Photographs of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (History Photography Ebook)

I PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE ATOMIC BOMBINGS I OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI The atonic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki* Manhattan Engineer District. (1945) Th...

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I

PHOTOGRAPHS

OF THE ATOMIC BOMBINGS I

OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI

The atonic bombings of Hiroshima and

Nagasaki* Manhattan Engineer District.

(1945)

This Document IS A HOLDING OF THE

ARCHIVES SECTION LIBRARY SERVICES

FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS

DOCUMENT NO. Ihl32XQ,2-n CGSC FORM 160 13 Mar 51

Y

by The Manhattan Engineer District

MAR 2 9 195f

SWCN

COPY NO. l_..

Armj—CGSC—Pl-1367—20 Mar 51—5M

extreme turbulence 60,000 STRATOSPHERE INVERSION

6-10 Minutes •10-20 Minutes

50,000

EXTREMELY DANGEROUS

RADIOACTIVITY

40,000

h Minutes

FEET 30,000

20,000

2 Minutes

Point of "burst

8 MILES

PROBABLE POSITION OF RISING CLOUD

AT INTERVALS AFTER EXPLOSION

Figure 1

Probable position of rising cloud

at intervals after explosion

12

EMERGENCY PROVISIONAL EDITION

HIROSHIMA HIROSHIMA PREFECTURE, HONSHU, JAPAN

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HflSHTS IN M C T C R l ; D e m « IN FATHOMS AT NEARLY LOWEST LOW WATER

VERY SEVERE UUUOE PROM BUST AND ABEA-4.6 SQUARE JULES (IKCLDDIJia O.b S « . MI. KIVHl AH£A)

lOXHATE DUIUX FROM BLAST ABD FIRE ASEA-4.2 S4IUKE IDLES
HIROSHIMA

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PAXTIAL IMilAOE FRQH BLAST AND/OR FIRB

JUIEA-T.6 SWJABE IDLES (EXCLUDIHG KATER)

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EMERGENCY PROVISIONAL EDITION

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3.3 Miles Figure k Pre-strlke aerial viev of Hiroshima showing the high density of the "built-up area, "by the Japanese are plainly visible.

Fire lanes cleared

Figure 5

The atomic "bomb explosion over Nagasaki, taken from about 8 miles distance. The height of

the top of the cloud is about ^0,000 feet.

Figure 6

The .Atomic Bomb Explosion over Hiroshima.

Figure 7

Panoramic view of Hiroshima after the bomb

Figure 8

Aerial Viev of Hiroshima after the Bomb.

Panoramic view of Nagasaki after the "bomb. Taken from North of X, looking south. The V-shaped

foundations in the foreground are the remains of the prison. All of this area was thickly covered

with factories and dwellings.

Figure 10

Aerial View of Nagasaki after the Bomb.

Figure 11

General view of Nagasaki taken from about four miles southeast of X. The chimneys in the 'background, are lo­ cated at the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works. The hills in the right foreground shielded a large part of the

business and residential section from the full effects of the bomb blast. This view shows typical Japanese resi­ dential construction, consisting of light frame houses with tile roofs, and shows how the hillsldeB are cultivated

and inhabited almost to the tops.

Figure 12

Typical Japanese dwellings with flimsy wooden frames and tile roofs.

Figure 13

Another view of typical Japanese dwellings.

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Figure 14

Pre-strike aerial view of Nagasaki. X is Just northeast of the stadium which is visi­ ble in the upper right portion of the photograph. The main targets were the Mitsubishi-

Urakami Ordnance Works (Torpedo Works) in the upper righthand corner of the picture, and

the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, which is spread out along the east bank of the Urakami

River, in the central part of the picture. Note how the industrial valley is inclosed by

steep hills which tended to shield the main business and residential portion of the city

(righthand portion of the picture) from the full effects of the blast. Fire lanes effected

by the Japanese are also visible.

