OUTCOMES (2nd Edition) Advanced Answer Key

1 OUTCOMES Advanced Answer Key 01 CITIES pp. 8-9 Vocabulary: A: 1 vibrant 2 dangerous 3 well-run 4 polluted 5 affluent 6 spotless 7 congested 8 sprawl...

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OUTCOMES Advanced Answer Key 01 CITIES pp. 8-9 Vocabulary: A: 1 vibrant 2 dangerous 3 well-run

4 polluted 5 affluent 6 spotless

7 congested 8 sprawling 9 run-down

C: 1 filthy spotless 2 deprived affluent 3 dull vibrant 4 chaotic well-run 5 compact sprawling 6 safe dangerous Listening: C: 1 a took me by surprise b like there’s no tomorrow c a bit of a downside d Sounds pretty grim e have its drawbacks 2 a that sort of place b more of a music scene c wouldn’t consider going back d get me wrong e were to settle down

pp.10-11 Vocabulary: A: 1 undergone 2 emerged 3 overcome 4 demolished

5 regenerated 6 tripled 7 declined 8 flourishing

Grammar: A: 1 have been – perfect infinitive after may – used with for + a period of time; something which started in the past and is still true now. May always be would refer to the future – not possible here. 2 have fallen – present perfect simple with a period of time which started in the past and continues now; have dipped – future perfect with by + point in time showing a time limit or deadline for the action or state. Fall would refer to present – not possible with over the last 20 years. Dip would be future simple. This is possible but future perfect more likely with by. 3 Both possible but past perfect emphasises change in 1976. 4 having been – because the process of rebuilding is complete. Being not possible with since. 5 have contributed – perfect infinitive – refers to an action or state which began in the past and has continued up to the present. Contribute not possible with over the last twenty years. 6 was – because it is a permanent state; he’d been would suggest he was no longer from Dortmund. B: 1 continuing state 2 finished action 3 finished state

4 finished action 5 continuing action 6 continuing state

Listening: A: The main point is that different people define recovery in different ways. It is important that people’s way of life survives after a disaster as well as rebuilding a city physically.

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B: 1 the hurricane = it was devastating 2 rubble and shelter = they are clearing rubble and providing shelter 3 an opportunity = some politicians say this is an opportunity to rebuild the city 4 fishing villages and the tsunami = they were largely replaced by hotels and tourism after the tsunami 5 Chicago = after the fire in the 19th century the city was rebuilt and a lot of people died in the reconstruction pp.12-13 Reading: B: 1 Folklore is defined as stories which are often repeated many times and often gradually change or become more exaggerated with each re-telling. 2 Urban myths can be analysed structurally or from a literary point of view, culturally or psychologically. 3 Urban myths are usually about crime, accidents or death. 4 We create these stories to help us deal with our fear and anxieties about the world. 5 Popular myths spread quickly because of boredom, or because people want to express their anxieties, get attention, harm others or make small talk / entertain. C: 1 offer = give, provide 2 undergo = experience 3 voice = express 4 explores = analyses 5 spread = disseminate 6 remains = is still 7 decode = interpret 8 emerge = come out of Collocations: 1 remains meaningful 2 undergo variations 3 decode the meanings 4 explores historical, social and economic contexts 5 spread stories 6 emerge from deep rooted fears 7 offer lessons 8 voice personal worries

Vocabulary: A: give or take here and there

sick and tired peace and quiet

B: 1 on and off 2 by and large 3 now and then 4 peace and quiet

5 long and hard 6 here and there 7 sick and tired 8 give or take

02 CULTURE AND IDENTITY pp.14-15 Vocabulary: B: 1 family / community life 2 religion 3 bureaucracy 4 crime 5 climate 6 crime

7 religion 8 bureaucracy 9 climate 10 cultural life 11 family / community life 12 cultural life

C: 1 positive and negative 2 positive and negative 3 positive 4 positive 5 positive 6 negative

7 positive 8 negative 9 negative 10 positive 11 negative 12 negative

Listening: B: Conversation 1 1 F – also accept not given (NG) – she thinks it would be challenging 2 F – it’s very close-knit 3 T – that wasn’t my experience of the place (that it was a male-dominated society) 4 T – they’re not the best drivers in the world 5 F – it wasn’t that that bothered me Conversation 2 6 F – they go absolutely crazy 7 T – the arts scene is thriving 8 F – I’d expected a lot more state control … some of the topics are very politically sensitive 9 T – a film … dealing with corruption and … people always having to pay bribes 10 F – the economy is doing so well

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Grammar: A: One thing that’s surprised me here is the music scene. What amazed me was how much they get away with. One thing making a big difference right now is the economy doing so well. B: 1 The thing that disturbs me is that lack of democracy. 2 What worries me the most is the amount of censorship. 3 The thing that annoys me is the way the president talks to everyone. 4 One thing that drives me mad is the amount of traffic in the city. 5 The thing that scares me is the amount of money spent on weapons. 6 The thing / One thing that bothers me is the lack of investment in art and culture. 7 What concerns me is the power judges have. 8 One thing that gives me hope for the future is the fact that young people are so much more tolerant nowadays.

pp.16-17 Vocabulary: B: stick in = the oven, the dishwasher, a bucket put in (informal) cover = the pan unblock = the sink, the toilet spread = glue thread = a needle knot = string heat = the pan, the oven flush = the toilet climb = up a ladder hit = a nail load = the dishwasher run = the tap cut = string, cloth turn off = the tap, the dishwasher, the oven plug in = a drill, the dishwasher wring out = a cloth

D: rope is thicker/ stronger than string wire is thinner than cable cloth is made of fabric and is thinner than a sponge a bucket is larger than a bowl and is used for cleaning / outdoors, you eat out of a bowl a hammer bangs nails into the wall and a drill makes small circular holes to put screws into a mop is used with water on the floor, a brush is used to sweep a nail is used with a hammer, a screw with a drill a ladder is something you can move around to climb on, stairs are permanent a knee pad is hard and protects your knee, a bandage is soft, used on wounds soap is usually small and hard, used for washing your hands, face etc. washing up liquid is used for washing the dishes E: spill some water – problem rip your jeans – problem (unless you do it deliberately!) soak your jeans – solution stain a shirt – problem mend your shirt – solution protect yourself – solution sweep the floor – solution drop my glass – problem rinse my glass – solution wipe the table – solution Reading: C: 1 In-Ha = about not having a mixer tap 2 Ed = the rice cooker 3 Bob = with the waitresses 4 Maggie = to drinking mate 5 Sheila = drinking mate 6 Ed = no oven and a large meat cleaver in his flat 7 Ed = not having a cooker 8 Maggie = of her schooldays 9 Bob = with his friend about German toilets

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pp.18-19 Speaking: Suggested Answers How things are connected to British culture: God Save the Queen – national anthem fish and chips – typical ‘British’ food curry – most popular food in Britain kilts – Scottish people wear them the Costa del Sol in Spain – very popular holiday destination for Britons ballet – classical dance form that is still highly regarded in UK hip-hop – popular contemporary dance / music /culture / fashion, from the 1980s in UK football – very popular sport in UK bowler hats – old fashioned hats men used to wear in UK Shakespeare – very famous British writer, born in Stratford-on-Avon Islam – fastest growing religion in the UK punk – music / fashion / culture rebelling against authority, which emerged in UK in 1970s cricket – ‘traditional’ British sport Harrods – world-famous luxury department store in London car boot sales – popular, informal, form of market where people come together to sell their old things, mainly household / garden items and clothes St George’s Day – day to celebrate England’s national saint – not a public holiday Easter – one of the major Christian festivals of the year Jamaica – Jamaican population celebrates once a year at the Notting Hill Carnival in London Listening: A: 1 Vaughan: God save the Queen, St George’s Day – he is Welsh and not English and prefers to be thought of as a republican i.e. is not keen on God Save The Queen or St George’s Day. 2 Amir: fish and chips, Islam (Muslim), cricket, Costa del Sol – he is Muslim but runs a fish and chip shop. He sees himself as British but still supports Pakistan in the cricket (just as Brits on the Costa del Sol would support England in a football match against Spain).

3 Emily: bowler hats, Harrods, Shakespeare, curry, hip-hop – some people believe all English people wear bowlerhats, shop at Harrods and recite Shakespeare, but in fact they might be into curry or hip-hop – everyone has their own idea of what British culture means. B: 1 Vaughan 2 Emily

3 Amir 4 Emily

5 Amir 6 Vaughan

Vocabulary: B: 1 It’s no big thing also it’s no big deal it’s not very important 2 It’s not the done thing it’s not appropriate behaviour 3 chance would be a fine thing I would have to be very lucky to be able to do that 4 It’s the furthest thing from my mind at the moment I’m not even thinking about it 5 first thing in the morning early, when I first wake up 6 It’s the sort of thing it’s something 7 what with one thing and another taking in to account a number of factors 8 just one thing led to another (often without just) - events naturally followed each other, were not planned Reading: B: 3, 4, 7, 8

03 REALTIONSHIPS pp.20-21 Vocabulary: A: incompetent = negative direct = could be either depending on context / how it’s said a snob (not an adjective; adjective = snobbish) = negative absent-minded = negative quite hard work = negative bitchy = negative laid-back = positive (usually) principled = positive strong-willed = negative (usually) thick-skinned = positive (usually) B: a 4 b 9 c 7 d 5 e 8 f 3 g 10 h 1 i 2 j 6 4

Listening: A: Conversation 1 A colleague – incompetent, defensive, arrogant, full of himself, blames other people Conversation 2 A famous musician – principled, decent, hardworking or fake, exploitative (depending on point of view) Conversation 3 New neighbours – in a student house – guy next door – quiet (keeps himself to himself); girl – nice, bright, chatty but selfish; guy – pleasant but lazy (a slacker) and laid-back B: 1 a dragging 2 a comes across 3 a hit (it) off

b gets, puts up b got b hogs

c go over c raise c strikes

Grammar: A: 1 They’ll probably buy a new one. 2 It should arrive some time next week. 3 I think it was your own fault, to be honest. 4 I couldn’t agree more with you on that. 5 Surely most people can see through the marketing. 6 It can’t have been that hard to organise. B: 1, 4 one) 2, 8 3, 5 6, 7

requests (though 4 is a very sarcastic to talk about past habits conditionals (second and third) future in the past

pp.22-23 Vocabulary: A: pre-nuptial agreement = a legal contract signed before a wedding, usually about money file for divorce = instruct a lawyer that you wish to divorce custody battle = fight about who the children will live with acrimonious divorce = unfriendly, bitter amicable divorce = friendly, civilised go through (in this context) = become legal pay maintenance = money for childcare grounds for divorce = legal reasons for divorce

Reading: A: 1 Sweden, Finland and Belarus = slightly more than one in two marriages there end in divorce 2 celebrity divorces and custody battles = these are often in the news nowadays 3 Mesopotamia, The Greek Empire and Cairo = these were examples of where divorces took place a long time ago 4 Emperor Charles V = he was the uncle of Catherine of Aragon, who was divorced by Henry the eighth 5 The Church of England = this was founded because of Henry and Catherine’s divorce (which was not accepted by the Church of Rome) 6 1857 = the first time ordinary people in Britain were allowed to file for divorce 7 TV, junk food, and Facebook have all been cited (given) as grounds for divorce 8 a heated argument at a wedding reception = this argument about cutting the cake ended in an annulment (similar to divorce) at a Polish wedding D: share this dubious distinction against a backdrop of chronically high divorce rates a male heir to the throne divorces sanctioned by the Pope comply with someone’s wishes cover a multitude of sins follow such trends E: high-profile celebrity divorces divorce was commonplace to grant him his divorce to file for divorce .... divorces are instigated by women divorce has now become too easy divorces failed for ridiculous reasons divorce cases Grammar: A: 1 wouldn’t listen 2 wouldn’t stop 3 wouldn’t come 4 wouldn’t let

5 wouldn’t even put 6 wouldn’t start 7 wouldn’t hear 8 wouldn’t leave

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pp.24-25 Vocabulary: A: a toddler = wetting the bed, being very affectionate a teenager = feeling very self-conscious, being cheeky and answering back, fancying someone, going off the rails, having no commitments a thirty-something = settling down, establishing a career a middle-aged person = paying off the mortgage, going bald a pensioner = being frail and unsteady on your feet; going into a home, losing your faculties Listening: A: 1 a neighbour 2 teacher and pupil 3 sisters 4 a couple 5 doctor and patient B: 1a because she hasn’t seen her neighbour for a while 1b because she occupied the Chancellor’s (at university) during the sixties 2a it’s a family trait (characteristic), he’s going through a rebellious phase 2b the man says they should be strict with him (put our foot down), the woman says they should wait for it to pass (it’ll blow over) 3a they agree that they are both competitive 3b Sal beat her at tennis mentioned to show she is not jealous 4a it was sweet that they got back in touch 4b it is amazing that she has been married before and has children 5a because the doctor didn’t take her seriously 5b advises she try his doctor because they’re always sympathetic Vocabulary: A: she must be getting on (in age / a bit); single someone out for punishment; going through a phase; put our foot down; channelled into tennis; nothing really came of it; they got back in touch; I wouldn’t put up with it

