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Student's Book Virginia Evans - Jenny Dooley Express Publishing i ! I. I , i I J Ii I~ ! , . I i i ------------~~- Contents Stories pp. 25-38 Language...

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Student's Book

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Virginia Evans - Jenny Dooley

Express Publishing

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Contents

Past continuous Past continuous vs past simple III Used to/Would 41 Past perfect o Past perfect continuous

Cl Cultural activities & experiences • Travel experiences • The Internet Cl Types of performances 19 Social netwprking sites 19 Types of books 19 Tourist attractions .. Phrasal verbs: fall, get, give o Word formation: abstract nouns from verbs

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Stories pp. 25-38 Language Review 2 p. 39 Matura Skills 2 pp. 40-41 Revision 2 p. 42

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o The weather • EXtreme, activities , • Types of accommodation, • 'Verbs related totheweather 4O. Outdom leisure activities .~. ~ilmpjf]gequipment " It., Phrasal\[erb~:go; /001< • Word formation: adjectives from nouns

·~MotherNatur~

o '.Mo.daf"erbs:'mt.i5t,:have·io;~.'.·,

should,(Qnka~'t;may; might; ,

·~f!cfd:i;h~~r6'\O"ld; .~" . 'Ill

experiences pp. 79-92 Language Review 5 p. 93 Matura Skills 5 pp.94-95 Revision 5 p. 96

Relativedapses," " ~~,,' b()th: .. a'nd, either ..; or; neither.• ,

• Present perfect vs past simple 19 Present perfect continuous 19 Modals making~ deduction: must, can't, may/might • Tenses oftheinfinitive/-ing form

Gestures & body ranguage El Annoying/Bad habits '", ~. 19 Cultural differences/adjustments ElProblemswithheighbours ~ 19 Physical appearance, & charclCter 19 Culturaltraditiof]s &customs 19 Phrasa I verbs: take, turn " Word formation: negative adjectives o

'la{Jguag~ReVj~vv6P::1 h':; ~i Matura Skill~6 pp.J lHi3' ~~' "Revi§ion6 p; 114; ','

2

Grammar Reference pp. 115-127 Rules for Punctuation p. 128

Vocabulary Bank pp. 129-145 Word Formation pp. 146-149

Key word Transformations pp. 150-152 Writing Bank pp. 153-158·

- Hot Jobs (multiple choice) -UFO Hunter (open-ended

- Cash in Hand

sentences) - Listening: ideiltifying main points -Take a Deep Breath (multiple choice) .. Listening: multiple matching .. Getting ajob (matching headings to paragraphs

- Talking about jobs - A job interview 11 Talking about adventure sports - Asking for/giving personal details - Pronunciation: intonation in questions

- Taking notes about jobs - Sentences about UFO Hunting - A cover letter, applying for a job .. A paragraph about your hobby

.. John's Travels (open-ended

11

Talking about travel experiences ID Expressing opinions EO Talking about a performance • Talking about reading habits Pronunciation: Intonation when expressing feelings

.. Writing a short account of a .. Lady Gaga: The story queen of pop Making notes about a Chinese .. ICT: Social opera Networks: How ID A story do they work?

..

ID

.. .. " ID

.. .. ... .. -

sentences) Listening: identifying main points The Story of Google (TIF) Lady Gaga (comprehension questions) Listening: mUltiple matching Grand Opera (multiple choice) The Haunted City of York (sequence of events) Listening: identifying specific information (T/F) Listening: identifying specific information (answering questions) Matt ofthe Antarctica (T/F statements) Extremely weird (multiple choice) Climate change (T/F statements) Trapped in the Wilderness (gapped text) Listening: identifying specific informati.on (Multiple Choice)

.. Talking about the weather " Talking about extreme activities " Booking accommodationl asking for and giving information " Talking about environmental problems Cl Describing pictures OIl Pronunciation: Intonation stress in compound nouns

G Talking about health problems " Talking about how to use ." Remedies from the kitchen cupboard gadgets wisely (reading for specific OIl Visiting the doctor (at a Information) doctor's surgery) - The French Spiderman (Multiple 11 Making suggestionsl replying Choice) - Pronunciation: rhyming words - Phobii1s(gapped text) III Listening: (multiple matching)

(headings to paragraphs)

for specific information

" Rites of Passage (multiple choice) " Listening: (T/F statements)

" Street Art: Art oinot? (T/F) Ben Langdon: Forensic Scientist 11 CyberOime GoingCrackers! (headings t paragraphs) . - Mark's Blog (multiple matching) 11

Basic Sample Test p. 159-163 Extended Sample Test p. 164-169

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.. Modern marvels or new nasties

" It's annoying (T/F I DS statements) .. Steven Marshall (T/F statements) .. A change for the better (reading

- PSHE: What's the job for you? (quiz)

A short text about Antarctica .. The Appalachian " Sentences about extreme Trail sports " Geography: .. A short paragraph about Caves global warming " A semi-formal email asking for information .. A summary of a text 11

- Writing about gadgets and health problems .. Writing suggestions about health problems - Writing an interview 11 A summary of a text 11 An essay making suggestions

III

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Australia's most dangerous animals PSHE: Catch some Zzzs!

.. Talking about annoying situations .. Talking about social etiquette in your country " Complaining and apologising .. Commenting on changes in appearance .. Pronunciation: linking sounds

.. Writing a post about an .. Social Etiquette in annoying situation the UK .. sentences speculating about a - Science: Body Talk character .. Writing sentences about person you admire 11 A for-and-against essay

" give a witness statement .. Pronunciation: epenthesis " Comment on an event

11 an account of an experience .. writing about an inspirational . figure - presentation on cybercrime - an interview - a letter to the editor making suggestions

Oral Sample Test p. 170-173 Word List pp. 174-188

American-British English p. 189 Pronunciation p. 190

11

The Civil Rights Movement in the USA

- Citizenship: Amnesty International

Irregular Verbs

3

Published by Express Publishing Liberty House, Greenham Business Park, Newbury, Berkshire RG19 6HW Tel.: (0044) 1635 817 363 Fax: (0044) 1635 817 463 e-mail: [email protected] http://www.expresspublishing.co.uk

© Virginia Evans - Jenny Dooley 2011 Design and Illustration © Express Publishing, 2011 Colour Illustrations: Victor, Angela, Simon Andrews, Kyr © Express Publishing, 2011 Music Arrangements by Taz © Express Publishing, 2011 First published 2011 Polish edition by EGIS, 2011 Made in EU All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publishers. This book is not meant to be changed in any way. ISBN 978-0-85777-925-0

Acknowledgements Authors' Acknowledgements We would like to thank all the staff at Express Publishing who have contributed their skills to producing this book. Thanks are due in particular to: Megan Lawton (Editor in Chief), Stephanie Smith and Michael Sadler (senior editors); Andrew Wright (editorial assistant), Brian O'Neil (senior production controller) and the Express Publishing design team; Warehouse (recording producer) and Emily Newton, Kevin Harris, Daniel Parker, Erica Thompson and Timothy Forster for their support and patience. We would also like to thank those institutions and teachers who piloted the manuscript, and whose comments and feedback were invaluable in the production of the book.

Photograph Acknowledgements Module 1: storm chaser © Warren Faidley - Weatherstock.com on p. 7; Module 2: 2b Larry Page & Sergey Brin © Kim KULlSH REA/www.iml.gr on p. 28; google logo © IMAGO/www.iml.gr on p. 28; facebook logo © Jonathan Sprague REDUX/www.iml.gr on p. 29; 2c Lady Gaga © SPLASH/www.iml.gr on p. 30; Module 4: 4e Alain Robert © maxppp/www.iml.gr on p. 56; Module 6: 6a image 2 © Jan Vormann on p. 98; image 3 © SPLASH/www.iml.gr and image 4 © NICK CUNARD; EYEVINE/www.iml.gr on p. 99 While every effort has been made to trace all the copyright holders, if any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

Transport

1

Complete the sentences with the types of transport in the list. There are two words that you don't need to use. e

plane

e

bus • underground

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4

• • • •

ferry "bike

• car • motorbike • taxi

2 3 4 S 6

Complete the spidergram. Use these words. Add one to each category.

Mr Holmes is flying to Spain on a business trip. His ............................................ leaves at 6:00. The fastest way to travel in London is below the city on the ................................................ . Hannah was very late for work and had to call for a ......................................... . We went to the Isle of Man by ........................ . last weekend. The sea was calm. Tom loves riding his ............................... in the park every afternoon. People don't often take their ......................... .. into the city centre because there is too much traffic.

tomatoes • yogurt "chicken • orange juice cauliflower • bread • salmon • grapes rice • lamb • milk • eggs • cherries • tuna tea • peppers

/

I ( other

--------.

fruit and \ Vegetables.)

__

/ / dair~ " - - - - : - /( pcodu", )

/~

Places in a city

2

Complete the table with the words. • • • • •

block of flats • petrol station • post office traffic lights • tunnel • bungalow semi-detached house • road sign • hospital cottage • library • bus stop • bus lane detached house • community centre

Household chores

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Fill in: do, lay, mop, iron, dust, make, take out,

5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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Fill in: grow, raise, stuck, show, patrol, try, lose, put up, miss, make. ................................,..... vegetables ..................................... the beach ..................................... posters ..................................... money for charity get .............................. in mud .................................... local food ..................................... a flight ..................................... my luggage ..................................... respect ..................................... a difference

Match the words in the two columns.

CID

[IT]

hoover ............ 2 ............ 3 ............ 4 ............

Collocations

the the the the

furniture bed clothes table

5 ............ the rubbish 6 ............ the floor 7 ....... the washing-up 8 ............ the carpets

[IT]

GO

[IT] [ID

polluted child rescue medical conservation bus

team supplies waters project E lane F labour

A B C D

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Everyday English

Cooking methods

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9

Fill in: pour, add, beat, slice, chop, stir, melt.

Circle the correct response.

1 A: Hello. Can I help you? B: a I'd like two tickets Brighton, please. b No, you can't do that!

Strawberry Shortcake is delicious. Let's make it together!

2) .~~~~IJI

2 A: And what would you like to

............... the strawberries, and then we

First, we 1)

.. ............ , the

.... ,.......... the sugar. We 3). I

! : ............... into a sauce.

strawberries and sugar until they 4)

Next, we cut the biscuits and put them in a tray. Then, we add the ............. some cream and

strawberry sauce. After that, we 5)

! ............

the cream onto the biscuits. Finally,

.............. , some nuts and put

we 7)

them on top! Your strawberry

Natural disasters

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Match the comments with the natural disasters in the list. There are two items you don't need to use. s

drought

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flood • earthquake -forestfire • tornado

• tsunami • hurricane 1 "We saw the sea coming towards us. We all ran for the hills to save our lives." 2 "I was in bed when the house started shaking. I could see the walls move, so I jumped out of bed and hid under the kitchen table." 3 "We planted potatoes in December, but the rain never came. The fields are empty. We hope it will rain very soon." 4 "The emergency services warned us to leave our house immediately. There was water on the first floor. We could not stop it. It was rising and rising." 5 "We could see and smell the thick smoke in the atmosphere."

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to

drink? B: a I'm not very hungry. b I'd like a cola, please. 3 A: Someone stole my bag. B: a I don't believe you. b Oh, you poor thing! I'm so sorry. 4 A: I went on a day trip to a wildlife park. B: a Oh, really? I'd really like to go there too. b That's not very exciting. 5 A: Would you mind helping me with this? B: a Of course I would . b No problem. A: See you at 9 tomorrow! B: a I'm free this morning. b Great. 7 A: Can I give you a hand? B: a Actually, I've nearly finished. b Sure I can. 8 A: Did you have a nice weekend? B: a Oh, I didn't do anything special. b They had a nice time. 9 A: I think that's all, thank you. B: a You're welcome. b Just one more thing. 10 A: Would you like any side orders? B: a I'd like a glass of orange juice, please. b Not for me, thank you.

Predicting content The key words of a text help you predict its content.

Vocabulary Reading

Work

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2

2 3 4 S 6

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a)

In a minute, think of as many jobs as possible.

b)

Look at the jobs in the pictures. Who works: 9-57 shifts? at the weekends? long hours? on their own? with a team? gets: paid well? low wages?

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a) The words in the (,box on p. 9 are the key words of the text. Read the words. What do you expect the text to be about? Listen, read, and check.

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Character adjectives

b) Read the text again and choose the correct answer, A, B, or C.

Complete the sentences with a suitable job from those in Ex. 1.

Smokejumpers travel to the fire zone ....... A through forests B by road .C by air

A(n) ... ;-; ....... :~.: ... :.:.: ......... ~;.: ............... has to be brave;.:-they do dangerous things at work. A(n) ................................................... has to be organised; they need to plan their work well. A(n) ................................................... has to be creative; they need to develop original ideas. A(n) ................................................... has to be caring; they need to look after sick people. A(n) ..................................... has to be patient; they need to stay calm and not get annoyed. A(n) ................................................... has to be polite; they deal with people from different backgrounds.

2 Before becoming a smokejumper, they must learn how to ....... A train B parachute C work as a team 3 Smokejumpers are always trying to become ....... A tough B fit ~ better 4 When smokejumpers parachute into a forest, they don't carry ....... A' tools B water C a backpack 5 Zach's favourite part of the job is ....... A flying the aeroplane B parachuting C fighting the fire

tough job, beat, elite, risk, remote areas, bravely, parachute, put out, duty, training, fit, fire zone, padded, face mask, helmet, backpack, drop /

4

Use words from the box to complete the sentences. They tried to .. :~7.: ;;-~:.' the fire with buckets of water until the firefighters arrived. 2 Smokejumpers parachute from aeroplanes into ..............;:.,.:~; .... :.... that can't be reached easily. 3 To be a firefighter you need to be ... :..... ~ .......... and strong. 4 Firefighters go through difficult ...................... . before they are ready to join the Fire Service.

....... ...:.........

.' see .......

Grammar p. 115) Adverbs of'm~'nner

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Form adverbs. Use them to complete the sentences (1-6). good ...~............. .. 4 happy' 2 brave .. /., ........... .. S quick 3 careful ................. .. 6 hard 2 3 4 S 6

Speaking & Writing

Read the theory. Find examples in the text. •

Adverbs of manner describe how we do something.

She talks slowly. (How does she talk? Slowly.) •

We usually form adverbs of manner by adding -Iy to an adjective. slow - slowly, sudden - suddenly,

careful- carefully, quiet - quietly, etc •

Sometimes, we need to change the spelling.

easy - easily, true - truly, gentle - gently •

Some adverbs keep the same form as the adjective.



Irregular form: good - well

fast, hard, late, early, etc

The men check the area .:: .................. for fires. Smokejumpers have to train very ................... . They use aeroplanes to get to the fire ........... . Zach smiles .... :........................... when he talks about his job. They fought the dangerous fire ........................ .. and managed to put it out. Smokejumpers know the forest very .............. .

7

Read the text again and make notes under the headings: job, duties, qualities needed, clothes & equipment, feelings. Imagine you are Zach. Use your notes to present your job to the class. Would you like to work as a smokejumper? Why? Why not? In three minutes, write a few sentences about the topic. Read your sentences to your partner or the class. (,.) Vocabulary Bank 1 pp. 129.130)

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b)

Read the article again and complete the sentences. Imagine you are Nick and use

fascinated, strange object, planet, meteor, military plane, , curious, explanation, involve, mostly, investigate, sighting, interview witness, analyse, hotspot, rooftop, hillside, . record information, camcorder, telescope, device, take up, . enthusiastic, patient, find out, spot

the words in the '~i:'i.l:j"2,'i~j~2l;j'<':j;C;":";;;!::;;;,);''''i''i::;') box to talk about your hobby to the class. Nick Porter likes UFO hunting because ........... .

3

Complete the sentences.

1 I find UFO hunting ......................................... .. 2 His UFO club members mainly ....................... . 3 When they go out, they have ......................... ..

b~cause

............................................. : ............ .

2 I .................................. ghost hunting because

........................................................ with them. 4 If you want to take up UFO hunting, you need

3 My hobby is .................................................. .. because .......................................................... .

10

",::,;~~

Some verbs do not usually have continuous forms because they describe a state, thought, or feeling rather permanent states & facts.

than an action (e,g., see, feel, hear, look, smel/, sound, taste,

Nick comes from the USA. The sun rises in the east.

forget, remember, want, belong, etc), He looks good.

habits/routines. He plays tennis every Saturday.



timetables, The train leaves at 7 pm.

Time expressions: every day, on Mondays, often, etc We use the present continuous to talk about: •

actions happening now/around the time of speaking,

Some verbs can have continuous forms but with a ,~differe~ce ,In meaning I thin~ he's very clever. (I believe) I'm thinking of gOing out. (I m considering)

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,/ (pelie,v'e)

-~---~-~----,:::-'~' '.,',

'"

Janice is watching a DVD now. Tina is studying for her exams these days. future arrangements. I'm going out tomorrow. •

temporary situations.

Jane is working as a waitress for the summer. Time expressions: now, at the moment, at present, etc

5 1

- rf

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4

r r part-time, earn, average wage, waiting tables, : delivery, cashier, customer service, available, ; campus, camp counsellor, internship, profession, experience, clerk, offer Do university students in your country usually have a part-time job? What kind of jobs do they do?

Reading a)

Look at the pictures in the text. What part-time jobs do you think American university students have? Listen, read, and check.

o

b)

Read the text again and mark the statements as T (true), F (false), or OS (doesn't say). Correct the false statements.

1 Not many university students work to earn money. 2 The most common type of work is 1\ waiting tables in a cafe or restaurant. J.)....,.;. 3 Camp counsellors pay for their food and accommodation out of fheir wages. 4 Being a camp counsellor can help (~\ ~ students get a job after they graduate. J/j;.... 5 Interns usually earn a low wage. .~~;r.

.

Match the highlighted words to their synonyms. perfect ~ usualo ,.' 3 finish your degree

4 food and accommodation' . 5 helper·

What type of parHime work would you like to do as a university student? Why? In three minutes, write a short paragraph. Read it to your partner or the class. Compare the jobs university students do in the USA to those in your country. Tell the class.

In the USA, most university students work parttime. In my country ...

A job intervieVlI

3

Read the job adverts. What kind of job is each one for? Who should apply? WANTED: Part-time waiter/waitress for busy Italian restaurant. f7per hour. Mon-Fri evenings. Must be hardworking & reliable. Experience preferred but not necessary. La Fiamma, 225 Rington Plaza, Cloverdale

Tel. (0253) 743984

Bu~z Clothing is looking for a friendly

Intonation: questions 4 0 Read the theory, then listen and repeat.

&

energetl~ part-time shop Yes/No questions usually have rising intonation. Wh- questions usually have falling intonation.

asslstant to work evenings & weekends (10-15 hours a week). Full training provided. Apply to: Mr Andrews, PO BOX 21547 Application deadline: 20th September

2

0

a)

Listen and repeat. The sentences appear in the dialogue below. Who says each: an interviewer or a job applicant? " " " • " • • •

b)

Please have a seat. Tell me a little about yourself. Why do you think you'll be a good shop assistant? Well, I think I'm hardworking and honest.'" Do you have any experience in this type of work? Here's a letter of recommendatior1:{ I can start immediately:~ Thank you very much for your time.)<

0

Find sentences in the dialogue which mean: Sit down, please. I'd like to find out about you. -I understand. - You will hear from me.

1 2 3 4

What days can you work? Are you a student? Do you work on Saturdays? What's your job?

Speaking

5

Work in pairs. You are applying for the job in advert A. Act out your interview with the employer. Follow the plan.

Listen and read to find out.

Simon: Mr Andrews: Simon: . Mr Andrews: Simon: Mr Andrews: Simon: Mr Andrews: Simon: Mr Andrews: Simon: Mr Andrews: Simon:

Good morning. I'm Simon Jones. Nice to meet you, Simon. Please have a seat. Thank you. So, Simon, tell me a little about yourself. Well, I'm 18 years old, I'm a student, and I'm looking for a part-time job to help pay for university. I see. Why do you think you'll be a good shop assistant? Well, I think I'm hardworking and honest. People also say I'm friendly and helpful. Do you have any experience in this type of work? Yes. I worked in a surf shop last summer. Here's a letter of recommendation. Oh, that's great! If we offer you the job, when can you start? I can start immediately. OK, Simon, I think that's all I need to know. I'll be in touch. Thank you very much for your time.

Greet B and ~Greet A & offer a introduce yourself. seat. Thank B. Ask A to give information about him/herself. Give Ask A why he/she information thinks he'll/she'll about yourself. be good at the job. Give reasons Ask if A has (describe your experience. character, etc). Give details -'---l.... Ask when A can start. about work experience. ~~....... Close Reply. conversation & tell Thank B for . their time. A you will contact them.

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Which of these sports can you do: on land? on water? in

the air?

2

Have you tried any of the sports in Ex. 1a? Wh ich ones do you want to try? Why? Use the ideas in the list and any of your own ideas to tell your partner. • see amazing scenery • try something thrilling • go really fast • spend time outdoors • enjoy nature

I've tried mountain biking before. I really want to try windsurfing because I think it's fun to go really fast and spend time outdoors.

Listening 3 0 Listen to three people each talking about a different sport. What sport dO,es each person do?

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A Rob B Rachel e Luke

c-

.... J ........................... . .... .1.. .......................... . \\ ....... \.,1. ...................... . ./

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sentence in each paragraph. What do you think the text is about? Listen and read to check. Now read the text again and for questions 1-4 choose the best answer (A, B, C, or D). Find evidence in the text.

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Which of the following equipm~,nt does Sara use? A an air tank a monofin D a phone B two flippers

Lc

2 j{\{hat happens to a freediver's lungs as they swim down? (l~) They get a lot smaller. e They become twice as big. B They get 22% larger. D They don't change at all. 3 Why can Sara hold her breath for so long? A She is taller and stronger than other women. B Other activities she does help her. e She has small lungs. ~ She meditates before she dives. 4 What does Sara particularly enjoy when she's diving? A The thrill of doing something'dangerous. B The sounds underwater. The peace and quiet. D The excitement of trying to break a record.

Use words from the C,"","o"'",·.·" section in the correct form to complete the sentences.

deep breath, dive, carry on, surface, hold a record, air tank, wetsuit, goggles, monofin, flipper, mermaid, champion, lungs, shrink, double in size, come naturally, meditation, hold her breath, distraction, bark, totally silent, environmental campaign

. }

~~ ?~.

2 3 4 S 6

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Freedivers' lungs 1:,..,)/...,<(" ... :..... :, .......... as they swim down. She ..\:(~'.. into the cold water. It's ........~.;:..:/~ ...... :~.. :. There's no noise at all. Divers usually wear a(n) / ........ ;.,.::;. so that they can breathe at the bottom of the sea. Nobody is better than her at freediving. She's the world .C-",<:.'i... ,: ........ Her .\.>.;...... keep the water out of her eyes when s~e dives.

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C

Match the words in bold with their opposites below.

1 expand;t:~ ........ ;.... .. 2 old;t:. c):\~:}:.:,.i ..... . 3 quiet ;t: ................. . ---...-

'--,J

4 awful;t: ................ . S safe;t: ................... . 6 shallow;t: ............. .

Writing

8

a)

You are a magazine journalist and your partner is Sara Campbell. Use the text to help you prepare questions and answers. Act out your interview in front of the class.

b)

Imagine you are Sara. You are swimming underwater. What can you see? How do you feel? In a few minutes, write a few sentences on the topic. Read them to your partner or to the class. (~) Vocabulary Bank 1 p. 131)

ill

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Reading

1

2

Read the title of the article and the words in the box. What do you expect to read? Listen and read to check.

o

Read again and match the headings to the paragraphs. There is one extra heading. What is the author1s purpose? A-GET YOUR APPLICATION RIGHT

Your English-speaking friend is looking for a job. Use the information in the text to a~vise him/her on how to get a job.

careers centre, skills, top employer, fill, job vacancy, write a CV, letter of application, flip burgers, fold clothes, order, boss, graduate, interviewee, support, smart clothes, firm handshake, sit up straight, lean forward, maintain eye contact, fidget, employee, coworker, criticism, enthusiastic

: : , : ' g e n e r a l l y , your. CV and letter ShOuJdbesl~Qre '111 I' 'and easYto .read, and present thequalijlcations, "" " experience, interests andskills that theell1ployerwilL :'~L'nAb6ut2,500years'ago,'the~,Chinese ",' , ", be interested in. Helllernber to includevolLinteerwork; ,', ,'philosopher ConfuGiussa.id"ChQoseajob ",' ",.' ',""" "',' ,",foreign languages and computer skills! ' , , ; you love and you willnevervvork adCiyiny()uL!ifet , ' ",':" ,,' "[±[] '>Well, evendieariJ .jobs arehard,WbrKso,metimes,butlifeis Th b ' t d'd' 't 'd ,,"'t I t' th ""b' " t" '.'.',Ldefinitely e, as, ierimd m,ore en"joyabIElwhen,'yciu have ,a lob ,,' e, escan I a e ,oesn, ,awaysge "e JO ',,=,sol11 e Imes " '', " , ' thE1bestintervieweedoes. So ",preparewell,befbreYbur, <,>;Jhatyoulove "doi(1g. $o,spend,~pme,time,researchinginteJYiElW, Readthecomp?ny's w~bsite tofindouta?,rnuch ' {"different careers on>thelQtemetoraLacareers cElntr,e ttiat as ypu ca, n about them" .P,r.epc;tre,yo~r:an",swersto·G()[n,m,on "~l]1atcn, Yourpersona.lity and~bUities., There.are ,s,ornE)'grElat l' i'k T 11 "', 'b t 'If' d 'Wh' d' '", '" t \,:;quizzes and questionngiresto,h.elpj/()u',with this. Dorin' ,ques Ions I e ,e. mea .ou youn~e ",',.an, . ' yoyoovvq:n ';}orget to consider'yourhobbies and interests,to0 .• ' '"Jhisjob?~,usin~ specific exai11plestci sLipport youran$wers. ' .. '.' .. .. .. '" '.. .., . ' . « 'During the interview,wearsmart G1othesandthinkabout :>~I[[[J . .. . . . .' ',yourbody language. Greetthe interviewer witna smii~an(J a" .. Half of the top employersintne U~are having difficulty filling: firm handshake, ·.situpstr~ighFandle8,n forward)oshow, • their job vacancies becauseyoungpeoJJI~'Don'tha\febasiQ .intere$t, maintain eye contact and don't fidget: Abo\(.e'all"De~ '...... ''work skills. Onewaito.startg.E)tting,theseskilIS.isio.g'etaY()urselfI . . ~.:SlJmmeror part-timej~bwnil~yo[t'~eatsch6019r'unfvers[t{ []I] .. , . , . . . .•. . . . . '.' ",You l11,ightnotlikir:thei idea6f. flipptngourgers,. deliverltl. 9 . S' " '., t "h "b b' . d' ' , .. " . " ' ,; " f Id" I tn" '. h b t th . "th' . . 0, YClLI go t eJo ", ut you on twanttoget pizzas or 0. mgc 0 eSln'§s op; . u' ese .Ipgscan .' fir~tfe,«weeks!Allemployers~x,pecttheir ... teach; you)h,eskillsemployers w~ntsuch a$being ontime., ·.wbrkbard and' to be gOQoaftheirJ6o. . ···.communicatingwithcustoll1ers,. w()rking\vithothersand ..what. you have to.. do; ask, q,'uesti6n.s . ,.acceptingordersJrom a DOSS. ." '. ...•.•• . ....., ..• to avoid making mistakes, geF.' . 3 1 I. ...< ..•.. '. ' > ; . ' .. ',. .....•..• . . ,., along with your co~wo'rkersand .•·These days .sometimeshundreds ot people. apply for the accept· .criticism. NO:Qne!s same job,. especially graduate jobs. 'this means it's perfect; bot you should. be becoming more and more importantto write agood CV and enthusiastic and show thal letter of application to make sureyou:get anfntervie'N for the youwanUolearn: .. joo! There. are .many. websltes .to·belp .you todothis,'but

:1

l,L

.'11 r

ii '.H tl 11

]

16····

.. .

.

Comparisons

4 . Complete the sentences with: communicate, careers, apply, interviewee, contact, vacancies,

7

Read the examples. How do we form the comparative/superlative forms? Find more examples in the text.

experience, fidgeting.

2 3

4 5 6 7 8

A ......................... centre can provide someone who is looking for a job with information about potential employers and jobs on offer. Why don't you go online and find what job .... are a·vailable in the area? To ......................... effectively with a customer you need to convey the right message and make sure it is understood. She wants to ............................ for the post of secretary at M & F. He has no .............................. in telemarketing so he wasn't given the post. The manager spoke clearly so that the ............ . could understand his questions. He was so nervous during the interview he couldn't stop ..................... . It's important to maintain eye ........................ .. with the interviewer during the interview. Grammar .~~.~ . . . . . ..

Infinitive/-ing forms

5

2 3 4 5 6

6

Sam is more organised than/braver than Jo. 2

Harry is the most organised/the bravest of all.

3

A nurse's job isn't as dangerous as a firefighter's.

4

Luey is becoming busier and busier at work.

S Holly is a bit/a little/slightly/much/a lot more creative than Jane.

8

1 Henry's job is .................................................. .. (interesting) than Jack's. 2 A: Thanks for your help with my CV, Angie. B: It's ...................................... (little) I can do. 3 It's getting ....................... and ...................... . (hard) for young people to get their first job. 4 Which job is ........................................ (tiring), a shop assistant, a waiter or a delivery person? 5 My student days were some of ...................... .. ................................... (happy) of my life! 6 The ......................... (much) you prepare for an interview, the ....................... (good) you'll do. 7 It's ..................................................... (easy) to get a good job if you prepare well before.

pp. 116-11:} ............ .... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct infinitive or -ing form.

