as close together as it was possible to build them. In the back ground, the skeleton remains of the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works can be seen. Note that the reinforced concrete
office buildings still stand amid the wreckage of steel frame buildings. In the reinforced concrete school build ings at the foot of the hills in the background, the doors, windows, ceiling, and building contents were damaged by
View of the Military Area in Hiroshima. This view shows the almost complete destruction of
ordnance, storage, and administrative "buildings located in the northeast section of the military area.
Figure IS Post-strike aerial view of Hiroshima after the Bomb,
Aerial view looking directly down on X in Hiroshima, showing the target area completely leveled
except for reinforced concrete "building frames. Roofs and intermediate floors collapsed on five of
these buildings leaving the exterior walls partially standing. The dark spots on the roofs of other
"buildings are depressions formed "by the downward distortion of the roof structure.
Aerial view of Hiroshima, looking dovn on X -which is in the center of the picture,
Another aerial view of Hiroshima shoving the area immediately surroundixig the center of damage.
Looking eaBt from X. The trunk of a small tree standing in the foreground indicates that the force of
the "blast was directly downward in this area.
The shattered vails of a "brick "building near X in Hiroshima.
A concrete vault 200 feet north of X in Hiroshima.
The devastated area south of X in Hiroshima. The collapsed Hiroshima Gas Company buildings may be seen
at the left of the picture. The Electric Company building, O.k miles from X, may be seen in the background.
Commercial Museum 700 feet west of X in Hiroshima. The steel tower in the foreground collapsed in the
direction of the blast. The monuments in the cemetery were not overturned "because the "blast pressure was
largely downward in this area.
Typical reinforced concrete "building 1000 feet northwest of X. The concrete roof slat was supported "by
concrete beams with no interior columns. The interior beams failed, causing the roof slab to settle as
shown. The entire parapet wall was demolished, one section resting on the road, having blown in the
direction of the blast.
Bridge, 1000 feet northwest of X in Hiroshima. The "blast pressure at this point nad a considerable
vertical component. Along the center and left side of the bridge, the concrete girders supporting the
floor slat did not fall; hovever, to the right of the center, girders under several spans failed, causing
considerable settlement in the floor slab. One depression can be seen in the right foreground of this
Steel post 1000 feet northwest of X in Hiroshima, showing flash turns on the side facing the blast, small t>uildings In the background were built after the explosion.
Shinto Shrine £ mile north northwest of X in Hiroshima. The soldier is pointing toward X. The stone
surfaces on the right were roughened "by the "blast while the darker surfaces on the left retained a polished
Shinto Shrine -j mile north northwest of X. This close-up of the "base of the monument shown in the
preceding Figure shows the roughened surface of the stone at a corner explosed to the "blast.
The Electric Company building O.k miles south of X in Hiroshima. This five-story reinforced con crete tuilding was not severely damaged by the blast; however, fires of secondary origin gutted the
building. At the time this picture was taken, the building had partially been reoccupied.
Bridge 0.6 mile southwest of X in Hiroshima, except where shielded ty "bridge posts or railing.
This view shows asphalt pavement darkened "by flash 'burns,
The soldier is pointing toward X.
Panorama of Hiroshima looking northwest from the Red Cross Hospital 0.9 mile south of X. burned-out area extending to the hills along the west side of the valley.
This view shows the
Looking east from the Red Cross Hospital, 0.9 mile south of X. The reinforced concrete Communications Bureau
building in the right foreground is one mile from X. Damages to the building were not extensive and were similar
to those at the Red Cross Hospital. The two standing walls in the center background are parallel to the direction
of the blast. The framework of two gas-holders may be seen in the center background 1.2 miles from X. The crownB
of the holders were dished down and torn open. The buildings of the Commercial Gas-works were seriously damaged.
Large building seen on the right of the gas-works w"fl farther back are part of the Army Clothing Depot. The
burned out area extends to the river in the background.
University of Hiroshima, 0.8 to 0.9 mile south of X, lookiijg northeast from the Red Cross Hospi tal. The "buildings shown were of reinforced concrete construction and vere not severely damaged
structurally. Other buildings in this group were of wooden construction and were destroyed "by blast
and fire. The buildings still standing were gutted by fires of secondary origin. The end walls of
two otherwise demolished buildings may be seen in the center background; these walls are parallel with
the direction of the blast which was from left to right.
The East Hiroshima Railroad Station, 1.1 miles eaBt of X. soldiers waiting in the damaged station.
This viev shows discharged Japanese
This view shows damaged buildings which are generally classified as "moderate blast damage to
frame "buildings", and is typical of damage to frame buildings 1.25 to I.50 miles from X in Hiroshima.