B: 1 came of 2 getting on 3 channelled her energy into 4 put up with 5 singled you out 6 go through C: to see someone around; to be with it; to call someone to account; to answer back; to blow over; to get over; to be down to; to bring up / be brought up; to take something in your stride; to be under the weather Developing Conversations: A: 1 weather / rain 2 teacher / tutor 3 English (or any other subject) 4 flatmates / housemates / friends 5 ankle 6 baby

04 POLITICS pp.26-27 Developing Conversations: A: 1 12; 2 5; 3 10; 4 8; 6 - 9; 7 11 Listening: A: Conversation 1: a maximum wage speaker A thinks there should be a maximum salary for bankers etc. but speaker B thinks this may not be practical, although she agrees in principle Conversation 2: hosting an international event (the Olympics) – speaker C is against having the Olympics in their city, but speaker D isn’t sure because she doesn’t know enough about it B: 1 a obscene b pushes c declare d round e advocate

2 a bid b make c legacy d hell e recipe

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Grammar: A: 1 d zero conditional, both verbs in present simple, to talk about what is always the case 2 c first conditional to talk about a future possibility; could less definite here than will 3 b a variation on first conditional with going to 4 e second conditional to talk about a hypothetical situation; past simple in the if clause and would + base form in the main clause 5 a second conditional for a hypothetical question B: 1 a if they’re earning that much b generally true c likely 2 a if we had a maximum wage b unlikely c unlikely 3 a if they were given a boat b unlikely c unlikely 4 a if there were a maximum wage b unlikely c likely 5 a if it were 10 times the lowest wage b unlikely c likely 6 a if it were 10 times the lowest wage b likely c likely 7 a if they get the games b likely c likely 8 a if they make the bid b likely c likely 9 a if they won the bid b unlikely c unlikely

Vocabulary: A: 1 discourage 2 compound 3 benefit 4 trigger 5 devastate 6 lead 7 boost 8 undermine 9 curb 10 bankrupt C: a It might encourage people to work. b It’ll strengthen relations between the two countries. c It’ll damage the economy and lead to a cut in jobs. d It’s a good idea. If anything, it’ll help to sort out the existing social problems. e It’ll delay an election and make it later than they wanted.

pp.28-29 Reading: A: 1 F it means that being called names has no effect 2 T they constantly ridicule all politicians 3 T ...increases already widespread criticism, ... play into the public perception of politics 4 T it s just a silly game and futile 5 T an act of defiance against oppression 6 F it was black humour 7T a release for people living in grim circumstances 8 F telling of jokes was severely restricted Listening: A: 1 Russell Peterson’s 2 Russell Peterson‘s 2 Ben Lewis’s

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C: 1 a strolling b sneaks c tip toe down d glances around, whispers 2 a peer b slips c flicks through d grabs, sniffs e skips 3 a muttering b leap, drag c curls up

pp.30-31 Reading: C: 1 devolves = passes power or responsibility down to a smaller or less powerful group counterparts = people in equivalent positions in another country or organisation petition = official request for change by a number of people referendum = when everyone in the country can vote on a particular issue polling station = place where people vote irrespective = regardless ballot papers = where people mark their vote the party line = the view generally held by the party lobby = try to persuade turnout = total number of people who vote 2 elect = electorate normal = the norm devolve = devolution represent = representatives Vocabuary: A:

Listening: A: 1 a local or general election; a referendum 2 the electorate everyone in the area or in the country though they may exercise their right not to vote 3 students’ own answers 4 you might vote in a school or college election or as part of a committee or in a debate or meeting or for a talent show or similar 5 students’ own answers B: 1 a talent show vote 2 a strike ballot 3 a referendum 4 an opinion poll 5 election for student council C: a3 b1 c5 d e4 f2

the New Party promised a referendum the show had already decided the result voter apathy not mentioned I’m in a small minority we understand the public’s frustration

Grammar: A: 1 helped the programme’s ratings (past simple in both parts to indicate something that was true) 2 the calls were free (second conditional = the calls aren’t free) 3 we would not be taking this action now (wouldn’t + continuous infinitive = we are taking the action now mixed conditional) 4 they hadn’t won a landslide victory (past perfect = they did win a landslide victory mixed conditional) 5 wouldn’t have taken part (wouldn’t + perfect infinitive hypothetical use (if I’d been busier) 6 would’ve abolished uniforms as for 5 = we did abolish uniforms

1 figure 5 scandal 2 election 6 MP 3 poll 7 vote 4 consensus 8 victory (strike and party are not used)

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01 REVIEW pp.32-35 Quiz: 1 An area with crumbling or derelict buildings is neglected and run down. 2 If you rip your shirt you need to mend or repair it. 3 If a situation is grim it is very bad. 4 When an economy is thriving it’s doing well. 5 If you need to clear rubble, a building or part of it has collapsed. 6 If you’re thrilled with something you feel very excited and pleased. 7 Houses or flats are burgled by a burglar. 8 An area might go downhill because it becomes poor, or people leave it or don’t want to live there. 9 You might single someone out because they are especially good at something. 10 Close-knit describes a community. 11 Politicians try to cover up a scandal, e.g. their expenses. 12 If there’s a craze everybody wants to be part of something e.g. Facebook, or wants to have something, e.g. iPhones. 13 If someone is bitchy they gossip in a nasty way about others. 14 Crime, or drug use, might be cracked down on by increasing the power of the police. 15 Four different grounds for divorce are: unfaithfulness, cruelty, neglect, irretrievable breakdown. Idioms: 1 I‘m putting across the opposite point of view to make for a more interesting discussion. 2 I‘ve got nothing to do. 3 He‘s difficult to get on with. 4 She really wants it / wants to do it. 5 She said what she thought. 6 He betrayed me. 7 I accept things as they are without worrying unnecessarily. 8 You should insist on something. 9 We didn‘t get on when we met. 10 He does nothing to help with housework. 11 It was very unexpected. 12 It would be very lucky if that happened. 13 They are very rich. 14 It‘s not appropriate. 15 It spread very fast.

Listening: A: a Speaker 4 b– c Speaker 3 d Speaker 5 e Speaker 2 f Speaker 1 g– Grammar: A: 1 that 2 had 3 would 4 having 5 would 6 lack 7 fact 8 be

B: a– b Speaker 4 c Speaker 5 d Speaker 1 e– f Speaker 3 g Speaker 2

B: 1 has tripled since 2 wouldn’t have been so / got so 3 going to trigger an 4 drives / makes me mad is the amount 5 gone through 6 hadn’t rigged the

Language Patterns: 1 She’s one of those people who’s always moaning. 2 It’s nowhere near as complicated as it sounds. 3 correct 4 He’s utterly unable to make up his mind. 5 correct 6 I read it three times out of disbelief. Prepositions: 1 to 2 of 3 on 4 in 5 with 6 against 7 as 8 in

Opposites: 1 sprawling 2 acrimonious 3 vibrant 4 secular 5 filthy 6 thriving 7 deprived 8 long-standing

Missing Words: 1 stand 2 figure 3 pocket 4 narrow 5 crawling Nouns: 1 cloth 2 dishwasher / washing machine 3 toilet 4 drill 5 ladder 6 string / rope 7 nail 8 tap

Word Families: 1 assumption 2 underestimate 3 ridiculously 4 reservations 5 commitment 6 capability 7 wilful

Vocabulary: 1 B frail 2 A voices 3 C benefit 4 A by and large 5 C been through 6 A mixed up in 7 C run-up 8 A offering

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05 NIGHT IN, NIGHT OUT pp.36-77 Vocabulary: A: 1 in stitches = very amused, couldn’t stop laughing 2 yawning = opening mouth when tired or sleepy 3 in bits = very upset 4 stuffed = very full 5 tossing and turning = restless, unable to sleep 6 off his head = mad, drunk, incoherent 7 live up to the hype = fulfil (high) expectations 8 overwhelmed = unable to deal with strong emotions 9 rough = unwell, hung-over 10 mortified = very embarrassed Listening: A: Conversation 1 1 went to a surprise party 2 dancing 3 bit rough; overwhelmed; in stitches; mortified Conversation 2 1 went out for dinner 2 a meeting / stress 3 tossing and turning; stuffed; off his head B: Conversation 1 = bit rough – the second speaker: because she went to bed at three; overwhelmed – her friend: because it was a surprise party and she had been through a lot recently; in stitches – everybody watching the guy dance: because he was funny; mortified – she would have felt like this if she had danced so badly Conversation 2 = tossing and turning – the second speaker: because he was worried about the meeting; the man; stuffed – the same man: because he ate so much; off his head – a strange man in the restaurant: because he was ranting about something very trivial C: 1 into 2 through 3 over

4 of 5 of 6 to

7 in 8 off 9 about

Developing Conversations: A: 1 That must’ve been pretty dull. 2 You must be glad you didn’t go now. 3 He must’ve been a bit disappointed. 4 You must be feeling a bit rough now. 5 You must’ve been mortified. 6 She must’ve been quite upset pp.38-39 Reading: D: 1 Can-Can course, Rain Man 2 Rain Man, Blues Brothers 3 Douglas Bader 4 Blues Brothers, Odyssey UK, Richmond and Twickenham Jazz Club 5 Can-Can course, weight loss through Ayurveda 6 Cupcake decorating, Ayurveda 7 London treasure hunt 8 Ice Worlds 9 Art Bin 10 Douglas Bader Vocabulary: A: the secret of success, the universe; the format of the lessons, the lecture, the course; a wealth of ideas, products; the centenary of her death, his first novel; the loss of his arms, his eyesight, his one true love; the onset of the recession, the disease; the Battle of the Somme, Waterloo, the sexes; the existence of this chemical, God; a set of ideas, priorities; the disposal of waste, sewage B: 1 a bundle of fun / measures / wood / clothes 2 a fraction of the cost / an inch / a second 3 a risk of accidents / cancer / failure 4 a flood of enquires / complaints / people 5 a sign of life / weakness / things to come 6 the supply of water / drugs / blood to the brain 7 the abolition of slavery / the death penalty / VAT 8 the tip of my tongue / the island / the iceberg

10 on 11 by 12 out 10

Grammar: A: 1 a barber surgeon: noun phrase; Rory McCreadie; nine 2 on Blues Brothers’ classics: prepositional phrase; a twist; six 3 dance: noun; class; four 4 a wealth: noun phrase; hints and tips; six 5 marking the centenary of his birth: participle clause; display; nine 6 ice plays throughout the Solar System: relative clause; role; six 7 London: noun; most vibrant areas; six 8 six-week: adjective; exhibition; three 9 receiving four and five-star reviews across the board: participle phrase; sell-out show; thirteen 10 that follows the journey of Charlie Babbitt and his autistic brother Raymond across America: relative clause; film; 17 11 between the reflected and the real: prepositional phrase; the boundary; eight 12 and hosted by saxophonist Kelvin Christiane and vocalist Lesley Christiane: participle phrase; jazz club; 23 13 suitable: adjective; yoga and breathing exercises; eight

C: 1f endorse a book = Oprah Winfrey endorses books on her show 2c boast over two million members = her book club boasts over two million members 3h share their thoughts = users of Oprah’s website can share their thoughts about books 4a be down to a number of factors = the surge in popularity of book clubs is down to a number of factors 5e see the trend in a positive light = not everyone sees the trend in a positive light 6b halt the spread = negative opinions have not halted the spread of communal reading 7d track the movement of items = BookCrossing tracks the movement of items (books passed on from one reader to another) 8g fund free copies = the city of Liverpool funded free copies of one book as part of its year as European capital of culture (2009)

pp.40-41 Listening: A: 1 the reading habits of the nation / the publishing industry 2 different approaches to reading, celebrities discussing books, space for users 3 40,000 book clubs 4 Vegan Book Club, Socialist Feminist group 5 provide recommendations / act as filter 6 create a community 7 are really gossiping or dating clubs 8 sentimental autobiographical writing 9 the transformative effect of reading 10 to pass books on to others 11 community reading project designed to give everyone in an area the opportunity to read and then talk about one book 12 bookstore events, related arts / school events