""

He's looking forward ...................................... .. (start) his new job on Monday. I'd love ...................................................... (do) a course on interior design. He loves ............................... (work) with kids. It's getting difficult ........................................ .. (find) a job nowadays. They didn't let her ............................. (go) out. He promised .................. (help) me with my cv. Write sentences about you and your friends/relatives. meet new people enjoy get a top job would love go to university (not) want start my/his etc own business hope get a summer job hate dress smartly not mind have job interviews work in an office

I enjoy meeting new people.

Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the adjectives in brackets.

Key word transformations

9

Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Jo organises parties really well. (GOOD) Jo is ..................................................... parties. 2 Mark found it difficult to write his cv. (HAD) Mark ..................................................... his cv. 3 Ann can't wait to go to university. (FORWARD) Ann is ......................................... to university. 4 Dave's job is better than J~hn's. (GOOD) John's job ......................................... as Dave's.

Writing

10

Read Confucius' saying in paragraph 1. What does he mean? In three minutes write a few sentences. Tell your partner or the class.

17

II Vocabulary Student jobs

1

a)

0

Listen and say.

Which of the jobs in Ex.1 a are popular in your country? Which would you like/not like to do? Why?

Babysitting is a popular job for students in my country. I'd like to be a gardener or a dog walker because I'd like to work outdoors.

2

Listening

3

Read the text below. What is it? What is it for? Fill in: travelling abroad, degree, lifeguard,

interests, university, shop, grades, waitress.

Curriculum Vitae -

Identifying key information Read the two lists of items to familiarise yourself with the content of the conversation. This will help you do the task.

Ruth BosweIL---234 Park Road, Melbourne [email protected] Date of Birth: 05/08/1991

0 Listen and match each person (1-5) to the summer job (A-H) they have. There are two extra jobs.

PEOPLE []JI] Sandy Shane [ [ [ ] Fiona [I[J Bridget [I[J Tony

I:JJ:=J

I 5 I I Andrea

_ Educationl------2006-2010 1) ...................... in English Literature & French, 2) ...................... of Melbourne, Australia

Asking for personal details

Melbourne College Exam subjects and 3) ...................... : English Literature (A), History (B), French (A)

You are an interviewer and your partner is Ruth. Use the language in the box to ask and answer questions.

Work Experience - - - - - - - - - 2009-2010

• • • • •

4) ...................... , Aquatics Centre, Melbourne

2008-2009 5) ........................ , Piper's Pizzas, Melbourne

2007 6) ........................ assistant, Casual Clothing, Melbourne

_ Hobbies & 7) ...................... - - - - - - Learning foreign languages, swimming, scuba diving and

8) ........................... .

18

F dog walker G conservation group volunteer H swimming pool cleaner

Speaking

2004-2006

-

A B C D E

JOBS shop assistant animal shelter volunteer lifeguard camp counsellor waitress

How old are you? Are you married or single? What qualifications do you have? What kind of experience do you have? What are your hobbies and interests?

A: How old are you, Ruth? B: I'm 19. Write your own CV. Use Ruth's CV in Ex. 2 as a model.

5

A cover letter

1

Read the letter. What is the writer's purpose?

2

Which of the following does Ruth include in her letter? Which paragraph is each in?

Dear Sir/Madam, 1) I want to apply for the job of part-time lifeguard 2) that I read about in the Daily Gazette on Tuesday, 3rd April. I am in my final year at sixth form college and am considering a career as a PE teacher. 3) I just got a certificate in lifesaving and first aid and I feel that a summer job as a lifeguard 4) is a good idea for me. Last summer, I worked as a receptionist at my local swimming pool and as a delivery person in the evenings. 5) I tlunk I'm hardworking and enthusiastic. I am also good at

previous work experience 2 her favourite college subject 3 her personal qualities 4 what she looks like 5 where she likes going on holiday 6 her age and current position 7 where she saw the advertisement 8 when she can start work

working with people. 6) Here's a copy of my CV 7) I can come for an interview at your convenience. 8) I can't wait to hear from you. 9) Best regards, Ruth Boswell

Writing (a cover letter)

I

Letter writing - formal style To write a formal letter you need to use: e full forms I am writing to ...

(NOT: j!.m. writing to ... ) , • advanced vocabulary and set phrases Please find enclosed a copy ofmy cv. e formal greetings and endings Dear Sir/Madam --+ Yours faithfully (when you don't know the name of the person you are writing to) Dear Mr/Mrs/Miss Smith --+ Yours sincerely (when you know the name of the person you are writing to)

I

3

Correct the register in Ruth's letter. Replace the informal phrases in bold in her letter with the formal phrases below.

~ I look forward to your reply [ [ [ ] Yours faithfully ~ I am writing to apply for the position ~ Please find enclosed [I[] I consider myself to be [IT] I am available []I] which was advertised []I] would be a useful experience I recently obtained

OIJ

4

Portfolio: You see this job advert on your college website and decide to apply. Write a cover letter (120-150 words). Follow the plan below. Check your work.

s~Gdent to wor~ part-time in bookshop Mon-Fri evenings. Are you . fnendlyand patient? Do you enjoy working with the public? Send cover letter and CV to:[email protected]

opening remarks, reason for writing (I am writing to ... which ... ) Para 2: current activity, qualifications, reason for wanting the job (I am ... years old and... degree, I am considering .. .!1 feel that... ) Para 3: experience Para 4: personal qualities (I have ... , Last..., I consider myself to be ... ) Para 5: when available for interview, closing comments (Please find... , I am available ... , I look forward ... )

Checking your work Look through your letter when you have finished to check that: • you have used a formal writing style. • you have given a good description of your experience and abilities. • you have included all the important information. (~) Writing Bank 1 p. 153) 19

I 1

Read the dictionary entry. Why do you think it is important to choose the right career?

E key, suit, skills, interest, useful, blanket, comfort, mood, by myself, agree on, spontaneous, down-to-earth, engineer, electrician, social worker, psychologist, film director

career /b'ry;l/ (n) a job or profession that someone does for a long period. Jack has a successful career in sales and marketing.

2

3

a)

What career do you want to have? Do the test to find out what type of career suits you the best.

b)

Do you agree with your result? Why? Why not? Tell the class.

c)

Do you think certain personality types are suited to certain jobs? In three minutes, write a few sentences. Read them to the class.

Complete the sentences with words from the section.

She's very practical. 2 What .............................. do you need to be a social worker? 3 Dan always surprises me. He's so 4 Do you know the ..................... .. who built the new bridge? 5 I enjoy hanging out with my friends, but I don't mind spending time ................. either.

4

20

1

II(T Choose a career that you

think would suit you. Collect information about qualifications, qualities, duties, wage, etc. Present the job to the class and tell them why you like it.

Mostly As You are a realistic, down-to-earth person who likes to work with materials. You would make a good engineer, electrician, or surgeon. Mostly Bs You are a caring and helpful person who likes to work with people. You would be a good nurse, social worker, or psychologist. Mostly Cs You are an artistic and creative person who is also good at solving problems. You like coming up with new ideas, and you would be a good architect, film director, or interior designer.

, I Phrasal verbs/Prepositions

1

Choose the correct particle.

break down: 1) stop working; 2) lose control of feelings break in: enter by force (+ break into a building) break out: 1) begin suddenly (storm, war); 2) escape break off: break a piece from something bring about: cause to happen bring sb round: 1) regain consciousness; 2) persuade bring up: raise a child

2 3 4 5 6 7

2

The machines at the factory where Dan works often break down/up. Michael's grandparents brought him up/about on a farm. Ann broke out/down and started crying when she heard she didn't get the job. The nurse brought him about/round gently after the operation. The police are still looking for the prisoner who broke down/out of prison yesterday. When Sally dropped her cup, the handle broke up/off. Thieves broke int%ut our house while we were at the cinema.

Word formation

3

Fill in the correct word derived from the word in brackets.

Word Formation - Person Nouns

We use -er (work - worker), -or (sculpt - sculptor), -ist (art - artist), -ian (magic - magician), -ee (employ - employee) and

l

-ant (assist - assistant) to form person nouns. ~-------.--------------------------~

1 It takes a great ................................... to make a great film. (DIRECT) 2 A .............................. can learn a lot about the country they stay in. (TOUR) 3 An ........................................ should always be pleasant, polite and well-prepared. (INTERVIEW) 4 The flight ................................ asked everyone to stay in their seats after the aeroplane landed. (ATTEND) 5 Sue is paying an interior ................................. . to decorate her new flat. (DESIGN) 6 The ....................................... is fixing the light in the dining room at the moment. (ELECTRIC)

Collocations Choose the correct preposition. I don't mind working on my own, but I prefer working as part in/of a team. 2 Students often get a job to help pay about/for university. 3 Harry wants to apply to/for a job as a lifeguard. 4 Smokejumpers jump out of/for aeroplanes into/by burning forests.

4

Fill in: zone, breath, shifts, long, put out, read, hold, wages, part-time, double. Use the completed phrases in sentences of your own.

1 work ... , ........ hours 2 get low .................. 3 fire ......................... 4 .................. the fire 5 take a deep ...........

6 7 8 9 10

work ...................... have a ............. job to ................ a map in size . ........... a record to I

•••••••••••••••••••

Mark the sentences T (true) or F (false). Correct the false statements. Read through Module 1 and write a quiz of your own. A smokejumper is a type of firefighter. 2 UFO stands for Unusual Flying Object. 3 Over half of all university students in the USA have a part-time job.

4 A freediver's lungs get smaller as they swim down. 5 Sara Campbell was the first woman to dive to a depth of 90 metres. 6 You shouldn't give your address on your CV.

Read the rubric. Think of health problems related to working in different jobs e.g. dentist: suffers from backache, etc. Compare with your partner. Ustyszysz dwukrotnie wypowiedzi piECciu os6b na temat ich zawod6w. Przyporz~dkuj m6wi~cych do zdan. kt6re najlepiej podsumowuj,! ich wypowiedzi. wpisuj,!c odpowiednie litery (A-F) w kratki (1-5). Jedno zdanie zostato podane dodatkowo i nie pasuje do i:adnej wypowiedzi.

'.CU'-.'""U5 .'- of the roof. His l o u t t o him fmm below; He :.i.,~.:, b~~ausehis heart is beating ; UH"lr'.r·", .• Matt is afraid; Suddenly, he 1 } ' J t i s t j u m p , Matt!" i . ". going oh. Why would a motherbetell . jump offaouHding? Well, in I Matt'sfamily:it's a phrase you 2)........ allthe time and Matt's jump ishlsiDftiatiotlintpthefamily business. Matt.Was· b9rnJRtO\
A It's an exciting job, but requires endurance. B Sometimes I feel my work is never done. C I'd be lost without my voice. D On the whole the risks are low. E I need to be careful not to get hurt while practising. F I often suffer from upper back problems.

l. i.

I

• .'-:'J

i ".' I . I.

to

!..

Przeczytaj tekst. Z podanych moi:liwosci odpowiedzi wybierz wtasciw,!, tak aby otrzymac logiczny i gramatycznie poprawny tekst. ZakreslliterEC A. B. Club D.

22

b) Do the task.

AMiqtlJP!'! . ,"

J

1 A louder

.' .,

B the loudest C most loudly D loudest

C notice B profession C work C being , 4 Ato being B be C was \ 5 Ahas been B is C chance 1 B space 6 Aarea 2 Ahear 3 A trade

1 . ~,

"

I -

. '.

B listen

D catch D business D to be D is being D room

;WOIJfYienge

2 What are the benefits of going into higher education? 3 What are the most popular professions in your country? Why? 4 What are some reasons that young people look for work?

~JVwow,ie«iJi: [email protected] po«iJ~1awuJle maitell'la d1Ul J

§tymI.'lQilllj
a)

Read the rubric, then do the task.

7---------------------. Przyjrzyj siEC zdjECciom 1. 2 i 3, Twoja osiemnastoletnia ; przyjaciotka z Anglii. Laura. zastanawia siEC nad l podjECciem wakacyjnej pracy. ale nie wie. ; w jakim charakterze: Umie opiekowac sirr :1 dziecmi i jest najlepsz~ lekkoatletk~ w szkole. ; Prosi Cirr 0 radEC w kwestii wyboru najbardziej j odpowiedniej dla siebie pracy. ; • Wybierz pracEC. ktora. wedfug Ciebie. J jest dla niej najbardziej odpowiednia 1 i uzasadnij swoj wybor. : Cl Wyjasnij. dlaczego odrzucasz pozostate J dwie propozycje. j

1n" ;Qfil'"tlqi.'Jl,llil'jf]J 0 l b '\lW§'~

(5

Read the rubric and make notes for each bullet point. Do the task.

PrzeczytafeS/-as ogtoszenie ~ reklamuj~ce kurs dla kandydatow na szefa : kuchni. Napisz list (120-150 stow). w ktorym: • poinformujesz. gdzie znalaztes/-as ogtoszenie i wyrazisz zainteresowanie kursem. • wspomniszo przynajmniej dwoch cechach charakteru. ktore predysponuj~ CiEC do zostania szefem kuchni. i 0 swoim doswiadczeniu. • zapytasz 0 wymagania rekrutacyjne i poprosisz o przestanie formularza aplikacyjnego. • zapytasz. jakie zajECcia obejmuje kurs i jak dtugo trwa. I1

IT

!5Jilf[J)Si/)'iJ/Pf{fJ!ffJU(i;J ,""~"'" q'!".,,, ,,,,~

3>!qff':12ItmrI1I1Y;r:JlfJiJ'j'(c!h

rr!i'",1!lil§i03miilJC~e

2iB

,"'t(DW'':O'ET~ ~"jUCZ'.e[i"iJ

Read the rubric, then do the task. Wykorzystuj~c

podane wyrazy. l uzupetnij kai:de zdanie. tak aby : zachowac znaczenie zdania wyjsciowego (1-5). l Nie zmieniaj podanych fragmentow i formy poda: nych wyrazow. Wymagana jest pefna poprawnosc : gramatyczna i ortograficzna wpisywanych g fragmentow zdan. 1 You'll hear from us soon.

TOUCH 2 b)

5

0 Listen to someone doing the task. Which job does the speaker choose? What reasons does she give to support her choice?

3 4

Answer the questions.

1 Is it easy for young people to choose a career path before school ends? (Why?/Why not?)

5

We .................................................. . ............................................... soon. She is a very careful driver in bad weather. DRIVES She ................................................ .. .. ............................. in bad weather. I look forward to hearing from you. WAIT I ...................................................... . ................................................. you. Peter is American. COMES Peter ............................................. .. .. ........................................ the USA. Ann wants to find a part-time job. LOOKING Ann ............................................... .. ............................... a part-time job.

23

1

2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10

Fill in: parachute, curious, earn, take, campus, enthusiastic, breath, carry, duty, champion. Sam is very ............................. and always asks lots of questions. I want to ................................... up street luge because it looks amazing. Sally is very ............................ about her work. I can get to the university library very quickly because I live on ............................... . He jumped out of the burning aeroplane and opened his ............................... . It's a doctor's ............................. to do his best to save a patient. I hold my ........................... every time I dive in the sea. ........................... on with your work. You must finish it before S pm. He's the world .................... for the third time. Students often do odd jobs to ....................... .. extra money. 1Ox2=20 marks

2

4

Put the verbs in brackets into the (to)

infinitive or the -ing form.

2 3 4 5

5

She's looking forward ............................... (go) to university. Peter has difficulty ................................. (find) an evening job. They don't let him ................................ (work) the night shift. He agreed ....................... (work) at weekends. I'd prefer ......................... (get) a part-time job at the university library. 5x2= 10 marks Put the adjectives in brackets into the correct form.

1 He earns ........................... (much) money than his brother. 2 Days are getting ............. and .............. (long). 3 Ann's a lot ............. .......... ........ (hardworking) than Sheila. 4 Claire works ................................. (long) hours of all in the office. S She's ....................... (friendly) person at work.

Circle the correct word.

2 3 4 5 6

5x2= 10 marks

Samuel does his job good / well. Be carefully / careful with my bag. Does Liam always arrive lately / late to school? Jim thinks that the task is easy / easily. Lola is great. She works hardly / hard. Smokejumpers are brave / bravely men.

6

Match 1-4 with A-D to make exchanges.

[ID

[IT] [IT]

6x2= 12 marks

[IT]

3

Complete the sentences with the present simple or present continuous form of the verbs in brackets.

2 3 4 5

Dan .............................. (go) to a job interview tomorrow. Patricia ...................................... (want) to buy some old coins. Dean .......................... (not/believe) in ghosts. What ................................... (Claire/do) at the moment? Amy ........................................ (think) her new job is great. 5x4=20 marks

24

Do you have any experience? We'll be in touch. Please have a seat. When can you start?

A Thank you. B I can start immediately. C Yes, I worked parttime last summer. D Thank you very much for your time. 4x2=8 marks

7

Write a cover letter for a job you would like to do (80-100 words). 20 marks

Total: 100 marks

• talk and write about jobs and careers • talk and write about hobbies • talk about immediate plans for the future • talk and write about part-time jobs • act out a job interview • ask for personal information • write a cover letter

GOOD I

VERY GOOD ./ I

EXCELLENT I I I

Vocabulary: cultural activities & experiences, travel experiences, cultural icons, types of music, types of music performances, tourist attractions, types of reading material and books Grammar: past continuous, past continuous vs past simple, used to, past perfect/past perfect continuous Everyday English: expressing opinions Pronunciation: intonation when expressing emotions Writing: an email about a concert you attended Culture Corner: Lady Gaga: The queen of pop Curricular (ICT): Social Networking Phrasal verbs: fall, get, give Word formation: abstract nouns from verbs

What did you do last weekend?

Last weekend I went to a rock concert. It was great.

Choose the correct word. Check in your dictionaries.

Vocabu/QY]I Tn;rve~

1

a)

Fill in: got bitten, got stolen, 'went on, tried, got

caught, made, travelled, caught.

o Listen and check, then say.

b)

1 He shared/divided his adventures with his friends. 2 We grabbed/caught the first train home. 3 I can't stand mosquitoes biting/stinging me. 4 The wind started puffing/blowing strongly as we were going to the village. S We took an hour to reach/arrive the village. see ". p. 117 )

Have you had any of these experiences while travelling? Tell your partner.

A:/once got caught in bad weather ih Ireland. It rained '. ,a lot and it was very windy. What about you? .. B: I went on a boat trip around the Caribbean once and I got seasick! It was horrible.

"'r........ ....

5

Read the table. Find examples in the text. We use the past continuous to talk about actions in progress at a certain time in the past.

Form: was/were + main verb + -ing AFFIRMATIVE I was travelfing. ·1 He/She/It was travelling. You were travelling. IWe/YoulThey were trave'!!ng. Time expressions used with the past· continuous: while, when, as, all day/morning/year, etc, at 8 o'clock yesterday morning, etc.

,look at pictures 1-8. What do you think happened to John in India and Thailand? Listen, read and check.

o

Read again and complete the sentences.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _..

Spelling:

1 In India, John wanted to visit .......................... ,

2 3 4 S

26

but he went to .............................. by mistake. He went back to Delhi by ............................... . It took John .................... to get back to Delhi. During his boat trip, John felt ......................... . He lost his passport because .......................... .



verb + -ing talk - talking



verb -e + -ing make - making



one-syllable verb ending in vowel + consonant )



a stressed vowel between two consonants) double

double consonant + -ing swim - swimming "-

consonant + -ing begin - beginning -.,-~----.

I was travelling in India last September. One day, I somehow caught the wrong bus while trying to get from Delhi to Agra to see the Taj Mahal. I ended up in a small village in the middle of nowhere! "Next bus back to Delhi ... tomorrow," the bus driver told me. Just then, a man was . passing by with an oxcart. The bus driver stopped him. Before I knew it, I was sitting on top of some sacks on the man's cart, and we were heading back to the city. Most of the way, it was raining, and mosquitoes were buzzing around the ox and biting me. Sanjit only spoke Hindi, but he was smiling and laughing all the way, and he even shared his lunch with me. It was very spicy but delicious. It took us four hours to reach Delhi! Despite the rain and mosquitoes, it was a lot of fun.

I had another crazy day while I was visiting the Phi Phi Islands in Thailand in March. One morning, I decided to go on a long-tail boat trip around the islands. Unfortunately, the wind was blowing strongly that day and before long, I was feeling very seasick. So, I was very relieved when we stopped at a place called 'Monkey Beach'. Hundreds of . monkeys were running towards us as we got off the boat. But then, as I was feeding a piece pineapple to one monkey, another grabbed my small backpack and quickly ran into the bushes with it! I tried to run after it, but it was too fast. The bag had my passport in it! I never saw my passport again. I had to get a new one from embassy in Bangkok!

culture, experience, adventure, end up, in the middle of nowhere, pass by, sack, head back to, buzz around, bite, share, long-tail boat, grab, bush, run after, passport, embassy '(;l

1 2 3 4 5

8

Use the verbs in the list in the past continuous to complete the sentences.

0 Listen to Sarah talking about experience while travelling in Ecuador; and put the events in the order they happened.

• write • buy

[AI] She realised it was just a branch.

e

a)

ride • take (x2)

At 11 0' clock yesterday morning ... John ................ " ............ a camel in the desert. Harry and Suzy ..................................... photos of the Pyramids. Peter ................... a boat trip on the Nile River. Kim and Sam ................................... souvenirs. Megan .................................... some postcards.

[[[] Her kayak hit a rock and she fell out. It was moving closer to her. [[[] She decided to go on a kayaking trip. [[[] She saw a crocodile in the water.

cro

b)

Use the sentences from Ex. Sa to write a short account of the story for Ann's travel website. Tell the class.

I was travelling in Ecuador and I decided ... ~'-}

Tell your partner what you were doing:

at 9 o'clock last night, yesterday morning, at 700' clock this morning. At 9 0' clock last night, I was writing emails.

Which of the two adventures in the text did you enjoy most? Why? In three minutes, write a few sentences. Tell the class.

27

Google was the brainchild of Larry Page and Sergey Brin, They met in 1995 at Stanford University, USA, while they were studying Computer Science, You could say Google started with an argument as, at first, Sergey and Larry didn't really get on! In fact, they argued and disagreed on just about everything, However, there was one thing they did share: a commitment to making the Internet more user-friendly, At that time, Internet search engines were slow and complicated, They listed search results according to the number of times the search term appeared on a page, Larry and Sergey found this frustrating, An idea came to them: why not list search results according to a website's popularity? So, they set about creating a search engine that could calculate how important a particular web page was, At first, their research received a fair amount of criticism from experts, but the two friends didn't give up and managed to raise enough money from investors, family and friends to support themselves. While they were developing the search engine, Larry and Sergey realised it needed a catchy name, They were inspired by a mathematical word, 'googol' which means '1 followed by a hundred zeros', They thought it was a really good name, considering the endless amount of information available on the Net, and so 'googol' became 'google', In 1998, Larry and Sergey set up their office in a friend's garage and Google went online, Soon, they were answering thousands of search requests per day, People really liked Google's simple, neat design and, of course, it's speedy performance! Before long, Sergey and Larry moved their operations to a new headquarters they called Googleplex, In 2000, Google introduced ten foreign language versions and officially became the world's most popular search engine, Google now responds to about a billion search requests per day and its success shows no signs of fading, For most people seeking information, Google is the place to go!

: brainchild, argument, search engine, commitment, : user-friendly, complicated, frustrating, popularity, What is Google? What does its name mean? : calculate, a fair amount, criticism, investor, catchy, : inspired, neat, performance, headquarters, respond, fade How do you think it got started? Listen and read to find out. Complete the sentences with words/

o

Read the text again and mark the sentences below T (true) or F (false).

2 3 4

28

5

Larry and Sergey usually shared the same opinions, Google was the first search engine on the Net. From the very beginning, everybody thought Google was a good idea, It took a while for Google to become successful with Internet users, Google is gaining popularity nowadays,

ph r as es fro m the ?"'.}\,,\s?":~.~U.'i,'" '::::i:t.>t;;: :;;:;~ box. Google made the Internet more """"".,,"",,"" for everyone, 2 They thought of a""""."""""""""."""."""", name to attract attention, 3 It's very"""""""""""",,,,,,,,,,, when you can't find the information you want on the Internet. 4 The company's new"""""""""""""""" are in New York. 5 The company's plans received a lot of ."""""". ""."""."."."."" so they didn't go ahead,

· a)

Tell the class a short summary of the text.

b)

Imagine Google went down

8

for a week. How would this affect the

Read the theory. Find more examples in the text in Ex. 2.

lives of those who use it every day? In

~--

~

three minutes write a few sentences. Tell the class./.·····



see ". pp. 117-118:

'j



I 1

Read the table. How do we form the negative and interrogative in the

past continuous?



I

PAST CONTINUOUS

.

1 I

for actions which were happening at a specific time in the past. We were sleeping at 2 o'clock yesterday afternoon. for two actions happening at the same time in the past.

Sam was working in the garden while I was cooking I dinner. I for an action happening when another action interrupted it. He was reading a book when the doorbell rang.

I wasn't working. I You weren't working.

I He/She/It wasn't working.

i We/YoulThey weren't working.

INTERROGATIVE

I ,I

SHORT ANSWERS

Was I working?

I Yes, I was.!No, I wasn't.

Were you working?

II

Yes, you were.! No, you weren't. Was he/she/it working? ! Yes, he/she/it was.! Were we/you/they No, he/she/it wasn't. working? . Yes, we/you/they were.! I I \. i No, we/you/they weren't. 1I

I

II

Larry and Sergey/study/Maths in 1995?

Were Larry and Sergey studying Maths in 1995? No, they weren't. They were studying Computer Science. 2 Search engines/list results/according to popularity/ before Google? 3 Larry and Sergey/work/from their house in 1998?

questions in pairs. you/study/9 o'clock yesterday evening?

A: Were you studying at 9 o'clock yesterday

p"t He went down the cella, Sla;", opened the

"- door, and walked inside.

'9

I I

J ---------------~

Put the verbs in brackets into the

past

continuous or the past simple.

JI

Form questions and full answers based on

Use the words to ask and answer

I.

for completed actions in the past. He left last Monday. for actions which happened one after the other in the

I

the text in Ex. 2, as in the example.

4 People use Google/in 1998?



I

--~-~.~~~=~----------.--.----

:6

PAST SIMPLE

\

I I

II

(-~.---------------------.~

NEGATIVE

I I I

In 2004, 23-year-old Mark Zuckerberg, 1) ........................ . (launch) Facebook while he 2) .......................................... (study) at Harvard University. People 3) ................................... (want) a university website with students' profiles, so Mark 4) .................................... .. (decide) to do something about it. 1)00 students 5) .................................. (sign up) within 24 hours! He then 6) .................................... (expand) the site to include other universities. Mark 7) ......................................... (face) some difficulties, though. Three Harvard seniors 8) ...................... . (insist) that while Zuckerberg 9) ........................................ .. (work) on a similar project with them, he 10) .............................. (use) their ideas to create Facebook. This 11) ........................................ (not/stop) Mark; though, and Facebook soon 12) ........................................ (become) the biggest social networking site in the world with 500 million users to date.

evening? B: No, I wasn't I was watching TV. 2 you/walk in the park/last Sunday afternoon? 3 you/chat on the phone/an hour ago? 4 your friend/eat dinner/8 o'clock last night? 5 your parents/work/last Saturday morning?

,ji 0

Imagine you are Mark in Ex. 9. Describe the events leading up to your creation of Facebook. Tell your partner or the class. (~.) VocaDuial"j Bimlt:2 p. 132)

29

of No. 1 hits, an armful of awards and albums, Lady Gaga is a worldwide How did it all start though, for the American girl from Manhattan, and how .' achieve such phenomenal fame?

Sebastian Gaga always loved performing and of fame from an At 17, she became

.i

o Listen and say. Which type of performance did you last see? Did you enjoy it? Tell the class. a)

o

Listen and say. Which sentences: ask for an

opinion? express a positive (I) opinion? express a negative (X) opinion? • • • • • • b)

What was it like? It was fantastic! The dancers were amazing! Did you enjoy it? Not really. It was nothing special.

Find sentences in the dialogue which mean: Of course! - What did you think of it? - Did you have a good time? -It wasn't great.

":D =»

1i]:tron!1Jtion: i?!;(!DiI'·~~55J'!f!I((!J

What did Julie and Mark do on Saturday? Did they like it? Listen and read the dialogue to find out.

o

Mark: Hi, Julie - it's Mark! I tried calling you on Saturday night, but you didn't answer your phone. Julie: Oh, hi Mark! Yes, sorry! I was at the ballet. Mark: Really? What was it like? Julie: It was fantastic! The dancers were amazing! What did you do on Saturday? Mark: Oh, I just stayed home with my brother and we watched a film on TV. Did you enjoy it? Not really. It was nothing special. Listen, do you want to go for a walk later?

a)

0

b)

Now listen and tick (I) the adjective that best describes each speaker's feelings. Is each speaker1s intonation rising or falling? Listen again and say.

Listen and say.

Really? interest/su rprise/enth usiasm I don't believe it!

I

Really? disbelief/an noyance

a annoyed

2 What's the problem? a interested 3 Sure!

a enthusiastic

4 No way!

a surprised

n

LJ

b surprised

D D D

b annoyed b disbelieving b annoyed

I

n

LJ

D D D I

I

'i ,j

5

'I

Imagine you saw a performance last Saturday and your partner is asking you about it. Use the sentences in Ex. 2a to act out your dialogue. Follow the diagram.