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Figure l6

General panoramic view taken from the Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital, looking southeast. In the fore­ ground, at the foot of the hill on which the Medical School is located, the double-track street railway loop to

the hospital buildings will be noticed. There was practically no damage to the tracks themselves, but the trolley

wires were knocked down and the tracks covered with debris. The whole area shown in this picture was covered with

industrial buildings and small residences almost as close together as it was possible to build them. In the back­ ground, the skeleton remains of the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works can be seen. Note that the reinforced concrete

office buildings still stand amid the wreckage of steel frame buildings. In the reinforced concrete school build­ ings at the foot of the hills in the background, the doors, windows, ceiling, and building contents were damaged by

the blast.

Figure 17

View of the Military Area in Hiroshima. This view shows the almost complete destruction of

ordnance, storage, and administrative "buildings located in the northeast section of the military area.

Figure IS Post-strike aerial view of Hiroshima after the Bomb,

Aerial view looking directly down on X in Hiroshima, showing the target area completely leveled

except for reinforced concrete "building frames. Roofs and intermediate floors collapsed on five of

these buildings leaving the exterior walls partially standing. The dark spots on the roofs of other

"buildings are depressions formed "by the downward distortion of the roof structure.

Figure 20

Aerial view of Hiroshima, looking dovn on X -which is in the center of the picture,

Figure 21

Another aerial view of Hiroshima shoving the area immediately surroundixig the center of damage.

Figure 22

Looking eaBt from X. The trunk of a small tree standing in the foreground indicates that the force of

the "blast was directly downward in this area.

Figure 23

The shattered vails of a "brick "building near X in Hiroshima.

Figure 2k

A concrete vault 200 feet north of X in Hiroshima.

The devastated area south of X in Hiroshima. The collapsed Hiroshima Gas Company buildings may be seen

at the left of the picture. The Electric Company building, O.k miles from X, may be seen in the background.

Figure 26

Commercial Museum 700 feet west of X in Hiroshima. The steel tower in the foreground collapsed in the

direction of the blast. The monuments in the cemetery were not overturned "because the "blast pressure was

largely downward in this area.

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Figure 27

Typical reinforced concrete "building 1000 feet northwest of X. The concrete roof slat was supported "by

concrete beams with no interior columns. The interior beams failed, causing the roof slab to settle as

shown. The entire parapet wall was demolished, one section resting on the road, having blown in the

direction of the blast.

Figure 28

Bridge, 1000 feet northwest of X in Hiroshima. The "blast pressure at this point nad a considerable

vertical component. Along the center and left side of the bridge, the concrete girders supporting the

floor slat did not fall; hovever, to the right of the center, girders under several spans failed, causing

considerable settlement in the floor slab. One depression can be seen in the right foreground of this

picture.

Figure 29

Steel post 1000 feet northwest of X in Hiroshima, showing flash turns on the side facing the blast, small t>uildings In the background were built after the explosion.

The two

Figure 30

Shinto Shrine £ mile north northwest of X in Hiroshima. The soldier is pointing toward X. The stone

surfaces on the right were roughened "by the "blast while the darker surfaces on the left retained a polished

surface.

Figure 31

Shinto Shrine -j mile north northwest of X. This close-up of the "base of the monument shown in the

preceding Figure shows the roughened surface of the stone at a corner explosed to the "blast.

Figure 32

The Electric Company building O.k miles south of X in Hiroshima. This five-story reinforced con­ crete tuilding was not severely damaged by the blast; however, fires of secondary origin gutted the

building. At the time this picture was taken, the building had partially been reoccupied.

Figure 33

Bridge 0.6 mile southwest of X in Hiroshima, except where shielded ty "bridge posts or railing.

This view shows asphalt pavement darkened "by flash 'burns,

The soldier is pointing toward X.

Figure 3^

Panorama of Hiroshima looking northwest from the Red Cross Hospital 0.9 mile south of X. burned-out area extending to the hills along the west side of the valley.