B: Suggested answers slim novel; loosely connected chapters; minimal dialogue; vivid portrayal; uplifting tale; gripping nonfiction work; domestic violence; civil rights movement; comic novel; hysterical effect; moving memoir; troubled relationship; abusive mother; heart-wrenching detail; a real page-turner

Vocabulary: A: 1 1 centres 2 plot 3 protagonists 4 dialogue 2 1 based 2 bring 3 set 4 tale 3 1 traces 2 explores 3 Revolving 4 tackles 4 1 first 2 narrator 3 turns 4 insight 5 1 memoir 2 struggle 3 deals 4 recommend

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06 CONFLICT pp.42-43 Speaking: A: storm off = to leave in a temper slam = shut violently sulk = when you refuse to talk to someone in an aggressive way hold a grudge / bear a grudge = when you refuse to forgive someone make up = say sorry and forgive each other Listening: A: Conversation 1 1 housemates 2 clearing up and paying the bills 3 the woman tells them to stop Conversation 2 1 colleagues or manager and employee 2 she gave a parcel to someone else to post and it hasn’t arrived yet 3 he threatens to sack her but may not go through with it Grammar: A: 1,3 = past simple to talk about wishes about the present, or things that are always true 2,5 = past perfect to talk about wishes about the past 4,6 = would + base form = to express irritation or annoyance, using would to talk about wishes you’d like people to do / stop doing C: 1 had 2 hadn’t sent 3 wouldn’t leave 4 could 5 would think 6 had been Vocabulary: A: 1 expressly 2 freely 3 strongly 4 desperately

5 vaguely 6 stupidly 7 bitterly 8 dramatically

B: Suggested answers 1 bitterly – oppose, complain 2 freely – gave, told 3 desperately – wanted 4 strongly – advise 5 dramatically – declined 6 stupidly – told 7 expressly – warned, wanted 8 vaguely – recall, said C: 1 both possible 2 Hopefully 3 Theoretically

4 Presumably 5 Technically 6 Frankly

pp.44-45 Vocabulary: B: 1 tension rises some fighting breaks out conflict escalates war rages call a truce 2 take offence have a row fall out get in touch make amends 3 be invaded defend yourself lose ground join forces (with an ally) gain ground defeat the enemy 4 declare a ceasefire begin negotiations talks break down restart negotiations reach a settlement sign a peace agreement 5 plot to overthrow the president stage a coup seize control of the country suffer sanctions undermine the economic stability return to democracy 6 be surrounded be under siege for weeks run out of food surrender become a prisoner of war 7 reports of human rights violation seek a UN resolution send in international troops re-establish security withdraw troops 8 plant a bomb cause casualties and fatalities claim responsibility arrest put on trial Listening: A: 1 industrial espionage one drinks company on another 2 an affair / sexual harassment at work 3 full body scanners at airports 4 a protest about a statue

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C: 1 a F accused of spying b F held a high level post for Jazz Drinks cT 2 aT b F he defended himself against allegations that he’d harassed the woman cT 3 aT b F a number of civil liberties groups backed her c F they plan to get it overturned 4 aT b F reprisals against the vandals followed c F the local council stepped in

E: 1 F it aimed to establish the truth 2 T it had no powers to prosecute 3 T it could give amnesty from prosecution 4 F they had to show their actions had been politically motivated and proportionate 5 T compensation was offered in some cases

D: 1e 5b

B: 1 Speaker 3 2 Speaker 2 3 Speaker 1

2a 6g

3h 7d

pp.46-47 Vocabulary: A: 1 segregation 2 boycott 3 massacre 4 condemnation 5 oppression

4f 8c

Listening: A: Speaker 1 = he thinks it was very important but flawed because it stirred up more bad feelings Speaker 2 = she thinks it didn’t solve any problems as it couldn’t bring her son back, and she rejected the money she was offered Speaker 3 = he thinks it has been a success as it has helped people to put the past behind them without seeking revenge

4 Speaker 3 5 Speaker 2 6 Speaker 2

7 Speaker 2 8 Speaker 1 9 Speaker 3

07 SCIENCE AND RESEARCH 6 sanctions 7 march 8 dissent 9 unrest 10 support

Reading: C: 1 because it represented a huge change / achievement in 20 years 2 because he was leader of the banned African Congress and planned acts of sabotage 3 Apartheid began in the 1940s to help the white minority keep control of the country’s riches. 4 It collapsed because it was costly and complicated to maintain and because of international and internal pressure. 5 Aim: to establish the truth about human rights violations, on both sides but it focused mainly on the victims as a way of providing closure. Working methods: both sides could tell the truth about their actions, and request amnesty from prosecution.

pp.48-49 Vocabulary: A: 1 breakthrough = step forward 2 root = underlying 3 diminished = impaired 4 stuck = inserted 5 thin end of the wedge = slippery slope 6 carried out = undertook 7 pave the way for = lead to 8 reproduce = duplicate 9 down to = due to 10 negative = adverse 11 condition = disorder 12 created = devised Listening: B: Conversation 1 = j Conversation 2 = d

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C: 1 F to frogs’ eggs 2 T to prevent malaria 3 F they are going to look for smells which attract mosquitoes 4 F one is, one isn’t 5 T to prevent global warming 6 F they want to build a sun shield in space 7 T but hypothetically 8 F he has funding to look into it further 9 T all about vested interest and people out to make a buck Developing Conversations: B:

Suggested answers 1 What on earth is that? 2 How on earth ? / Why on earth 3 Where on earth is that? 4 How on earth ? / Why on earth 5 Why on earth ? 6 Who / Why / How ?

? ?

pp.50-51 Vocabulary: A: 1 a link, but where one figure is in opposition or in reverse of the other 2 distorted the figures (results / numbers) for their own benefit 3 it will be to their own advantage 4 are not really precise or accurate or they do not represent what they appear to 5 in contrast to what most people think 6 there are large problems with the research 7 to make a connection 8 an exception in the statistics 9 different bits of evidence which disagree with each other Reading: B: 1 because it will vary in how accurate it is 2 because it will affect its validity 3 because it will affect its validity 4 because numbers can be manipulated 5 because sometimes the data and the conclusions are not really connected 6 because there may be self-interest involved

Grammar A: Conversation 1 1 which will be sold 2 scientists 3 which they will sell 4 because we are more interested in the frogs Conversation 2 1 getting killed 2 scientists, teachers 3 rather than killing them for dissection 4 because we are more interested in not killing the frogs Conversation 3 1 have cancerous cells inserted in their bodies 2 scientists 3 scientists insert cancerous cells into the bodies of the fish 4 because it is better stylistically and we are more interested in the fish Conversation 4 1 is thought to be 2 people in general 3 people think the so-called Love hormone is responsible 4 because it is better stylistically and the doer is general / unknown Conversation 5 1 a census undertaken (which was undertaken) 2 the department of Clinical Veterinary Science 3 which the CVS undertook 4 because the census is more important than the department and it is better stylistically Conversation 6 1 they were given 2 researchers 3 researchers gave them 4 because we are more interested in the penguins Conversation 7 1 is seen 2 people in general 3 people see the research 4 because the doer is unknown / general Conversation 8 1 has been extracted 2 scientists 3 scientists have extracted 4 because we are more interested in the DNA

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C: 1 had been reported 2 lead 3 has dumped 4 causing 5 published 6 has found 7 are kept

8 is defined 9 were obliged 10 treated 11 involving 12 to be tightened 13 has plunged

pp.52-53 Listening: B: 1 astronomer analysing visual data 2 agricultural scientist research in lab or with animals in their habitat 3 military scientist studying war and devising military strategies 4 hydrologist studying water in the environment and assessing risk 5 anthropologist studying different cultures C: 1 the hydrologist 2 the agricultural scientist 3 the military scientist 4 the hydrologist 5 the astronomer 6 the anthropologist 7 the agricultural scientist 8 the anthropologist 9 the astronomer (in that they have no direct contact with stars the object of their research) 10 the military scientist Vocabulary: A: 1 exploration 2 variables 3 diversity 4 capability 5 manipulation 6 aggression

7 prevention 8 cynicism 9 abundance 10fatalities 11 probability 12 implications

08 NATURE pp.54-55 B: 1 rolling hills, winding streams, thick or dense woodland 2 arid, edge or fringes, dunes 3 countryside or landscape, fertile 4 track or road, rugged, gorges 5 breathtaking or stunning, sandy or rocky, crystal clear Listening: A: Conversation 1 1 Jura in France 2 on holiday 3 mountainous with gorges and valleys, winding rivers rugged Conversation 2 1 Venezuela to a big glacier 2 working, doing research 3 breathtaking, dense woodland with ice and mountains B: Conversation 1 a Jura is near the Swiss border b there were vineyards to the north – where they hiked to c the woman booked the holiday on the Internet d the holiday made her feel very fit e there was a couple from her hometown on the holiday Conversation 2 f he works all over the place g he only got back the other day h he was doing research into global warming i he had a view of snow-capped mountains j the results of the research were inconclusive but there seemed to be evidence of global warming

B: 1 explore 2 vary 3 manipulate 4 prevent 5 abound 6 imply

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pp.56-57 Listening: A: 1 retreating into their cave 2 communicate with others / reach out 3 these myths / the myth of difference 4 a negative effect on our culture 5 based on scientific research 6 both sexes talk equally 7 16, 000 words 8 power / positions of power 9 stereotypes we already have 10 occasions which back up the evidence 11 gender roles 12 swear / express their anger by swearing C: 1g common knowledge = it is common knowledge that men and women do things differently 2e a negative effect = books like this have a negative effect on our culture 3b valid scientific research = these books are not based on this 4a a cursory inspection = a cursory inspection of the literature on the subject shows men and women communicate in similar ways 5c sweeping generalisations = these books are full of sweeping generalisations about men and women 6h the continuing appeal = the continuing appeal of these theories lies in people s fear of change 7d unsettling changes = changes in gender roles can be found unsettling 8f traditional gender roles = people take comfort in clinging to traditional gender roles Grammar: A: 1 a isn’t 2 a are 3 a do 4 a Does 5 a do

b aren’t b doing b does b Did b have

B: 1 question tags 2 substitution to avoid repeating a whole phrase 3 emphasis 4 as a response 5 with so or neither / nor – another type of substitution

Vocabulary: A: 1 gossip + rumours 2 mince + blunt 3 shuts up + word 4 twisting + words

5 manners + butting into 6 listener + shoulder 7 articulate + struggle 8 bush + point

pp.58-59 Reading: B: 1 he marvels at the ingenuity of the human race 2 he is interested in other forms of life and it makes him feel humbled 3 he enjoys the details of animals’ lives it is like watching six films rolled into one 4 it reminds him that we are part of nature too D: 1 predators 2 prey 3 mate 4 foraging

5 food chain 6 flock 7 herd 8 rear

Vocabulary: A: 1 legs, fur, feelers, nostrils, a claw 2 a tail, legs, fur, nostrils 3 legs, a claw, a beak, a wing, a breast, a tail, a toe 4 a tail, a beak, a breast 5 legs, nostrils, a hump 6 scales, teeth 7 a beak 8 a hoof, legs, a horn B: 1 mole: claws for digging, tail for storing fat; feelers for ‘seeing’; star-shaped nose to smell its prey 2 sparrow hawk: wings and tail to fly fast; markings to camouflage it; long legs to kill mid-flight; long slender middle toe to grip and hold prey; beak for plucking and tearing flesh C: 1e 6j

2g 7d

3a 8h

4f 9c

5i 10 b

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02 REVIEW pp.60-63 Quiz: 1 You might feel rough because you are tired, ill or hungover. 2 If you were mortified you would feel very embarrassed. 3 Authors, musicians and artists are all paid royalties. 4 If someone holds a grudge, they feel bitter about something done against them in the past, and possibly seek revenge. 5 A murder or violent crime might be described as cold-blooded. 6 If fighting escalates, it increases and gets more violent. 7 A politician might seize power by staging a coup. 8 If something is prevalent, there is a lot of it. 9 You could devise a plan, a scheme, a set of rules etc. 10 A political party or country with financial interests in the country at war might have a vested interest in a war continuing. 11 Examples: there is a negative correlation between income and birth rate: the richer the country, the lower the birth rate. A positive correlation might be: there is a positive correlation between people graduating from university and getting good jobs. 12 You could manipulate figures, statistics or a person to prove a point or get what you want. 13 A mountainous and rocky landscape is rugged. 14 Someone might butt in (interrupt) when you are having a conversation with someone else and you might feel annoyed. 15 Rodents (e.g. mice, rats, hamsters) gnaw. Idioms: 1 He was mad, drunk or under the influence of drugs. 2 I couldn’t sleep. 3 We couldn’t stop laughing. 4 He was very upset. 5 We need to forgive and forget. 6 You can see signs of something – usually bad – about to happen 7 We are at risk of things deteriorating in the future. 8 The research is flawed. 9 You’re being inaccurate about what I said. 10 I didn’t get a chance to speak.