I

:;"1

o

Say who it is & explain you tried Greet A & say where you calling on Saturday. were. Express surprise & ask B Give your opinion & ask what it was like. what A did on Saturday. Say what you did. ~ Ask if A enjoyed what Reply. Suggest dOing~ he/she did. Agree. something later.

31

Look at the pictures and read the title and the first and last sentence of each paragraph of Iris' blog entry. What do you think Chinese opera is like? Listen and read to find out.

o

When Chinese opera first started, A it didn't have any lighting. B performances took place outside. C there was no stage or costumes. D it wasn't very popular. 2 In the past, the actors wore costumes that were A very simple. B only red, gold, and silver. C easy to see. D easy to wear. 3 The actors sang in a high-pitched voice because they wanted to A help the audience hear. B follow tradition. C make the audience laugh. D attract more attention. 4 The audience mainly follow the story of a Chinese opera through the singing and A a lot of props and scenery. B the colours on the characters' costumes. C changes in the lighting. D the characters' movement and make-up. S At A B C

the end, we learn that Iris was planning to see the opera again. surprised that she enjoyed the opera. not interested in going to another opera. unsure if her readers would enjoy Chinese opera.

ancient times, hanging, lantern, grand, start out, fiery, ribbon, kaleidoscope, sharp, high-pitch~d, crowd, gather, fall in love with, acrobatics, emotion, gall?p, whip, somersault, reveal, loyalty, bravery, warnor, wild, cruelty

IIYouIHe, etc used to go to musicals a lot as a child. INTERROGATIVE

Did Ilyoulhe, etc use to go to the cinema?

I/YouIHe, etc didn't use to go to the opera. SHORT ANSWERS

Yes, Ilyoulhe, etc did. No, Ilyoulhe, etc didn't.

We use used to for actions that happened regularly in the past but do not happen now.

haunted, explore, historic, found, fascinating, ancient wall, medieval cathedral, wander, cobbled street, ghost, spooky, stand out, march, shield, spear, terrified, find out, go missing, ghostly : attraction ~'l

a)

Look at the pictures. Which shows:

1 a plumber working in a cellar? 2 a soldier on a horse coming through the wall? 3 Roman soldiers marching, carrying shields and spears? 4 a man running out of a cellar?

34

b)

0 Now listen to the sounds. What do you think the text is about? Tell the class.

c)

0

Listen, read and check.

2.

Read again and number the events in the order they happened. Use the pictures to tell your partner a summary of the story.

[AI]

He saw the helmet of a Roman soldier coming through the wall. [[D A horse with a Roman soldier on it walked through the cellar. Harry ran out of the cellar. [Q[J Harry Martindale, a plumber, went to work in the cellar. IT[] He heard a strange noise like a trumpet coming from the wall. ~ Twenty Roman soldiers marched through in pairs, carrying shields and spears.

ITIJ

7

Fill in: medieval, city, cobbled, ghost, ancient. Use the phrases to make sentences.

Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple, past continuous, past perfect or the past perfect continuous.

1 .............. tour; 2 .............. city walls; 3 ............... .. cathedrals; 4 ................. streets; 5 ................. story Choose the correct word. Check in your dictionaries. The 1) historic/historical city of York is a 2) popular/ typical holiday destination in England. The Romans 3) created/founded York almost 2,000 years ago on the north-east bank of the River Ouse. Tourists enjoy 4) wondering/wandering York's narrow streets during the daytime and taking part in ghost 5) walks/marches at night. People believe that a lot of places there are 6) ghostly/haunted. One such place is the Treasurer's House whose 7) history/story is quite fascinating. A plumber working there heard a noise, then saw Roman soldiers coming through the walls 8) carrying/bringing shields and spears. When the plumber 9) observed/ noticed the soldiers had no legs, he left the cellar 10) terrified/afraid. ... ,. see . pp. 118-119) J.J\~ 1;[ ~~;C'-~C ~ """"

p



t~.

:5

_

Last summer, Jim and his friend Bob 1) ............................... (decide) to spend the night in a haunted castle. They 2) ........................... (travel) since morning so they 3) ........................... (feel) very tired when they finally 4) ................................ (arrive) late in the evening. After they 5) ............................... (have) a light dinner, they 6) ................................... (go) straight to their room. They 7) ................................. (lie) in their beds for an hour, when suddenly they 8) ...................................... . (hear) loud footsteps in the corridor. They 9) ........................ . (try) to open their door, but it seemed it 10) ........................ .. (get stuck)! Eventually, the door 11) ................................ . (open) and a woman in a white dress 12) ............................ .. (appear). She 13) ...................................... (walk) slowly and 14) ................................ (sing) a sad song. They immediately 15) ................................. (run) out of the castle and never 16) .............................. (go) back again.

Read the theory. Find examples in the text.

~.

-~

I Past Perfect Continuous (had been + verb-ing) I AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE

I/you/he, etc had been workingJ I/you/he, etc hadn't been working. i

INTERROGATIVE Had I/you/he, etc been working? SHORT

I

~SWERS

IYes, I/you/he, etc had.

. No, I/you/he, etc hadn't.

3 4 5 6 7

Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold.

iI

)

Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect or the past perfect continuous.

2

:8

They went to the museum after they .............. . .................................. (finish) their homework. They got lost because they ............................ .. (not/take) a map with them. She ............................ (already/arrange) to go to Edinburgh so she didn't come with us to York. Terry .................................. (work) in the cellar since morning and he felt very tired. He ..................................... (not/sleep) for two days and felt exhausted. Her eyes were red ........................... (she/cry)? She .................................. (live) in York for ten years before she decided to moVe to London.

2

3

4

5

He had lunch, then he visited the library. (AFTER) He visited the library ...................................... .. ............................................................... lunch. The museum closed before we arrived. (TIME) The museum ................................................... .. .. ................................................. we got there . They waited at the bus stop for an hour, then the bus came. (UNTIL) The bus didn't come ........................................ . ............................. for an hour at the bus stop. She spent the whole morning in the garden and she was tired. (WORKING) She .................................................................. . in the garden since morning and she was tired. They didn't take a compass with them and they lost the way. (TAKEN) They got lost because they ............................ .. .. ..................................................... with them. 35

V">

. . . . . . . . 1.....

Q)

0..

co

a)

0..

The bar chart shows what

"'''''!: Q)

types of reading material UK

c

=- 20%

teens prefer. Use the language below to read it. • Most people/The majority (80% +) • A lot of (60%-70%) • Half of (50%) • Twenty percent of (20%) • A few (10%) • Very few (5%) • No one (0%) I.

a)

Most people prefer reading books. b)

A: What are you reading, Suzy? B:

What do you

A: What's it about?

reading?

B: It's about a girl who lives in a strange universe.

How often

A: Is it good?

do you read?

''",.7

a)

b)

B: Yes, it's great. I can't put it down!

o Listen and

b)

l

QP Use the ideas below and the

say. What do

language in the box to replace the

you enjoy

words in bold and act out similar

reading?

dialogues. You can use your own ideas. adventure novel - The Lost Symbol, Dan Brown -

What's your

a historian who must follow an ancient symbol

favourite

2 fantasy novel - Clockwork Angel, Cassandra

book? What

~l

It's a fantasy novel called The Golden Compass by Philip Pullman.

prefer

i;b

o Listen and repeat.

Clare - a teenager who tries to save the world

is it about?

---Expr'es'sfngpo'siti"ve' "

I enjoy reading fantasy novels. My favourite one is ... It's about ...

• •

:3

0

Expressing negative

. opinions © .

You'll hear Brian and Stacey

opinions

(9

It's great/fantastic!



It isn't that good, really.

amazing, etc



I don't really like it

I really love it



It's boring/slow-moving/



I'm really enjoying it



I can't put it down,

dull, etc •

I'm not really enjoying it

talking about books they read recently. For sentences 1 to 6 listen and tick (I)

T (true) or F (false). Stacey has just read a biography, 2 She really liked the book. 3 She found the ending a bit slow, 4 Others recommended this book to Brian,

36

Discuss the questions, then tell the

I'-TT-F-I

I I l

FR I \' I

I

I

I

I

5 He liked it from the beginning.

.I,--r-II

6 He has read lots of other similar

II

I

i

I ,

(~1 ~~~I:~;
Rim/{:2 p. l33)

I

I

class about your partner's reading habits. What do you usually read? 2 How much time do you spend reading? 3 Where do you read? (at home, on the bus/train, in

a cafe, etc) 4 What was the last book you read? What was it called? What was it about?

Anna often reads crime thrillers. She reads every day ...

-Read the rubric. What should you write? Should it be a firstor a third-person narrative? ~==---

Read the story and answer the questions. How does the writer set the scene? character - place - time - weather 2 Which is the climax event in the story? 3 How did the characters feel in the end?

0'

a)

..

f' d Danny and I decided to VISIt Holroyd One afternoon last win:er, my fnen . old and starting to rain, so we When we arrived, It was reezmg c

--.

Your college English club has asked I , its members to send in stories; about strange experiences they 1 had. Write your story in 120-180 j words and submit it. The best story a : will appear in next month's club: I newspaper. i

The Haunted Castle by Ben Smith

went inside. k Id rooms and corridors. The castle We walked slowly through the ~~rh' co as the sound of our footsteps on huge and empty and all we cou d f ea~ ~f an hour before we realised that the stone floor. We wandered aroun or a we were lost. tall man wearing old-fashioned d corner we saw a dh ~ Luckily, as we turne a 'k d f to follow him. As we walke e Y . I t rn He as e or us . d clothes and carrymg.a ~n e. lis He s oke in a strange, old-fashlone a told us about the palntmgs on the h' d'd~'t answer Back in the entrance . d him a questIon, e I way and when I as ke uide but he wasn't there any more. hall, we turned around to th~nk our g k' bout our visit and our helpful d t a fnendly wor man a h h Outside, we c atte 0 ' h t Lord Fredrick! He was an artist and t e guide. "Ah, you met the castlehs g os, He sometimes helps visitors and tells stle in the 18t century. owner 0 f the ca . . ' . dl " he told us eXCIte y. d them all about hIs pamtmgs. d h k' We felt very shocked and scare . ~ Danny went white and \. starte s a mg. We'll never forget this expenence.

v:

Read the Writing Tip.

Replace the adjectives and adverbs in the paragraphs below with: quickly, roaring, horrible, extremely, heavily, relaxing, terrifying, chilly.

Using adjectives & adverbs

IUse a variety of adjectives and Iadverbs to make your story more

Iinteresting.

We were 5) very lucky to escape and ran away as6) fast as we could. It was a(n) 7).scary experience for ail ofus, and we promised never to go back to that 8) bad houseagain.

A tall thin man walked slowly towards

l

us.

,

b) Which adjectives does the author use to describe the following?

~

:..-~..-

a)

• the rooms • the castle • the floor • the man • the man's clothes • the workman • the guide c) List all the adverbs used in the story.

Sequence of events in stories Always write the events in a story in the order they happened. This helps the reader follow the

'

,

0

Listen to an experience Ben had while he was in Rio de Janeiro and answer the questions in the plan.

Who were the main characters? Where were they? What were they doing? What was the weather like? What happened? (The events of the story in the order they happened.) What was the climax event? What happened in the end? How did the main character(s) feel?

b)

Imagine you are Ben. Use ideas from Ex. Sa to write his story for the college magazine (120-200 words).

a)

How do you communicate with your friends? Do you use social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, etc?

b)

How do social networking sites work?

o Listen, read and check.

Do you use Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Friendster 01' Linkedin? If so, then you are part of a social network. Social networking sites allow us to see our social connections. We can see our friends and their friends through pictures and links in a user.friendly interlace. When you create a profile on a social networking site, you open up a huge range of possible social connections. You can look up old friends, make new friends and share music, photos and videos with them. You can also join groups based on your interests or hobbies, favourite TV shows or music. Setting up a social networking account is simple. You just create and post a personal profile. For this you need a login name, password and an email account. Then you add some personal information such as name, age, sex, location, interests, etc. You can also add a photo of yourself. You can personalise your profile and share as much information about yourself as you want. You can also control who sees your profile. For example, you can make sure that you only allow the friends that you have added to your

a)

Read again and answer the questions.

What is the purpose of social networking sites? 2 What kinds of things can you do when you create a

network to see it. The next step is to search the network for your contacts, browse for new ones and add them to your network. You can invite offline friends to join by email or search for friends who are already signed up by name, school, or workplace. Then you can search your friends' connections for anyone else you'd like to add to your network. Different social networking sites allow people to interact in different ways. There are straightforward sites that allow you to expand your personal community such as Facebook. Then there are ones that involve media sharing, such as YouTube, where members upload and look at other people's pictures and videos. There are also ones that specialise in sharing music, such as Last. FM, and finally, ones that allow bloggers to form online communities, such as Livejournal. The latest trend in social networking is to create your own independent social network. Companies do this to promote their brand and individuals can do it to create a very tight-knit community.

· social networking site, connection, user-friendly interface, post, profile, login name, personalise, • contact, browse, interact, straightforward, • expand, community, media, blogger, trend, independent, promote, tight-knit

profile? 3 How do you set up a social networking account?

social networks have become so

5 How do you build up your list of friends? 6 What different kinds of social network sites are there?

popular? In three minutes, write a few sentences. Tell another group or the

7 Why are some companies creating their own social

class. JeT! In small groups, find out more information about a social network e.g.

networks? b)

38

Why do you think

4 How can you personalise your profile?

Use your answers and the words in the box to tell your partner about social networks.

Twitter. Present your information to the class.

Choose the correct particle.

3

Fill in the correct word derived from the word in brackets.

Ifall for: become attracted to

Ifallout: argue and stop being friends Ifall through: not happen (plans) i get away: escape I get on/off: enter/leave a bus/train Iget along'with sb: have a friendly relationship Iget through: reach by phone ! give away: make known, give free of charge i give off/out: produce (smell, gas) Igive up: stop a bad habit

2 3 4

S 6 ~)

,~

I know you've already read the book, so don't give up/away the ending! Emma tried to call the theatre, but she couldn't get on/through. We got off/on the bus and sat down behind the driver. John's plans to travel around Asia last month fell out/through at the last minute. Mary gets away/along with Jo really well. The fire gave up/off a lot of smoke.

(word Formation - Abstract nouns from verbs We use these endings to form nouns from verbs: -ance (annoy - annoyance), -(t)ion (act - action), -ment (enjoy - enjoyment) and -al (refuse - refusal).

2 3 4

S 6

The volcanic .................................... at the end of the film was amazing in 3D. (ERUPT) The lead actress made a personal .................... . to promote the new film. (APPEAR) Jack went to see the band's ........................... .. at the airport. (ARRIVE) What time does the ................................. start this evening? (PERFORM) The ................................. says the rock concert starts at 7:30. (ADVERTISE) The Sydney Opera house is Sydney's most popular tourist ............................................... . (ATTRACT)

Choose the correct preposition. 1 Harry dreamed of/up travelling the world. 2 The museum is popular fort with tourists. 3 Peter went in/on a business trip to China. 4 We went t%n a guided tour of the museum. S He left the room in/at a hurry. 6 I want to share my experiences with/in you. 7 The actors all went onlin stage in/with their bright costumes for the finale. 8 The search results appear on/in the screen instantly.

Fill in: spicy, grab, classic, search, officially, lead, bright, social, play, blow.

2 3 4 S

.................... engine ................. network ..................... singer ................... colours ....................... food

6 7 1 8 9 10

..................... novel .................... by ear .................. became ................. strongly ......... the attention

Mark the sentences T (true) or F (false). Correct the false sentences. Read through Module 2 and write a quiz of your own. 1 Larry Page studied engineering. 2 The Taj Mahal is in Delhi, India. 3 Lady Gaga's musical inspiration was Mozart. 4 Google went online in 1998. S Chinese opera actors train from the age of 10.

6 In Chinese opera, blue make up means mystery. 7 Googol means 'I followed by a thousand zeros'! 8 Lady Gaga was born in the 1980s ...... .

'1

a)

Read the rubric and underline the key words in the headings. In pairs think of words related to them.

p-------------------1 Uslyszysz dwukrotnie wypowiedzi picrciu os6b.

l

i Przyporz~dkuj m6wi~cych do zdan, kt6re ~ najlepiej podsumowuj~ ich wypowiedzi, ! wpisuj~c odpowiednie litery (A-F) w kratki : (1-5). Jedno zdanie zostato podane dodat___ ___ _ :i:adnej ____ ______ lL kowo i_ nie_pasuje do wypowiedzi.

A VIEW FROM ABOVE B MEET THE FAMOUS C OPEN AIR FUN D TOUR BY NIGHT E TAKE THE GHOST PATH F FAMILY FUN

2.

d

E

[Speaker 1 Speaker 2_

I ISpeaker 3

I

I

1

ISpeaker 4 ~

~aker 5

ITIJ

]

0

b)

Do the task. Compare your answers with your partner's.

a)

Read the title and the first sentence in each paragraph. What is the text about?

b)

Do the reading task. Which words helped you decide? Compare with your partner.

~---~~---

-~-~--~---~-=~

przeczytaj tekst, z kt6rego usunicrto N n picrc zdan. Dobierz brakuj~ce zdania : M (A-F), tak aby otrzymac sp6jny i logiczny tekst. H i J ! W ka:i:d~ lukcr (1-5) wpisz liter~, kt6r~ oznaczone jest l : brakuj~ce zdanie. Jedno zdanie zostato podane J dodatkowo i nie pasuje do tekstu.

i

40

Our guide had explained the history of salt-mining before our trip to the Wieliczka Salt Mine, near Krakow in Poland. Nothing, however, prepared us for climbing down the 387 wooden steps to the first level of the tour and finding ourselves 100 metres underground. It was like travelling to the centre of the Earth! The guide told us that the air here was so pure that there is a treatment centre in the mine for people with health problems like asthma and eczema. [ID I had imagined that everything would be white, but the salt is grey and looks more like stone than salt. There has been a salt mine at Wieliczka since the 12th century, when salt was as valuable as oil is today. Over the years, the miners have dug out over 300 km of chambers and corridors on nine levels to a depth of 327 metres. []I] Today, about 1 million visitors visit the mine every year. The 3% km tour only covers about 1% of it. As we walked further, the guide told us the legend behind the mine. In the 12th century, Kinga, a Hungarian princess, decided to give the Polish people a salt mine to celebrate her marriage to their king. Kinga threw a ring the king had given her into a salt mine in Hungary. [ID She dug in the ground and pulled out the ring and lots of salt. To thank Kinga, the grateful miners carved a chapel deep underground in her memory. The highlight of the tour was a magnificent huge chamber with amazing statues, sculptures, wall carvings and even chandeliers all made completely out of salt. [I[J When we asked why the floors were so smooth, the guide told us that our feet were actually polishing it as we walked and, with a laugh thanked us for cleaning! At the end of the tour, we got into a huge elevator to take us back to the surface. The ride took over half a minute! As we emerged into the bright sunlight, I understood why UNESCO had placed the Wieliczka Salt Mine on its list of World Heritage sites. It was a day I'll never forget. And yes, the walls did taste salty!

A They have also carved many of the beautiful sculptures visitors see during the tour of the mine. B Sometimes people even use this chamber for weddings or other celebrations. C It was amazing to see the underground salt lakes, passages, corridors and sculptures as we started out on our tour. D Then she travelled to the little village of Wieliczka. E They even let us sit with them and take photographs. F The first thing we noticed was the air - it was cool and a lot fresher than I had imagined.

o Listen to three people talking about .;t

these places. Add words to your spidergrams. Then do the task.

.3.