This view shows the

Figure 35

Looking east from the Red Cross Hospital, 0.9 mile south of X. The reinforced concrete Communications Bureau

building in the right foreground is one mile from X. Damages to the building were not extensive and were similar

to those at the Red Cross Hospital. The two standing walls in the center background are parallel to the direction

of the blast. The framework of two gas-holders may be seen in the center background 1.2 miles from X. The crownB

of the holders were dished down and torn open. The buildings of the Commercial Gas-works were seriously damaged.

Large building seen on the right of the gas-works w"fl farther back are part of the Army Clothing Depot. The

burned out area extends to the river in the background.

Figure 36

University of Hiroshima, 0.8 to 0.9 mile south of X, lookiijg northeast from the Red Cross Hospi­ tal. The "buildings shown were of reinforced concrete construction and vere not severely damaged

structurally. Other buildings in this group were of wooden construction and were destroyed "by blast

and fire. The buildings still standing were gutted by fires of secondary origin. The end walls of

two otherwise demolished buildings may be seen in the center background; these walls are parallel with

the direction of the blast which was from left to right.

Figure 37

The East Hiroshima Railroad Station, 1.1 miles eaBt of X. soldiers waiting in the damaged station.

This viev shows discharged Japanese

Figure 38

This view shows damaged buildings which are generally classified as "moderate blast damage to

frame "buildings", and is typical of damage to frame buildings 1.25 to I.50 miles from X in Hiroshima.

Figure 39

Part of Hiroshima College 1.6 miles southeast of X. direction of the blast.

The frame work of the upper story has teen shoved in the

Figure UP

Aerial view of the demolished Army Clothing Depot, 1.7 miles southeast of X in Hiroshima. Ten

large warehouses were demolished in this area. Of the eight warehouses remaining, two show extensive

roof damage.

Figure 1+1

Typical residence damage four miles from X. broken.

Windows were shattered and one section of the window framing

Figure 42 Steel-Framed building, 0.3 mile east of X in Hiroshima, downward in the direction of the blast.

The entire framework of this building was distorted

Figure ^3

Steel structure, 0.5 mile east of X. This distorted structure shows that the "blast force acted almost verti­ cally down in this area. Concrete rubble may be seen on the ground and fragments are still attached to the

structure.

NAGASAKI, JAPAN *

POST STRIKE

Figure kk Aerial riev of Nagasaki, after the tombing, shoving the two principal targets.

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Figure 4^

Aerial view of the Mitsutiahi Steel and Arms Works in Nagasaki, from 0.3 to 1.2 miles south of X.

This view looking north toward X shows that the middle three-fourths of the atove plant with the

damage caused by the atomic bomb. The long buildings in the south (between reinforced concrete offices)

are concrete arch-roof structures that collapsed. The buildings on the west bank of the river are the

remains of the Mitsubishi Steel Casting Plant.

Figure k6

Panorama of Nagasaki. This aerial view shows the devastation north of X and west of the Urakami

River. All of the heavily "built-up areas were completely destroyed, and dwellings were seriously

damaged almost to the tops of the hills. The large reinforced concrete "building remaining in the left

center of the picture is the Shiroyama School. The south wing facing X was "badly wrecked.

Figure V7

Nagasaki Panorama, taken from a point west of the Urakami River, looking east toward X, about 0.25 mile away.

All of this area was thickly covered with small factory 'buildings and dwellings.

Figure ^8

Panorama showing the general destruction in the industrial valley of Nagasaki, looking west from

the Medical School and Hospital toward the reinforced concrete factory training school at the foot of

the hills in the background. The north end of the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works can be seen in the

middle portion of the picture. The reinforced concrete chimney, though still vertical, was cracked by

the blast. This area was covered with factories and homes. The tracks of the street railway trolley

were covered with debris, but were not otherwise much damaged.

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Figure k? Panorama looking northeast from the Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital toward X. with small factories and homes.

ThiB area was covered

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Figure 50

Panorama of Nagasaki, looking east toward the ruins of a large church, of the picture were erected after the blast.