11 Don’t drop hints speak directly. 12 Can you say what your main point is? 13 I got used to it. 14 He was teasing someone. 15 It was incredible. Listening: 1 Predators and Prey 2 overwhelming 3 photo journalism 4 make new connections and get insights 5 taking photos of construction projects

6 was threatening wetland 7 vested interests 8 of relaxing 9 lion 10 people‘s protests

Grammar: A: 1 I did go to several shops, but they weren’t on sale anywhere. 2 It’s an adventure story, based on his travel experiences. 3 I occasionally wish I did something else, but generally I like my job. 4 The disease is believed to have a genetic component. 5 We won’t be gone that long, will we? 6 They’re building a thirty-five-storey office block which is due to open next year. 7 I wish I’d said something, but I didn’t. 8 The device can withstand high temperatures after being treated with the special paint. B: 1 ended up being thrown out 2 If only I hadn’t sold 3 so am I Language Patterns: 1 usual 2 hardly 3 all 4 As 5 that 6 had

Verbs: 1 establish 2 express 3 draw 4 gain 5 claim 6 carry out 7 diminish 8 grasp

Prepositions: 1 into 2 around 3 out 4 from 5 of 6 on 7 for 8 to

4 I didn’t live 5 have two teeth taken out 6 prize-winning economist

Opposites: 1 fertile 2 sparse 3 fierce 4 flawed 5 stuffed 6 arid 7 adverse 8 elaborate

Forming Words: 1 fatalities 2 frantically 3 exploratory 4 settlement 5 resolutions 6 underlying 7 harassment

Missing Words: 1 called 2 issue 3 plot 4 murmurs 5 track

Vocabulary: 1 C boasted 2 A traces 3 B insight 4 A endorse 5 A freely 6 A down 7 C memoir 8 B appeal 17

09 WORK pp.64-65 Vocabulary: B: a rep = a representative usually a sales rep a CEO = a Chief Executive Officer a PA = a Personal Assistant in HR = in Human Resources in R & D = in Research and Development in admin = in administration C: 1 input 2 troubleshoot 3 schedule 4 liaise 5 place

6 process 7 draw up 8 network 9 oversee 10 come up with

Listening: A: Tasneem = will be working with Harry on project, liaises with external service providers Harry = first day in job, has just moved to Redditch Bianca = main admin assistant, deals with travel and bookings the photocopier = a bit temperamental, tends to jam Mary = managing director, seems down to earth; here most days the company = very busy, three or four new staff, a lot of changes Suggested answers hanging around = waiting nobody bites = everyone is friendly raring to go = keen to get started dump your stuff = put your things down show you the ropes = introduce you to everything sort you out with a spot = find you a place rushed off our feet = extremely busy in the same boat = in the same situation a real slave driver = someone who makes others work hard pulling your leg = teasing you day-to-day dealings = everyday tasks down-to-earth = practical and realistic how come = why, how did it happen that ...? Developing Conversations A: 1 Because he had arrived early – Well, I didn’t want to be late.

2 Because they have taken on more people – No. Three or four more are supposed to be joining. 3 Because she says ‘the few times we’ve talked’ – No, she’s here most days. Grammar: A: 1 ’ve (actually) been hanging around – present perfect continuous to indicate an action that went on for some time and is just finished (in this case) 2 ’ll be working – future continuous for an action or situation which will go on for some time in the future 3 was (just) emailing – past continuous – informal use, to show a recent past action 4 ’s being taken on – present continuous passive, for something happening now or around now 5 are supposed to be joining – supposed to + continuous infinitive, with a future meaning 6 ’s (probably) being – present continuous, for something happening now (unusual use of be, which is usually stative and therefore not found in continuous form; here it means acting or behaving) 7 won’t be having – negative of future continuous, indicates an ongoing situation 8 ’d been thinking – past perfect continuous, an action which went on for some time before another action or event in the past (I found a house)

pp.66-67 Reading: B: 1 He has been allowed to stay at home and work from home but he has nothing to do. 2 His friend is envious. 3 He thinks the system has cheated him because he feels underemployed and unhappy about the situation. 4 He probably started off working from home some of the time and the situation has now continued and been extended. C: 1 There was not much to do at work, so he took a year off to do an MBA, after which he went back to find nothing had changed. 2 He was made redundant. 3 ‘The living dead’ are the people who have nothing or little to do at work.

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D: 1 my vitality drained away 2 acquire new skills 3 sponsor me 4 spark my interest 5 get the most out of its investment 6 his mind was drifting off 7 set the wheels in motion 8 pass this on to someone else 9 which begs the question 10 make me redundant Listening: A: 1 No, not according to the speaker. 2 The company for not using his skills and keeping quiet about the situation. 3 Large companies should be broken up into smaller companies, where this is less likely to happen. Workers should speak up if they feel underemployed. B: 1 1 one in three of all mid-week visitors to a theme park were ‘off sick’ 2 nine million workers made dubious requests for a sick note in one year 3 two-thirds of young professionals have called in sick because of a hangover 4 8.3 hours per week are spent by each employee on average each week accessing non-work related websites 5 14.6% of working Americans surf the net constantly 6 18.7 % of working Americans send up to twenty personal emails a day 7 24% of working Americans said they had fallen asleep at their desk, in the toilet or in a meeting 2 because they are better at controlling what employees do and employees feel more responsible

pp.68-69 Vocabulary: A: 1 quit + notice 2 subsidised + perk 3 compassionate leave + grateful 4 crèche + childcare 5 early retirement + pension 6 absenteeism + crackdown

7 tribunal + dismissal 8 raise + opposition 9 cuts + voluntary redundancy 10 union + collective bargaining B: 1 give a week’s notice 2 take early retirement 3 launch a crackdown 4 be awarded compensation 5 face a lot of opposition 6 be granted compassionate leave 7 live on the state pension 8 take someone to a tribunal 9 raise the legal minimum wage 10 take voluntary redundancy Listening: A: 1e 2a c is not used

3f

4d

5b

10 HEALTH AND ILLNESS pp.70-71 Speaking: A: reconstructive surgery = rebuilding parts of the body after an accident or fire. Might involve taking a skin graft from another part of the body and attaching it to the part to be repaired. cosmetic surgery = changing the shape of parts of the body for aesthetic reasons. Might involve removing fat or adding some kind of filler e.g. silicone. experimental surgery = surgery done usually on animals for the purposes of scientific research. exploratory surgery = when surgery is used to find out about something rather than to treat or cure. keyhole surgery = surgery which uses only small incisions (cuts) rather than large, invasive ones. laser surgery = using a laser rather than cutting to ‘zap’ a part of the body – can be used to correct eyesight or treat cancer.

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Listening: A: Conversation 1 1 laser surgery 2 numbing the eyes and slicing a flap in front of each eye 3 return visits for after-care Conversation 2 1 dental surgery 2 having a hole drilled at the back and a temporary filling 3 having the temporary filling replaced by a permanent one B: Conversation 1 1T 2 F – they gave him eye drops 3T 4 F – they’re a bit sore 5T Conversation 2 6T 7 F – it might have been her daughter 8T 9 F – I was conscious of what he was doing 10 F – I won’t have much change from £500 C: 1 numb 2 slice

3 administer 4 recover

5 take 6 thrash

7 change 8 drill

Vocabulary: A: 1 suffered third degree burns was rushed to hospital was put on a drip had a skin graft had to wait for the scarring to heal 2 had to fast for twelve hours was given an anaesthetic had my wisdom teeth removed gums bled a lot and cheeks swelled had stitches removed 3 was diagnosed with kidney disease was put on a waiting list finally found a donor had a transplant took part in a rehabilitation programme 4 severed three fingers lost a lot of blood had the fingers sewn back on underwent extensive physiotherapy regained feeling in the fingers 5 broke his leg in three places had an operation to insert metal pins got an infection had part of the leg amputated got a prosthetic limb

6 found a lump had it diagnosed as malignant had an operation to have it removed had chemotherapy the cancer went into remission had a relapse Developing Conversations: A: (slight variations are possible) 1 I asked for a second opinion, but they just kind of ignored me. 2 He used some kind of bleach solution on my teeth. 3 It should cost about a hundred euros or so. 4 They told me that some kind of build-up was damaging blood vessels in my brain. 5 He somehow managed to slice the end off one of his fingers! 6 They use a kind of tiny little knife to make the incision. 7 It was quite a traumatic birth, but they somehow managed to deliver her after about an hour. 8 They just glued the skin back together again using some kind of clear plastic tape.

pp.72-73 Reading: A: 1 Mindfulness and meditation – mindfulness = meditation therapy; gaining in popularity; used to treat depression and anxiety and maybe strengthen immune system; involves noticing negative patterns of thought and fully experiencing the moment; comes from Eastern Buddhist philosophy 2 Depression – negative moods often go with negative thoughts; usually disappears when depression passes or with medication; small things can bring depression back again 3 Life expectancy and well-being – life expectancy doubled in developed countries in the 20th century; we are living longer in sickness rather than health 4 The worried well – people who are actually healthy but are anxious about low-level complaints – hypochondriacs 5 Traditional Chinese Medicine – more focused on maintaining good health; more successful at treating certain common conditions; believes in harmony between mind, body and the environment

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Vocabulary: A: Sug g e st e d an sw e r s

your mind drifts or wanders when you are distracted or bored your belly rises and falls when you are breathing deeply your heart beats fast when you are anxious or afraid your body shudders when you see / hear something horrible you wipe your forehead when you are hot and sweaty you raise your eyebrows when you are surprised or skeptical you raise your hand when you want to say something you clutch your chest when you have a pain you click your fingers to get someone’s attention you drop your head when you are tired or depressed you shrug your shoulders when you don’t know or don’t care you clench your fist when you are angry or want to threaten someone you support your back when you have backache you stretch your legs when you are tired or when you have been sitting for a long time you flutter your eyelashes when you want to flirt with someone B: kick = foot stroke = hand clap = hands pat = hand scratch = finger nails sniff = nose blink = eyes hug = arms spit = mouth crouch = whole body but mainly legs glare = eyes frown = face but mainly mouth and eyebrows grin = mouth nod = head punch = fist (hand)

pp.74-75 Speaking: A: autism = disorder in which sufferers have problems with social interaction, often clever at maths and related subjects; various levels of severity diabetes = disorder related to level of sugar in blood; treated by diet and insulin; Type A and Type B (less severe) narcolepsy = disorder in which sufferers fall asleep frequently post-traumatic stress = stress suffered after a shock or trauma; can be delayed and can take many forms migraines = really bad headaches and visual effects; often triggered by certain foods e.g. chocolate gluten intolerance = disorder in which body rejects food including wheat or gluten and is therefore undernourished; treated by cutting gluten out of diet leprosy = skin disease, not common nowadays; sufferers used to be isolated as it is very contagious; has negative connotations asthma = breathing disorder by which it sometimes becomes very hard for sufferers to breathe; becoming more common; treated with inhalers bulimia nervosa = eating disorder in which sufferers binge eat (eat a lot) and then deliberately throw up (vomit) so as not to put on weight eczema = skin disease which causes red marks on body; treated with ointment or alternative medicine Reading: B: Vitiligo: symptoms – white patches on skin; problems – psychological – sufferers can see themselves as unattractive, unhealthy or disabled; affects 1% of the population; causes – not clear but classified as autoimmune disorder when body mistakenly attacks healthy cells; treatment – light therapy, oral medication, strong sunscreen, skin grafts and psychotherapy Tourette’s syndrome: symptoms – a variety of tics, sometimes obsessive-compulsive behaviour, sleep disorders and learning disabilities; problems – can cause stress and psychological damage; affects 1%, mostly boys; causes – an inherited neurological disorder; treatment – therapy or drugs 21

Vocabulary: A: 1 fail 2 exacerbated 3 long-term 4 tiredness 5 relieved 6 passed on

7 genetic 8 stick to 9 triggered 10 shortage 11 swollen 12 block up

B: Suggested answers 1 motor neurone disease 2 RSI (repetitive strain injury) 3 sciatica 4 underactive thyroid 5 insomnia 6 measles or mumps 7 some cancers, autism 8 coeliac disease, diabetes 9 eczema, psoriasis 10 anaemia 11 indigestion 12 smoking Listening: A: 1 headaches, low red blood cell count, weak immune system, asthma, eczema, fatigue, problems with speech, weak heart, arrested development 2 They said there was nothing they could do. 3 They searched the net for alternative remedies. 4 They found a doctor who recommended a special diet. 5 Dexter will probably be able to lead a full life and it could help other sufferers from this disease and from cancer.