Part of Hiroshima College 1.6 miles southeast of X. direction of the blast.
The frame work of the upper story has teen shoved in the
Aerial view of the demolished Army Clothing Depot, 1.7 miles southeast of X in Hiroshima. Ten
large warehouses were demolished in this area. Of the eight warehouses remaining, two show extensive
Typical residence damage four miles from X. broken.
Windows were shattered and one section of the window framing
Figure 42 Steel-Framed building, 0.3 mile east of X in Hiroshima, downward in the direction of the blast.
The entire framework of this building was distorted
Steel structure, 0.5 mile east of X. This distorted structure shows that the "blast force acted almost verti cally down in this area. Concrete rubble may be seen on the ground and fragments are still attached to the
NAGASAKI, JAPAN *
Figure kk Aerial riev of Nagasaki, after the tombing, shoving the two principal targets.
Aerial view of the Mitsutiahi Steel and Arms Works in Nagasaki, from 0.3 to 1.2 miles south of X.
This view looking north toward X shows that the middle three-fourths of the atove plant with the
damage caused by the atomic bomb. The long buildings in the south (between reinforced concrete offices)
are concrete arch-roof structures that collapsed. The buildings on the west bank of the river are the
remains of the Mitsubishi Steel Casting Plant.
Panorama of Nagasaki. This aerial view shows the devastation north of X and west of the Urakami
River. All of the heavily "built-up areas were completely destroyed, and dwellings were seriously
damaged almost to the tops of the hills. The large reinforced concrete "building remaining in the left
center of the picture is the Shiroyama School. The south wing facing X was "badly wrecked.
Nagasaki Panorama, taken from a point west of the Urakami River, looking east toward X, about 0.25 mile away.
All of this area was thickly covered with small factory 'buildings and dwellings.
Panorama showing the general destruction in the industrial valley of Nagasaki, looking west from
the Medical School and Hospital toward the reinforced concrete factory training school at the foot of
the hills in the background. The north end of the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works can be seen in the
middle portion of the picture. The reinforced concrete chimney, though still vertical, was cracked by
the blast. This area was covered with factories and homes. The tracks of the street railway trolley
were covered with debris, but were not otherwise much damaged.
Figure k? Panorama looking northeast from the Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital toward X. with small factories and homes.
ThiB area was covered
Panorama of Nagasaki, looking east toward the ruins of a large church, of the picture were erected after the blast.
The small dwellings in the center
The Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital, from O.k to 0.55 mile southeast of X. This view
shows one of the court yards, and several of the buildings of modern construction. The first
building on the left (far end - second story) vas hit by a bomb eight days before the atomic
bomb hit Nagasaki.
Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital, showing a room in the hospital "building on the south east corner on the second floor, facing away from X. The damage shown is the result of an inter nal explosion caused by a bomb dropped on 1 August 19^5, eight days "before the atomic bombing.
This picture illustrates the modern reinforced concrete frame used in 22 of the buildings of the
Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital.
A granite monument, O.k mile from X, at the Medical School in Nagasaki, which was toppled
and moved by the force of the blast.
The roof of a reinforced concrete school building, 0.25 mile vest of X. reinforced concrete and tile roof resulting from the blast wave.
This view shows the damage to the
Reinforced concrete school building, 0.3 mile southwest of X. This building was used as a factory training
school. The damage on the left end resulted from a parapet wall pulling loose. Damage on the right end was
caused by failure of wall columns which permitted collapse of structural steel roof trusses.
Heavy machine shop, approximately O.k mile northeast of X In Nagasaki, concrete wall columns and the collapse of the roof.
This view shows the failure of light
Wrecked church approximately O.k mile northeast of X in Nagasaki. The large expanse of walls with few open ings offered great resistance to the blast wave and contributed to the failure even though the walls were massive
and of brick construction.
Panorama showing the wreckage of wooden buildings approximately 0.25 mile west of Nagasaki. The pile of
troken and splintered lumber in the foreground is all that remains of the building adjoining a reinforced concrete
Aerial view of the miles north of X. Many and "broken timber. The sustained only moderate
Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works (Torpedo Works), extending from 0.7 to 1.0
of the buildings were almost completely flattened into a mass of twisted steel
reinforced concrete Research Laboratory building in the right foreground
A view of one of the factory buildings with saw-tooth roof truss in the Mitsubishi-Urakami
Ordnance Works, 0.9 mile from X. These trusses were very lightly constructed of light steel members.
The roof failed from the thrust of the bomb blast, and its failure collapsed the purlins and caused
the roof to fall in generally.
A shop "building approximately 0.9 miles from X, in the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works. This
"building vas a total loss. The extremely light steel construction and the extensive use of wood com "bined to form a very weak "building.