The small dwellings in the center

Figure 51

The Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital, from O.k to 0.55 mile southeast of X. This view

shows one of the court yards, and several of the buildings of modern construction. The first

building on the left (far end - second story) vas hit by a bomb eight days before the atomic

bomb hit Nagasaki.

Figure 52

Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital, showing a room in the hospital "building on the south­ east corner on the second floor, facing away from X. The damage shown is the result of an inter­ nal explosion caused by a bomb dropped on 1 August 19^5, eight days "before the atomic bombing.

This picture illustrates the modern reinforced concrete frame used in 22 of the buildings of the

Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital.

Figure 53

A granite monument, O.k mile from X, at the Medical School in Nagasaki, which was toppled

and moved by the force of the blast.

Figure ^>k

The roof of a reinforced concrete school building, 0.25 mile vest of X. reinforced concrete and tile roof resulting from the blast wave.

This view shows the damage to the

Figure 55

Reinforced concrete school building, 0.3 mile southwest of X. This building was used as a factory training

school. The damage on the left end resulted from a parapet wall pulling loose. Damage on the right end was

caused by failure of wall columns which permitted collapse of structural steel roof trusses.

Figure

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Heavy machine shop, approximately O.k mile northeast of X In Nagasaki, concrete wall columns and the collapse of the roof.

This view shows the failure of light

Figure 57

Wrecked church approximately O.k mile northeast of X in Nagasaki. The large expanse of walls with few open­ ings offered great resistance to the blast wave and contributed to the failure even though the walls were massive

and of brick construction.

Figure 58

Panorama showing the wreckage of wooden buildings approximately 0.25 mile west of Nagasaki. The pile of

troken and splintered lumber in the foreground is all that remains of the building adjoining a reinforced concrete

school building.

Figure 59

Aerial view of the miles north of X. Many and "broken timber. The sustained only moderate

Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works (Torpedo Works), extending from 0.7 to 1.0

of the buildings were almost completely flattened into a mass of twisted steel

reinforced concrete Research Laboratory building in the right foreground

damage.

Figure 60

A view of one of the factory buildings with saw-tooth roof truss in the Mitsubishi-Urakami

Ordnance Works, 0.9 mile from X. These trusses were very lightly constructed of light steel members.

The roof failed from the thrust of the bomb blast, and its failure collapsed the purlins and caused

the roof to fall in generally.

Figure 6l

A shop "building approximately 0.9 miles from X, in the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works. This

"building vas a total loss. The extremely light steel construction and the extensive use of wood com­ "bined to form a very weak "building.

Figure 62

Interior view of one of the machine shops in the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works, approximately

0.9 miles from X. The siding and roofing was stripped away by the "blast. The reinforced concrete

Pill-Boxes in this building (aisle in center of picture) indicates that prison labor was used here.

Figure 63

Wooden building 1.5 miles northeast of X in Nagasaki.

Figure 6k

Small reinforced concrete chimney, 0.25 mile north of X. This chimney was knocked over approximately 15-feet

above the taBe. The chimney was k.3 feet in diameter and 65-feet high. The walla were 6-inchee thick and the

reinforcing consisted of 5/l6-inch round bars spaced on 6^-inch centers. The horizontal reinforcing was 1/8-Inch

round bars with an 8-inch spacing. The chimney was unllned.

Figure 65

Reinforced concrete bridge, 0.50 mile north of X in Nagasaki. This bridge consisted of a reinforced con­ crete T-"beam deck with concrete abutments and piers. The three spans are approximately 35 feet long each.

Failure of the west span resulted when the deck was knocked off the pier and abutment by the force of the blast

from the south, causing the span to drop to the river bed. The remainder of the bridge, except for the hand

rail, was undamaged.

Figure 66

Steel plate girder double track railway "bridge, 0.1 mile southwest of X in Nagasaki. The plate

girders were moved to the left "by the blast, the railroad tracks were "bent out of shape and the trolley

cars were completely demolished. The trolley poles were not knocked down by the blast.