Grammar: A: 1 should’ve 2 must’ve 3 might’ve 4 can’t 5 can’t have, should’ve 6 should’ve 7 could’ve, wouldn’t C: 1 must’ve been = I’m sure it was; can’t have been = the opposite 2 must’ve been = I’m sure it was; might’ve been = maybe it was 3 a I was unable to do anything about it 3 b I don’t think they tried very hard 4 a It was wrong to drive off 4 b It was wrong to be driving so fast (continuous action) 5 a I’m sure he was in pain for some time before 5 b I’m sure it hurt when he had his teeth out 6 a I’m sure (I deduce) she picked up the infection (but I could be wrong) 6 b statement of fact 7 a refers to the past 7 b refers to the present

B: 1 parents 2 blood disorder 3 hangover 4 research 5 blood transfusions 6 immune system 7 heart attack 8 tests 9 therapies 10 proteins 11 the new diet 12 number of red blood cells

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11 PLAY pp.76-77 Vocabulary: A: 1 A crowd (the spectators) would go wild if they were pleased e.g. if their team scored. They would boo if they were displeased with a player, team or referee. 2 A team gets knocked out of a tournament when it loses and is no longer in it. 3 The referee sends someone off when they commit a foul (usually in football). 4 suspended = not allowed to play for a period of time, as a punishment (several matches); substituted = swapped for another player during a match; dropped = no longer part of the team because of ability 5 Football and hockey have a keeper (goal keeper). 6 If someone makes a reckless (careless) tackle, they may be given a yellow card or a red card (punishments) or there could be a free kick or a penalty. 7 The underdog is the team less likely to win; opposite = stronger team. 8 A tight game is close; an open game has a lot of passing and long balls from both teams; a dirty game has a lot of fouls or cheating e.g. diving. 9 If a player challenges a decision, they hope it will be overturned (reversed) rather than upheld (maintained). 10 If you blow your chances, you come close to winning or being promoted and lose at the last minute. 11 You could cheat by diving or pretending to be more injured than you are (in football), by ‘throwing’ the result (e.g. deliberately making the team lose), by taking performance enhancing drugs (any sport, athletics), by stepping over the line when serving or by taking unnecessary breaks (tennis). 12 You might begin to fade if you were tired. 13 If a player or team gets thrashed, they get severely beaten. 14 relegated – opposite = promoted. 15 If you scraped through you would just win; or you might draw but just win overall (e.g. if there are two games in total).

Listening: B: Conversation 1: a tennis game = double fault, rallies, deuce, fade; quite good = pretty tight. Conversation 2: a mountain walk = trudge, clouds broke, hypothermia, stunning; bad but good in the end. Conversation 3: a football match = draw, penalty, the crossbar, the return game; good = an amazing game, very open. Developing Conversations: A: 1 He managed to kick the ball over the crossbar – ironic because this is not clever. Draw students’ attention to the explanation about this here. 2 He’s totally useless – more sarcastic than ironic – in fact he’s really good 3 made a huge difference – actually means the opposite of what it appears to be saying 4 it wasn’t exactly the strongest tackle I’ve ever seen – ironic way of saying, in fact, it was a pretty weak tackle B: 1 c 2 d

pp.78-79 Vocabulary: A: 1 cards 2 board 3 board 4 computer 5 cards 6 computer

3a

4e

5b

7 board 8 computer 9 cards 10 computer 11 cards 12 board

Listening 1: A: 1 origins unclear, possibly from Chinese dominoes, possible mix of origins 2 52-card deck, four suits; baraja from Spain, 40 cards, different suits representing positions of power in the Middle Ages; East Asian flower cards, no numbers just pictures, 10 suits, from 17th century, designed to beat ban on gambling 3 huge variety of games, different rules – hence enduring popularity of playing cards

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C: deck = pack of cards (52) suits = groups of cards i.e. clubs, diamonds, hearts, spades clubs = a suit, which looks like a trefoil jack = a colour card, like a prince (worth 11 points) trumps = the strongest suit a joker = a ‘wild’ card, which can be used at any time to replace another card Grammar: A: the purpose / result: so, so as to conditions: if, unless, provided, whether contrasts: even though, although, even if, otherwise order / time: then, until1 B: 1 Then, whether 2 so 3 so as to 4 otherwise 5 provided

6 If, unless 7 although 8 even though 9 until 10 even if

Listening 2: A: a speaker 3 b speaker 4 c speaker 3, speaker 5 d speaker 1 e speaker 1, speaker 5 f speaker 2 C: 1 a was to spot 1 b their own back 2 a gang up on 2 b tipped over 3 a there are stakes

3 b bound to win 4 a been beaten up 4 b used to using 5 a tasks or quests 5 b fact or fiction

pp.80-81 Reading: B: advertising slogans = Men can’t help acting on impulse; I’m loving it puns = impulse; Sunny daze word games = Taboo; scrabble comic insults = your mum’s so fat people jog round her for exercise; you stink tongue twisters = we surely shall see the sun shine soon; she sells seashells on the seashore

riddles = what gets wetter the more it dries? (a towel); when is a door not a door? (when it’s ajar = a ‘jar’) metaphors = moving the goalposts; up in the air idioms = put your finger on something; once in a blue moon alliteration = don’t just drive it – dream it; lovely Linda nursery rhymes = hey diddle diddle; Baa baa, black sheep C: 1 playing with sounds, songs, chants, noises to accompany motor activities, nonsense words, playful language in poetry and prose, banter, pop lyrics, movie dialogue, crosswords, word games 2 It is part of our development as humans; for entertainment; it can be memorable (e.g. advertising) 3 It was a fun way of gently pulling his leg, a way of making others laugh and bonding with each other 4 a towel Vocabulary: A: 1 boxing; unnecessarily hurtful 2 poker or gambling game; risky 3 football or other field game; fairness, equal treatment 4 card game; reveal your true feelings or opinion 5 racing; level, equal 6 poker or similar card game; pretend, act confident 7 chess; something or someone used or exploited by someone more powerful 8 card games; not reveal your secrets 9 tennis; it’s your turn to make a decision or take responsibility 10 boxing; when something happens to interrupt a difficult situation (the bell ends the round) 11 athletics; obstacles to be overcome 12 running; a long-term (rather than a quick) decision or situation

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12 HISTORY pp.82-83 Listening: A: He’s from a first-generation immigrant family; they lived in total poverty; he dropped out of school when his father died and sold ice cream on the street; he moved on to selling textiles; he moved to the capital when he was 21; he started his own company selling outboard motors for boats; he can now afford to have his children educated in the States; he eats like a peasant. C: 1 passed off 2 turns out 3 passed away 4 drop out 5 started off, moved on

6 get ahead, set off 7 start up, built (things) up 8 lit up 9 dwell on

Developing Conversations: A: 1 c (a bad memory, full of holes) 2 e (he smokes a lot) 3 b (I felt very uncomfortable or awkward) 4 a (I try extremely hard to avoid him) 5 d (they’re very different) B: 6 h (very tough) 7 f (it’s completely dead or over) 8 j (extremely pale) 9 g (very old) 10 i (not clear at all) pp.84-85 Reading: A: 1 decadence, economic problems, external pressures, division and infighting, Christianity and cultural change 2 because of lack of evidence 3 because new discoveries are made that shed more light B: 1 some scholars suggest many advances were lost – quite strong evidence as examples are given – more examples would help 2 no evidence really, just the writer’s opinion – more scientific evidence about why would help

3 the joke from The Life of Brian suggests this but this is only a film; also there were no popular uprisings but this could be for a number of reasons; you would need more eye witness accounts 4 a new book on the subject comes out nearly every year and over 200 different theories have been suggested; quite strong evidence; you could also ask how many university courses include the study of the Roman Empire 5 no evidence – only possibly referred to indirectly as part of environmental causes and then thought to be unlikely; you would want more scientific proof of the link 6 the mention of green movements and theories – not very strong evidence – it is argued; you would want more concrete examples C: whip up = provoke; culminating = ending; uprisings = rebellions; crumble = gradually be destroyed; to date = up to now; scarcity = lack sacked = raided; contended = argued; outlook = point of view Developing Conversations: A: 1 Edward Gibbon; provide us with a reference for that? 2 you mentioned thatching.; just explain exactly what that is? 3 contributed significantly to the demise of the empire.; elaborate on that a little? 4 that environmental degradation was a cause.; have any statistics available on that? Vocabulary: A: 1 put forward / advanced = same; established / claimed = different; established = proved, found to be true, claimed = said (but it may not be true) 2 asserts / demonstrates = different; asserts = claims, demonstrates = shows, proves; stemmed from / gave rise to = different; stemmed from = came about because of, gave rise to = prompted something to happen 3 allegedly / supposedly = same; questioned / cast doubt on = same 4 challenged / accepted = opposite; highlighting / emphasising = same 5 argues / contends = same; significant / minor = opposite 25

pp.86-87 Speaking: A: Suggested answers Berlin Wall – divided East and West Berlin (Communist bloc and the West). After much civil unrest in 1989, people started climbing over it, finally came down on 9th Nov 1989 – Germany was reunified in 1990. 9/11 attacks Sept 11th, 2001. Four planes involved – two flew into Twin Towers of World Trade Centre, one into the Pentagon in Washington, one landed in a field in Pennsylvania. Al-Queda claimed responsibility. No survivors on planes. 2,995 people killed in total. The euro – used in 16 countries and is official currency of the eurozone – not all EU countries use it e.g. UK. Introduced in 1999, coins and banknotes entered circulation 2002. Some problems because of the different strengths of the economies involved. Iraq conflicts – first Gulf War was in 1990/91 in response to Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. Led by USA / UK but other allied countries involved. Second conflict March–May 2003, led by USA / UK despite very strong popular opposition. Official reason was to destroy the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein – he was toppled in May 2003. Tsunami – 26/12/04 in the Indian Ocean, following a very strong earthquake. Waves up to 30 metres high. Main countries affected were India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, The Maldives. Estimated death toll 230,000, huge destruction. Genocide – Rwanda – 1994 – mass killing of an estimated 800,000 in approximately 100 days. Mostly Hutu tribe killing Tutsi people as part of civil war. Estimated that 20% of the total population was wiped out; Darfur (Sudan) – ongoing guerrilla conflict. Different tribes and government and police involved. Conflict between black Africans and those of Arab origins. Estimated between 20,000 and several hundred thousand dead, either through direct combat or starvation / disease. Vocabulary: A: 1 called 6 was overthrown 2 was assassinated 7 issued 3 declared, gain 8 were massacred 4 went, dented 9 carried out 5 was abolished 10 have been pushing

Listening: A: 1 Attack on Anna Lindh, a government minister in Sweden, who later died; significant because she might have become Prime Minister, and because it changed people’s views of Sweden as a safe country. 2 Poland’s entry into the EU; significant because it meant Poland was accepted as a mature member of Europe, it drew a line under the past and meant that a lot of people left the country. 3 The opening of the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline in 2005; significant because it gave Azerbaijan economic independence and Turkey more recognition. 4 The apology by the Australian government to Aborigine communities; significant because of the suffering of Aborigines under successive governments; it removed the stain on the nation. B: 1 a T; 1 b F – it was a random attack; 1c F – she died in hospital 2 a T; 2 b F – over three quarters of the population voted for it; 2 c T 3 a F – it bypasses the old trade routes; 3 b F – it has generated a substantial income; 3 c T 4 a T; 4 b F – they face higher levels of unemployment today, c T C: 1 e – Anna Lindh (against injustice) 2 f – Anna Lindh’s death caused the end of the notion that Sweden was safe 3 a – Poland’s EU entry 4 g – Poland’s EU entry 5 b – the pipeline 6 h – the pipeline (to Turkey) 7 c – the Australian government 8 d – the Australian government Grammar: A: 1 No sooner had the President been overthrown than civil war broke out. 2 No sooner had we adopted the euro than prices went up. 3 No sooner had the earthquake struck than the looting began. 4 No sooner had Brazil equalised than we went up the other end of the pitch and scored the winner. B: 1 Not only; 2 at no time; 3 Never before; 4 Not until; 5 Nowhere else, only 26

03 REVIEW pp.88-91 Quiz: 1 People network to build up business contacts. 2 The opposite of upholding a decision is overturning a decision. 3 Jobs which might be emotionally draining often involve troubled people e.g. social worker. 4 People bluff when they have bad cards and they want to convince their opponents their cards are good (e.g. at poker). 5 A person, a car, a computer could be temperamental, i.e. mood-changing or unreliable. 6 It’s good if cancer goes into remission. 7 People flee an area because there is war, an earthquake or a flood. 8 You might need a skin graft when you have burns. 9 A drain / sink could clog / clog-up with mud, food or rubbish. 10 If a town or city is sacked it is attacked and valuable goods are destroyed / stolen. 11 You could confess to a crime, an accident (when you broke something), an affair, etc. 12 Hare Krishna is a chant. There are also football / sport chants. 13 If a team is relegated, it goes down to the next division. The opposite is promoted. 14 You might glare at someone who has been rude. 15 Shops might get looted during a war or after a natural disaster. Idioms: 1 We’re all in the same situation. 2 He’s teasing you. 3 I’ve been terribly busy. 4 Maybe you can show me around and explain how things work? 5 It was unnecessarily cruel and direct. 6 He is more aggressive verbally than physically. 7 I don’t think he’s contributing enough. 8 I had to stop myself from saying what I wanted to say. 9 It’s a way of marking a change from one stage of life to another. 10 She is secretive. 11 They keep changing the rules or parameters. 12 Let me check what you mean.