'"'~B!lfiillJJJJ(CliJ.rt[:;Z!J7JriCJ'l

(Sh()J~PJo\rw6Il§tlfJiDfo ~--------

-----=~

~~~~~~~~=~

Uzupetnij poniiszy 9 a tekst. W luki (1-5) wpisz : 1 wyrazy utworzone od stow znajduj~cych j ] siE( w nawiasach, tak aby tekst byt logiczny l 1 i J i poprawny gramatycznie. n

~==~

WykorzystujC);c wyrazy napisane l wielkimi literami, uzupetnij kai:de ! zdanie, tak aby zachowac znaczenie zdania ; wyjsciowego. Nie zmieniaj podanych fragmentow a i formy podanych wyrazow.

._------------ ---&

l

~

---------------_& The crossword was too difficult for him to do. ~----

1

Gough's Cave, near the village of Cheddar in Somerset, where cheddar cheese 1) .................... (origin), is a popular tourist attraction. The cave is part of Cheddar Gorge, a spectacular valley with breathtaking scenery. The cave reaches about 400 metres into the rock and contains a number of large chambers and 2) .................... (nature) structures, such as stalactites and stalagmites. An underground river created the caves which feature some 3) .................... (interest) historic remains. Explorers of the area have found cave paintings and carvings and also the grave of the 4) .................. .. (old) complete human skeleton in the country, Cheddar Man. Scientists believe he died over 8,000 years ago and they have discovered, through DNA 5) .................. .. (test), that his distant relative is a school teacher who still lives in Cheddar!

2

3

4

5

ENOUGH The crossword wasnft .................... .. .............................................. to do. He had difficulty finding the way to the exit. DIFFICULT It was ............................................ .. ......................... the way to the exit. When did they decide to go to Gdansk? SINCE How long is it ................................ .. ............................ to go to Gdansk? They moved to London two years ago. LIVED They .............................................. .. .. ................................ for two years. When did he start learning Spanish? STARTED How ............................................... . .. .......................... learning Spanish?

'fJ/VjpJf{J)>&wDewi JflJ.iS(eJllJ1ffH(fJ

~O:::{)wyfi,,'d
a) (~ftJwowied;z :raa pods"amlllie ril1lm'iteriii'li1lJl slym~aanB'lCf)gov

Read the rubric and look at the options. Brainstorm for words related to each place to complete the spidergrams. ?-----------------------~ Twoj przyjaciel/Twoja przyjaci6tka

; ; ~

;

i 1

z Anglii przyjeidia do Ciebie w odwiedziny na weekend. Chcesz zaplanowac dla Was wspolne wyjscie. Przyjrzyj siE( trzem zdjE(ciom i zastanow siE(, ktore z nich ilustruje miejsce, do ktorego chciatbys/ch ciatabys siE( wybrac z przyjacielem/przyjaci6tk~. Uzasadnij swoj wybor i wyjaSnij, dlaczego odrzucasz pozostate propozycje.

~----------------------_&

Read the rubric. Listen to an experience someone had and make notes to answer the questions in the plan.

o

.-------------------------~ j

~ l j

! y

Przebywasz w Anglii. Redakcja gazetki wydawanej w Twojej szkole poprosita l czytelnikow 0 nadsytanie opowiadan opisujC);cych niezwylde : zdarzenia z ich Zycia. Napisz opowiadanie (200-250 stow) 1 i przeslij je do redakcji czasopisma. Najlepsze opowiadanie ; ukai:e siE( w gazetce w przysztym miesiC);cu. l 3

.------------------------_& Who were the main characters? Where were they? What were they doing? What was the weather like? Paras 2 & 3: What happened? (The events of the story in the order they happened) What was the climax event? What happened in the end? How did the main character(s) feel?

Do the writing task.

Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect or the past perfect continuous.

Fill in: locals, biting, shared, seasick, caught, lighting, carried, audience, rose. 1 Nicky got .................... because there were big waves and the boat was moving up and down. 2 He got ..................................... in bad weather. 3 Beth really enjoys meeting the ........................ . when she's travelling. 4 The ......................................... made the whole theatre look red and gold. S He .................................. his travel experiences with his friends. 6 Max had trouble sleeping because the mosquitoes were ......................... him all night. 7 The curtain .............................. and a beautiful actress appeared on stage. S The ................................. clapped loudly at the end of the performance. 9 The singer's voice ............................... over the sound of the crowd.

I

1 He ......................................................... (walk) for an hour before he reached the cabin. 2 She was tired because she .............................. . .. ......,................ (not/sleep) the previous night. 3 Greg ....................................................... (look) for his book for two hours before he found it. 4 They were lost because they ........................... . ........................... (not/take) a map with them. 5 He .............................. :.......................... (work) since morning on his computer and his eyes were red. 5x4=20 marks

5

Match 1-5 with A-E to make exchanges.

DIJ

9x2=18 marks

:2

Put the v~rbs in brackets in the past simple or the past continuous. 1 Gary was writing postcards while Laura .......... . ............................... (take) photos. 2 We ........................................ (watch) a film at 8 o'clock yesterday evening. 3 Susan opened the door and ............................ . (run) out of the house. 4 Larry Page and Sergey Brin .............................. . (meet) in 1995. S ....................................... (you/listen) to music when I called?

I '!

I

\.

I'

n

~ 1]

I !

[IT]

CID [IT]

[I[J

What was the concert like? Do you want to go for a walk later? What did you do on Friday? Did you enjoy the concert? Is your book good?

5x4=20 marks

6

Write a story entitled "A day to remember" (120-200 words). 20 marks

5x2= 70 marks

3

Total: 100 marks

Complete the sentences with used to. 1 In ancient times the actors ............................. .. (wear) brightly-coloured costumes in Chinese opera. 2 .............. the ancient Greeks .......................... .. (perform) in outdoor theatres? 3 Lily ......................... (notilive) in the city when she was 5. 4 Harry ......................... (take) long walks in the countryside when he was young. 4x3=12 marks

42

A Sure! I'll give you a call. B I watched a film on TV. C Not really. It was nothing special. D It was fantastic! E No, I'm not really enjoying it.

• • • • • •

talk and write about travel experiences talk and write about Google and Facebook talk about actions in progress in the past talk and write about music and pop stars eXpress positive and negative opinions write a descriptive email

GOOD I

VERYGOOD 11 EXCELLENT I11

Vocabulary: the weather, extreme activities, types of accommodation, verbs related to weather, camping equipment, outdoor leisure activities Grammar: future tenses (will/going to/present continuous present simple with future meaning); conditionals type 0, 1, 2, 3; wishes Everyday English: booking accommodation Pronunciation: stress in compound nouns Writing: a semi-formal email asking for information Culture Corner: The Appalachian Trail Curricular (Geography): Caves Phrasal verbs: go, look

In Paris, France, there will be ................... ;... :. 5 In New Delhi, India, there will be ................... ;.

3

Choose a photograph and describe it to the class. Talk about: 9

place • time of year

• weather • people • clothes • activities • feelings

Hi, everyone! Well, here I am at the scientific research station in Antarctica, the coldest, windiest, and driest continent in the world! It's summer right now, so the weather is quite 'mild' - it's ooe today! There are still a lot of gales, though, and of course, the sun never sets in the summer, which is really weird! Despite the freezing cold, the scenery and wildlife here are incredible. There are seals everywhere and yesterday I saw a humpback whale. Everyone is warning me about the winter here! The temperature will drop to about -40 o e and the sun won't rise at all. There will only be 20 of us and we won't have any visitors for 7 months. It'll be difficult, but at least I'm going to be very busy. As a marine biologist, I'm going to study the way marine wildlife adapts to extreme temperatures. I'm also going to do a survey of the threatened Emperor Penguin. I can't wait to start! Tomorrow, all the newcomers are going on a survival course for a week with ski-doos and sledges. We're going to camp in the snow and learn things like what to do if we fall down a crevasse*. I hope there won't be a blizzard like the one we had on my first day here. Well, bye for now! I'll tell you all about the course when I'm back at the research station next week. Matt

Look at Matt'sblog. Where is Matt? Why do you think he's there? What is it like there? Listen and read the blog entry to find out.

o

b)

Read and markthe statements as T (true) or F (false).

1 Summers in Antarctica are. warm. 2 You can seethe sunatnightin the summer months inAntarctica.· 3 There is no wildlife there. '. 4 Ihere'snosun during the Winter. Mattis .on a business tiiptoAntarctica. It's Matt's firsttime inA:ntarctica. The survival Course last~ ~we~tc .' . Matt is goingt() stay fhereJora.month. Fill

in:hu~Pback,drop, sets, researcQ,marine,survi,val, freezing.C·

1 0

listen and repeat. Which of . . these vileatherconditiolls are com~oninyou{ couniryin: vilintei'? spring? summer? imtumn?

In thewinter,.it's c5ftenchilly, but notfreezing . coli There(s. sometimes heavy rain, but we 44dQn'thaveanYblizzar~s ... etc

5 ................ ;........... ~." .. course 6 temperatures .................. ..

.. :; ......... ;..... ;....... :..... wh~le 7thesun ......... :........... ;...... . .•... ,...................... biol?gist • '"

4

-~ ":

.

-'

-",

,

"

.~',

"

-- -

_. - .

-

Matchtheul1derJinedwordsinthe text totheir opposites: c;mfTlon,hottest;boiling,hoLshal/ow,. idle, wettest; ordinar}'~ jnt~nse.. . . . .. .

sk

.............................................................................................. Great blog, Matt! I'll follow it with interest - from my nice cosy house! p.~~~.~,..1Q/.1~.~tJ.1;~.~.i!-m ............................................................................................. sounds amazing there, Matt, but so cold!

n!TII(.1~!.1~.~~..~).~.P.~ ................................................................................................ That's nothing, Tim! Inland, the temperature drops to -70 Dein the winter.

~.~.~~)!.!.~!!~.~~.~.:~?.P.~ .......................................................................................... . POST ACOMMENT

Speaking

The sun rises/raises in the east. 2 He threatened/warned us about the extreme weather conditions. 3 Temperatures fall/drop to -100( here in the winter.

7

a)

Writing

What did you know about Antarctica? What did you

4 Animals can adapt/adjust to their environment to survive.

learn about it from the

S We should protect extinct/threatened species or they'll die out.

text? Make notes, then

Grammar future tenses

6

tell the class.

see ..........

pp. 119-120}

""'.................

Fill in the gaps with the verbs in brackets in the correct tense. Explain your choices. A: What are your plans for the weekend, Dave? B: I .......................................... (go) hiking in the mountains. 2 A: It's really cold in here! B: I ............................................................ (put) the heat on. 3 A: I've got so many things to do to prepare for my skiing trip next week!

B: Don't worry. I ....................................... (give} you a hand. 4 A: When ............................................. (you/be) free tonight? B: I don't know. I'll call you when we .................. (get) home. S A: Why are you buying that guide book about Antarctica? B: I ......................................... (visit) Antarctica next month! 6 A: What time ....................................... (the plane/take off)? B: It ..................................................... (take off) at 8:15 pm.

b)

Imagine you are one of the newcomers. You are back from the survival course. Send an email to your English friend. Write what you did and how you liked it. Read it to your partner or the class.

8 IleT 1~~

In groups, collect information about Antarctica,

then present it to the class.

(~) Vocabulary Sa nU p.134)

45

Vocabulary Extreme activities

1

Match each activity (A-H) with the equipment (1-8). Listen and check, then say.

o

[]I] [ID []I] [ID [1IJ [ID

an inflatable armchair and flippers a Chinese frying pan, a helmet and ladles an ironing board and an iron an ice axe and boots with metal spikes a four-wheeled motorbike and a helmet a board and protective clothing [ [ [ ] a surfboard connected to a kite []I] an elastic rope You need an inflatable armchair flippers to go river bugging.

Reading

2

a)

look at the text. What do you know about these three activities? How can you go faster when doing each one? Read to find out.

weird, craze, erupt, ash, protective, slope, speed, world championship, competitor, tip, bottom, compete, melt, rest, rapids, control, webbed gloves, backwards

You can sit in it, but you won't get any rest in this inflatable armchair. A river bug speeds you along a river and down rapids. If you 5) ............... to control it well, you'll need webbed gloves and short flippers. Go backwards to go faster. The only problem is that you can't see 6) .................... is coming if you go backwards. Watch out for that rock!

. . . Imagine speeding down an icy track at 60. kmph ina Chinese frying pan. Wok racing started as a joke on German TV, but it soon became very popular and now 3) ............................... :. is a world championship every year. For protection, competitors wear a special suit and helmet and they also put ladles on their feet! So how do you 4) ....................................... 7 Well, here's a hot tip - if you Warm the bottom of your wok before competing, it melts the ice and you go faster.

Read the text and for each gap (1-6) choose the word that best fits.

2 3

4 S 6

A B A A A A A

to travelling to travel in B with it B that win B beat see B think what B that

C D C C C C C

travel travelling at D their D come D feel D there D

for there earn want it

mplete the conditional type 1 sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. If you ............................ (not/wear) protective clothing when wok racing, you ...................... .. (get) hurt. 2 Unless you .................................. (like) getting wet, you ....................................... (notIenjoy) river bugging. 3 You ................................. (have) better control of your river bug if you .................................. .. (use) webbed gloves and flippers.

clothing, track, melt, 1 When did the volcano last .............................. 7

4 Unless you .................................. (wear) boots with spikes, you ...................... (not/be able)

2 Never go volcano surfing without wearing protective ............................. .

to go ice climbing.

3 The ................ of the mountain are very steep.

5 He .................... (not/try) river bugging unless he .................................. (know) how to swim.

4 He went down the icy .................. at 80 kmph. 5 Ten teams of ten people each will .................. .. in the tournament.

7

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. What conditional type is each

6 They spread salt on the road to ...................... .

sentence?

the ice. 7 The river offers beautiful scenery and challenging .............................. to those who seek adventure. S They tried to .......................... their canoe, but it tipped over and they fell into the water.

Grammar

When the temperature .......................... (drop) below 00 ( , water turns to ice. 2 If you like extreme sports, you ......................... . (love) ice climbing.

see . .

3 Unless he ............................... (train), he won't be able to go ice climbing.

p.12D)

4 They always put on sunscreen when they ..........

~"" ..... ,

Conditional types 0/1

......................................... (go) volcano surfing. S If you ...................... (not have) a four-wheeled

Read the examples. How do we form

motorbike, you ...................... (can/not/go) quad

conditional types 0, 17 (;

If/When ice gets hot it melts. (Type 0)



If we visit Nicaragua, we'll go surfing. (Type 1) If you like extreme sports, try quad racing. (Type 1) Unless I train, I'l/lose the game. (= if I don't) (Type 1) )

I•

~

5

'\

racing. 6 When iron gets wet, it ........................... (rust).

8

Complete the sentences. Unless I ........................................................... .

Write conditional type 0 sentences using

2 If the weather gets cold, ............................... ..

the phrases.

3 If I study late in the evening, ......................... .. 4 Unless my friends ........................................... ..

you/fall into a river (you/get wet)

5 Snow melts when it ........................................ .

If you fall into a river, you get wet.

Speaking & Writing

2 you/do river bugging backwards (you/go faster) 3 I/exercise (I feel better) 4 you/put an inflatable object in water (it/float) 5 you/heat water (it/boil) 6 we/go out on a hot day without sunscreen (we/get sunburnt)

9

o

Listen and read the text. Compare and contrast the three sports. In five minutes, write a few sentences. Tell the class.

47

I

r

~ trail, hike, stunning, scenery, step, make : it, footpath, run through, natural beauty, rocky, deer, moose, raccoon, coyote, bobcat, get lost, pile, hut, special offer

If you want to hike through some of the most stunning scenery in North America, then the Appalachian Trail is for you. It takes over five million steps to walk it and only 1 person in 4 makes it all the way. ~ What is if! The Appalachian Trail is a footpath that runs through 14 states from Mount Katahdin, Maine, in the north to Springer Mountain, Georgia in the south. It follows the Appalachian Mountains through over 3,200 km of incredible natural beauty. ~ What can I see? The trail passes through forests and valleys, across mountain tops and down rocky paths. It's home to some wildlife you'll want to see, and some you'll want to avoid! There are harmless deer, moose, and raccoons, but there are also dangerous black bears, coyotes and bobcats. Don't worry about getting lost. Every 400 metres, there are white signs called 'blazes' on trees, rocks, and posts. If you climb above the forest, you'll see a breathtaking view, but you'll also see piles of stones called 'rock cairns' to guide you. ~ Where can I stay? Most hikers stay at one of the 250 campsites and s uts with an open front) along the trail.

1

The website is about the Appalachian Trail, a hiking trail in the USA. Which sentences below are T (true) about it?

1 It's easy to walk along all of the trail. 2 It covers five states. 3 It's over 3,200 km long.

3

box to complete the sentences. From the top of the mountain, there was a ............................................. view of the valley. 2 The campsite only costs £10 per night. It's a 3 They tried to finish the trail, but they didn't

4 You might see dangerous animals along the trail. 5 You can't camp along the trail.

o

Listen and read the text to find out. Correct the false sentences.

2

a)

Match the words/phrases in bold to these definitions: keep away from, the

whole distance, heaps, show the way, not dangerous, amazing, not finding your way. b)

48

Name the animals in the pictures using words from the text.

4 Take a map with you in case you .................... .

4

Tell your partner three things you remember about the Appalachian Trail. Use words from the box.

5 IICT I

In small groups, collect information about an area of natural beauty in your country and create a short web page about it. Include: what it is (name, where it is, etc), what you can see there, where

you can stay.

. Booking accommodation

1 0

Listen and say. Which of these types of accommodation have you stayed in? When? What was it like?

2

a)

o

Listen and say. Pay attention to the pronunciation . .. How can I help you? • I'd like to book a room, please. • Single, please. • How much is it per night? " Does that include breakfast? .. What name, please?

3

• We look forward to seeing you. b)

o Listen, read, and answer the questions.

Find sentences in the dialogue which mean: May / help you? -/ want to make a reservation. - Do you want a room for two people or for one person?

Intonation: stress in compound nouns 4 0 Read the theory, then listen and repeat.

What room is Mr Jones booking?

The stress in compound nouns usually falls on the first syllable. double room

2 How much will it cost? 3 How long will he stay? 4 What floor is his room on?

bedroom -,-'. __ .".:

---_.-.'.

R: Good morning - Red Ridge Hotel. can I help you? J: Hello. I'd like to book a room. R: Certainly. When for? J: 19th June, for two nights. R: Do you want a double or a single room? J: Single, please. R: Let me check what we have available '" Yes, we have a room on the 3rd floor. J: Great. How much is it per night? R: It's £85. J: Does that include breakfast? R: Yes, it does. J: OK. Can I book it then, please? R: Certainly. What name, please? J: Ethan Jones. R: OK. Your booking reference is 6793581. That's 6793581. We look forward to seeing you. J: Thank you. Goodbye.

Speaking

5

UP-

Imagine you are going on holiday with your friends and you want to book accommodation at the Sea View selfcatering apartments. Act out your dialogue. Follow the plan.

Greet B, giving name of ay you'd like to book accommodation, offer to help. a flat. Ask date & how long they are State date & how many staying. nights. Ask how many bedrooms -""""--~~ tate number of people. they want. Check for vacancies. Ask price. State cost. -""'--==-----lJIo" Agree and book it. Ask for B's name. -""'-_-==='-----,10..{ ive your full name. Give booking reference. Thank & say goodbye.

49

Ii Reading

1

Read the definition and look at the diagram. What causes high temperatures? global warming /,glgubgl 'w:):mIIJ/ (n) the increase of the average temperature on Earth

2

Look at the photographs in the text. How can global warming affect life on our planet? What can we do? Listen and read to find out.

o

3

Read again and mark the sentences

F (false), or os (doesn't say).

1 Most of the world's

2 It might not be possible to to the Maldives in 2100., ,.

3

4 5

6

4 getting

make smaller, ',.".,,. .. ,u disappear.

50

global warming, heat up, fault, fossil : fuel, greenhouse gas, surround, blanket, trap, trouble, melt, climate, report, polar ice caps, vanish, lowlying, wave, coastal, under threat, cover, serious, in great danger, starve, drown, extinct, drought, unpredictable, reduce, energy-saving bulb, turn up, expert

5

Complete the summary with words from box in the correct the form. Compare with your partner. Global warming happens because we burn 1) ...................... which produce 2) ....................... These will 3) ...................... our world by up to 3°C, which means big 4) ...................... ! Mountain glaciers and the 5) ..................... . are 6) ...................... fast! Parts of the world in 7) .................... areas may 8) ................... . completely in 100 years. Many animals are also 9) ...................... , like the polar bear, which may become 10) ...................... . Extreme weather such as hurricanes and 11) ...................... will also become more frequent.

. Speaking & Writing

sentences. Read your to the class. could speak, what .ut the problems they ng? In three . Tell the class.

Camping Equipment

1

a)

0

Listen and say.

b) Which of these would you need if: you had an accident? there were lots of mosquitoes? it was freezing cold? you wanted to light a fire? it was boiling hot? you wanted to go sailing? you got lost? If you had an accident, you would need a first aid kit.

Reading a)

Read the title of the text and the introduction, then read the words in the box. What do you expect to read? Read through to check.

O~e~~:~u~~~~::r:s ~:rh~~ ,J~:~, 200~!, t~~a~~:~~:field .. Alaskan wilderness. On their first morning, they set off t0gether down the KoyukukRiver on their raft ..

wilderness, rafting, terrifying, set off, horror, crash into, fastflowing, crawl, suck, sweep, bounce, surface, suffer from, shore, shelter, branch, scare off, alight, signal, overhead, pilot, spot, rescue helicopter, pick

wa~ a probiemi.clI]Meanwhile,Neilwas also fighting to stay ali\ie. One time, he fell asleep .and woke up just in time·to keep his fire· alight . . .

By Monday, both men were getting weaker. and vveaker They had onlytravelled afew miles downtheriverwhen, to from.Jack·offood~Hltonlylhacln't leftrny fCitherl"Blake their horror, they saw a huge wall of ice .infront ofthem! thoughLBuUhen, he' haoanloEla.lfQebuHtasignal fire, Their raft crashed into the ice andthemeri fell into the aqy planesJlyingoverheadWou,ldhopefullwsee·him.. On freezing cold water. If. the waterhadn'tbeensofasHlowing,· .Tuesday evening,apilot finalLyspottepBlake. Afterasbort they Would have been ablE1to crawl'onto theice,but·instead· while,. arescueheliCopterpickea hhn up~'theyquic~ly found Neil. . . . ........ ... . it quickly sucked them under and sweptthemalong.1JI] "What have I done?" Blakethoughtatthatpoint.But just· . . [I[J, "You don't I; ...... then, he surfaced andsawhisfather holding onto an oar. Tile two men ... Freezing cold and with Neilsuttering frOnl hypother~ia, .. the two men made their way tothe shore. Biakequickly lit a fire. He knew his father would die from the cold if he didn't get warm soon.[I[J·· .. The next morning, Blakeknewthat he had to get helpas they had lost all their supplies - their food, tent and clothes. He left his father and .. made his way towards a town 104 km away, singing loudly to scare off bears. He even caught and ate· ants and to give him strength . But

6

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct

Read the text again.

b)

tense. What type of conditional is each?

Four sentences are missing. Match the sentences (A-E) to the gaps (1-4). There

If Neil ............................................... (not grab)

is one extra sentence.

the oar, he probably wouldn't have survived. 2 If you ......................................................... (do)

A The river bounced Blake around and hit his

more exercise, you would feel better.

head against the ice. B When he reached a river, he realised it was too

3 If the river ................................................. (be)

wide for him to swim across without getting

4 If it stopped raining, we .................................. .

narrower, Blake would have been able to cross it.

hypothermia! C An oar surfaced in the water near Neil, and he

(go) for a walk. S If I were you, I .................................................. .

grabbed it. D "You look awful!" Blake said to Neil when he

(not go) hiking in such bad weather. 6 If Neil and Blake hadn't slept by a fire, they .....

first saw him, laughing and crying with relief.

..................................................... (die) of cold.

E He also took a penknife and made a shelter out

7

of branches.

:3

a)

Write what each person wishes for/regrets.

1 Jane didn't visit Tom in hospital because she

Match the words in bold to their synonyms:

didn't know he was there.

physical energy, in the sky, walked towards, arose,

I wish/If only I had known Tom was in hospital.

answered, started, frighten, shortage, collected him.

2 She didn't bring her coat and now she's cold.

4

Choose the correct word.

3 Matt went hiking in the rain and got ill. 4 We don't have a lighter to light a fire.

1 Their boat cracked/crashed into the river bank.

S She ate too much and she's got stomach ache.

2 To their horror/alarm the boat started to sink

6 Sally is working this weekend, but she'd like to

slowly. 3 He moved/crawled on his hands and knees

go camping with her friends. b)

towards the tent. 4 The storm sucked/drew their boat under the

Write two things you wish for the present; you regret about the past.

water.

Speaking & Writing 8 0 ~ Listen and read the text again.

S They missedllost their compass and didn't know which way to go. 6 Six days later the rescue team spotted/noticed

Complete the sentences. Use the sentences

them on an isolated island.

to tell your partner a summary of the story.

see ......

Grammar ................ p. 120)

Blake and his father went rafting ................... .

Conditional types 2 &. 3 - Wishes

5

3 Unfortunately their raft .................................. .

Read the examples. How do we form

4 The two men fell ............................................ .

conditional types 2 and 37 wishes? Find

5 Blake helped his dad out of the river and ...... .

examples in the text. (If you wore some warmer clothes, you wouldn't be cold. If

6 Neil was suffering from .................................. .

il

I were you, I'd take a first aid kit on your camping trip. (Type 2) I Ilf we had heard the weather forecast, we wouldn't I i have gone on the trip. (but we did) (Type 3)

I

i I wish/If only it wasn't that cold. (but it is - wish for the present) i i I wish/If only I hadn't left my umbrella at home. (but I did I l - regret about the past) J .

I

~

2 They left on .................................................... .

/

7 Blake left his dad alone to .............................. . 8 Blake lit a signal fire which helped ................. .

9

Imagine you were Neil. You are alone waiting for Blake to come back. In three minutes write a few sentences. Tell your partner or the class. ["".")-V-o-ca-b-ul-ar-y-Sa-n-:-k-3-p-p-.1'-:-3-:-6.-:-13=-=--7)

53

3

Describe picture 4 in Ex. 1a to your partner. Answer the questions.

Vocabulary Outdoor leisure activities a)

Fill in do, play, or go. Listen and check, then say.

b)

Which of these activities would you (not) like to try? Tell your partner.

o

Why do you think these friends are enjoying themselves? 2 How important is it for you to spend time relaxing with your friends? Why? 3 Talk about an outdoor activity that you tried for the first time. What was it like?

Listening

4 Describing pictures When describing a picture to someone, imagine the person can't see it. Include details about the weather, the place, what people are doing, what they are wearing and how they are feeling.

Speaking

2

Look at the picture and complete the description with the words/phrases in the list. • snow • freezing cold .. the boy's father • a lot of fun • behind them • warm winter clothes • ski lodge • a young boy • at a ski resort • sunny In the photo, there is 1) ....................... standing on asnowboard and aman. I think the man is probably 2) ....................... and he is teaching the boy how to snowboard3) .............................. It looks quite 4) ................................ , but there is a lot of 5) ................................ on the ground, so it's probably 6) ........ ............ ............ . They are both wearing 7) ................................. There is also adog 8) ................................ and a wooden building like a 9) ................................. The boy is smiling so I think he's having 10) ................................ !

o

You will hear George talking on a radio programme about a trip he's organising. For each question, choose the correct answer, A, B, or C. The adventure camp will last for A a weekend. B a week. C the whole month of June. 2 What does George say about paintballing? A It isn't for everyone. B It can be uncomfortable. C He doesn't really enjoy it.

3 For people who don't exercise a lot, George recommends A yoga on the beach. B zorbing. C aqua aerobics. 4 Campers will stay in A a tent. B a hotel. C a self-catering flat. 5 Teens can sign up for the trip by A calling George. B going to the community centre website. C going to the community centre.

invites you on our

Forest Adventure Weekend! --"" June 1Oth - 12th ~A fun weekend of zip-lining, !' .

paintballing .. , and much morel

~-24 years old and you're interested in ,

, joining us on the triP, emall Smith at: [email protected]

A semi-formal email asking for information

1

a)

The adverts above appeared in the local Semi-formal style in emails

newspaper last week. What are they for?

We often write emails in a semi-formal style to people

What information do they give?

we don't know well. Semi-formal style includes: b)

Sandra read advertisement A and decided to send an email asking for



a polite greeting (Dear + person's name) & ending (Kind regards/Best wishes + full name)

information. Use the phrases A-E to



polite language and a respectful tone (I would Thank you for your time ... )

correct the wrong register.

[KC] []I] [ID !]I] [IIJ

am interested in ..

Dear Mr Smith

2

Kind regards I am very interested in joining you on the trip. I look forward to hearing from you.

"'/riring (a semi-formal email

What other activities will be available?

asking for information)

3

~;W~'.

'~.,------,' To: Brian-Smith '

"-":'--~~~-':'--"-,"---

..--......

--.-------"-~--

• -_.,_.-...--_._---- ,

From: Sandra Harvey -Siib)ect: Forest adventure 'week8rld---~-----'-----.-,,---..

(DHl, Brian,'

II

.,.", '.' ,

Read the Writing Tip and find examples of semi-formal style in the email in Ex. 1b.

----'y

I read your advertisement for tne forest adventure weekend ! and 2) I'd love to come on tne trip witn you. However, I i would Uke to ask you a few questions about it. I First of all, now mucn does tne weekend cost? Also, wnere I exactly is tne weekend going to take place? l~ Secondly, your advert mentions some of tne activities we will ! ! take part in on tne trip, sucn as zip-Uning. 3) Wnat else can ! we do? Also, will I need to bring any special clotnes or equipment witn me? i Tnank you very mucn for your time. 4) Can't wait to near I from you. i i 5) Love, I Sandra Harvey

I:

Portfolio: Read advert B, then write an email asking for more information. Ask about: when exactly it is, the cost, the number of people in each group, the type of accommodation. Write your email (120-150 words). Follow the plan below.

i,'

I

i,,:,

I

!

. '.

,

I

--~

Dear ................................, Para 1:

opening comments, reason for writing (J read ... . I would like to ... J what information you would like/your questions (First of all, when .... Also, ... Secondly, '" . Also, .... J your closing comments (Thank you ... and ... .J , Kind regards, (your full name)

These natural holes in the Earth form over thousands or even millions of years! There are lots of different types of caves, such as ice, sea, limestone, chalk, salt, and even lava caves. Different caves form in different ways. For example, limestone caves form as acidic rain dissolves rock. Sea caves form as ocean waves and heavy rain erode cliffs. Ice caves form as melting water runs under glaciers or through cracks in the ice. In many limestone caves, stalactites grow slowly from the ceiling as calcite* from dripping water hardens. As water drips from them, similar formations J called stalagmites grow up from the floor. When stalactites and stalagmites; ~ meet in the middle, they form columns. ;. Scientists have discovered over 7,700 'troglobites' so far. These are unique! species of fish, spiders, millipedes, crabs, scorpions, and other creatures ~ that live their whole lives in caves. They have often adapted to the dark j conditions. Some are blind but have a great sense of smell. Others .\I .survive for a long time, such as the cave crayfish, which can live for 175j >~ years!'"

141 Caving is an adventure sport that involves walking, crawling, climbing, abseiling, and even swimming and rafting through caves! It's popular and alot of fun! * a mineral

Phrasal verbs/Prepositions

1

Choose the correct particle.

go off: explode (of bombs) go off: ring (of an alarm) go off: spoil (of food) go over: examine (details) go around: be enough for everyone look after: take care of look for: search for look through: read something quickly look up: find information in a book or list

2 3 4 S

6

2 2 3 4 S

Can we go around/over the details of the booking again, please? Alice was looking for/up a cheap hotel in the city. This chicken has gone over/off. Don't eat it! He looked after/up information on the Internet for his report on Antarctica. Are there enough sandwiches to go around/ off? We heard the bomb go over/off, even though we were miles away.

Word formation

3

Fill in the sentences with the correct word derived from the word in brackets.

Word Formation - adjectives from nouns We use -ous (poison - poisonous), -al (function - functional), Mic (allergy - allergic), -ical (economy - economicaJ), -ish (fool- foolish), -ive (expense - expensive), -fullless (care - careful/less), -able (comfort - comfortable) and -y (salt - salty) to form adjectives from nouns. 1 Emma really enjoyed the ................................ .. beauty of the Appalachian Trail. (NATURE) 2 Matt was surprised at how ............................ .. the penguins were. (NOISE) 3 Barry doesn't like extreme sports because he thinks they're ................................. (DANGER) 4 Warming the bottom of your wok is an .......... . way of going faster. (EFFECT) S Jake is very ....................................... and loves outdoor activities like paintballing. (ATHLETE) 6 Extreme ironing is a ....................................... .. sport at the moment. (FASHION)

Choose the correct preposition. They adapted well in/to the new conditions. The river passes down/through a forest. Polar bears are in/under threat due to global warming. Many animals are in/under danger because of climate change. Before his visit, Sophie warned Brian of/about the cold weather in Canada.

Collocations

4

Fill in: fossil, global, sea, greenhouse, survival, marine, research, stunning, nature, youth.

1 ...................... fuels 2 ................... gases 3 ................... course 4 ................ biologist S ................... station "

6 . ............... warming . ................. reserve . ................. scenery .................... hostel . .................... levels

7 8 9 10

Read through Module 3 and answer the questions. Now write a quiz of your own. Give it to your partner. Check his/her answers. 1 Name three types of caves. 2 How many states does the Appalachian Trail run through? 3 What kind of wildlife can you see on the Appalachian Trail? 4 What's the weather like in the summer in Antarctica?

S How long does it take to hike to the top of the Cerro Neg ro volcano? 6 What's a troglobite? 7 How can you go faster when wok racing? 8 What's the difference between a stalactite and a stalagmite?

RozlJJmien6e :le si7JJcifrJv (Prawda/fa~§iZ)

1

a)

Read the rubric. Underline the key words in the sentences (1-5). Think of synonymous words. "iI

:

USfyszysz dwukrotnie : i wypowied± na temat pracy I a podczas wakacji. Na podstawie informacji I I . I I I zawartych w nagraniu zdecyduj. kt6re I I zdania (1-5) s~ zgodne z tresci~ tekstu i 9 I (TRUE). a kt6re nie (FALSE). ! b)

0

Do the task. Compare your answers with your partner's.

Jiten's experience as a volunteer was rewarding.

2 Jiten got paid for his services by the locals. 3 Knowledge of Spanish isn't required in order to join the Surf School in Latin America. 4 In Sri Lanka volunteers work under guidance. 5 Families can't participate in volunteer holidays. c)

Would you go on a volunteer holiday? Why (not)?

Rozpoznowanie stmktur /eksykalno-gmmatycznych (restluk)

2

a)

Read the first sentence in each paragraph. What is the text about? Read through and check.

b)

Do the reading task. Compare your answers with your partner's.

I I I

Przeczytaj tekst. Z podanych mozliwosci odpowiedzi : wybierz wfasciw~. tak aby otrzymac logiczny I i gramatycznie poprawny tekst. Zakreslliter~ I ! A. B. Club D.

B are given D will give . B only Done

r'ydbW;](sf{!Jire

Sti(Dst()!Y¥tlJJlJice §tJmt,'ldf1!1fi' ie!Gy/(t!JJino-

(\llly:po~i'Jie!!1l:± ifIliJl ;poq]§ila'UlAe

=grrG!fll7J(t'laycz!JJ'Yclh

. n},,"d
(§i1IC)'WO~WO:r5i1:'JIIOP

5 p---------------------------. (1-5)

Read the rubric. Do the task. Use phrases from the Useful language box.

Uzupetnij ponii:szy tekst. W luki wpisz : wyrazy utworzone od slow znajduj~cych si~ ! w nawiasach. tak aby tekst byt logiczny i poprawny gramatycznie. 3

Przebywasz z wizyt~

Public services

u przyjaciela w Stanach

! i

Zjednoczonych. Chcesz wybrac siec na

:

tygodniow~ wycieczkec. ale nie masz zbyt

I dui:o pieniecdzy. Przyjrzyj siec trzem

: plakatom i zdecyduj. gdzie siec wybrac. I Uzasadnij swoj wybor i podaj powody :L_== odrzucenia pozostalych propozycji. _______________

'

~

Public services are services provided by a 1) ............................................ .. (GOVERN) to its citizens. These services are run by the federal government, a 2) ...................................... (PROVINCE) or country council or a local city or town council. The most common public services provided by government agencies are health services, police and court systems, 3) ................................................ (EDUCATE) systems and postal services. Depending on the number of citizens and the money available to the government, there can be other services provided as well such as public libraries, transport systems and parks and recreation areas for the local 4) ............................................. (RESIDE). Working for a public service can be very rewarding. Doctors, nurses and paramedics are popular positions and require intelligent, responsible people. Police officers and firefighters are also jobs that are in high demand. If you're interested in pursuing a career in public services, check out the websites 5) ....................................... (VARY) government agencies have.