Interior view of one of the machine shops in the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works, approximately
0.9 miles from X. The siding and roofing was stripped away by the "blast. The reinforced concrete
Pill-Boxes in this building (aisle in center of picture) indicates that prison labor was used here.
Wooden building 1.5 miles northeast of X in Nagasaki.
Small reinforced concrete chimney, 0.25 mile north of X. This chimney was knocked over approximately 15-feet
above the taBe. The chimney was k.3 feet in diameter and 65-feet high. The walla were 6-inchee thick and the
reinforcing consisted of 5/l6-inch round bars spaced on 6^-inch centers. The horizontal reinforcing was 1/8-Inch
round bars with an 8-inch spacing. The chimney was unllned.
Reinforced concrete bridge, 0.50 mile north of X in Nagasaki. This bridge consisted of a reinforced con crete T-"beam deck with concrete abutments and piers. The three spans are approximately 35 feet long each.
Failure of the west span resulted when the deck was knocked off the pier and abutment by the force of the blast
from the south, causing the span to drop to the river bed. The remainder of the bridge, except for the hand
rail, was undamaged.
Steel plate girder double track railway "bridge, 0.1 mile southwest of X in Nagasaki. The plate
girders were moved to the left "by the blast, the railroad tracks were "bent out of shape and the trolley
cars were completely demolished. The trolley poles were not knocked down by the blast.
A view of the Urakami Gas Works, 0.6 mile north of X in Nagasaki, The wreckage of auto mobiles is seen in the foreground.
A typical Japanese fire engine of the type which formed a large part of their obsolete equipment.
They had a limited number of much more modern fire engines.
A concrete chimney 600 feet east of X in Hiroshima.
..•'• ••*•' _
• — J ^
A view from the top floor of a "building 250 feet east of X in Hiroshima.
A viev from 200 feet east of X in Hiroshima. The military area is in the background of the
Looking east from inside the Hiroshima Military Area, near the junction of the street car
A view looking west northwest from a point 550 feet from X in Hiroshima.
An apartment building 2,600 feet west of X in Hiroshima. The very large window space was
instrumental in reducing the effect of the "blast and permitting the frame work to remain standing.
A view of a Hiroshima church 2,900 feet east of X in Hiroshima.
View of a Hiroshima "bridge ^,1*00 feet east of X.
Hiroshima Panorama from a point 2,200 feet south, of X.
A view of Japanese houses 5,700 feet south of X in Hiroshima, limit of complete destruction of Japanese houses.
This point is about at the
A view from a point 6,500 feet southeast of X,
The Hiroshima Gas Works, 6,500 feet from X. The sheeting has teen ripped from the steel
frame and the directional force of the blast is shorn by the bent frames on the right.
The Auditorium of the Hiroshima Municipal Office building, 3,600 feet south of X heavy fire damage and structural damage.
A Japanese air raid shelter 1,000 feet from X, showing the effect of the downward pressure
of the blast.
Flag pole on a bant building in Hiroshima, 2,900 feet from X. concrete base cracked by the force of the blast.
The pole vas bent and the
The Japanese Army Fifth Division Headquarters, 2,700 feet north of X. A network of street
car rails had been placed across the principal walls and ten inches of concrete were on the roof.
Fire engines "brought into Hiroshima after the bombing.
The hydraulic powerhouse of the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works in Nagasaki, 1,900
feet from X.
The remains of a small factory, 6,000 feet from X in Nagasaki.
A wood working plant, 6,000 feet south of X in Nagasaki. experienced here.
Very heavy fire damage was
A view from X looking toward the Shiroyama School in Nagasaki.
Interior of the first floor of the school "building 1,200 feet from X in Nagasaki, showing
failure of partitions. This is a typical building vhich appears comparatively undamaged to the
casual observer from a small distance.
The Torpedo WorkB in Nagasaki.
The Torpedo Works in Nagasaki, ^,200 feet from X.
The Torpedo Works in Nagasaki, 4,200 feet north of X,
The Torpedo Works In Nagasaki, 4,200 feet from X
Church 2,100 feet northeast of X in Nagasaki. The church walls were 2 feet thick, and the
end walls 3 feet thick.
Heavy machine shop 2,200 feet northeast of X in Nagasaki.
A tree snapped by the blast In Nagasaki, 1,000 feet from X.
Looking southwest from the Torpedo Works over the Gas Works toward the Shiroyama School, in
Nagasaki. The erect telephone poles were put in place after the bombing.
Damage to tile roof 11,000 feet south of X in Nagasaki,
Damage in a ravine, 7,000 feet south of X in Nagasaki. Very marked protection was afforded
by a hill.