13 We are being used by more powerful people. 14 Her parents are separated or divorced. 15 It’s up to you / it’s your decision. Listening: A: a Speaker 5; b Speaker 2; c Speaker 1; d ; e Speaker 3;f ; g Speaker 4 B: a ; b Speaker 3; c ; d Speaker 5; e Speaker 1 f Speaker 2; g Speaker 4 Grammar: A: 1 Under no circumstances are you to leave your post unattended. 2 If it hadn’t been for my old Chemistry teacher, I wouldn’t be working here now! 3 Only after a full enquiry did we understand the full horror of the incident. 4 That can’t have been much fun. I would’ve gone crazy if it’d happened to me. 5 I wouldn’t work for that firm even if the money was amazing. 6 It was awful. My phone went off while I was being interviewed. 7 I can’t believe he failed. He must be feeling dreadful now. 8 I don’t mind you answering the call in class as long as it’s quick. B: 1 shouldn’t have been texting 2 can’t have been feeling well 3 No sooner had I started there Langauge Patterns: 1 be 2 longer 3 better 4 from 5 worse 6 more

Prepositions: 1 on 2 of 3 for 4 of 5 on 6 on 7 to 8 on

Verbs: 1 draw up 2 retain 3 put forward 4 exacerbate 5 bypass 6 administer 7 forge 8 cite

4 At no time did he 5 a day goes by without 6 ‘m not very adept

Forming Words: 1 findings 2 redundancy 3 occurrence 4 dealings 5 scarcity 6 recurrent 7 workers

Vocabulary: 1 C hurdles 2 B transition 3 C formality 4 B rigorous 5 C painstaking 6 A leadership 7 C witty 8 A delegate

Missing Words: 1 impact 2 grasp 3 award 4 spiral 5 hand

Opposites: 1 civilian 2 conservative 3 malignant 4 significant 5 good 6 quick 7 privileged 8 substantial 27

13 NEWS AND MEDIA pp.92-93 Vocabulary: A: 1 blast toll = number of dead from explosion 2 hails = praises 3 bars = bans, prohibits from entering; crackdown = stricter policy 4 cleared = freed from 5 seize = take; raid = sudden entry and search 6 brink = edge, very close to 7 leak = revelation; slash = cut a large number 8 ups = increases; bid = attempt 9 clash = fight, disagree violently 10 rule out = dismiss the possibility of; halt = stop 11 pulls out of = withdraws from 12 blow = setback 13 vows = promises Listening: A: Conversation 1 1 Sanders cleared of bribery charges 2 agree Conversation 2 1 Email leak reveals secret plan to slash jobs 2 initially speaker one has a different opinion, but agrees with second speaker in the end Conversation 3 1 Kohl pulls out of Open over sex scandal 2 agree Conversation 4 1 Hector vows to continue despite outburst 2 disagree about the seriousness of the situation Conversation 5 1 Club bars fans in crackdown on hooliganism 2 agree B: 1 a pockets 2 a election 3 a fuss 4 a standing 5 a season tickets

b technicality b trouble b sponsorship b teacup b thugs

Developing Conversations: A: The rhetorical questions are: Conversation 1 Well, what did you expect? (= I’m not surprised) Conversation 2 Why would they? What do they have to gain? (the speaker thinks the government will do what is good for them, especially before an election) Conversation 3 What’s it got to do with us? What’s it got to do with playing tennis? (the speaker sees no connection between the guy’s ability to play tennis and the fact that he has had an affair) Conversation 4 Can you imagine ... news coverage? (politicians are under a lot of pressure from the media) What are other countries going to think? (this is bad for our international reputation) Conversation 5 Why on earth aren’t they being prosecuted? (I think they should be prosecuted)

pp.94-95 Listening: A: 1 Because newspapers are still responsible for most news gathering. 2 Because of the income generated by advertising on newspaper companies websites. This is ironic because the websites are free to access but newspaper companies can still make a profit by advertising on them despite possibly selling fewer newspapers as a result of them because of the number of people who see these advertisements. B: 2,5

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Vocabulary: A: 1 tabloids = smaller, more sensational newspapers also called red tops e.g. The Sun; broadsheets = serious newspapers e.g. The Times 2 supplements = extra sections e.g. Travel, magazine 3 circulation = number of readers 4 sensationalist = concerned with scandals, accidents, celebrity gossip etc; the lowest common denominator = the most basic, least sophisticated level of taste of the readers 5 bias = preference; editorials = opinion pieces written by the editor 6 invasion of privacy = interference in people’s private lives; acting in the public interest = giving the public what they want, for the good of the public 7 retract = withdraw; substantiate = prove to be true 8 free press = total liberty for newspapers and the media; harassment = assaults on someone’s privacy by following them, bothering them, asking them personal questions, etc. Reading: A: 1 The Sun, Marca 2 Marca, Helsingin Sanomat 3 The Sun 4 Helsingin Sanomat 5 The Sun 6 Helsingin Sanomat 7 Marca 8 The Sun 9 Helsingin Sanomat 10 Marca 11 Helsingin Sanomat 12 The Sun

B: 1 health grounds, a private matter 2 bomb disposal, bravery 3 petrol bomb, tear gas 4 base rate, inflation 5 thigh strain, good form 6 sham marriage, an appeal D: 1 T there had been division on the issue 2 not clear she would not give details 3 F he works for the bomb disposal unit of the army 4 not clear two men were killed, there are conflicting reports how 5 not clear he thinks so, but this is not a fact 6 not clear the bank refused to rule it out 7 not clear not stated 8 F they must win to go through 9 T they will give it to good causes 10 not clear not stated Grammar: A: verb + (that) clause = acknowledge, claim, deny verb + object + (that) clause = assure verb + to- infinitive = vow, refuse verb+ object + to-infinitive = urge verb + noun / noun phrase = express, reject, praise, confirm, blame, (+ on something / someone)

pp.96-97 Listening: A: 1 retirement of minister 2 award for sniffer dog 3 riots in Manova 4 rising interest rates 5 sports player out of match 6 two people have won a libel case against a newspaper

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14 BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS pp.98-99 Vocabulary: A: 1 inundated / flooded = same 2 relocating / moving = same rents / overheads = different; rents = payments for properties; overheads = total costs 3 upturn / decline = different; upturn = increase; decline = decrease 4 a solid client base / loyal customers = same 5 lay off / employ = almost opposite; employ = take on; lay off = make redundant 6 floating / launching = same 7 pick up / get better = same; end up going under / have to make serious cutbacks – similar, end up going under = go out of business; have to make serious cutbacks = have to save money, almost go out of business 8 hanging in / surviving = same, but surviving is more formal 9 diversify / consolidate = different; diversify = broaden, add more variety to; consolidate = make stronger 10 take on staff / make staff redundant = opposite (see 5) 11 downturn /drop = same 12 terminating / pitching for = different; terminating = ending; pitching for = bidding for Listening: A: Conversation 1 1 to check whether a delivery has arrived 2 not bad – picking up a bit 3 family and a holiday Conversation 2 1 to arrange a meeting 2 not bad – they may relocate 3 football – the European championships

B: Conversation 1 1 She was panicking over nothing because the delivery has arrived. 2 Sales have improved this quarter. 3 They have taken on two new staff. 4 Her daughter is crawling everywhere. 5 Her husband is away a lot, which has been a bit of a pain. Conversation 2 6 He’s just seen the draw for the European championships. 7 He tells him not to count his chickens – i.e. England won’t necessarily lose to Germany. 8 They’ll save on their overheads if they relocate. 9 Half the staff are threatening to leave if they relocate. 10 They arrange the meeting for Thursday. Developing Conversations: B: (variations are possible) 1 How’s the company doing? 2 How’s the economy doing? 3 How are your children? 4 Isn’t the weather lovely? 5 How’s work? 6 How’s the team doing? 7 Are you doing anything this evening? 8 How was your holiday? pp.100-101 Reading: A: 1 It is a play on the expression laughing all the way to the bank – used when someone makes a lot of money, often effortlessly. This is used ironically and suggests someone has lost a lot of money – possibly to the bank itself. 2 The news that the National bank is on the brink of bankruptcy and may need bailing out (rescuing financially). 3 Angry because banks have changed and now behave dishonestly. 4 a because it was so different then b that is when things began to change because of deregulation c those services began to be provided by banks d despite this huge profit they are still going bankrupt e taxpayers’ money will be used to bail them out.

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B: 1 asset 2 period 3 profit

4 beast 5 bankruptcy 6 bailout

C: Suggested answer Banks have changed a lot since being deregulated in the 1980s. They are no longer community minded, but profit focused and greedy. They no longer serve the public, but the taxpayer has to bail them out. Grammar: A: 1 a period in which 2 places you went to not only which 3 services that had 4 a beast that fed off 5 the ways in 6 which means us C: 1 why 4 which

2 where 5 where

3 where 6 in

Speaking: 1 obscene = very high and unfair 2 jeopardise = put at risk 3 lax = not very controlled 4 seductive = leading to temptation 5 bear a share = carry part of the blame 6 legitimised = made to seem legal 7 daylight robbery = stealing in an open and excessive way 8 exceeded = gone over 9 hole = bad situation 10 threw = offered on very easy terms 11 a killing = a huge profit 12 servicing = paying the interest on

pp.102-103 Vocabulary: A: 1 a new product 2 an industrial dispute 3 a takeover 4 cutting costs 5 sales 6 business taxes

Listening: A: agenda – list of items to be discussed the chair – conducts the meeting the minute taker notes the main points made and who made them B: Peter – chair Henry – finance Rachel – sales Alex – product development F: (A – accurate, I – inaccurate, PA – partly accurate) 1 I – he says they can’t entirely blame the economy 2 I – she says they have exceeded their targets 3A 4 I – he says there may be redundancies but he hopes they will be voluntary 5A 6 PA – retail at 100–130 euros 7A 8A 9A 10 PA – main market gyms / health clubs. Initial reaction good. 11 A 12 A

15 FASHION pp.104-105 Vocabulary: A: 1 g laces 2 c blouse 3 a shawl 4 b sturdy

5f 6e 7h 8d

linen baggy flared frilly

B: collar, pocket, lining, lapel, sleeve, laces, ribbon, bangle, purse, a bob, highlighted, summery, sturdy, low-cut, strapless, kneelength, slinky, lining, spotted, thick, baggy, red, wavy, ripped, frilly, faded, skinny, designer

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Listening: A: 1 a F – Tatiana has long hair 1bT 2 a F – she’s trying on a dress or a blouse 2bT 3aT 3 b F – one thinks they show off her legs, one thinks they make them look thin 4 a F – he looks smart 4 b T – though she doesn’t say so directly B: 1 I wish I could get away with it = I wish I had the shape or looks to carry off that style 2 My face is too round. I’d look like a lollipop = it wouldn’t suit the shape of my face 3 They work well together = they look good together 4 It really shows off your curves = it shows the shape of your body in a positive way 5 It wouldn’t work for me = it wouldn’t suit me 6 She pulls it off = it suits her, it is a successful look even though it may be a bit strange 7 clashing patterns are really in = different bright colours together are in fashion 8 show off her legs = make her legs look good 9 she’d be better off = she’d look better 10 lose the tie = take off my tie 11 sticking out = looking noticeable or different Developing Conversations: A: 1 ... that it’s very colourful. 2 ... you really suit having dark hair. 3 ... I think we need to wear something more formal to the dinner. 4 ... sometimes he comes across as being quite abrupt. 5 ... that your skills would be best suited elsewhere. 6 ... you already have three skirts that are quite similar at home.

pp.106-107 Reading: A: 1 She feels moved and a bit frightened or spooked. 2 Because it is full of dead things or things once used by people who are now dead. 3 Because they are between life and death and they are waiting for the music to begin presumably for the next show. C: Picture 1 Picture 2 Picture 3 Picture 4