6 :

Wykorzystuj~c wyrazy napisane wielkimi

a l i

literami. uzupetnij kai:de zdanie. tak aby zachowac znaczenie zdania wyjsciowego. Nie zmieniaj podanych

J fragmentow i formy podanych wyrazow.

1 We can't wait for the summer holidays.

(4 nights airplane tickets not included

think that the best option .... !The most holiday to me ... because ... . '" seems to be the best choice as ... . I wouldn't go ... because ... I'd like to go ... but .... I wouldn't decide to go .... It's not my cup of tea.

o Listen to a person doing the task. Where does he choose to go? Why? What reasons does he give for the options he has rejected?

LOOKING We ....................................... the summer holidays. 2 You can't visit the country without a visa. HAVE Unless you .......................................... the country. 3 You'd better talk to the supervisor. WERE If I .............................................. to the supervisor. 4 She doesn't have enough money so she can't go on holiday. HAD If she .................................................... on holiday. 5 He woke up late and he missed his flight. WOKEN If he ............................................ missed his flight.

~Vrpowiedi pisemliJG (OpowiaGa!l1lie)

a)

Read the rubric and brainstorm for ideas. W Twojej szkole ogfoszono konkurs na

opowiadanie w jeczyku angielskim. Napisz ~ opowiadanie (200-250 slow) zatytufowane A holiday to remember. I ~~~~-~~~~-~~~~-~~~----~---~--~

.CHARA~TE.

b)

Use your eas to write a plot outline of the story. Make sure you write the events in the order they happened. Then write your story.

59

III

I 1

Fill in: melt, unpredictable, competitors, extinct, backwards, footpath, special offer, drizzle, self-catering, rise.

1 Follow the .................................. that leads up to the top of the hill. 2 The weather is very .................................. these days. You never know what it's going to be like! 3 Many animals could become .......................... .. because of global warming. 4 These days, there are lots of .......................... .. in the World Wok Racing Championship. S We prefer staying in a .................... apartment

4

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. If I ............................................................. (be)

you, I'd go to Chile this year. 2 If you had been more careful, you .................. . ................................................. (hurt) yourself. 3 If they.............................. ...... ............... (come) earlier, we'd have gone out. 4 I wish I ................................................... (take) their advice. I wouldn't be in trouble. S I wish he ................................................... (be) here. We'd go to the lake. 5x4=20 marks

and cooking our own meals on holiday. 6 Global warming is causing ice to .................... .. and temperatures to ...................................... . 7 There's a ............................. at the hotel at the moment - 3 nights for the price of 2. 8 The problem with going .................................. . while river bugging is that you can't see where you're going. 9 I hate ................................. ! It's only light rain, but you still get really wet! 10xl=10marks

2

Match the exchanges.

5

[I[J

I'm playing golf today. How about

[IT] [IT] [!D

Complete the sentences with the correct

joining me? How can I help you? Can I take your name? How far away is the hotel?

A Thanks, I'd love to! B Yes, it's Joan Thompson. C It's about twenty minutes by car.

D I'd like to book a room, please.

future tense.

4x5=20 marks

1 I promise I ............................... (go) on holiday with you next year. 2 Zoe doesn't believe it .................. (be) possible

6

You have seen an advert for a weekend nature walk. Write an email asking for more

to control the weather in the future. 3 Dan .................... (meet) his friends in the park

information. Ask: when exactly it is, how

in half an hour. 4 Do you know where ............ (you/stay) on the

to bring (80-100 words).

long the walk will be, what it involves, what 20 marks Total: 100 marks

Appalachian Trail yet? Si .................................. (do) yoga on the beach when I'm on holiday next month.

3

5x2=10marks

Complete the Conditional type 0 or 1 sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 When the weather gets warmer, ice .............. .. (melt). 2 Unless you go to Nicaragua, you .................... .. (not/be able to) go volcano surfing. 3 When water ........... (drip) from rocks in caves, it slowly creates stalactites and stalagmites. 4 If you don't wear a coat today, you ................ .

I

I

I'I, "

60

(be) cold.

4x5=20 marks

• • • •

talk and write about weather talk and write about extreme activities book accommodation talk and write about climate change write an email asking for information

GOOD I

VERY GOOD 11 EXCELLENT I11

Vocabulary: health problems & technology, illnesses & ailments, remedies, action verbs, teenage problems Grammar: modal verbs (must, have to, should, can, could, may, might), past modals (had to, could, was able to), relative clauses; neither ... not, either ... o~ both ... and Everyday English: visiting the doctor Pronunciation: rhyming words Writing: an essay making suggestions for solutions to a problem Culture Corner: Australia's most dangerous animals Curricular (PSHE): Catch some zzzs (the importance of sleep) Phrasal verbs: make, put

cope, be better off, motion, confined space, strain, ear canal, volume, hearing loss, lead to, restriction, swelling, pain, prevent, bacteria, dermatologist, "; borrow, extended period, blurred . vision, distinguish, optician

Vocabulary , '<:~,.j"':'

Health problems

";" .' Earph(}ne§iPJaytbemil~icid ire'ttly i.nto Your ear tanal.·"](he :j)f,·music}d6e~n"{ln~t{~r.~bttLthevo lumeion y.our·. MP3.

1

'.'" >, • ".<':.

"<~0~,'~r:, ,. ','

.-

,";"i' .:

.:~ .. ,", ','..

•. .

,'_. _'

"·~'I:.3r. ;,;~, ::;~:

~~ ,00:::"'.',~-_--'~>

"···.0 ,..•• ,

~.;

J,f9Wev.er;J.()omucQjextin9~(an: cause thu mbarth riti s. This'

;k;~:~:;f!~1~~~~~~i~~~!l~;~t~:Jt~ui:liit~n1r~V~"j

2

Reading

.

3

"'_...:"~J~~~_~':

.i

\.

,'i:>

?f:~-'" -~:,~-;i~.~·<)

._,;,_. ",,_

Y,_."'

~- '~·,-:.·.i:.:,"_ .. -,,_

-.

/c'2,~~Mjeri·are· •. Y':f;;t~,Jiqr;:sjar~~and. ··~ntetiijn.",'o(" .····.·l'Iowever,.'starir:lgataconiputer screenforar1extended peri()d

orfimecan'cau~e'eye strain> Some of the symptoms .include .', blurredvision,dryey~s anda.difficultydistinguishingbetween . 'wlours,Op~ida~s\f\larnthafyou mustn't spend too much time . lo()king ~t the. screen. Take frequenibreaks. You. don't have to 62Ieav~.ther()om :..just cI()se your eyes and let them relax .

laptop e mobile phone • games console • MP3 player How can the problems in Ex. 1a be related to the gadgets? Listen and read to find out.

o

"::'"."\' ',.-:.'!,,<'.

,

Listen and say.

e

...,

"":~~:@in:g/t~xt' :~~~s~.ge{is. as.:easy~s,mbvin~y~urth umb .

" . C '.

0

b) Which of these gadgets do you have? How often do you use them?

\,;";";;li~;pJf~~~~::1~~~~j~~~~S~~!r;1~!J~~r~~~o"" . ·'::t ....:.

a)

a)

Read the text again and match the headings (A-F) to the paragraphs (1-5), One heading does not match. A SWITCHFI

What is the author's purpose: to inform? to entertain? to persuade? Give reasons.

4

I think it's a bad idea to play

distinguish, confined, thumb, eye.

computer games for hours.

..................... the volume

6 .................. of movement

2

................................. loss

7 .............................. vision

3

.............................. space

8

4

....................... infections

9 ............................. breaks

......................... between

.......................... arthritis

10

Grammar

see '. pp. 120-121 i

Must - Have to - Should

5

modals from Ex. 5.

Fill in: skin, restriction, frequent, set, hearing, blurred,

1

5

Rewrite the sentences, using

6

.............................. strain

You shouldn't play computer games for hours.

2 It's a good idea to set the volume on your MP3 player at a low level.

3 It's forbidden to enter the computer lab.

~

............ ....

4 You don't need to pay in cash.

./

Speaking & Writing

Match the sentences (1-7) to the descriptions (A-G). Find more examples in the text.

OIJ We must/have to switch our mobile phones off in class.

[I[J You must see a doctor. [I[] Tom has to go to an Internet cafe to use a computer.

[I[]

You mustn't bring your MP3 player to school.

[]I]

I don't have to share a computer at home - I have my own laptop.

[]I]

You should/ought to buy a Wii - they're great!

[]I]

You shouldn't play video games for too long.

7 A It's my strong

talk about how to use our

advice.

gadgets wisely.

B I'm not obliged,! I don't need to. C It's the rule.

D I think it's a good

Use the pictures in Ex. 1a and the information in the text to

We should warm up before we start playing a video game or we can get shoulder strain.

idea.!lt's my advice.

E He needs to. F I think it's a bad idea.!lt's my advice. G It's forbidden.!lt's against the rules.

8

IICT I .', Collect information about other possible health problems caused when we use our gadgets for a long time. Write some rules. Present them to the class. Use modal verbs.

63

Can you feel a headache coming on? Boil some water and make yourself a nice cup of tea! The caffeine in the tea will open up the constricted blood vessels that cause a headache. Also, if you suffer from hay fever and have itchy, watery eyes all summer, put cold, wet tea bags over them. The tannin in the tea will really help!

BAKING SODA

.

Do you have smelly feet? Sprinkle some baking soda in your shoes and have odour-free feet a~1 day long. Baking soda is a great natu~al antiperspirant. It can also help wit~ indlges~lon because it neutralises stomach aCid. Just mix a teaspoon into a glass of water and drink it slowly.

GINGER Do you have an upset stomach? You could try chewing a piece of ginger. You can also do thiS before a journey if you suffer from travel sickness. .' Ginger may also help you if you have bad breath ..

ocabulary Illnesses & ailments

1 o Listen and say. When was the last time 2 3 4

64

5 6 7

you suffered from any of you do? Tell the class. 8 have a headache 9 have a stomach 10 ache 11 get a sunburn 12 have a mouth ulcer 13 have smelly feet 14 have hay fever get a cold/the flu

2

Look at the headings in the article. What health problems can these food items help? Listen and read to check.

these? What did

have a sore throat have a bad cough have an itchy rash have insomnia have bad breath have a minor cut have watery eyes

o

3 2 3 4 5

Read again. Which remedy or remedies: kill germs? is extremely old? helps you fight illness generally? must you keep in your mouth for a while? might make others around you feel better?

6

Study the table and find an example in the text, then complete the sentences.

~

natural remedy, cure, immune system, rub, soothe, swallow, insomnia, constricted blood vessels, tannin, sprinkle, odour-free, anti-perspirant, indigestion, neutralise, stomach acid, upset stomach, travel sickness, bad breath

(had to/didn't have to

i She had to stay in last night. She had a stomach ache.

!(It was necessary.)

i I didn't have to go to the doctor's yesterday. My cough was much better. (It wasn't necessary.)

i Icould(n't) (general ability in the past) !I

Fill in: remedy, indigestion, rub, insomnia,

stomach, immune, vessels, sickness. 1 The ..................................... system is designed to defend our bodies against bacteria. 2 ............ the cream on gently until it is absorbed. 3 Honey is used as a natural .............................. .. to treat wounds, burns and cuts. 4 ............................... is a sleep disorder in which a person can't sleep. S Arteries are blood ............................. that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body. 6 Eating in a hurry can cause ............................. . 7 Drinking chamomile tea if you have overeaten can help soothe an upset ................................ . 8 Some people tend to get travel ....................... . when they are in a moving car.

Grammar

.

pp.

Mum could run really fast when she was young. (was able to)

I was/were(n't) I

I was able to win the race last night.

3 4 S 6 7 8

It's just possible that I'll go to the doctor's on Friday. You are allowed to go now. It's possible that a cup of tea will help get rid of your headache. It's just possible that some honey will help your sore throat. I'm not able to go out today. I've got a bad cold. If you have smelly feet, it's just possible that baking soda will help you. It's prohibited to enter this area.

I.

I

Listening 7 0 Listen to three people speaking. What problem did each have? What did they do about it?

CanlCouldlMaylMlght ~ ................ '" Rewrite the sentences using can, can't, might, or may. You can't wear your shoes in here.

i.

I'!:

1 I ........................................ go to bed early last night because I had a terrible headache. 2 I ................................... cure my upset stomach with some raw ginger. It really worked! 3 In the past, people .......................................... . buy medicine and other remedies from an apothecary. 4 Sam sprained his ankle this morning and ......... ............................................ go to the hospital. S She ............................... cook dinner last night. Dan cooked it instead.

~~g-12~·)

You aren't allowed to wear your shoes in here.

able to (specific ability in the past)

Speaking & Writing

8

Use the information in the text to write suggestions about these health problems: a headache, the flu, an itchy rash, a

sore throat, watery eyes, an upset stomach, smelly feet. Tell the class. A: I have a terrible headache! It really hurts! B: You should/could have a cup of tea. That might/may help.

9 IleT I Do some research on the Internet and make notes on more home remedies. Present your findings to the class. (~) Vocabulary Bank 4 pp. 1-38-139)

65

Spiders Australia has some of th . e most danger Spl'ders m the world. Th d kous web spid . e ar coloured funneler IS one of the most poiso I alfreoso bstrong that it can even bite th~:~;h ~ st~;~~ ne Ites you , you nee d anti-venin . ve .k . Ano~her sc~ry spider is the redback wiJ t~~~-~~ stripe on ItS back. It hides in and sometimes homes, all oVv'~e'rl\YdrG/S.

",.~~"Australia and it can give . very nasty bite C~~slng horrible pain, sweating and vomltmg.

Sea creatures Watch out for Australia's man dan er the box jellyfish. It's almost i:Visib~e ;~s s~a creatures ... especially more deaths than snakes sha k d sWIf~mers and has caused . , r s an crocodIles put t h E of ItS 3-metre-long tentacles has 500 000 oget .e:- ~ch '. ,needles for mlectmg venom mto Its victims. Although 't' bl -' I S very small, the ue ringed octopus is also deadly' Th' . octopus lives in rock 001 d h . IS pI etty kill 10 Wo P s an as enough venom to men.. atch out for the 6 metre-long salt-water crocodile, too. They can go 240 km' I d man or out . mto the ocean and attack anything that moves, even sharks!

poisonous, bite, anti-venin, scary, stripe, backyard, pain, sweating, vomiting, death, ; shark, tentacle, needle, inject, venom, • victim, rock pool, inland, spike, self-defence

The ten most poisonous snakes in the world all live in Australia! The inland taipan is the most dangerous in the world and its yeno~ is 50 times stronger than an Indian Cobra s. The eastern brown snake is a long (up to 1.8 metres!), fast-moving snake and the second most dangerous in the world. Fortunately, both of these snakes usually stay away from humans so bites are quite rare.

3

Match the lists of nouns (1-4) to the verbs (A-D).

1

Which sentences below do you think are true about Australia's dangerous animals? Listen and read the text to find out.

o

1 2 3 4 5

The funnel-web spider doesn't have teeth ....... Box jellyfish are easy to see. There are crocodiles in Australia. The eastern brown snake avoids people Only female platypuses are dangerous.

2 .Read again and match the words/phrases in bold to their meanings: impossible tosee, creating, unpleasant, try to hurt, able to cause death, under any circumstances, unusual, pretty.

66

DIJ bees, jellyfish, wasps [LO snakes, crocodiles, spiders [ID cats, parrots, guinea-pigs [!IJ horses, donkeys, camels

4

A scratch B sting C kick D bite

Imagine you encountered one of these animals while in Australia on holiday. What were you doing? What did you see? What did you do? How did you feel? Tell the class.

5 IleT I

Collect information about a dangerous animal in your country. Write seven T/F statements about it. Exchange with your partner.

I V~siting

1

/

the doctor

a)

0

b)

What medical advice might a doctor give you if you have: an ear infection? a sprained ankle or wrist? a sore throat? an infected mosquito bite?

Listen and say. go to hospital for

You have an ear infection. You should use some ear drops.

2

a)

0

Listen and say. Pay attention to the pronunciation. Come in and take a seat. What seems to be the problem? o It's really itchy and painful. • Let's take a look. e I'm afraid it's infected. • What should I do? • I'll give you a prescription. • Should I come back and see you again? o

o

b)

Doctor: Patient: Doctor: Patient:

Doctor: Patient: Doctor: Patient: Doctor: Patient: Doctor:

The sentences above are from a dialogue at a doctor's surgery. Who says each sentence, the doctor or the patient? "\,.; Listen, read and check. Hello, Mr Hall. Come in and take a seat. OK. Thank you. Now, what seems to be the problem? Well, it's my shoulder. I got a mosquito bite a few days ago and now it's really swollen, itchy and painful. OK. Let's take a look. Hmm ... yes, it's very red. I'm afraid it's infected. Oh no! What should I do? You should put some antibiotic cream on it three times a day. I'll write you a prescription. Thank you. Should I come back and see you again? Only if it gets worse. OK. Thanks again. You're welcome.

3

Find parts of the dialogue which mean: I'm

sorry to tell you. - Tell me what's wrong. - Enter and sit down. -I'm going to look at it.

Pronunciation: rhyming words 4 0 Listen and circle the word that does not sound the same as the others. Listen again and say. 1 2 3 4

5

rough - tough - cough - enough two - flu - through - toe bought - drought - ought - caught round - wound - sound - ground

Imagine you have one of the problems in Ex. 1b. Act out your dialogue at the doctor's surgery. Follow the plan.

Greet patient & invite~ Thank the doctor. him/her in. )

.

Ask what the problem i~Describe your problem. Take a look & say what Ask what the doctor you think the problem

can do for your

is. Tell the patient what

Thank the doctor.

problem.

they should do. Reply. ~---

67

'-"

.',

-

Voc~b~/ary Action verbs

1 0

Listen and say..

Reading Listening ~r_-'<-'_

;aY~~VIlbQ;isi~~lcJer~lV1ci~?i What is he famous for? b) The text is about a Frenchman named , AlainRobert,JNhy

d~ydtFfl1in I<:h~Ts'

called 'The French

ledge, concrete, rope, safety net, bare hands, gather, sigh with relief, vertigo, broken bone, raise awareness, urban, illegal, get a fine, daredevil, slippery : surface, get stuck, nickname

----B

UU\"":lvv~',,'Fr~~chmaI1Alain

Robert jumps up ...... 'aQbfficebuildi6ga~d>s~rt~t:ocli:~b the'wall:He hangs from . "balc:~rii~~jcri;01~al()Hg ledg~sandgripsthe.edges of the glass and con~rere.Ther~'s ~br()peiHid po safety net - he's using only his 'birehands!8ytheti~ehe'shalfYvayup"a crowd has gathered on ,the pa~emJn~beI0V'1.)~fteran hour,~e reaches the top and the (:r()YVdsiihs~i~h,relief. ' " '." ,.' " " "": Alainh~s~li'mbed over 85.. ofthe tallest structures in the , ," w()tla,'includingithe,Eiff~1 Towel;' the EmPire' State Building and thfPetronas Jwin.T9w~rsinMalaysia. C)ne of his first climbs ¥vas '.attneageoftwelve,He didn't have his flat keys and his parents wereout,buthewas able to climb up the outside of the building~ev~nstore}';high--and crawl through a window. Nowadays he 'can manage', eighty' storeys but,' amazi ngly, Alai n suffers from vertigo ~' he feds dizzy when he's up high! He has fallen seven

68

times, suffering dozens of bmken bones, which has left him partly disabled. But this doesn't stop Alain. "I only think about what I can do, not what I can't do," he says. So why does he do it? Apart fmm raising awareness about world issues such as climate change, Alain wants people to see their environment differently. He says, "Maybe they think their building is ugly, this big tower with lots of glass - the opposite of a natural landscape. But for me, it's a kind of urban mountain. So I use the place where they work, and I make it a kind of wonderland. Everywhere I climb, I see people who are happy." After a climb, Alain often leaves in handcuffs. What he does is sometimes illegal, but most of the time he just gets a fine. The police say he can't climb public buildings, but the only thing that stops this daredevil is I'ain! When it's wet, Alain can't grip the slippery surfaces. In 2002, he got stuck on the 35th floor of London's Canary Wharf Tower when it stal'ted to rain. Alain risks his life every time he climbs a new building. His nickname may be Spider-Man, but he is no superhem. He's just an ordinary man living a very dangerous life! You can see videos of Alain in action on YouTube.

(omplete the sentences about Alain Robert using words from the :~:'",?':;:±::5:C:;'L;i2:"'l::'2~':,'?"):.~;;?::j box in the correct form. Alain's ..................................... is 'Spider-Man'.

Read again and for questions

2 Crowds of people ............................................ .

1-6, choose the best answer, A, B, Cor D.

to watch him when he climbs up a building.

Find evidence in the text.

3 The people ..................................... when Alain 1 When Alain Robert climbs a structure,

reaches the top of a building safely.

A many people watch him begin.

4 Alain doesn't use a ............................... or rope

B he rests on his way to the top. (

to climb a building.

he enjoys looking down at the crowd.

S He wants to .................................. ......... about

D he doesn't use any safety equipment.

climate change and other issues. 6 The police sometimes arrest Alain, but he

2 When he was young, Alain climbed up to his

doesn't usually go to prison - he ..................... .

flat because

7 It's very dangerous to climb up a .................... .

A his parents lost their key.

when it rains.

B he wanted to see if he could do it. (

8 Alain is a .......................................... - what he

it was the only way he could get in.

does is very dangerous, but he enjoys it!

D his parents encouraged him to do it. 3 Alain has a problem with A heights.

(

B confidence.

D doctors.

crowds. (ollocations To sound natural in English, learn what words

4 Alain climbs skyscrapers because he wants to

usually go together. This will help you to become a

A shock people.

fluent speaker.

B challenge himself. (

make city life more exciting.

D change people's thinking.

6

S Alain didn't reach the top of the (anary Wharf

make sentences about Alain Robert. 1 slippery................. 6 sigh with .............. .

Tower because A the police stopped him and arrested him.

2 raise...... ........ ........

7 safety .................. ..

B he slipped and injured himself.

3 .................... bones

8

(

the weather stopped him.

4 ................... his life

D he felt too dizzy halfway up.

S world.....................

6 The purpose of this text is to A criticise Alain Robert.

7

(

9 .................... hands 10

................ building

Which three adjectives would you minutes write a few sentences. Tell the class.

give information about Alain Robert.

Speaking & Writing

D encourage people to support Alain Robert. Imagine you are Alain Robert and

......... from vertigo

use to describe Alain? Give reasons. In three

B stop people from trying dangerous activities.

4

Fill in: broken, surface, net, awareness, relief, risks, public, suffers, issues, bare. Use the phrases to

8

6l'

you are climbing a skyscraper. What can you see,

Imagine you are a journalist and your partner is Alain Robert. Use the text to help

hear and touch? How do you feel? Tell your

you prepare questions and answers. Read

partner or the class.

your interview to another pair or the class.

69

s the doors of the lilt close, your hands start to sweat. It's only a ten-second trip to the sixth floor, but your heart is beating fast, you're shaking like a leaf and you can't catch your breath.' ITI]Well,it 'sounds like you have claustrophobia, which is a fear of enclosed spaces. If you have a phobia like this, you're not alone. People can have either common phobias, like a fear of insects, needles and the dark, or some very strange ones indeed! Vicki Larrieux's fear of vegetables, for example - lachanophobia makes a trip to the supermarket a nightmare. There are many other cases of odd phobias such as ablutophobia (fear of washing), anthophobia (fear of flowers), catoptrophobia (fear of mirrors) and even phobophobia (the fear of phobias themselves)! I]I] Sufferers may miss out on opportunities, such as going on holiday because they are afraid of flying, feel embarrassed about their phobia even get teased by their friends. To understand the reason why some people have phobias, first we need to understand fear itself. \Nh~-.n._\lVeJsense danger, our brain sends signals to pump adrenalin

Vocabulary phobias

2

a)

1 0

Listen and say. Which of these can you see in the images? o

lID

I:r'

fr sometimes even just a photo of a bee.

So what's the solution for someone who has a phobia? Well, many try to avoid the places and situations which make them afraid, but this only keeps the fear strong. [I[J A person who is afraid of dogs, for example, could start by looking at a photo of a dog. Then they could stand near to someone with a dog on a lead and slowly work up to the most difficult thing for them - maybe petting a dog. As they get used to the thing that they are afraid of, they will realise that their worst fear doesn't come true. In time, the brain will change how it reacts and their phobia will disappear for good!

sweat, beat, shake, catch your breath, fear, enclosed, nightmare, odd, ridiculous, suffer from, miss out, sense, signal, pump, adrenalin, muscle, tense, rational, get stung, trigger, little by little, work up to

questions about phobias. Read the text. Does it answer your questions?

thunderstorms • spiders

• the dark • lifts • injections • flying • snakes • heights • crowds • going to the dentist Are you afraid of any of these things? How do they make you feel? heart

beat fast, shake like a lea" palms sweat, feel dizzy, feel sick, feel embarrassed, can't breathe. Tell your partner. I'm afraid of injections. When I have one, my heart beats fast and I feel dizzy.

70

Think of three

around our body. Our heart beats faster, skin sweats to keep us cool and our muscl tense so that we are ready to escape danger. If we met a bear while hiking, for instance, we would need to be ready to escape ... fast! When someone suffers from a phobia, however, the danger is mostly in their minds ... it's neither real nor rational. Maybe someone who is afraid of bees, for instance, once got badly stung by a bee. Their brain now remembers the experience and triggers a fear reaction every time they see

b)

Read and match the sentences (A-F) to the gaps (1-5). There is one extra sentence.

A This response is called 'fight or flight', which is necessary for our survival. B Having a phobia isn't a sign of weakness. ( It's much better for the person to try to face their fear ... little by little. D Everyone else in the lift seems calm,

50

what are you afraid of?

E The fear signal is very strong, 50 the person believes the situation that they are in is more dangerous than it really is. F Some of these fears might sound ridiculous to you, but to a person who suffers from them, they are very real.

· Fill in: beating, nightmare, sensed,

1 He was so scared he started ....... 2 His heart was ...................... fast. 3 She was terrified, she was ......... . ................. like a leaf and crying. 4 The whole experience was a ....... .. ........ .... ; we'll never do it again. 5 She didn't want to wear a dress in case her friends .................... her. 6 The dog ........................... danger and started barking. 7 It's a ............................ fear to be afraid of snakes, as some of them are poisonous. 8 Bacteria on your mobile phone can ......................................... an allergic reaction and cause a rash.

4

1 Ben ..................... lives next door is going to study Medicine. 2 Is it your brother ..................................... is afraid of spiders? 3 This is the university .......................................... I studied for four years. 4 My sister ..................................... is ten years old got stung by a bee yesterday. S 2006 was the year ........................................ I moved abroad. 6 The reason ................ I walk to work is to get some exercise. 7 Dan's house ........................... is in a good area is up for sale. 8 Mary is the girl ........................................ mother is a doctor.

7

My aunt works at Byron Hospital. She is a nurse. 2 3 4 5

enclosed, tense, worst, embarrassed. 1 .................... spaces; 2 ................... . opportunities; 3 feel ........... ; 4 muscles ................. ; 5 ................ from danger; 6 to ................. a dog; 7 .................. .. fear come true

8

9

p. 122)

"'- ...........

Relative clauses

" I

Read the examples. When do we use defining, non defining clauses? Which are put between commas? Find examples in the text in Ex. 2.

~

I

The man has just bought a dog. He

The spider was very big. I saw it in the bathroom. Ann is coming to the party. Her birthday's on the same day. That is the Italian restaurant. We often eat there. Ann has a phobia of dogs. A dog bit her when she was 8. Make sentences using relative pronouns and adverbs for the following: spiders, dentist, lift, plane, snake, doctor.

both ... and - either ... or - neither ... nor

"'see ......

5

Join the sentences using who, which, where, when or whose, as in the example.

My aunt, who is a nurse, works at Byron Hospital.

Fill in: miss out on, escape, pet,

Grammar

Complete the relative clauses with the correct relative pronoun/adverb. Which are defining (0) and which are non-defining (N)? Add commas where necessary.

6

trigger, sweating, shaking, teased, rational.

Read the examples, then rewrite the sentences (1-4) using both ... and, neither ... nor or either ... or.

Both Sam and Brian are afraid of heights. (Sam is afraid of heights. So is Brian.)

Neither Jill nor Sally likes flying. (Jill doesn't like flying. Sally doesn't either.)

Either Jane or Greg is coming with us. (Jane is coming or Greg is - one of the two.)

,

1 Meg used to be afraid of the dark. Amy used to be afraid of the dark. 2 Phil wants to be a doctor or he wants to be a dentist. 3 Mark isn't afraid of heights. Rob isn't afraid of heights. 4 My mum hates crowds. My grandma hates crowds.

lives next door. The man who Jives next door has just bought a dog. (defining relative clause)

1. This phobia makes my life very difficult. I've had it since childhood.

\

I

This phobia, which I've had since

childhood,

makes

my life very

difficult. (non-defining relative clause)

l.

(NOT: that I've had ... )

I

~

Speaking & Writing 10 0 Listen and read the text again. In three minutes write four things you remember from the text. Tell your partner.

71

A.~c. "

_--

'~,~J..l~.,-....-..:~

Vocabulary Problems

1

Match the problems (1-8) to the possible solutions (A-H). Can you think of any other solutions to any of these problems?

OIJ I need money. IKJ My parents are too strict and we're always arguing. []I] [IT] []I] [ID

ITIJ []I]

I've fallen out with my friend(s) and now they are gossiping about me. My classmates laugh at what I wear. I have lots of spots on my face. My friends pressurise me to do things I don't want to. I've moved to a new city and I'm finding it difficult to make friends. I feel stressed out because of my schoolwork! exams.

A Stand up to them. If you don't want to do something, then don't! B Try to get a part-time job. C Visit a dermatologist. D Find a hobby and join a club. It's easier to make friends with people who have similar interests. E Ignore them! You have the right to choose your own style. F Make a study plan. G Phone your friend(s) and try to work things out. H Talk it through and make compromises.

If you need mone~ you could/should try to get a part-time job.

2

Choose one of the pictures above. Describe: the people,

what you think the situation is, how you think the people feel.

Making suggestions

4 Matching speakers to a description Remember that in this kind of task, the descriptions are summaries of what the speakers say. Before listening, read each description very carefully and try to guess what words/phrases & ideas you might hear - e.g., feels too busy: a lot to do, don't have enough time

Use the problems and solutions in Ex. 1 to act out exchanges, as in the example. Making suggestions You could/should. The best thing to do is ... . Why don't you ... ?

Listening

3 A B C D E F

Have you thought about (+verb+ing)

Replying

0

Listen and match the problems (A-F) to the speakers (1-5). There is one extra problem. This person: feels too busy. is unhappy with their appearance. is worried about their health. wishes they could do more with their friends. is having problems with their schoolwork. is worried about a change in their life.

72 (.,) Vocabulary Bank 4 p. 140)

Speaker 1

That's a good idea. You're right. Yes, I think that will/could/ might help. . OK I'll try that and see what happens.

Speaker 2 Speaker 3 Speaker 4 Speaker 5

A: I need money! B: Why don't you try to get a part-time job? A: That's a good idea.

An making :suggestions for solutions to a problem

Writing essays maKing suggestions We usually write an essay making suggestions in a formal or semi-formal style. • The first paragraph states the problem. • The m9in body paragraphs present our suggestions in separate paragraphs, together with the possible results or consequences. • The last paragraph summarises our opinion. We use Iinkers to organise our ideas: To introduce suggestions: To begin/start with/Firstly,

it's important to; Another (helpful) suggestion is to; Secondly, you should; In addition/Lastly, it's a good idea to, etc To introduce results: Consequently; As a result; In this way; By doing this; Then, etc To conclude: All in all; To sum up; In conclusion, etc

Exam stress is normal, but it can sometimes get out of control and make you unwell. What can you do, then, to reduce stress and study for success? ~ To begin with, it's important to make a study timetable and stick to it. As a result, you will feel more organised and confident that you have time to prepare well for your exams. ~ Secondly, you should take good care of yourself by eating healthy, getting enough sleep and taking regular breaks to do something fun. Consequently, your body and mind will stay healthy and you will be able to con better when studying. ~ Another helpful suggestion is to study with a friend. Some people might find this useful as they can discuss any problems that come up. ~ All in all, I think exam stress can be a major problem. However, if you are organised and healthy and get help from others, exam stress will never be a problem for you again.

3 1

a)

Read the essay. In which paragraph(s) does the writer: present their suggestions & results? state

the problem? summarise

their opinion? b)

2

Read the rubric. Match the suggestions to the results.

~~---.~

Ir--------~-------------~ The editor of your sixth form college magazine has I i invited you to write an article suggesting ways for I I students to resist peer pressure. Write your article for I L ______________________ ~ I the magazine (150-200 words). I

Replace the linkers in the essay with other appropriate ones.

Match the suggestions (A-C) to the possible results/consequences (1-3).

A Another suggestion is to find a team sport you like and join a club. B Lastly, you should try to save a little money each month. C Firstly, you should make a list of things you like about yourself.

They might be able to give you helpful advice, as they probably have experience with peer pressure too. B You will feel more confident in your actions. C If your friends share your beliefs, you will reduce the amount of peer pressure you may experience.

[[J In this way, youwilleveiltualJy have enough to go' treat.

on a trip with your ·friends or buy yourself a

4

Use your answers in Ex. 3 to write your essay. Follow the plan.

~a~~~::~:~:::::m [I[]

As a result, you will focus on the positive

and learn to respect yourself.

;3 cl . - . ~."\

, j

Para 2-4: present the suggestions and results/consequences in separate paragraphs (First of all, .... As a result, ..... Another helpful solution ... )

~"~~~!:~~.t;;E~£1ma,rb~~~f),~,rp

inion To sum u ....

(~) Writing Bank 4 p. 156) 73

Tips for gemng a good night'S sleep -fdurdifferentstages of sleepthat repeat every 90 110 minutes. Stages N1 and NZ are light sleep and we can - sily wake up. In stageN3, we sleep more deeply and it's ertowakeup, Some people may also sleepwalk or talk in sleep. The laststag~isREM* sleep. Our eyes move around, b~ain.is very active,aridwe havealotofdreams.

U " ' L.... OI



You should try to go to sleep and wake up at the same time every day. This helps your body to get into a routine •.



Avoid drinks like cola and coffee beforebedtime,'- they '"0l'tain

wes. our brain sorts through information, replaces _ cals,repairscells,and solves problems. Lack of sleep :s~riously affects our mind and body. When we don't rest enough, .. mayfeel grumpy, forgetful and unable to concentrate. Lack of ·can also affect our immune system, Over a long time, it may -depression and personality chan~es and eventually even r1en our-life..

~mm;-----

resting state, drop, heart rate, bodily function, slow down, brain, active, stage, light, deeply, replace, repair, cell, lack of, affect, grumpy, forgetful, concentrate, immune system, depression, shorten, get into a routine, caffeine, keep you awake, fall asleep

t

I · Phr.asa! verbsl preposations

"'lord formation

3

Fill in the sentences with the correct word derived from the word in brackets.

Choose the correct particle(s).

Word Formation - adjectives from verbs

out: see clearly up: 1) invent (a story) 2) become friends again

We use -able (accept - acceptable), -ible (access-

up for: compensate

-ent

off: postpone on: 1) increase (in weight) 2) get dressed out: extinguish (a fire) sb through: connect by phone up with: tolerate

Put up with/on your scarf and hat. Ifs freezing outside. Lucy couldn't put up with/off her toothache any more, so she went to the dentist. Just wait a moment and I'll put you out/through to Mr Thomas. Vera and Amy have made for/up after their huge argument. David eats a lot of junk food and he has put through/on weight. It took the firefighters three hours to put off/out the fire.

-ive (create - creative), -ant (observe - observant), and

1 In the past, many diseases weren't ........................... (CURE) 2 The blue-ringed octopus is very ............................................. , but extremely poisonous. (ATTRACT) 3 It isn't ................ to play computer games for hours. (SENSE) 4 We go through ............................... stages of sleep. (DIFFER) 5 Getting a jellyfish sting isn't very .......................... ! (PLEASE) 6 I like wearing ........................................... shoes. (COMFORT) 7 Her skin is very ....................................... to the sun. (SENSE) 8 She's very ............................................ ; she never remembers names or dates. (FORGET)

Words often confused

4 1 2 3 4

Fill in: with, of, into, from. He suffers ...................... vertigo. How can I get rid .............. a bad cough? We sighed ................ relief as he reached the top of the building. Watch out! You'll bump ........... .. that streetlight!

- dependent) to make adjectives from verbs.

Choose the correct words. Sophie gripped/grabbed a sandwich for lunch. Ouch! I've sprained/pulled my ankle and it really pains/hurts! Alain can hang/crawl from balconies with his bare hands. It's easy to get a(n) injury/damage from playing virtual sports.

Collocations

5

Fill in: ulcer, home, confined, self, immune, itchy, poisonous, nasty.

.............................. system 2 ................................ space 3 .......................... remedies 4 ............................ defence

S· 6 7 8

................................. spike .................................. rash ................................... bite mouth ............................ ..

Read through Module 4 and answer the questions. Then write a quiz of your own. What can happen to some people when they play video games? 2 Why shouldn't you spend too much time texting? 3 What can you put in a bath to soothe sunburn?

4 Which natural remedy is best for smelly feet? 5 How long is an eastern brown snake? 6 Where does Alain Robert come from? 7 How many different stages of sleep are there?

1

Describe the photograph. Then answer the questions.

1 How do you think the person in front feels about the exam? 2 Do you think students should take exams? Why/Why not? 3 Are you stressed before an exam? What do you do to feel less stressed?

:2 0

Listen to someone answering question 2. What reasons does he give to support his opinion?

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(DrflJhie:rall1lieP

3

a)

Read the rubric and then read through the text. What is it about?