Figure 67

A view of the Urakami Gas Works, 0.6 mile north of X in Nagasaki, The wreckage of auto­ mobiles is seen in the foreground.

Figure 68

A typical Japanese fire engine of the type which formed a large part of their obsolete equipment.

They had a limited number of much more modern fire engines.

Figure 69

A concrete chimney 600 feet east of X in Hiroshima.

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Figure 70

A view from the top floor of a "building 250 feet east of X in Hiroshima.

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Figure 71

A viev from 200 feet east of X in Hiroshima. The military area is in the background of the

picture.

Figure 72

Looking east from inside the Hiroshima Military Area, near the junction of the street car

line.

Figure 73

A view looking west northwest from a point 550 feet from X in Hiroshima.

Figure 74

An apartment building 2,600 feet west of X in Hiroshima. The very large window space was

instrumental in reducing the effect of the "blast and permitting the frame work to remain standing.

Figure 75

Hiroshima Panorajna

Figure 76

A view of a Hiroshima church 2,900 feet east of X in Hiroshima.

Figure 77

View of a Hiroshima "bridge ^,1*00 feet east of X.

Figure 78

Hiroshima Panorama from a point 2,200 feet south, of X.

Figure 79

A view of Japanese houses 5,700 feet south of X in Hiroshima, limit of complete destruction of Japanese houses.

This point is about at the

Figure 80

A view from a point 6,500 feet southeast of X,

Figure 8l

The Hiroshima Gas Works, 6,500 feet from X. The sheeting has teen ripped from the steel

frame and the directional force of the blast is shorn by the bent frames on the right.

Figure 82

The Auditorium of the Hiroshima Municipal Office building, 3,600 feet south of X heavy fire damage and structural damage.

showing

Figure 83

A Japanese air raid shelter 1,000 feet from X, showing the effect of the downward pressure

of the blast.

Figure Qk

Flag pole on a bant building in Hiroshima, 2,900 feet from X. concrete base cracked by the force of the blast.

The pole vas bent and the

Figure 85

The Japanese Army Fifth Division Headquarters, 2,700 feet north of X. A network of street

car rails had been placed across the principal walls and ten inches of concrete were on the roof.

Figure 86

Fire engines "brought into Hiroshima after the bombing.

Figure 87

The hydraulic powerhouse of the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works in Nagasaki, 1,900

feet from X.

Figure 88

The remains of a small factory, 6,000 feet from X in Nagasaki.

Figure 89

A wood working plant, 6,000 feet south of X in Nagasaki. experienced here.

Very heavy fire damage was

Figure 90

A view from X looking toward the Shiroyama School in Nagasaki.

Figure 91

Interior of the first floor of the school "building 1,200 feet from X in Nagasaki, showing

failure of partitions. This is a typical building vhich appears comparatively undamaged to the

casual observer from a small distance.

Figure 92

The Torpedo WorkB in Nagasaki.

Figure 93

The Torpedo Works in Nagasaki, ^,200 feet from X.

Figure 94

The Torpedo Works in Nagasaki, 4,200 feet north of X,

Figure 9^

The Torpedo Works In Nagasaki, 4,200 feet from X

Figure 96

Church 2,100 feet northeast of X in Nagasaki. The church walls were 2 feet thick, and the

end walls 3 feet thick.

Figure 97

Heavy machine shop 2,200 feet northeast of X in Nagasaki.

Figure 98

A tree snapped by the blast In Nagasaki, 1,000 feet from X.

Figure 99.

Looking southwest from the Torpedo Works over the Gas Works toward the Shiroyama School, in

Nagasaki. The erect telephone poles were put in place after the bombing.

Figure 100

Damage to tile roof 11,000 feet south of X in Nagasaki,

Figure 101

Damage in a ravine, 7,000 feet south of X in Nagasaki. Very marked protection was afforded

by a hill.

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