Picture 5 Picture 6 Picture 7 Picture 8

D: 1 Napoleonic dress, mini-dress 2 Mini-dress 3 Ottoman dress 4 sagging jeans 5 the mini-dress 6 the turban, the fez (Ottoman), the hoodie 7 the mini-dress, the hoodie 8 the ruff (starch), the mini-dress ( tights) Grammar: A: 1 at 2 as 3 throughout 4 With 5 to

6 from 7 to, of 8 for, in 9 with, on 10 On

pp.108-109 Listening: B: 1 stick-thin models – hangers to hang clothes on – rise in eating disorders 2 very thin men – called ‘manorexia’ – more male models these days 3 Asian and black models undergoing treatments e.g. skin bleaching – ‘deracialising’ and obscene 4 range of different shapes and sizes of model – used by Dove 5 Beth Ditto – overweight but popular – only because it is unusual and different Main point – we see a number of unhealthy images in fashion, and it depicts the world mainly as white, young and thin

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C: 1 the spread of fashion and images associated no longer simply in developed countries 2 fashion is as important/ influential as political representatives 3 the big fashion houses are driving the trends they need to sell in a cut-throat market 4 teenage girls are the biggest consumers and most vulnerable 5 younger and younger people using Botox shows seriousness of the problem 6 extreme cosmetic procedures that nonwestern women submit themselves too also highlights the seriousness of the problem 7 Dove campaign and Beth Ditto both are example of representations of normal, healthy women 8 but they only have impact because they are not the norm (swimming against the tide) E: 1 g penetrate every corner of the world (fashion images) 2 a depict the world as it really is (images in fashion) 3 b disseminate images (fashion industry) 4 c cut-throat market (the fashion market) 5 h nigh-on impossible 6 e opt for procedures (to make oneself more “attractive” e.g. Botox) 7 f undergo extreme procedures (young black and Asian girls) 8 j become the norm (unrealistic images of body beautiful) 9 d strike a chord (Dove campaign) 10 i attract publicity (Beth Ditto with her fashion range for larger women) G: The lecturer would strongly agree with statement 3, and to a degree with statement 2. Vocabulary: A: 1 representative 2 dominant 3 imagery 4 broadened 5 influential 6 exploitative 7 perpetuation 8 depiction 9 ageist, sexist 10 representation, portrayed

C: 1 unrepresentative, representing 2 domination, dominated 3 imagine, imaginary, imagination 4 breadth, broader 5 influencing, influenced 6 exploitation, exploiting 7 perpetuate, perpetuity 8 depicting, depicted 9 ageing, aged; sexual, sexuality 10 see answer 1; portray, portrait

16 DANGER AND RISK pp.110-111 Listening: A: Conversation 1 leg – cut it with a scalpel while making an architectural model Conversation 2 forehead – walked into a shelf while on summer camp; chin, blown by wind between two parked cars – whacked in on road B: 1T 2 F – she studied to be an architect and made models 3 F – she was tired 4T 5 F – she went to A and E (Accident and Emergency), got stitches and presented the model on time 6 F – he was working at summer camp 7T 8 F – it was too late to stitch 9 F – the woman doesn’t remember it 10 F – he hit it on the road C: 1 a a very big or serious scar 1 b very tired 1 c almost unconscious, extremely tired 1 d fell asleep 2 a sufficiently clever (sarcastic) 2 b staggered, walked with difficulty; hit myself 2 c I was unlucky and I usually am 2 d hurt, were suffering Vocabulary: A: 1 ripped 2 came to 3 pouring 4 panicked

5 banged 6 heavily 7 sliced 8 cut

10 fainted 11 break 9 burnt 12 terrible pain 33

pp.112-113 Reading: A: 1 Bureaucrats or civil servants from the EU have abandoned the idea of trying to stop people exposing part of their flesh to sunlight on health grounds. 2 It is biased because it says they have seen sense and they should use common sense more often. 3 They wanted to include sunlight because it is a form of bright light and it can be dangerous. Vocabulary: A: 1 loopholes = anomalies in the law that often allow someone to avoid doing the right thing 2 non-compliance = not keeping the law 3 legislation = set of rules or laws about something 4 liable = responsible 5 lawsuits = when someone sues someone else or takes them to court 6 damages = compensation 7 negligence = carelessness or not doing their job properly 8 an appeal = an attempt to get a ruling overturned by retrying the case B: 1 held 2 awarded 3 sued 4 overturned

5 filed 7 exploit 6 admitted 8 opposed

B: 1 Internet penetration (i.e. the number of people connected) will soon reach 80%; children as young as eight are addicted to Internet use. 2 She is going to retire from her job as a teacher and she is glad. 3 They can’t write essays or think through a question. 4 pornography, white supremacists (those who believe white people are superior to black people), religious extremists, weapon making, online gambling 5 We should control the use of the web more. 6 It would require a huge online police force. 7 Make an example of a few people by punishing them severely. 8 There may be legal battles about the severity of punishments. Grammar: E: 1 is / are due to; 2 is / are bound to; 3 is / are set to; 4 is / are to; 5 is / are likely to F: 1 The situation is bound to deteriorate. 2 Our jobs are highly likely to be at risk. 3 They are on the verge of finalising the deal. 4 If you gamble online, there’s a strong likelihood of losing / that you will lose. 5 The work is due to be finished by May. 6 Inflation is set to rise over 10% next month.

Listening: B: 2, 4, 5, 8, 9

04 REVIEW

pp.114-115 Vocabulary: A: 1 threat 6 menace 2 peril 7 risk 3 hazard 8 danger 4 the menace 9 risk 5 threat 10 danger Listening: A: 1 people are losing ability to think for themselves 2 pornography 3 people are sucked in to dangerous political or religious groups 4 online gambling 5 online fraudsters

pp.116-119 Quiz: 1 Someone might pull out of a race or competition because they are ill or injured. 2 Three things that are now obsolete (no longer in use) are record players, Routemaster buses, pesetas. 3 The opposite of denying an allegation is admitting (to) an allegation. 4 Someone might make a prototype when they are inventing something. 5 The weather, a cancellation of some kind, your friend not showing up etc. can all ruin your day. 6 To libel someone you would write something untrue about them. 7 Companies can outsource factory workers, IT or call centre workers because it is cheaper. 34

8 You might find loopholes in the law which could save you from being prosecuted. Lawyers might look for them. 9 When people rampage through the streets they make a lot of noise and may damage things. 10 People might freak out if they are scared or panicking. 11 A government may need to bail out a company or bank because they are at risk of going bankrupt. 12 A type of behaviour or dress might be frowned on because someone disapproves of it. 13 You find inmates in prison. 14 Most companies have to pay overheads for rent, utilities, supplies, etc. 15 You might give someone a head start in a race because you have an unfair advantage over them e.g. a child. Idioms: 1 He’s in a predicament / a difficult situation. 2 They’re stealing the profits. 3 I fell asleep. 4 It’s very expensive. 5 It’s been likely to happen for a while. 6 He’s always been a non-conformist. 7 They make a huge profit. 8 I really identified or sympathised with it. 9 It’s a big fuss about nothing. 10 It’s a good example of the government controlling people’s lives. 11 I wouldn’t be so sure it will happen. 12 It’s an attack on people’s personal lives. 13 It is of interest to the baser side of humanity. 14 I could find a space for you (e.g. for an appointment). 15 We are in a very difficult situation in which neither course of action is desirable. Listening: 1 F film industry’s big annual award night 2T 3T 4 F outfit showed off her curves 5 F the crowd was stunned by her haircut 6T 7 F she categorically denies the accusations 8 F many observers felt she looked worn down 9 F she looked in absolute agony 10 T

Grammar: A: 1 where 3 whom 2 Besides 4 due

5 with 6 likely / liable

B: 1 the vast majority are able to 2 urged them not to 3 the way in which

7 to 8 during

4 with regard to 5 blame government 6 on the verge of

Language Patterns: 1 correct 2 This isn’t as hard an exercise as might be imagined. / This exercise isn’t as hard as might be imagined. 3 There’s no demand for that kind of fabric anymore. 4 At least he saw the funny side of the situation. 5 correct 6 He’s got this great big scar/ huge scar down one side of his face. Prepositions: 1 from 2 with 3 throughout 4 of 5 for 6 on 7 in 8 at

Opposites: 1 positive 2 final 3 off-putting 4 simple 5 volatile 6 lax 7 specific 8 mainstream

Missing Words: 1 bid 2 clash(es) 4 base 5 leak

3 appeal

Verbs: 1 confirm 2 retract 3 implement 4 slash 5 switch 6 regain 7 enhance 8 jeopardise Vocabulary: 1 C bid 2 A hailed 3 C seize 4 B Witnesses

Forming Words: 1 technicality 2 coverage 3 policing 4 circulation 5 symbolic 6 authority 7 directive

5 A terminate 6 B floated 7 A consolidate 8 C defaulted

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WRITING LESSONS 01 DESCRIBING VISUAL DATA pp. 120-121 Writing: A: 1 by population (not by area) 2 not all cities expected to grow 3 rural to urban living (not the other way round) 4 not true that urban populations in the whole world are projected to rise by 25% 5 Mumbai will rise more than slightly 6 Dhaka will rise by 8.6% (not triple) Vocabulary: A: 1 the vast majority 2 almost a fifth 3 more than halved, fourfold 4 four out of five, slightly higher 5 a tiny percentage 6 a significant minority Grammar: A: 1 By 2025, the population of Dhaka is projected to have risen to 22 million. 2 In the next 20 years the rural population is set to fall. 3 African cities are expected to grow rapidly over the next few years. 4 China is predicted to become the world’s largest economy in the next ten years. Key Words of Writing: 1 The government donates 0.6% of GDP as aid, the bulk of which goes to countries in Africa. 2 There were 2650 fatalities from car accidents last year, the vast majority of which were caused by driver error. 3 University entrees, of whom 12% will come from deprived backgrounds, are set to increase. 4 There was a significant fall in crime in the last decade, a large part of which was put down to rising living standards. 5 The survey interviewed 950 people altogether, most of whom were 18 25 years old.

02 EXPRESSING YOUR OPINION pp. 122-123 Writing: F: 1 so 2 Indeed 3 As such 4 However 5 Secondly 6 Whilst 7 In short 8 such Key Words for Writing: A: D: Suggested answers 1 they may have to make cuts. 2 they can usually use taxpayers’ money to help if necessary. 3 the present government made many such promises in the run-up to the election. 4 it can be open to corruption.

03 A REVIEW pp. 124-125 Vocabulary: A + B: 1 based + set (film) 2 rhyme + collection (poetry) 3 album + encores (gig) 4 sets + choreography (ballet) 5 abstract + sculptures (exhibition) 6 production + plot (play) 7 technique + partner (musical) 8 prose + multi-layered (novel) 9 orchestration + role (opera) 10 symphony + finale (concert) Key Words for Writing: A: 1f 2b 3a 4c

5e

6d

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04 DESCRIBING PROCESSES pp. 126-127 Writing: C: 1 whereby 4 as

2 thus 3 meanwhile 5 which

Vocabulary: A: 1 Plastic is removed from the rubbish manually. 2 The pipes are insulated with foam to minimise heat loss. 3 The final product is screened for impurities. 4 The tea leaves are categorised into different grades according to size and quality. 5 Nothing is discarded through the process, to maximise efficiency. 6 The raw materials are delivered in a container ship. 7 The parts are assembled in a central plant. 8 The oranges are boxed and loaded on to lorries. 9 The turbines are powered by forcing water through them. 10 The microbes are used to break down the oil into droplets.

Key Words for Writing: A: 1 whereby 2 thus / thereby 3 whereby, thus/ thereby 4 whereby

05 A COVERING LETTER pp. 128-129 Writing: A: 1 am writing 2 as 3 would 4 having spent 5 worked Vocabulary: A: 1 arranged 2 promoted 3 advised 4 achieved

6 which 7 put 8 all 9 should 10 hearing

5 conducted 6 dealt with 7 implemented 8 diagnosed

9 devised 10 budgeted 11 negotiated 12 represented

Key Words for Writing: A: 1 Please do not hesitate to contact me should you require further information. 2 References are available on request, should you require them. 3 Should any vacancies become available, please contact me at your earliest convenience. 4 After sixty days you can retake the test should you wish to do so. 5 Please phone to make an appointment should you wish to discuss the matter further. B: 1 Feel free to get in touch if you want more information. 2 I’ve got references if you need them. 3 Please let me know as soon as possible if any jobs come up. 4 You can do the test again after a couple of months if you want to. 5 Phone and make an appointment if you want to talk any more about this.