~~~=-~~~~~~~~~~~~~=~~

przeczytaj tekst, z kt6rego j usuni~to pi~c zdan. Dobierz ! brakuj~ce zdania (A-F), tak aby otrzymac : sp6jny i logiczny tekst. W kai:d~ luk~ (1-5) I wpisz liter~, kt6r~ oznaczone jest brakuj~ce : zdanie. Jedno zdanie podane zostato i dodatkowo i nie pasuje do tekstu. ~~--=-~~~-~~~~~-~-~~~

76

A This was where he would spend the next forty-eight hours. B liThe way I see it," commented MacDonald, "if Tommy had been on that ice floe much longer, he might not have been so lucky. C The boy felt cold and he was scared to death and there was no sign of his uncle anywhere. 0 Unfortunately, while the pair were on their way back to their camp on the coast of Southampton Island, their snowmobile broke down. E After a two-day search, Tommy was spotted by a JRCC helicopter and the dramatic rescue began. F Despite the boy's poor condition, he managed to thank the rescue team for coming to save him.

The near-miraculous rescue of a young Inuit boy makes for a heartwarming story. Our reporter Gayle Haines reports. It all began on 10th November, when 15-year-old Tommy Nakaluk and his uncle Joe had started out on what was supposed to have been a routine weekend hunting trip. ill] If it hadn't been so cold, the two would have simply stayed where they were until help arrived. However. as the weather forecast had shown night temperatures falling to -20 degrees. uncle Joe set off on foot for the settlement of Seal Harbour. It was at this point that things turned deadly for young Tommy. The area of ice he was standing on broke away from the main ice mass and he was suddenly afloat on an ice floe measuring approximately 50 m by 50 m. [IT] Luckily for Tommy, his uncle had made it back to Seal Harbour and raised the alarm. Immediately, the Joint Rescue Co-ordination Centre (JRCC), an organisation made up of members of the military and the coast guard, sprang into action. [I[J Searchers parachuted onto a nearby chunk of ice and then began making their way, jumping from ice floe to ice floe. to Tommy's location. When they finally reached the boy. they discovered he was suffering from both frostbite and hypothermia. [ID In an interview conducted on 13th November outside the hospital where Tommy was being treated, Kevin MacDonald. one of the searchers who took part in the rescue operation, stated that what he and his team members had done had been nothing out of the ordinary. [I[J We were just doing our jobs. it's all a part of what we do. Our motto at JRCC is 'So Others Can Live' and we take those words very seriously."

b)

Do the reading task. Which words helped you decide? Compare with your partner.

=,,"""rl";"iY'lr(7fZ~G"t.,ry·~1\y"""i:7 !:;}!l ,-YtI111i;i-1-iU.", ~.1!,.d~ - ~JiJ

Read the rubric, then read the questions 1-5 and possible answers and underline the key words. Do the task,

o

__

~

5 ,,= ~

= -

~

= =

~ Uz:;et~ij ~o~i;S~ ;~~W I~ki

(1-5) ~~s; ~ c~

wyrazy utworzone od stow znajduj~cych sire w nawiasach, tak aby tekst byt logiczny i poprawny gramatycznie. ~ ---------~

!

._----------------

S~mescientists thi~k thatKuman~~reblologrcallyFrogrammedtobe

caafpaid of' certain,:things,liketnfdark>.ctndlr.;; ..·... ;.. ;...... ~; ......... . ~ ···(PO!SON)insects;.Others,arce,fonvincedthata frighteningeventinthe l Uslyszysz dwukrotnie ~. pastlies behind manyphobiiIS: .' . ..... ..• '.. ' ". . 1 wypowie i na temat wyj~tkowej osoby. ". A recent breakthrough .in~):, .. ,... " .. ;.. ,: .... ;.... (MEDICINE) research : Z podanych moiliwosci odpowiedzi : s,uggests that our memOries c;anbere0ritten and our fear erased .. wybierz wtasciw~, zgodn~ z tresci~ :Sderitists at New York Universityhayefol)nd that a rekievedrnemory can l tekstu. Zakreslliterre A, B, Club D. ~. ·be··3).;.; ...... ,.: ........ ;.. (PERMANENT)cnang~d,However~: it~ppears that thisis only possible withinsixh9ursof thell)ernory emerging; After this . time,the mind will simply form a second version Of the. memory, ihis While the person is trying to tie means that in the future/in timesofstressora:nxiety,~ the4) :............ ;........ his shoelaces, he . (ORIGIN) fear memory couldresurface. . . ...• ..... . ........ " '.' .' .... .. '.' ~HlI,scientists are excited: Ereviously,theyhadthougnt that the human A feels completely lost. :Iong-term memory wasfixed'~ndthatthe fears and. phobias whichhid . B tries to persuade himself not ,·.inside it .could onlybetreatedwith·drugs .•Now,tliey may have to do it. .' discovered a much 5) ... ;.; .. ;~ ..... :.. ,.. :.. ;.. ;.,·. (SAfE) way to prevent the offear. ....... '., ..... . .. . C is on his own. D feels confident he can make it. pc, _ _ _

~ ~

t§;{o'(:}1/tDJii:wrarsihl!'o»

_

_

_

_

_

_

J .

i

2 Frank's life completely changed A when he was four years old. B on his sixtieth birthday. C while he was at work. D when he retired from the factory.

6 I ! !

5 Frank and his wife are planning to A eat with friends next week. B go fly-fishing. C take a break. D have a party in a few years.

literami, uzupetnij kaide zdanie, tak aby zachowac znaczenie zdania wyjsciowego. Nie zmieniaj podanych fragmentow i formy podanych wyrazow.

! I l

~~=~=~~~~~~~~~~=~~~=~~~~~=~=~

3 After the accident, Frank A lost his job. B couldn't help himself. C asked his wife to leave him. D could still do some simple things. 4 Frank became able to use his hand again A using artificial fingers. B after he had a minor operation. C with the help of a robot. D after undergoing a nightmare.

Wykorzystuj~c wyrazy napisane wielkimi

2 3

4 5

That man helped us find our way. WHO That was ............................................. find our way. They went on a very expensive trip. WHICH The trip ........................................... very expensive. Her younger brother suffers from claustrophobia. WHO Her brother, ............................................................. , is younger than her. Perhaps they are still at work. BE They ........................................................... at work. It's forbidden to take photographs in here. MUST You .............................................................. in here. 'VVy~fj)(J)t¥viedi pi§efflfnC!1

(Rnzpr,awka 'U,iyraZilji!l:ca §!t!ges"lie)

7

Read the rubric. Listen to two people discussing the topic and make notes. Use your notes to write your essay.

o

l

1 i

I

Nauczyciel poprosit Cire 0 napisanie skierowanej do nastolatk6w rozprawki (200- 250 st6w), w kt6rej zawrzesz rady dotycz~ce rozwi~ania konfliktow Z rodzicami. Pamiretaj, aby uzasadnic swoje sugestie.

1

i

77

@

i 1

Fill in: concentrate, venom, upset, loss, slippery, sickness, soothe, cure, strain, blurred.

1 Drive carefully! The roads are really ............... .. after last night's rain. 2 A lot of teenagers suffer from hearing .............. . because they set the volume too high on their MP3 players. 3 Working long hours in front of a computer can cause .......................... vision. 4 Cold water will ................................ the pain if you burn your hand. S Take a break from the computer, Sam - you'll ......................................................... your eyes. G Some poisonous animals inject ...................... .. into their victims. 7 Eating all that spicy food yesterday gave me a(n) .................................................... stomach. 8 Scientists haven't found a .............................. .. for the common cold yet. 9 Steve always gets travel .................... when he goes on long car journeys. 10 I couldn't ................................... at work today because I didn't get enough sleep last night. 7Ox2=20 marks

2

Join the sentences using the words in brackets.

1 Dave lives in the flat upstairs. He is a firefighter. (who) ............................................................ '" 2 Lisa is afraid of spiders. Sarah is afraid of spiders too. (both ... and) .............................. .. 3 I think Jane called you or it might have been Katy. (either ... or) .......................................... . 4 My favourite restaurant is on the high street. It is closing down. (Which) ................................. . 5 Lyn isn't coming to the party. She is unwell. (why) .............................................................. . 5x4=20 marks

4

Match the exchanges.

[ID

lID [ID

Choose the correct word.

1 Max was ill yesterday so he wasn't able to/ didn't have to go to work. 2 You might not/mustn't climb public buildings - it's illegal! 3 A redback spider must/can give its victims a nasty bite. 4 People with hay fever should/can keep their windows closed in the summer. S Tom mustn't/can't play football next week. He's broken his leg. G People who share mobile phones should/might get skin infections. 7 If you sit in front of a laptop for too long, you may/have to get backache. 8 Alain Robert had to/could climb buildings from the age of twelve. 9 You mustn't/don't have to go to the doctor for minor health problems. You can/must try a natural remedy! 7Ox2=20 marks

78

3

[!IJ [ID

Should I come back A and see you again? I'm afraid it's infected. B Is there anything you C can give me for it? D What seems to be the problem? E Why don't you make a study plan?

Oh no. What should I do? Well, it's my back. Only if it gets worse. Yes, I think that might help. You should put some antibiotic cream on it. 5x4=20 marks

5

Write an article making suggestions about how young people can stay healthy while leading busy lives (120-180 words). 20 marks Total: 700 marks

• • • • • •

talk about 2 pt century health problems talk and write about home remedies talk about someone with amazing abilities act out a dialogue at the doctor's surgery talk about teenage problems write an essay making suggestions

GOOD I

VERY GOOD 11 EXCELLENT 11/

Vocabulary: annoying/bad habits, cultural difficulties/adjustments, problems with neighbours, life changes, appearance & character Grammar: present perfect vs past simple, present perfect continuous, modals making deduction (must, can't, may/might); tenses of the infinitive/-ing form Everyday English: complaining and apologising Pronunciation: linking sounds Writing: a for-and-against essay Culture Corner: Social etiquette in the USA Curricular (Science): Body talk (involuntary reflexes) Phrasal verbs: take, turn Word formation: forming negative adjectives

79

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0

Match the annoying habits (A-G) to the pictures (1-7).

,[![] [![]

have bad body odour gossip about others T£[] .talk in the cinema .rE:[] talk loudly on a mobile phone [![] have bad table manners (e:g. slurp your ITIJ be late for an appointment @I] take things without asking b) Which of these do you find the m

The blog entries areibouiannClyi ".' , situations.'··,.··· \' . ' ,

o

Listen andread. Who felts~rry for the waiter? What happenecCt·.· Liam? What happe,nedtoChl'is? Read again.and·mark the sell . , belowT(true}, orF(false), or OS (doesn't say}.

80

their meanings: sympathised with, got Gl1gry, '. annoys me, Istarted to feel sad/worried, laughing a lot, releasing my anger,the thing that mqde mefeel unable to accept a situation any more. Then use each idiom in a sentence of your own.

An idiom is a group of words that have a different meaning when they are used together from the meaning the words have separately, e.g. It's a piece of cake. (It's very easy.) Recognising and learning to use idioms will make your English more lively and natural.

usher, furious, be someone's fault, suffer from, complain, sneeze, cover, deal with, restaurant critic, plenty, pull into, press against, rail, break down, be stuck, polluted

6th March - Annoying Situations It always gets on my nerves when people talk in the cinema, but you won't believe what has happened to me tonight! I went out to the cinema with my friends to see a film I've wanted to see for ages. From the moment we sat down, a group of teenagers behind us didn't stop talking and laughing, and even chatting on their mobile phones. Anyway, eventually I lost my temper. I tumed around and shouted at them. Almost immediately, an usher appeared and angrily told me to leave. My friends were laughing their heads off afterwards, but I'm still furious. It wasn't my fault! So anyway, here I am back at home, letting off steam on my blog! So, what about you? Have you suffered from people's bad habits recently? Tell me all about it and cheer me up! posted by: Liam, 6/03, 22:14

Oh, that's awful, Liam. It's really annoying. What gets on my nerves is bad table manners. I've got a really funny story about this. A few months ago, I went to a restaurant with my family. · While we were trying to decide what to order, we heard some strange noises coming from the table behind us. It was a man slurping his soup really loudly. When he finished, he started · complaining to the waiter that his steak was tough and the potatoes were overcooked. We felt really sorry for the waiter. The final straw was when he sneezed loudly without covering his mouth and a piece of bread flew out of his mouth and onto our table. I've never seen anything like it. Anyway, about a . week later, my dad read an article in the food section of a · newspaper about difficult customers and the way restaurants deal with them. At the top of the page, there was a picture of the writer and ... you guessed it. It was the man in the restaurant with the bad manners! He was a restaurant critic. Posted by: Suzy, 7/03, 13:15 Well, I have to travel on public transport every day and there are plenty of things that annoy me. A few days ago, though, it was a boiling hot day and when my train pulled into the station and I saw the bodies pressed against the door, my heart sank. Everyone was pushing to get on and I found myself next to a man with terrible body odour. He was holding onto a rail with his arm up in the air and the smell was just terrible. Has this man never heard of a shower? Then, things got even worse. The train brOke down in a tunnel and I was stuck there for an hour. When I got off the train, I took some huge deep breaths! I've never enjoyed the polluted air of the city so much. Posted by: Chris_T, 8/03,19:21

Match the uses (1-4) to the sentences (A-D).

:;

Find examples in the text.

.[ID Ben has worked here for ten years. '. rID Tom hasn't tidied his room. It's really messy. [I[J

I've been to this restaurant before.

GIJ They left the cinema an hour ago. A a life experience

B an action that began in the past and continues to the present C actions that started in the past and we can see the result now .D an action that was completed in the past (at a stated or clearly implied time)

.

Complete the sentences with the present perfect or past simple form of the verbs.

1 A: Apparently, Susan is angry because Mary ...................................... (gossip) about her. .B: Oh, that's old news. They .......................... .. (not speak) to each other for weeks. 2 . A: .................................. (anyone/see) my box of cookies? I .............................. (put) them on the kitchen table yesterday. B: Oh, sorry! My friends ...................... (come) over yesterday and we ............. (eat) them. A: ............................................. (you/visit) the new restaurant yet? B: Yes. We ..................... (go) there last Friday.

A: Sarah ................... (arrive) late again today. B: I know. She .......................... (be) late every day this week!

Which of the three situations in the text do you find the most annoying? Why? In three minutes, write a few sentences. Read them to the class.

8

Think of an annoying situation that has happened to you. Write your post. Write:

who, when, where, what happened, how you felt.

81

[email protected]:1ibtJ1JJralfY iDiff1CCl:lU'[],:S:5 abrroad

1

a)

0

b)

The people in the pictures

Listen and say.

3

Fill in:

host, spicy, study, social, learning, know, get, improve.

Make sentences using the completed phrases. have been living abroad. What problems has each been facing?

...................... opportunity

S

................................. food

2 .................. language skills

1

6

.......................... etiquette

3

............................... family

7 to ......................... abroad

4 to ................... the answer

8 to ............................... lost

8ecky has been struggling to get used to the weather.

Grammar ~

a)

.

p. 123 .'

rresent per ect contmuous"""..... "...... fHcrvelHas been + verb -Ing form

!R~(fJJ(dJfnPl

2.

see . . ..

f

Look at the questions in

4

Find examples of the

the text. What is the interview about?

o Listen, read and check.

present perfect continuous in the text.

When do we use this tense? Which time adverbs are used with this tense?

5

a)

Put the verbs in brackets into the

present perfect

continuous. b)

Read again and mark the sentences T (true) or F (false).

Mike ............................................... (study) abroad for a year. 2 Susan ............................................................ (work) all night! 3 How long .................................. (your brotherllive) in Spain?

Steven had gone to Mexico

4 They ............................................ (learn) English for six years.

on holiday.

S You look really tired. What ..................................... (you/do)?

2 His host family are very

6 It ................................................... (snow) since this morning.

friendly to him. 3 His host family doesn't speak

b)

Use the verbs to ask questions.

English with him. 4 Daily life in Mexico is faster

stLidy\ \i\lalk\

""","-""r'-";-~~>N"

.

"""""T='"

dig ~ "",,":~~:z='

than back home. S He doesn't like spicy food.

I'rn really tired.

3 His clothes are dirty.

6 Steven feels his experience

Have you been studying?

4 They are annoyed.

has changed his character.

82

2 It's wet outside.

S My feet hurt me.

So, 5teven, why did you decide to spend a year studying abroad? Well, generally I thought it would be an adventure and a great learning opportunity to live in a totally different culture. I chose Mexico because I have been learning Spanish now for three years and I wanted to improve my language skills. What have been the best parts of your experience so far? It's very difficult to choose just a few, but one of the best things has definitely been the experience of living with a host family. Mexicans are very warm, outgoing people and my hosts have been treating me like part of their family. During my first week, they invited their whole family for dinner to meet me and it was fun but quite overwhelming trying to answer all their questions in Spanish. I've also been learning to slow down and relax and take an afternoon siesta after a big lunch, like the rest of the family! It's been fantastic living in one of Mexico's oldest cities, too, with its beautiful 16th century architecture. It's a great feeling when you start to feel like you belong in a foreign place. Little things like knowing the answer when strangers ask you for directions or getting around without getting lost are so rewarding. And what about the challenging parts? Well, I've been struggling a bit to get used to the hot weather, but now I wear a hat. It was also difficult to get used to the spicy food, but now I'm really enjoying it. I still have difficulty understanding social etiquette. Last week, for example, a new Mexican friend invited me for dinner and I turned up exactly on time. My host seemed a bit surprised. I found out later that Mexicans usually turn up for an appointment at least half an hour late. What would you say to other young people considering studying abroad? Go for it! Without a doubt, this has been the best experience of my life so far. I've become more self-confident, patient and outgoing, and my Spanish has improved even more than I expecte? host family, outgoing, host, treat, overwhelming, foreign, rewarding, challenging, turn up, go for it, self-confident, patient

6

. ~itl ©(cl~lli~in~~~.~J:l~ ·.i£1i~!clij«:\l: J© ITil,;)' , Put the verbs in brackets into the present

perfect, the past simple or the present perfect continuous. A: How long ................................................... .. (you/study) English?

B: I .................................................................. . (start) taking lessons when I was 8. 2 A: ................................. (you/ever be) abroad? B: Yes, I .......................................................... ..

7J

in your language.

(; We use must/can't + bare infinitive-~-hen ~') are sure about something. Juan must be an overseas I student. He can't be English. (I'm sure that he is an overseas student. I'm sure he isn't English.) We use may/might when we aren't sure about I something. She may/might be from South America. \" (I'm not sure if she is from there; it's possible.) )

I

(wait) for you for an hour. B: Sorry. I ........................................ (get) lost!

4 A: .................................................................... . (Dave/study) in Mexico all year? B: Yes. He ........................................................ . (go) there last January.

5 A: Ann ............................................................ .. (get back) from France yesterday. B: I know. She ................................................ . (have) a great time.

6 A: (you/finish) your project yet, Mike? B: No. I ................................................ (work)

I

I

I.

I

I

I

(go) to Spain a few years ago. 3 A: Sandra! We ................................................ ..

Read the theory ancl saythe·exafl1pl~es

'>8

Look at the picture and choose the correct words.

1 They must/can't be lost.

2 They must/can't be in their home town.

3 They may/can't be tourists or overseas students. 4 The weather must/can't be

hot. It may/can't be summer.

5 It may/can't be a big city.

SPr1e:tJJdIJ:GJ :& }viHJJJ£) What problems has Steve been facing in Mexico? How has he coped with

on it all week, but I .................................... .

them? In three minutes write a few

....................................... (not/finish) it yet.

sentences. Tell the class.

83

[I[J If you are meeting someone for the first time, extend a hand to say hello. Britons greet each other with firm handshakes. Hugs are rare, but kissing on the cheek is not unusual between friends or relatives. Also, it is important to make eye contact while speaking with someone; otherwise you will seem rude or insincere. Use titles, such as Dr Smith or Mr Norris, to show respect, unless someone invites you to use their first name. Address a woman as Ms (as in Ms Banks) if you aren't sure if she is married or not.

during mealtimes is considered to be extremely rude. Also, you should say 'please' and 'thank you' in all situations.

[TI] Giving a thumbs up or okay sign are all positive gestures. Using your index finger to point at someone is impolite; instead, extend your entire hand, palm facing up. In the UK, a smile is a sign of friendliness and even politeness. So, if someone smiles at you, return the gesture! However friendly Brits may seem, though, they still prefer that you don't get too close to them. Keep a distance of about half a metre from people, unless you are in a crowded place.

l1IJ When Brits ask how you are, they don't expect a long [ID Sharing a meal with Brits shouldn't be a stressful event. reply about your recent headaches or your sore throat. "How are you?" is a typical greeting that asks for a simple answer such as "I'm fine:' You may compliment a person on their new haircut or shirt, but never tell someone that they look tired or unwell unless you are really afraid that they may be ill. Don't ask someone how much money they make or how much money they've spent on something. Also, never talk loudly on a mobile phone in public and be aware that taking a phone call

Nevertheless, there are a few things to remember when you find yourself at a dinner table. If someone invites you over for a meal, bringing a small gift, like flowers, is a nice token of thanks. Make sure to arrive on time and if you must be late, call your host to apologise. Always wait until everyone has food in front of them before you start eating and remember to keep your elbows off the table. Also, it is very important to keep your mouth closed while chewing; Brits think talking with a mouth full of food is rude and disgusting. If you eat in a restaurant, expect to pay your waiter a tip that is 10 percent of the bill, but not if the service is second rate.

IComiPla~ning

;]

0

and apoiogising

Listen and say. Do you havelHave you

had any of these problems with your neighbours? If so, what happened?

Our neighbour lets his dog bark all day and night. We complained once, but nothing has changed.

3

Find sentences in the dialogue

How can I help you? -I apologise. - Can Idiscuss something with you? -I didn't know it was a problem. - That would be great.

which mean:

2

a)

0

Listen and say.

11

Could I talk to you for a minute?

11

What can I do for you?

• I'm afraid I have a complaint. • Oh, I'm really sorry about that. • I'll make sure it doesn't happen again. • Thanks, I'd really appreciate that. b)

Pronunciation: linking sOMnifJJz 4 0 Read the theory, then listen and say. (~inking sounds

'I

The sentences above are from a dialogue

i lone word ends with a consonant sound and the next word i

between neighbours. What do you think

I begins with a vowel. The consonant is pronounced at the

Iln spoken English, words may be linked together when

l

the problem is?

o Listen and read to find out.

,

I beginning of the

next syllable.

~

i I

:

1 Not at all. \./

Alan: Excuse me. I don't think we've met yet. I'm Alan Jones. I've just moved in next door. Ray: Pleased to meet you, Alan. I'm Ray Newton.

2 What can I do for you? \./

3 Sam is always playing loud music. \./

4 I've just moved in. \.J

Alan: Pleased to meet you, Ray. Could I talk to you

Speaking

for a minute? Ray: Sure. What can I do for you? Alan: Well, I'm afraid I have a complaint. It's just

5

Imagine you want to complain to your neighbour about one of the problems

that you've been playing your music really

in Ex. 1. Use the sentences in Ex. 2a to act

loud. My roommates and I are students, and

out your dialogue. Follow the plan

we just can't study with so much noise.

o

Ray: Oh, I'm really sorry about that. I didn't realise it was bothering anyone. Alan: That's OK. It's just that we have exams in a few weeks ... Ray: I understand. Don't worry. I'll make sure it doesn't happen again. Alan: Thanks -I'd really appreciate that. Ray: You're welcome. And sorry again. Alan: Don't worry about it. Have a nice day.

L L

Greet B & introduce'-----"" Say 'Pleased to meet yourself.

you'.

Reply & ask if you can ~ Agree & ask what you have a word.

can do for A.

Make your complaint. ~ Apologise.

~ Promise that it won't ~ happen again.

Accept the apology. Thank B.

End the conversation.-4-- Reply & apologise again.

85

------...,.--------

.1

j

a)

0

Listen and say.

b) Which of these changes would you (not) like to make in the future? Why (not)? Tellyour partner.

I'd love to set up a charity to help other people. It would feel very satisfying. I wouldn't like to have cosmetic surgery. It's too scary. n

V

Read the title and the introduction of the article. Then read the first and the last sentence in each text in the article. What challges do you think each of these people made in their lives? Listen and read to find out.

o

Liz has shared the stage with world leaders like Mikhail Gorbachev and the Dalai Lama as an international speaker. '. It's hard to believe that at the age of 16 she was homeless and sleeping on park benches and underground trains! Liz's parents were drug addicts and couldn't look after her and her sister. She says, "We ate ice cubes because it felt like eating. We split a tube of toothpaste between us for dinner." When their mother died, their father moved to a homeless shelter and Liz and her sister were out on the streets of New York. At this point, Liz decided io try to turn her life around. She went back to school and through dedication and determination, she eventually won a scholarship to a top university. Since Liz graduated from Harvard in 2009, she has been speaking at events to teenagers about staying away from drugs and gangs. She wants them to understand that they can reach their goals, whatever they have had to face in their lives.

3 1 2 3 4 5 6

Read the article again and write L (Liz)~ M (Mark) or N (Narayanan). Which person .. , plans to live with people who share his/her ideas? helps people to look better? wanted to show people that something isn't necessary? ...... . has appeared at events with famous people? had an experience that changed his/her mind? was in a difficult situation along with a family member? ...... .

A few years ago, Economics graduate Mark was the manager of an organic food company. He has always been passionate about the environment and social issues, but he felt that he wanted to do even more. He argued that if we grew our own food instead of buying it, we wouldn't throw a third of it away while millions around the world go hungry. So, Mark gave up his job and decided to prove that we don't need money to survive, by living without it for a year. He moved into an old caravan in the countryside, put in solar panels for power, and started growing his own food and washing in a river. When he didn't have enough home-grown food, he went into the forest to pick wild food, like berries. Mark enjoyed the year so much that he has been living without money since then. Recently, he's written a book, The Maney/ess Man: A Year af Freecanamic Living and hopes to use the profits to create a whole community that lives without money.

. verbs and make sentences "al:lOut' the people in the" te~t.·

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Narayanan Krishnan was an awardwinning chef who was about to take . up a top job in Switzerland. Then, while visiting his parents at home in India, he saw an old man starving under a bridge. He says, "I fed that man and decided that this is what I should do for the rest of my life." He gave up his job and set up a charity called the Akshaya Trust. Every day, Narayanan now personally prepares and hands out 400 simple, tasty hot meals to the homeless. He also carries a comb, scissors and a razor so that he can give haircuts and shaves. Narayanan sleeps in Akshaya's kitchen, but he says he's enjoying his life. He has shown what one person can achieve when they set out to change the world!

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hen my best Alisha first invited me to go with her to her cousin's wedding in India, I leapt at the chance. A wedding is very ,important to Hindus because it signifies the marriage of two families, not just a couple. It sounded so exotic and I wanted to see it for myself! When we walked out of the airport into the steaming hot day, a large group of Alisha's relatives were waiting excitedly to greet us. After having greeted grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins, from the oldest to the youngest according to tradition, we caught a taxi and I got my first taste of the hustle and bustle of Jaipur. Bicycle rickshaws bumped along beside us as I admired the architecture of the pink city - Jaipur's nickname from the colour of its buildings. That night was the Sangeet, the first night of the wedding celebrations. The garden at the bride's house was full of brightly-coloured decorations and women wearing beautiful multi-coloured saris. One of Alisha's aunts soon pulled me up to dance. Everyone seemed to know the steps - apart from : me, that is! I really enjoyed watching the modern " Bollywood* dances. My favourite of all was the dandidas, a traditional dance using sticks. In the past this party used to last for about ten days! The following afternoon, it was the Mehndi party. Mehndi is the decoration of the hands and feet with a dye called henna. All of the women sat under a big tent and some artists drew amazing designs on our hands. The designs last for weeks and are a symbol of future prosperity and happiness. Later, Alisha and her

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Stages

* Hindu cinema consisting mainly of musicals.

:IT~}""" leap at the chance, signify, steaming hot, greet, tradition, hustle and bustle, nickname, stick, last, dye, prosperity, silk, groom, marching band, entrance, stunning, ceremony, embarrass oneself, fairytale wedding

useJhephraseSb~lowtoclescribethe pictures in Ex. 1.

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1 0

Listen and say. At which stage: are you? is your teacher? are. your parents? is . your uncle? are your neighbours' kids? infant (1-12 months) toddler (1-2 years) child (2-12 years) teenager (13-19 years) adult (20+) middle-aged (40+) elderly (60+)

relatives taught me some dance steps ready for the wedding ceremony the following day! On the morning of the wedding, Alisha surprised me with a gift - a green and gold silk sari - and helped me to put it on. At first I felt a bit awkward, but soon I realised it was very comfortable to wear! The groom arrived wearing white and riding a white horse with a marching band closely following him. It was a spectacular entrance, but it was nothing compared to the bride! She was wearing a magnificent sari of red and gold velvet with stunning gold jewellery. Then the bride and groom sat under a mandap, a decorated tent with a small fire in the middle. During the ceremony, they seemed to be doing lots of different symbolic things like walking around the fire or exchanging flower garlands. After the ceremony, we ate lots of traditional Indian dishes - the ones inside banana leaves were my favourite! Then, it was time for more dancing. Thankfully, this time I didn't seem to embarrass myself so much! I feel lucky to have met such warm people and have experienced a traditional Indian wedding. It was like being at the fairytale wedding of an Indian prince and princess!

engaged/married/divorcealajob/a degree/'a promotion children/grandchlldrenlaba.bY/a wedding/aiamily reseption/abirthday' pcHtylmaritaLprgblems ahouse/a car/aboat/lanq/property " ki.ndergartenlschool/collegeiuniverslty attend s~meone 's weclding/retirement pa rty /fl.mer~ I·

Reading

:3

What do you know about Hindu weddings? What would you like to know? Write down three questions you have. Now listen and read the text. Can you find the answers to your questions?

o

.

questiol:t~l~St

Read the text again and for choose the best answer

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Tlli:evci"i:$ W~iter wal}.ted to go to the wedding because A"'her best friend Alisha was the bride. B she knew it would be interesting. C Alisha needed someone to go with her. D she had always wanted to go to India. ;~,.

"~

On the way from the airport, the writer A got stuck in traffic. B rode on a rickshaw. C looked at the unusual buildings. D chatted to Alisha's relatives. At the Sangeet t the guests A celebrate for ten days. B take part in different dances. C put up decorations. D decorate each other's hands. At the wedding, the writer seems to have been most impressed by A the groom's entrance. B the ceremony under the mandap. C the food. D the bride's appearance. S The writer suggests that by the end of the celebrations A her dancing skills had improved. B she felt awkward. C it got very hot. D she had good luck.

5) Choose the correct word. Check in your dictionaries.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

He leapt/hopped at the chance of travelling to India. It was such a steaming/simmering hot day that we decided to go to the beach. She greeted/waved us with a big warm smile. She isn't used to the hustle and buzz/bustle of the big city. The party tookllasted until the early hours. I felt very clumsy/awkward in the long red dress. He made a spectacular entry/entrance on a white horse. It was the best holiday we've ever felt/experienced.

Fill in: flower t steaming t wedding t future t hustle, fairytale, multi-coloured t marching. Use the completed phrases to make sentences about the wedding. 1 ................. hot day 4 ...................... saris 2 ....................... and S ............. prosperity bustle 6 ..................... band 3 ............................ . 7 ................. garland celebrations 8 ............... wedding

6

GtrQmmaiY "see ....... . fe et' I ' f p. 123 } to-m !ifR ~ve -mg . o!!'m ~......... /

7

a)

In a minute write six verbs/phrases that go with: to-infinitive t -ing form.

b) Read the table. Find examples in the text. [infinitive forms -ing forms present simple

(to) dance

present continuous

(to) be dancing

present perfect

(to) have danced

present perfect

(to) have been

continuous

dancing

8

dancing having danced

Choose the correct verb forms.

Ann hopes to go/going to the wedding. 2 Sally seems enjoying/to be enjoying her new job. 3 The curry was too hot eating/to eat. 4 Mark claims to have been/having been away from home on the night of the fire. S Mike can't stand dancing/to dance. 6 John denied to have told/having told a lie. 7 They appear to walk/to be walking around the fire. 8 After to have eaten/having eaten, the wedding guests started to sing and dance.

Speaking It Writing

9

Look at the pictures in Ex. 1 and make speculations about them. Use seem, tend t appear and appropriate infinitive forms.

10

In three minutes write a few sentences comparing a typical wedding in your country to the Indian wedding in the text. Tell your partner. [=~-'-l-c-v-oc-il::-bu-:-lil-ry-B-il-n::-k"'-5-p-p.-=1-:-42=--.=-14::C3)

89

VocCibrw!ary Appearance &. character

1

a)

correct headings. Listen and check.

o

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H£I&!Hr. What does your sister look like? B: She's tall and thin with ... A: What's she like? B: She's funny, but she can be rather bossy.

, .• midtlle~aged 11 fat . ~shoFt 11 old .. well-built •• in her early twenties 11 tattoo Cl curly 11 skinny 11 wrinkles - moustache 11 freckles 11 long 11 round

Listening

o You'll hear an interview

• of medium height • small 11 oval 11 tall 11 overweight . • thin 11 beard 11 young 11 wavy 11 straight 11 in her early forties • in his mid-thirties 11 plump. dark/pale skin "pierced ears • glasses 11 blond(e) -dark 11 bald • in her late teens b)

2 3

Describe the people in the. pictures.

Brian is well-built and probably of medium height. He's ...

2

Fill in the correct character adjectives. 11 11

5

patient 11 cheerful • honest • lazy 11 outgoing rude 11 shy • generous "selfish 11 popular

1 A(n). ................... person always tells the truth. 2 A(n) ............................ person only cares about him/herself. 3 A(n) ................... persor'l doesn't mind waiting. 4 A(n) .................. person is impolite and doesn't have good manners. 5 A(n) ................................. person likes meeting and talking to people. 6 A(n) .................. person doesn't want to work. 7 A(n) ............. ;.............. person is always happy. 8 A(n) ................ person is liked by many people. 9 A ..................... person is always giving people things. 10 A ..................................... person feels nervous around others.

90

4

(~) Vocabulary Bank 5 p.143)

with a woman called Lesley about body image. For questions 1-5, tick (.I) T (true) or F (false). Lesley talks to groups of teenagers. She says body image affects behaviour. ;j---+She says a lot of celebrities have a poor body image, too. She doesn't think teens should change their appearance. She advises teens with poor body image to talk to a friend their own age.

Speaking Cemmenting en changes

in appearance

5

Use the phrases and the prompts to act out exchanges, as in the example. • lose some weight • just get glasses • get a new haircut • grow a beard 11 grow my hair

• I didn't recognise you! Have you changed something? .• You look nice! Is something different7

• You've changed !/You look different. • What have you changed7

A: Ididn't recognise you! Have you changed something? B: Yes, I've lost some weight. A: You look great! B: Thanks!

A for-and-agairnst essay

1

Read the Writing Tip, then read the essay and find the arguments for and against the topic. What examples/justifications does the writer use to support his arguments?

Writing for-and-against essays A for-and-against essay is a formal piece of writing which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of a topic. In the introduction we introduce the topic. In the main body we present the arguments for and against with examples/justifications in separate paragraphs. Each paragraph starts with a topic sentence that presents the main idea of the paragraph. In the conclusion, we summarise the arguments and give our opinion (/ think, I believe, In my opinion). We use linkers to join our ideas. Linking words/phrases .. to list/add points: First, Secondly, In

These days, more and more people are thinking of having plastic surgery to improve their appearance. Some people believe it's OK if this makes them feel better about themselves, but others think it is very worrying, Without a doubt, there are some advantages to' having plastic surgery to improve your appearance, [email protected]'a if someone has a scar from an accident, then doctors can remove it. This will improve the person's confidence and boost their self image,~§QMm~, if someone is born with a birth defect, it can affect their quality of life, Plastic surgery can help them live a normal life without feeling different. :0ff,tneotl1ef'haiid, there are a number of disadvantages to plastic surgery for~PtjreIYCO~m'etic 'reasons, lQ"~t5,@iB]\l[m there might be a chance that something will go wrong, This means people may end up worse off than before, 1~,~,g(@Qlli plastic surgery can be addictive, People can become so obsessed with improving themselves that they are no longer recognisable, i~leJM~m there are both advantages and disadvantages to people having plastic surgery, L~:~t&Yf~9:QIQiQ[j, people should scar, boost, defect, addictive, have counselling before they decide to obsessed, counselling go under the~kn~if~e:...,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _• • • • • • • •

3

Which of the highlighted Iinkers in the essay: introduce an opinion? show contrast? list/add points? conclude? Suggest alternatives. a) 0 Listen to someone talking about extreme dieting and make notes under the headings. Which arguments are: advantages? disadvantages?

the first place, To start with, Finally, In addition, Moreover, etc

ARGUMENTS

.. to introduce/list (dis)advantages: The main/first advantage of ..., One/Another advantage of .. . .. to conclude: In conclusion, All in all, Finally, Lastly, etc .. to show contrast: On the other hand, but, still, However, etc

:2

Find the topic sentences in the main body paragraphs. Suggest other appropriate ones.

b)

Use your notes from Ex. 4a, and the plan below, to write a for-and-against essay (150-180 words),

to the topic (These days, more and more people are '" , Some people ... , but others,., ,J advantages & examples/justifications (Without a doubt, there are some advantages, .. . Firstly, '" ,J disadvantages & examples/justifications (On the other hand, ,.. ,J Summarise the topic & express your opinion (All in all, ... ,In my opinion, '" .)

r

(~) Writing Bank S p. 157) 91

.

blush hiccuP, .. ' . . . an sneeze, yaw"" . . ' .• me can't help It, but we . . . . But.what. exactly is 1IW .. . - 1&. m time to ttme. ,.. \La e"Em snore .1'0 .. . . ..... ",,,) cougn or" .....; we doaUthesetllang... . .. . ""ur bodies when ... .. . . .... . ... . goang on an "" .....

Read the headings in the text. What causes these to happen? .

o Listen and read the text to find out.

2

sneeze, yawn, blush, hiccup, snore or cough next to each sentence.

Write:

stretch, muscle, lung, increase, airways, throat, vocal cords, release, adrenalin, flow, jerky, voice box, dust, pollen, virus, irritate, brain, vibrate, allergy

3

1 You may do this if you need to lose

and fast; infectious, bothers, uncomfortable around others.

weight.

2 It might help you stay awake.

92

3 It happens when you think about what others think of you. 4 You might do this if you are worried about something. 5 It happens extremely fast. 6 You may sound like a dog when you .............. . do this.

Match the highlighted words with their meanings: know about, shake, awake, sudden

Tell your partner one thing you remember about each of the reflex actions in the text.

:5

IICT I ,~ Find out more interesting facts about these reflex actions. Use textbooks, encyclopedias or the Internet. Present your facts to the class.

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V'ElT[o:S!

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1

3

Choose the correct particle(s).

take after: look/act like a relative take off: 1) remove (clothes) 2) leave the ground (planes) take up: start (a hobby) turn down:· 1) reject 2) reduce volume (~turn up) turn off: switch off (~turn on) turn over: move to a new page turn up: arrive/appear unexpectedly

2 3 4 S 6

2 2 3 4 S 6

John took off/up his jumper because he was too hot. Can you turn up/down your music please, Sam? I can't hear the TV. Now turn down/over the page and look at Exercise 3, everyone. Fran turned down/up at the party at about 9 pm. Matt turned off/down the job because he found a better one. I take after/over my grandfather. We are both tall with green eyes.

Fill in the sentences with the correct word derived from the word in brackets.

Word Formation - forming negative adjectives We use non (existent - non-existent), un (happy - unhappy), dis (satisfied - dissatisfied), in (accurate - inaccurate), il (before I) (legal- illegal), im (before b, m, p) (polite - impolite) and ir (before r) (regular - irregular).

1 The sales assistant was very .................................. so I didn't buy anything. (HELPFUL) 2 Steve never considers the results of his actions. He can be very .............................................................. (RESPONSIBLE) 3 I find it .................... to sleep if someone snores! (POSSIBLE) 4 It's .............................................. to keep the money if a sales assistant gives you too much change. (HONEST) S It was a(n) ..................................... dinner party so we didn't need to dress up. (FORMAL) 6 Tony's arguments were .......................................... They just didn't make sense. (LOGICAL)

Choose the correct prepositions. I felt really sorry for/about her. Tania is always gossiping about/for other people. It gets in/on my nerves when people talk loudly at/on their mobile phones. I enjoyed my time in Spain, but I struggled of/with the language. Stop shouting off/at them. People trust you !)lore if you look them in/to the eye.

4

Fill in: plastic, give, vocal, host, reach, lose, stay, take,

homeless, social. 1 2 3 4 S

........................ my temper ................... a deep breath ............................... family ................................ a hug .............................. shelter

6 7 8 9 10

........................ your goals ................................. alert ................................ cords .......................... etiquette ............................. surgery

Read through Module S and mark the sentences T (true) or F (false). Then write a quiz of your own. 2 3 4 S 6

L

Mexicans never take an afternoon siesta. Brits appreciate punctuality. Jaipur's nickname is the red city. Adrenalin increases the blood flow to your face. Yawning increases the heart rate. You shouldn't tip in a restaurant in the UK. Unborn babies yawn. Studies say that women don't snore as much as men ...

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Read the rubric, the questions and the possible answers and underline the key words. Do the reading task. Compare your answers with your partner.

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Przeczytaj tekst. Z podanych mozliwosci : odpowiedzi (1-5) wybierz wtasciwC);. zgodnC); I z tresciC); tekstu. Zakreslliter~ A. B. Club D.

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._------------------_. Why did Milka decide on a career as a race car driver? A To anger her parents. B To feed her need for speed. C She wanted to live in Miami. D To satisfy her competitive spirit. 2 Milka believes that the male drivers A work harder than her. B look down on her. C see her as one of them. D give her special treatment. 3 What message does Milka want to portray as a role model? A She thinks being an athlete is important. B She wants to emphasise the importance of education. C She wants young girls to become race car drivers like her. D She thinks that family relationships are important. 4 What does the writer say about Milka's personal life ? A Her work is her main focus. B Her main objective is to start a family. C Her social life is extremely important to her. D Her career is secondary. 5 What's the writer's main purpose for writing this article? A To explain gender bias. B To present family problems. C To talk about determination and success. D To explain how to stay in shape.

94

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Read the rubric and do the listening task. Justify your answers.

""'"

5

?---------------------~

Ustyszysz dwukrotnie J wypowiedi pewnej osoby !j na temat dZiwnego zbiegu okolicznosci. Na ] podstawie informacji zawartych w nagraniu ~ zdecYduj. kt6re zdania (1-5) s,,! zgodne ] z tresci,,! tekstu (TRUE). a kt6re nie (FALSE). ~---------------------. 2 3 4 5

Meredith was taken to her new family when she was a toddler. She had a rather difficult childhood. Jim and his wife didn't have any children. Jim found out about Meredith through the Internet. The two girls haven't met yet.

M6wienie (Opis ilustracji) ~--------------------~

3

n g a

Opisz zdjftcie i odpowiedz na pytania.

How do you think the girl's mother feels? 2 Do you think higher education is necessary? Why/Why not? 3 What are you planning to study? Why?

I ! I

Uzupetnij poni:i:szy tekst. W luki (1-5) wpiszwyrazy utworzone od : st6w znajduj,,!cych sift w nawiasach. tak aby tekst § byt logiczny i poprawny gramatycznie.

• At 5: 30 every morning. before he got on the school bus. 15year-old Trevon Jenifer took his dog out for a walk. The 1) "'"'''''''','',,',,''''''''' (DIFFER) between Trevon and any other eat'ly morning dog walker was that Trevon walked on his hands. He was born in 1988 in Maryland. USA without legs and life was challenging in every way. The family were pOOt; but they 2) ""'" """""",,,,,.,,,,. (COURAGE) him to adopt the attitude that he could do anything he put his mind to. Even though he was given a pair of prosthetic legs, he preferred to do without them and use his arms and hands as his legs and feet instead. He was a 3) """."""""""""",,. (CHEER) boy and he was popular at school, always willing to help out and do whatever he could. His teachers were 4) """"""""""""". (CONSTANT) amazed at his abilities. Trevon is now a member of the Paralympics wheelchair basketball team and has also published a book about his life. What annoys him is when reporters ask him if his life would have been different with legs. His 5) .""",,.,,""""""""" (RESPOND) to this is that he thinks the question is as pointless as asking "What if the sun rose in the west 1". His attitude is that he is the way he is and he is happy that this attitude inspires others to do better things in their lives.

(1ransiotrmacje ze siowem ilduczem)

6

Wykorzystuj
'9!VypowJedi pisemna (Rozprawka za i puedw) Read the rubric. Listen to two people discussing the topic and make notes. Use your notes to write your essay.

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Tw6j nauczyciel poprosit Cift 0 napisanie rozprawki (200-250 ] st6w). w kt6rej przedstawisz zalety i wady J ] studiowania za granic,,!.

1

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1 He made us wait for two hours. KEPT He ......................... for two hours. 2 I think you should tell her. WERE If ...................................... tell her. 3 They probably won't come today. MAY It seems ............................. today. 4 I find it difficult to get used to the weather. DIFFICULTY I have ......................................... .. ............................ to the weather. S I can't meet you tonight as I am going out with Bob. SUPPOSED I can't meet you tonight as I am ...................................... with Bob.

95

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"--_ ..

1

Fill in: lost, sneeze, sank, reach, cheerful, bark,

4

Fill in: may/might, must, can't.

gossip, blush, overweight, look after. 1 Anya is always so ................... She's always smiling and I've never seen her in a bad mood! 2 Tom tried hard to .............................. his goals. 3 Narayanan Krishnan gave up a great job to ................... homeless people . . 4 Our neighbours let their dog .................... all night. It's so annoying! 5 Sam is a bit .................... ; he should stop eating junk food. 6 A ..................... is a reaction to an irritation in the nose. 7 Some people ............................. when they are embarrassed. 8 It's annoying when people .............................. . about me. 9 He ................ his temper and started shouting. 10 When she saw him leave, her heart ............... . 1Ox2=20 marks

2

Fill in: retirement, pale, marital, pierced, win,

manners, late, reach, social, leap. 2 3 4 5

6

........................ ears 7 in his ...................... teens 8 ......... at the chance ...................... party 9 ........................ skin to have ................... 10 problems

to ........................... a scholarship to ........................... your goals . ...............................

etiquette to have bad

I •••••••••••

2 3 4 5

John ................. be pleased. Look at his huge smile! Alan doesn't wear glasses, so that ................ be him. Look at all of Sara's birthday cards. She .......... .. be popular. It ................. rain later, so take an umbrella just in case. Tessa ................. change her career, but she isn't sure yet. 5x2= 10 marks

5

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct (taJ-infinitive or -ing form.

1 Peter seems ...................................... (wait) for someone. He looks very nervous. 2 Ann appears .......................................... (have) difficulty getting a job. 3 Laura can't stand ............ ........ ........ ...... (wear) long dresses. 4 Sue seems .................................. (lose) a lot of weight. Has she been on a diet? 5 They denied ........................ (take) the money. 5x2= 10 marks

6 Match the exchanges . ITD You look different. [IT] [I[J [IT] [IT]

A Can I have a quick word? B C I've just moved here. D I'm sorry about that.. What can I do for you? E

Pleased to meet you. That's OK. I have a complaint. I've lost weight. Sure. 5x4=20 marks

10xl=10marks

7

3

Choose the correct tense.

2 3 4 5

96

Maria found/has been finding it hard to make friends so far at college. She has changed/changed her life completely since she moved abroad. Julie has lost some weight. She did/has been doing a lot of exercise recently. You're all wet! Did you walk/Have you been walking in the rain? What has Mark been doing/did Mark do since he quit his job? 5x2= 10 marks

Write a for-and-against essay on 'Is it a good idea to become a vegetarian?' (120 -150 words).

20 marks Total: 100 marks

• • • • • • •

talk and write about annoying habits talk about culture shock talk and write about social etiquette make deductions complain and apologise talk about appearance write a for-and-against essay

GOOD I VERY GOOD 11 EXCEllENT I11

Vocabulary: types of crime, crime fighting, street art cybercrime, the law, problems in the community Grammar: the passive, impersonal/personal passive structures, make/let, the causative, reflexive pronouns, reported speech (statements, orders/commands & questions) Everyday English: giving a witness statement Pronunciation: epenthesis Writing: a letter to the editor making suggestions Culture Corner: the civil rights movement in the USA Curricular (Citizenship): Amnesty International Phrasal verbs: run, set, wear, work Word formation: nro,tIY,OC Which of these crimes do you think are the most serious? Which are a problem in your town/city? Have you heard of/read about any of these crimes recently? Report it to the class.

Vocabulary Types of art

1 0 .. " • • •

pottery • carving • painting computer graphics • sculpting drawing • graffiti photography • architecture print making • collage

What can an artwork be about?

e.g. people, events, etc

Reading & Listening

2

a)

b)

The pictures in the text show different types of art. Describe the pictures. How do you think people react to each type of street art? Listen and read to find out.

o

Read the text again and mark the sentences T (true) or F (false). Correct the false sentences.

3

2 3 4

5 6 7

t1llnWttMt4m~1

Listen and say.

Some old ladies started the first graffiti knitting group. You can only see Lego repair work in New York. Many New Yorkers don't like the Lego repair work. No one is certain who Banksy really is. Banksy's work can only be seen on the streets. Guerilla gardeners have permission for what they do ....... The police often arrest guerilla gardeners.

These days, it is not only grannies who knit. In cities such as New York, London and Berlin, community art groups are busy 'graffiti knitting', creating colourful decorations for lampposts, parking meters, cars and statues. The craze was started by Magda Sayeg in the USA, when she decided to brighten up the steel and concrete landscape of Austin, Texas with her knitted creations. Now knitting needles are clicking worldwide and cities are inviting the knitters to transform their public spaces. Most people's reactions are positive and even though it isn't strictly legal, Sayeg says, "You'd have to be the most bored police officer to want to arrest me." So, next time you walk past a city statue, lake a look - it might be wearing a scarf!

Most people remember playing with Lego bricks as a child. It seems, though, that toy towns aren't the only things they are used to construct. 'Lego repair work' was created by German artist Jan Vormann. Jan spent three years travelling the world, fixing crumbling walls and monuments with Lego. Jan took his project to New York and together with a team of volunteers, constructed Lego repairs all over the city, including at Brooklyn Bridge and Central Park. Cracks in buildings soon disappeared and were replaced with bright Lego shapes. Most New Yorkers are pleased with the ook.

4

Fill in: strictly, instantly, bul/etproof, brighten up, crumbling,

divided, immediate, neglected. 1 The local council is taking action to the town centre and improve its appearance. 2 Smoking is ............................................................ prohibited. 3 There are easy ways to fix .................................. walls so that they don't fall apart. 4 His style is so distinctive that it is ...................... recognisable. 5 Police officers wear .................... vests to protect themselves. 6 His paintings are controversial so critics' opinions are .......... . 7 The park was ............. It had broken benches and long grass. 8 The police were asked to take ..................................... action.

5 98

Think of an alternative title for each section of the text.

Most big cities have their fair share of graffiti, but, like it or not, one British graffiti artist is now considered to be a worldwide phenomenon. The true identity of Banksy is surrounded in mystery, but his art is instantly recognisable. Some of his most famous images include a young girl with a heart-shaped balloon and a dove of peace wearing a bulletproof vest. Banksy's work has even been exhibited in art exhibitions and a lot of his works have been sold. Because of his striking images and comments on social problems, public opinion is divided. Some find Banksy's work offensive, while others think he is one of the most important artists today.

7

Complete the sentences with the passive form of the verbs in brackets. Graffiti ...................................... . (consider) to be offensive by some people.

2 The new art gallery .................. .. ...................... (open) next week.

3 Two car thieves ........................ .. (catch) red-handed by the police yesterday. 4 Many houses on my street ......... .......... (fit) with a burglar alarm. S The Mona Usa .................. ............ . (steal) from the Louvre in 1911. 6 The streets of the city .............. .. ...................... (cover) with litter.

8

Rewrite the facts in the passive.

Andy Warhol (1928.1987)

; : .............. : GraMMar ~~~4 '): • ~......... / :

The passIve

6

Did you know ... ? 1 People consider him to be the father of pop art. He is considered to be the.father ofpop art. 2 He often used bright colours in his paintings. 3 He made 300 films. 4 An actress shot and nearly killed him in 1968. 5 The Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh, USA,. exhibits his • images today.

divide, public opinion, brighten up, steel, concrete, transform, arrest, crumbling walls, volunteer, crack, fair share, worldwide phenomenon, bulletproof vest: eXh.ibit, offensive, neglected, skip, grating, Illegal, rundown, approval

:.......

....

..

Speaking & Writing

Read the examples and the theory. How do we turn an

9

active sentence into a passive one? Find examples in the text.