06 A MAGAZINE ARTICLE pp. 130-131 Writing: B: 1 Paragraphs end at Museum and maintenance. paragraph 1 – introduces inventor and invention paragraph 2 – describes how he came to invent the Cat’s Eye paragraph 3 – talks about applications of Cat’s Eye and compares it with other inventions 2 1 I believe Percy Shaw is a great inventor and his Cat’s Eye should be displayed in the Design Museum. 2 How many of these were really invented by one man? 3 It made its inventor millions of pounds, yet few people know his name. 4 Their inventors ‘stood on the shoulders of giants’. 5 telephones, cars, computers, etc. 6 yet – line 1, surely – last sentence, besides – last sentence but one 3 Possible title = An invaluable invention

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Key Words for Writing: A: 1 There was enormous interest in the new device, yet sales were sluggish. 2 It was cheap to produce. Besides, it was beautiful to look at. / Besides being cheap to produce, it was beautiful to look at. 3 Surely this is the greatest achievement in the 21st century so far. 4 Some may argue that many others were working on the problem, but surely his was the biggest and most decisive contribution. 5 The train was fast and comfortable, and besides, it was the cheapest option. 6 He made millions from his invention, yet he died in poverty. Grammar: A: 1 little 2 few 3 little 4 a few 5 a little 6 few 7 a few

07 A WIKI GUIDE pp. 132-133 Vocabulary: A: 1c 2a 5e 6d

3h 7f

Writing: B: 1 largely 2 effectively 3 partially 4 predominantly 5 essentially

4g 8b

6 above 7 below 8 subsequently 9 deliberate 10 previously

08 GIVING INFORMATION pp. 134-135 Writing: B: 1 Housing 2 Founded 3 Situated 4 Following 5 entering 6 Walking 7 featuring Grammar: A: 1 Entering the museum, we... 2 Walking round the museum, I... 3 Removed from Greece at the start of the 19th century, the Elgin Marbles... 4 Being redecorated, the galleries... 5 Not having long before closing time, we... 6 Being a regular visitor to the city, I m... 7 Being about ten miles outside of town, the museum... 8 A new law was introduced about ten years ago, resulting in all entrance fees being scrapped. 9 Visiting the museum during the morning, you will find it much less crowded. 10 The guide, pretending not to hear her questions, carried on with the tour. Key Words for Writing: A: 1d 2c 3g 4b 5f 6a 7e

Key Words for Writing: A: 1 albeit conservative 2 albeit funny sometimes 3 albeit very slowly 4 albeit one I didn’t wholly agree with 5 albeit he is an academic expert

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03 RELATIONSHIPS

Grammar Reference

WOULD p. 138 Exercise 1 1 I’d completely agree with you on that. 2 I’d say it was your own fault, to be honest. 3 I’d imagine they’ll buy a new one. 4 I’d expect it to arrive sometime next week. 5 I would have thought he was just trying to lighten the mood. 6 I wouldn’t have thought it could be done.

01 CITIES p. 136 PERFECT TENSES Exercise 1 1a haven’t called b don’t call 2a was done up b it’s been done up 3a had been struck b was struck 4a to curb b to have curbed 5a will have changed b will change 6a Having seen b seeing 7a pump b have pumped 8a were b had been

Exercise 2 1 correct 2 I used to have 3 correct 4 I wish my nose wasn’t / weren’t so big. 5 Would you mind me sitting here? 6 I wouldn’t be here if I hadn’t had the Surgery. 7 correct 8 correct 9 I knew he’d say that.

Exercise 2 1 he won’t have finished 2 correct 3 the country’s been emerging 4 they may win 5 correct 6 you have played 7 having invested all that money 8 correct

Exercise 3 1 get 2 been 3 added 4 bother

02 CULTURE AND IDENTITY p. 137 EMPHATIC STRUCTURES Exercise 1 1 amazes + amount 2 frustrates + lack 3 upset + seeing 4 disturbs + stance 5 drives + way 6 concerns + number 7 worries + level 8 angers + not

04 POLITICS p. 139 CONDITIONALS Exercise 1 1 it triggered 2 would’ve wanted 3 I told 4 I’d told

Exercise 2 (slight variations possible) 1 What surprised me was that the city is (was) very (so) cosmopolitan. 2 What disturbs me is that he can be very nationalistic. 3 What concerns me is the growing wealth gap between rich and poor. 4 What really scares me is the fact that the whole society is ageing at an alarming rate. 5 What really angers me is that people assume that I must love football just because I’m Brazilian. Exercise 3 1 It 2 that 3 not

4 who / that

5 thought 6 react 7 taking 8 to explain

5 fact

Exercise 2 1 don’t 2 going 3 would 4 should

5 never 6 keeps / continues 7 knew, don’t 8 be, had

Exercise 3 1 If we don’t get support, we won’t achieve anything. 2 If I wasn’t / weren’t in a hurry, I’d stop and talk. 3 They would’ve won by a landslide, if they’d changed their leader. 4 I’d vote for them, if they had a different stance on education. 5 He might still be president if he hadn’t got / been mixed up in that scandal. 39

05 NIGHT IN, NIGHT OUT p. 140 NOUN PHRASES Exercise 1 1 Joel Riley gives a talk 2 photography was swept along = no object 3 The parents are seeking an amount of damages Exercise 2 1 Visit the awe-inspiring cathedral, designed by the architect Antonio Gaudi. 2 I read a fascinating article in the paper by the novelist Ann Tyler. 3 The exhibitions held in the centre are accompanied by workshops suitable for all ages. 4 There is a wealth of exhibits on show, dating back thousands of years. 5 The number of people going to the cinema is far fewer than the number currently attending theatre performances. Exercise 3 1 The six week course provides guidelines for losing weight. 2 The disposal of nuclear waste is a matter often causing controversy. 3 There’s widespread opposition to the abolition of car tax. 4 The erection of the statue celebrated the centenary / 100th anniversary of his birth.

06 CONFLICT p. 141 I WISH / IF ONLY Exercise 1 1 could 2 wasn’t / weren’t 3 had, mentioned 4 would stop 5 had said 6 could have 7 would, get 8 wouldn’t do 9 was / were Exercise 2 1 If only I could stop smoking. 2 If only I had given him my mobile number. 3 If only he would ask me before taking things from my room. / If only he wouldn’t take things from my room without asking. 4 If only you weren’t so selfish.

5 If only you’d listen to me when I’m trying to talk to you. 6 If only I’d remembered / I hadn’t forgotten to lock the front door when I left. Exercise 3 1 had 2 could 3 hadn’t 4 was / were 5 weren’t

07 SCIENCE AND RESEARCH p. 142 PASSIVES Exercise 1 1 has been achieved 2 was given an injection 3 is believed to be 4 had one of my wisdom teeth (taken) out 5 funding from the / to be funded by the 6 be underpinned by 7 being employed by 8 is believed to be caused by Exercise 2 1 is being carried out 2 affected, have been vaccinated 3 undertaking, be produced 4 be caused, being exposed to 5 being extracted, was tested 6 has set back, is hoped, prevent

08 NATURE p. 143 AUXILIARIES Exercise 1 1 I did 2 It doesn’t 4 It does

3 We will 5 It is

Exercise 2 1 That fish does look weird. 2 I did like the country … 3 My son does really enjoy going to the zoo. 4 The female of the species does participate in the raising of the young … 5 Tigers did use to be quite common … 6 He does interrupt a bit … Exercise 3 1 are 2 do 3 did 4 does 5 wouldn’t 6 shouldn’t

7 hadn’t, did 8 wasn’t / weren’t, can’t 9 should 10 haven’t, will 11 will 12 was, may / might / could

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09 WORK p. 144 CONTINUOUS FORMS Exercise 1 1a have drawn up 1 b have been drawing up 2a had been losing 2 b lost 3a is dealing with 3 b will deal with/ will be dealing with 4 a were having 4 b had had 5a are processed 5 b is being processed 6 a wouldn’t be sitting 6 b wouldn’t sit 7a was being interviewed 7 b was interviewed Exercise 2 1 correct 2 He must’ve been doing 3 it’s being done up 4 supposed to be taking on 5 I see 6 she’s come up with 7 correct 8 I’ll sort out

5 can’t be, must weaken / be weakening, might get 6 must have, would have screamed, could remain / could’ve remained

11 PLAY p. 146 LINKING WORDS Exercise 1 1 and then 2 Even if 3 although 4 so as not to 5 if 6 until 7 in order to 8 so long as 9 otherwise

Exercise 2 1 so 2 otherwise 3 provided 4 if 5 case 6 as 7 even 8 but / although

12 HISTORY

p. 145 MODAL VERBS Exercise 1 1 That must’ve been painful. 2 He should have stopped smoking earlier. 3 It can’t be that hard to do. 4 They couldn’t have done any more to help. 5 It can’t have been cheap. 6 He shouldn’t have been taking those pills. 7 You may / might / could need three or four operations. 8 He must’ve been lying about his diet! 9 She may / might / could have picked up the bug from my son. 10 If he managed to get to hospital in time, everything must have been fine.

p. 147 DRAMATIC INVERSION Exercise 1 1 Only when it became obvious it could no longer be contained, did he admit his involvement in the scandal. 2 Never before had we witnessed an international relief operation on such a scale. 3 Not until 1996 did the fi rst women’s team come into existence. 4 At no time did anybody try to prevent the tragedy. 5 Nowhere else in the world can you combine business and pleasure quite so well. 6 They made it very clear that under no circumstances could I move; otherwise, they’d shoot me. 7 Only after America rebelled against the high import taxes imposed on tea, did coffee become more popular. 8 Not only was he an artist and poet, he was also a military leader. 9 No sooner had they taken offi ce than the government put up taxes. 10 Only once in our recent history have we had an honest leader.

Exercise 2 1 would be, might have seen 2 may have suffered, should have carried out, would stop 3 must be, should go, could be 4 shouldn’t be playing, could have been killed, wouldn’t have had

Exercise 2 1 did so few people do 2 did she campaign 3 does it start 4 No sooner had the truce been called 5 was corruption fi nally tackled 6 on no account would foreigners be allowed

10 HEALTH AND ILLNESS

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13 NEWS AND THE MEDIA p. 148 REPORTING AND VERB PATTERNS Exercise 1 1 cited 3 refused 5 announced 2 urged 4 blamed 6 instructed

7 pleaded 8 boasting

Exercise 2 1 anger at the tax 2 to me to having 3 to have it done 4 urged us to visit 5 expressed concern that the situation 6 threatened me with the sack 7 acknowledged that the rescue plan had been Exercise 3 1 encouragement for students to apply for university 2 criticism for / about his decision 3 the invitation to work 4 an announcement that they were getting married last week

14 BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS p. 149 RELATIVE CLAUSES Exercise 1 1 We have to identify the areas where / in which improvements can be made. 2 My boss, whose office is next to mine, heard everything. 3 In January we borrowed ten thousand euros, most of which has already been spent. 4 Deals can depend on the way in which you approach negotiations. 5 For the starting point of our study, we chose 2004, when our president / which was the year our president submitted the highest budget. 6 I wanted to explore the extent to which large corporations influence the economic health of nations. 7 The meeting in 2008 was a very important one, when we realised we could no longer work as allies. 8 We have over 9000 employees, the vast majority of whom are based in China. 9 We found ourselves expected to pay large bribes to local officials, which was a very difficult situation. 10 We’ve reached a crucial point, where we can’t cut costs any further without having to lay people off.

Exercise 2 A 1 f after whom the company is named 2e without whom we would never have survived this difficult year 3c with which we are all satisfied 4a about which we currently know very little 5b from whom I’ve learned a huge amount 6d with which we surround ourselves B 1 who the company is named after 2 who we would never have survived without 3 we are all satisfi ed with 4 which we currently know very little about 5 who I’ve learned a huge amount from 6 we surround ourselves with

15 FASHION p. 150 PREPOSITIONS Exercise 1 1 for 4 in 2 up 5 by 3 On 6 into

7 from 8 for 9 On / After

10 from 11 off 12 until

Exercise 2 1 the game on purpose to 2 as regards to the overall design 3 to his arrival 4 reducing the costs, we have enabled 5 on a daily basis 6 in the long term 7 accounts for

16 DANGER AND RISK p. 151 OTHER FUTURE FORMS Exercise 1 1 probable not correct 2 both correct 3 both correct 4 both correct 5 both correct 6 chances not correct 7 both correct 8 likely not possible

Exercise 2 1 of 2 in 3 for 4 on 5 for 6 at

Exercise 3 1 is to be overseen by 2 is sure to damage 3 believe they are on the point of fi nding 4 are about to be evicted 5 success is bound to follow 6 are highly likely to rise this year 42

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