I'

Form: to be + past participle of the main ver-b--l s v 0 I ! Active Van Gogh painted Sunflowers. ! I S v agent 1 ! Passive Sunflowers was painted by Van Gogh. I We use the passive when we don't know who did the action, the action is I

I

more important than the person doing it or when we don't want to say who/what is to blame.

_

I 1

,.,1

10

Say four things you remember from the text.

How would you react if you witnessed guerrilla gardeners planting flowers on neglected land? In three minutes write a few sentences. Tell your partner.

99

On popular crime drama series like CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, the latest scientific methods are used to collect and analyse physical evidence and solve horrible crimes in record time. But just how realistic is all this? We interviewed 26-year-old Ben Langdon to find out what the job of a forensic scientist is really like. So, Ben ... is your job anything like what we see on CSI? Well ... mostly no! On the show, investigators seem to end every work day with a dramatic arrest, but sometimes our cases aren't solved for months. Also, on CSI you see that everything is being done by one or two people. They go to the crime scene, do DNA .analysis, then go and arrestthe suspect. In reality, a lot of different specialised technicians, forensic scientists and detectives are involved in each. case; I specialise in fibres and blood analysis, but others look at fingerprints,footwear and many other things.

SOINhat's a typical day like for you, Ben?

ocabu/ary Jobs related to fighting crime

1 () Listen and say. Which person (A-H) ... 2 3 4 5 6 7

8

There's no typical day because every case is different. A few days ago, I examined someevidimce that had been collected from a . crime scene. Aski mask had been found after an armed robbery . atapizzeria, sol had to search. it for hair, blood and saliva. When astairlwasfoulld,lused chemicals to remove the DNA from it andthen Lhad iheDNA compared to samples from the suspects: Anothertimerecently,lspent two whole days searching forfinres in a car. Sometimes, I might even be asked to present my evidence in court in frontofa Judge. .,'. .' ..,. • .......•••.•••.

Can you tell us a little. aboui:the equipment and scientific is employed by a shop to look for shoplifters? methods you use? •. ". . . ..' . advises people about the law and Sure. As .wellasordinary microscopes, we use powertulelettron represents them in court? microscopes .. We. also/use ultraviolet. light to. see tRaces . of works in a prison supervising prisoners? evidence' lik~ ,tinyfibresand'spectrometerswhkhigentify uses scientific techniques to examine evidence? Gllemisals.OurJechniQ0esare becoming morebigh~tech aHthe protects buildings such as banks or shops? ·tiflw.Sbon,.wewill.haye?kind of 'laboh.achiprDN~ wiH ..be .' . decides how a criminal is punished in court? jd~ntlfie(f~imply by puttipg a Jiny amount bffiwid ofJa ~ilrc()d.ghip. tries to find out what happened in a crime '.', finally,what'are thelies1:andth~worst parts>of Y()Ud9bT' . .. Well,.' this jobdeTiniteIYisn)tf0[e~er:yone: Some crimesc~nE~s,2ah and to arrest the criminals. . be Verydistressing.OdthCe 0tbeF~and, it's wonderfulwh'ef)a GaSe is paid to find out information about others? basb~en solvetfand:Yourevldenseplayeda. fole iD tbqt.yo'uget .' to 8~ipthec6mrTltJnitY, andt~at's~a great feeling ..' : •. , ' .

A store detective is employed by a shop to catch shoplifters.

Reading

2 100

The text is about a forensic scientist. Read the questions in the article. Can you answer them? 0 Listen, read and check.

scientific method, analyse, physical evidence, solve crimes, in record time, dramatic arrest, crime scene, DNA analysis, arrest, suspect, fibre, blood analysis, examine, saliva, '. electron microscope, ultraviolet light, trace, identify, lab, . silicon chip, distressing

The Causative (have + object +

3 . Read again and complete the sentences. Ben Langdon works as .................................... A case can take .............................................. Ben's specialised ............................................. Ben searched the mask for ............................. 5 Ben got the DNA from the mask .................... 6 At work forensic scientists use ....................... 7 Ben likes his job because ................................

1 2 3 4

4

past participle) . . . . . . .

Fill in: solve, crime, blood, ultraviolet, record, silicon. Make sentences about Ben using the completed phrases. 0 Listen and check.

1 .................... crimes 2 in ................... time 3 ................. analysis

Grammar

(W~e th~7a~~;tiv;t~Yth~~~ have arranged for'1 I someone to do something for us or when something is, ! done to us. Compare:

I

I

! I

I

..................... scene 5 ...................... light 6 ....................... chip

see . . . pp. 124-12..S.)

Read the examples. Rewrite the following sentences in the passive.

• People think he escaped the country. He is thought to have escaped the country. It is thought that he escaped the country. Note how, make and let change in the passive. • He made me go out. -I was made to go out. o They didn't let him enter. - He wasn't aI/owed to enter. 1 They let him search the scene of the crime. 2 People believe the police will catch the robbers. 3 They made him tell the truth. 4 They won't let us examine the evidence. 5 They announced the police have found the girl.

6

Read the theory. Then, rewrite the sentences using the causative.

4

Impersonal/Personal ""'. ... passive structures - makellet

5

7

Rewrite the headlines in the passive voice. ROBBERS CAUGHT WITH £1,000,000

2 ONE-DAY STRIKE TO BE HELD NEXT MONDAY

Tom is installing a burglar alarm.

l~ 2 3

4 5

5 BANK ROBBERY COMMITTED YESTERDAY

I

j

The policeman took Bill's fingerprints. Bill had his fingerprints taken. Someone has stolen Ann's car. Ann ... An electrician is fitting security lights outside our house. We ... Tony will repair our broken lock today. We .. . Peter's house was burgled yesterday. Peter .. .

Reflexive pronouns

8

Read the theory then complete the correct reflexive pronoun.

(myself yourself himself/herself/itself

ourselves yourselves themselves

lI

I We use reflexive pronouns to emphasise the noun/pronoun of a I sentence. He installed the burglar alarm himself. (on his o~

1 They repaired the locks .................................. . 2 He fitted the window ..................................... . 3 She cleaned everything .................................. . 4 We caught the burglar ................................... . 5 I can do it ....................................................... .

3 MISSING SKIERS FOUND

4 NEW MUSEUM TO BE OPENED BY MAYOR

I

Tom is having a burglar alarm installed.

Speaking & Writing

9

Choose a job from Ex. 1 and in pairs act out an interview similar to the one in Ex. 2. (~) Vocabulary Bank 6 pp. 144-145)

10 1

----------------r The

Civil Rights Movement in the

USA

"I ha-..:e a dream that my four children will one day live. in a nation· where they wt1l not be judged by the colour of their skin, but by the content of. their character." Martin Lather King Jr (1929-1968)

ITIJ

Until the mid-1950s in the USA, African Americans were not treated equally. They couldn't find work easily and even then they got the worst jobs and received low wages. They were also separated from whites in public places like schools and theatres and on public transport. One day, though, an incident on a bus sparked a revolution. On 1st December, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, an African American woman called Rosa Parks wouldn't give up her bus seat to a white man and move to the back of the bus wher~black people had to sit. Rosa was arrested, but her protest real impact and attracted the attention of a man who would soon lead the Civil Rights Movement Martin Luther King. [I[J King was born in 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. He studied Theology and became a minister. During his youth, King was inspired by Indian leader, Mahatma Gandhi, who encouraged non-violent protests to create positive change in society.

lID

hac)

1

Read the quote by Martin Luther King in the text. How is Martin

3

boycott of Montgomery buses, with Afncan Amencans refUSing to travel on them for over a year. The protest resulted in a ban on black and white segregation on public transport. His nonviolent campaign for political change attracted many supporters, including writers, artists and politicians of all races. [I[J In 1963, King led thousands of people on the historic 'March on Washington', the home of the government and gave his famous 'I have a dream' speech. The following year, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act which ruled that racial discrimination was illegal. Despite racist opposition, King had achieved incredible results. However, in 1968, tragedy struck and he was assassinated. The world mourned his loss. [ID Martin Luther King's legacy liv.es on. H~. is an inspirational figure because he changed society In a posllive and peaceful way. Americans now celebrate Martin Luther King Day every year on 15th January to ensure that he is never forgotten.

judge, treat equally, spark a revolution, protes.t, have an impact, be inspired, bravery, boycott, result In, ban, segregation, race, march, Congress, pass an Act, rule, racial discrimination, assassinate, mourn his loss, legacy

Fill in: positive, sparked, impact, struck, treated, legacy, attracted, wages, banned, mourned.

Luther King connected to the civil rights movement in the USA? Listen, read and check.

'[![] King admired Rosa Parks for h.er brave~ and bega~ a

All people should be ................................................. equally.

o

2 Women used to be paid low ................................................ . 3 His speech ...................... a revolution that changed people's

Match the headings (A-G) to the correct paragraph

4 Their protest had a real ........................ on the whole world.

lives.

2

(1-6). There is one extra heading. A REFUSE TO BE MOVED

B INTRODUCE AGREAT LEADER

5 He ............... worldwide attention to the problem of famine. 6 Racial discrimination should be .................... in all countries.

7 If we work together, we can bring .......... changes in society. 8 The whole nation ..................................................... his loss. 9 Tragedy ...................... in 1948 when Gandhi was shot dead.

C

Bob Marley died at the age of 36, but his ................. lives on. What do the actions of Martin Luther King tell you about his personality? In three minutes write a few sentences. Tell the class.

G REMEMBER A NATIONAL HERO

102

5

Think of an inspirational figure in your country. Compare and contrast this person to Martin Luther King.

Ii . Giving a witness statement.

1

2

o MUGGING in town centre

Read the newspaper report extracts. What

Police in Harley are investigating a mugging which took place on Murphy Street at around 9 last This

is each one about?

o Listen and say. Below are questions a police officer asked a witness of a crime.

was the sixth incident in a week ...

Which report do they match, A or B? Listen and read to find out.

[!] Mvsterv Vandal

• Where and when did you witness the incident? • What exactly did you see? • What happened next? • Can you describe any of the gang?

A masked vandal attacked the Town Hall on Shortland Street at 2 pm last Friday throwing glass bottles and rocks and breaking two windows. The reason is unknown ...

• Is there anything else you can tell us about the incident? • Can I take your address and telephone number, please? .

Pronunciation: epenthesis

4

A: What's your name, please?

Read the definition.

o Listen to the words and find the added

sound.

B: Elliott Fisher. A: OK. Now, where and when did you witness.

Epenthesis is the addition of one or more sounds

the incident, Mr Fisher? B: I was crossing Murphy Street at about 9;

to a word to make its pronunciation easier. The sound can be consonant or a vowel.

o'clock on Saturday night.

• hamster

A: What exactly did you see?

e

umbrella

e

dreamt "drawing

• warmth • realtor

B: Yes. I saw a gang of boys shouting at another boy. Then they pushed him to the ground and took his bag. A: What happened next? B: I shouted at the gang to stop and they all ran away. A: Can you describe any of the gang? B: I noticed that one of them was very tall and

Speaking

5

Imagine you are the witness, John Jones, in the incident in report B. Your partner is a police officer. Act out your dialogue. Follow the plan.

was wearing a green baseball cap. 'A: OK. Is there anything else you can tell me about the incident? B: Erm ... No, I don't think so. . A: Can I take your address and telephone number, please?

Ask B's name.--------,."Reply. Ask where/when B witnessed

you saw first.

B: Of course. My address is 7, Scarsdale Drive and my telephone number is 382736.

. Ask what happened next.~----l""Describe what happened next.

A: Thank you very much. B: You're welcome.

Tell A.

the incident. Ask what B saw. ~-------l""Describe what

Ask if B can describe the ~---l~ person.

3

Find sentences in the dialogue which mean:

What did you witness? - What took place after that? - Did you see what any of the gang looked like? - Not really. -/ appreciate your help.

Ask if B can tell you anything else.

Reply.

Ask for B's address/phone number. :reil A. Thank B for his time .......='-----,lIo...Reply.

103

Vocabulary

1

In a minute, list some positive and negative aspects of using the Internet. Compare your list with your partner's.

PROS: have immediate access to information CONS: exposes users to security risks

2

Read the dictionary entry. How are these words related to it? Check in your dictionaries. cybercrime I'sarhjkrarm/ (n) illegal activity committed onthe Internet •.

• • • •

hacking • identity theft illegal down loading of music/films, etc online credit card fraud • phishing spreading computer viruses

Listening

3 o

Listen to four people who have been victims of cybercrime. Match the people to the crime.

A B C D E

phishing identity theft computer virus illegal downloading email spa m

Speaker 1 Speaker 2 Speaker 3 Speaker 4

KWLH Before reading a text, make a KWLH (know-want to know-learn-how) chart. This will help you use your prior knowledge, understand the text better and increase your knowledge.

Reading

4

Copy the chart below into your notebooks. Read the title of the text and complete the first two rows of the chart.

What I already Know What I Want to know What I Learnt How I can learn more

104

5

Read the text. Five sentences have been removed. Complete the gaps (1-5) with one sentence A-F. One sentence is extra.

A This was the work of relatively harmless geeks known as script buddies. B Would you think it was just a little joke or something more serious? C Turning off your computer is not the solution to the problem. D Attacks like this scare people. E This is why governments are focusing their attention on strengthening their defences. F Once a system is infected, all kinds of things can go wrong.

using pen and paper after their computers crashed.

[IIJ Think what might happen if a cracker could disrupt power stations, water. supplies or even air traffic control. .With so much of our lives organised by computers, an attack could be devastating. The threat ·from cyber terrorism is very serious and <·very real. []I] In many cases, they ,invite computer hackers to try to break into ',their systems to see where they are weak . . A number of private companies also hire ';hackers for this reason, to identify and . 9 protect any point that· a criminal might be . ),,:able to use to gain access. As thethreat to ):national security increases, so does the ','X:adve to stop the criminal crackers from ct;g'~iting into the system. Computer whizzes "'$g~ngetpaid to hack systems as employees :~;,cif'{companies, or do it illegally and risk ;,~~Bitlgto prison. . . ~r~:i:~ . z;~·

::;,r: ~~"1.

\1 zombie, traffic jam, scenario, warn, hack, ';j

alter, harmless geek, script buddy, make /,] mischief, exploit, disruption, havoc, gain ';i access, rely on, navigation system, resort ') to, devastating, strengthen, defences

{)

There is a worm that is capable of using your webcam and microphone to watch and listen to you, spying on you whenever you use your computer. • If you use the same password for lots of sites it makes the job of accessing your online accounts easier for hackers and they can steal your identity without you even knowing, III A number of viruses are spread as email attachments. If you open the attachment the virus can delete your hard drive and copy your address book so it can send itself to all your friends. • One virus is designed to note the keys you press on the keyboard. The aim of this virus is to steal people's confidential passwords. III

\

)

/

Writing

Complete the sentences with: gain, disruption, resorted,

spread, access, mischief, navigation, rely. 1 My computer is very old. I can't .................. ,........ ,.. , on it. 2 It's easy for hackers to .................................. ,.. access to a computer system. 3 Hackers can easily hijack computers and .................. ,...... .. viruses or attack websites. 4 The virus caused .......................... , to the banking system, S Some people enjoy making ........................... ,... for others on the Internet. 6 The hackers blocked the ....................................... systems 50 the coastguard couldn't trace where the ship was, 7 He couldn't send an email 50 he .................................... to sending a letter instead. 8 Each time you ................................ ,................ your online accounts, change your password,

7

8

Speaking

a)

Complete the other two rows of the KWLH chart. Compare with your partner.

b)

Summarise the text in 80 words.

In small groups, find out more information about cybercrime. Make notes, then report your information back to the class.

105

So,youthQughianin1alsandcrilne didn't mix? Well, they can actually be more

~--'--,-,-'. . than yOllmight think! Parrots often.build strong friendships with their owners. That .",' ~:wasunfortLinate for 6negang of burglars,when Jack, a pet shop's resident parrot, in .Covemtry;UKturned out to be no friendoftheirs. One night, the burglars broke into ;.ili~oshOptllid~ttempt~dtostealJac~.~()ngwith some other animals, but Jack •. ~cratchecithethi~ves:topieces and~hebu.rglars had to make a quick getaway . ·.thrQ~gh th~backdoodThene}{t momfug,pet shop owner Caroline Hobday found . :tack9n,topofhis~agesqua.wi9ng loudly; Caroline said that it looked like Jack had .'Sp~ntt~eiest 'of the night p'atrolling'andprotecting the other animals like a guard dog. She \ac:idedt~atshe wa$verYproudof him. A p()liceman later said that they would possibly be able to trace . . . . 'DNAsainplestak~nJiomtheblood they left behind. Well, Jack, who's a clever boy then!

I~TI:~t'sqUlte

a sto;;Well,inEgypt, a

[II=:J

; hungry donkey was actually sent to prison for : stealing sweetcorn from a field! It all started when C, the owner of an agricultural research institute ". noticed that he had had some of his crops stolen. The police set up a checkpoint to catch a thief, but caught a donkey munching the corn. While the donkey's owner was given a fine of 50 Egyptian pounds, the donkey itself was sentenced to 24 hours in prison. The donkey refused to comment

'[email protected]"flN _

1

That's very funny. Last week I read that a court in Boston, USA, accidentally ordered a cat called Tabby Sal to do jury service! Tabby Sal's owner wrote to the court to explain the mistake. Mrs Esposito said that Sal was a member of the family, so she had put his name down on the last census form under 'pets'. She added that, clearly, there had been a mix-up. However, an official replied that the cat had to attend the court. Mrs Esposito then asked what the cat was supposed to say when the judge asked if the defendant was guilty or not guilty. Miaow? A verdict was eventually reached and Tabby Sal didn't have to do jury service after all.

Reading

b) Which animal ...

The texts in Mark's blog are about strange law cases. Read the box and try to guess what each is about. Listen, read and check.

was told to be somewhere at a particular time? possibly helped to identify criminals? spent some time in a different kind of cage? ...... was punished along with its owner? was arrested at the crime scene by the police?

o

!~

parrot, gang of burglars, break into, steal, . : scratched to pieces, make a quick getaway, squawk, i patrol, protect, trace, thieves, DNA samples j [ID hungry donkey, sent to prison, set up, ; checkpoint, fine, be sentenced to i [g cat, jury service, attend, court, judge, defendant, . guilty, not guilty, reach a verdict

2

a)

Read the texts and match them to the headings. One heading is extra.

EAT THE EVIDENCE 2 CLAW AND ORDER 3 MIAOW THE COURT'S DECISION 4 HIDE THE STOLEN GOODS

106

2 3 4 5

3

Fill in: guilty, getaway, patrol, sentenced, caught,

verdict, attempted, checkpoint, breaking into.

2 3 4 5 6 7

The police set up a ................... and .................. .. the criminals before they left the country . The robbers made their ........................ through the back door. Police officers ........................... the streets at night. The jury took three hours to reach a ............... . The man ............................. to steal the purse. The jury found him ..................................... and ........................... him to six months in prison. The thief was caught ...................................... .. the building.

4

9

'Choose the correct word. Check in your dictionaries.

2 3 4

5 6

5

Dogs build/make strong relationships with their owners. The robbers made/did a quick getaway through the window. Parrots cry/squawk loudly. They 'managed to discover/trace the burglars from the fingerprints they found on the door. Police build/set up a checkpoint in an effort to find the robbers. He was very hungry so he munched/crunched an apple and some sandwiches. Find words/phrases in the text which mean:

unlucky, proved to be, entered by force, tried, escape, guarding, find Text B: penalty, said "no", give his opinion Text C: by mistake, charged, official survey, be present, gradually Text A:

What part of speech is each?

6

In pairs write six T/F sentences based on the texts. Swap with your partner and mark your partner's statements T (true) or F (false).

Jack owns a pet shop. F Jack is a parrot.

7

Which story did you find most amusing? Why? In three minutes write a few sentences. Tell the class.

Grammar

see \, pp. 125-127) ~,

2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

sentences. "Please, please let me go," Ricky said. (BEGGED) 2 "You broke into Harper's house," she said to the man. (ACCUSED) 3 "I'll tell the truth," he said. (PROMISED) 4 "Don't forget to call the police," Ann said to me. (REMINDED) 5 "I'm sorry I stole your wallet," she said (APOLOGISED) 6 "I didn't take your camera," he said. (DENIED) 7 "Let's talk to a lawyer," he said. (SUGGESTED) 8 "Don't go near this area," he said. (WARNED) 9 "I took the passport," he said. (ADMITTED) 10 "Leave or I'll call the police," he said. (THREATENED)

./

,/

Speaking & Writing

orders/commands &. questions)

11

a)

Imagine you are the owner of the pet in the first story in the text. Your partner is a radio presenter. Prepare questions and answers and write a short interview. Read it to the class.

b)

Imagine you heard the interview on the radio. Report it to your friend using reported speech.

Find examples of reported speech in the text. Change them into direct speech. What special introductory verbs have been used to introduce the reported sentences?

(Special introductory verbs

l

IWe can use a variety of other verbs to report a person's iwords e,g, promise, offer, remind, agree, warn, explain, refuse. I"There's so much graffiti," Ann said. Ann complained I iI that there was' 50 much graffiti. ("/'11 help," Steve said. Steve offered to help. '. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - '

L

The thieves took my new smartphone," said Tracey. Tracey said that the thieves ... "You're staying in prison tonight," the judge said. "Put your handsup!" the policeman told the man. "The jury will reach a verdict," the lawyer said. "Don't park in front of the gates!" he said. "I locked the back door before I left," Ann said. "My dog Paddy is a good guard dog," said Mike. "How much did the robbers steal?", Fran asked. "Did the vandals cause damage?", Andy asked. "What time did the fire start?", Frank asked. "Can you phone the police?", Jane asked. "Has the murderer been caught yet?", Sam asked.

1 0 Use the verbs in brackets to report the

Reported spe'ech (statements,

8

Report the sentences.

The presenter asked why the thieves had broken into the pet shop. The owner said that ...

107

11 Vocabulary Problems in the community

1

a)

0

Listen and say. Which of these problems does your community have? Tell your partner.

Listening

2

OVou will hear Sam talking about a Neighbourhood Watch scheme. For each question, choose the correct answer A, B or C. Sam started the scheme because ... A he had recently been burgled. B his son asked him to. e the police suggested it to him.

2 The main aim of Neighbourhood Watch is to ... A prevent crime before it happens. B catch criminals when the police aren't around. C patrol the streets of a neighbourhood. 3 Since Sam started Neighbourhood Watch, ... A other schemes have been started in different areas. B the council have agreed to improve street lighting. e there isn't as much crime in the area. 4 The first meeting is often held ... A in a public place in the neighbourhood. B at the local police station. C at the home of a group member.

5 Finally, Sam suggests that the police ... A should encourage more similar schemes. B can do a better job if the community helps. aren't doing a good enough job.

e

Commenting Use the prompts to act out exchanges.

In my community there's litter in the streets and parks. b)

What could the council do about these problems? Use ideas from the list and/or your own ideas and tell the class. • • • • • • • •

install more litter bins build parks on waste ground start Neighbourhood Watch schemes collect rubbish more often put speed bumps on roads organise clean-up days make repairs improve public transport

If a community has high crime rates, the council should start Neighbourhood Watch schemes.

108

tripped - hole in the pavement - sprained ankle 2 got stuck - traffic jam on the high street - an hour 3 car - was broken into - stole my CD player 4 someone - sprayed graffiti - wall of our house .-..

---~-"'

Commenting

...---.-'"

-..-~.. -.- ..---~~- .... -

• Oh no! That's terrible! : • You're joking! How awful I . • What a nightmare! . • That's been happening a lot recently. Something should be done!

A: What happened? B: I tripped because of a hole in the pavement and sprained my ankle this morning. A: Oh no! That's terrible!

-A letter to the editor making

suggestions

tor is a formal piece of writing about a matter of public interest often written in response to a report in a newspaper. • We start the letter with Dear Sir/Madam and end with Yours Faithfully followed by our full name. • The first paragraph contains our reason for writing as well as our opinion. • The second and third paragraphs contain our suggestions and the possible results/conseq uences. • The fourth paragraph includes a summary of our opinion or a restatement of it in different words. We use appropriate linkers to join ideas: To state our opinion: In my opinion, ... ; I (strongly) believe that/agree/disagree with ... ; I am (totally) opposed to/in favour of ... ; I think this is a marvellous/terrible idea ... To list points: To start with, First of all/Firstly, What is more, In addition, Furthermore To express consequences/results: In this way, As a result, Consequently To conclude: In summary, To sum up, In conclusion, All in all

1

Read the extract. What is it about?

After years of complaints from residents, the local council has finally decided to renovate the abandoned factory on Willis Lane and the large area around it. The factory needs extensive repair, but the council now hopes to turn it into something that can be enjoyed by local residents.

2

Now read Thomas' letter. What is its purpose? Which paragraph(s) contain(s): Thomas' suggestions & results? his opinion? his reason for writing?

3

Read again and replace the linking words in bold with alternatives from the Writing Tip.

Dear Sir/Madam, I am writing in response to the article in the Malton Daily on the 11th February about the council's decision to renovate the factory on Willis Lane and the area around it. In my opinion, this is a marvellous idea and I have some suggestions about what the council could do with the site. Firstly, although it needs a lot of work, the factory would be great as a youth centre. A youth centre would provide young people with a place to get together and take part in different activities. As a result, they would be off the streets in a safe place doing something enjoyable. Furthermore, the waste ground around the factory could be turned into attractive parkland. It could have trees, benches and sports facilities such as a football pitch and a basketball court. Consequently, members of the community of all ages would have somewhere pleasant to relax, play sport and come together. This would brighten up the area and contribute to a sense of community spirit. All in all, I strongly agree with the decision to renovate the factory and believe that the council should turn it into a youth centre and parkland. I hope my suggestions will be taken into consideration. Yours faithfully, Thomas Alden

4

a)

0

Read the rubric, then listen to a man talking on a radio programme about the issue. Make notes on his suggestions.

~ You reada report in Wednesday"fs "Haiford Hera('d ~

L

about a recent increase in vandalism and graffiti on the high street. Write a letter to the editor making suggestions about what the police & local council can do to improve the situation ______________________ ~ (150-200 words). b)

Use your notes and the plan to write letter. reason for writing/opinion (I'm writing in response to ..., In my opinion ... ) suggestion 1 & results/consequences (Firstly... , As a result...) suggestion 2 & results/consequences (Furthermore ..., Consequently... ) summary/restatement of opinion (All in all ... , I think..., I hope my suggestions will be thought of... )

(~) Writing Bank·6· p. 15~

109

Amnesty International is an international organisation which fights for human rights across the world and it's working hard to wipe out shocking statistics like these. In 1961, British lawyer Peter Benensen heard the story of two students who had been' imprisoned for seven years by a dictator for drinking a toast to freedom. Benensen wrote a newspaper artide calling for a campaign to protest against people imprisoned aiL over the world because of their beliefs. The newspaper soon.~tarted a year-long. campaign. In July 1961,Benenson founded Ainnesty International. Later that year; on 10th. December, Human RightsDay,the very first Arnnesty candle, which symbolises hope, was lit in London. ,Over thefol\owing decades, the organisation grew and grew and by 1970, it hadhe'lped'gainthe release of 2,000prisoners of conscie'nce. In .1978,'Amnesty won the Nobel Peace Prize for 'outstanding contributionsinthe field of human rights' . Amnesty International nciwhas more tlian 3 million members and supporters in. about 150 .countries. They' carry out their campaigns In a variety of 'ways; they organise concerts to raise support,. they talk with victims, publish reports, and informthe media about human rights abuses. From the beginning, though,it'stheir letter-writiOgcampaignsthat have •been one. of the most .important. parts of their work. They encourage their . members t() send short, polite letters to . governrnentswhensomeone's rightsare being abused. Apart from continuing to fight. for the freedom of· prisoners of conscIence, some of Amnesty's other projects include fighting against the use ..of child soldiers in warctorn Gountries and improvingHvingcondiHbnsfor people living.inextreme poverty. Amnestyneverstops trying to make the world a fairer place.

1

What is Amnesty International? What is the ai~ of this organisation? What do you think the logo symbolises? Listen, read and check.

o

2

Read again and complete the sentences.

. ~.an~le, c~rse, race, have the right, unfair, trial, human : lIghLs, .wlpe out, (be) imprisoned, dictator, drink a toast ~ campaign, release, outstanding contribution, raise ' ~ support, human rights abuse, soldier, war-torn, poverty ••••• ,

., •••

3

Match the words in bold with their meanings: a leader of a country with complete

power, got started, excellent, destroy, denied.

110



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4

Make notes on the text under the headings. Then use your notes to give your partner a short summary of the text.

5

II(T Find out some more facts about Amnesty International. Present them to the class.

6

In three minutes write a few reasons why someone should join Amnesty International. Tell your partner. Draw a picture to prepare a poster for Amnesty International.

The main aim of Amnesty International is to fight for people's ............................................ . 2 It was all started by ..................... in 3 By 1970, .................................. were··~·~··i;~~~r in prison because of Amnesty's work. 4 The main way that Amnesty campaigns is through .......................................................... . 5 Amnesty International also fights .................. ..

,

1

ID

I · Phrasal verbs/Prepositions

1

Choose the correct particle.

run away: escape run out (of): use all of sth run into: meet by accident set off: start a journey, firework, etc. set up: arrange sth; start a business, organisation, etc. wear off: no longer have an effect, gradually disappear wear out: become thin or weak & unable to be used any more work on: study, research or develop sth work out: 1) take some exercise, 2) solve sth

2 3 4

S

6

2

We've just set off/up a Neighbourhood Watch scheme in our neighbourhood. Expert hackers can work out/on a password very easily. I ran int%ut John on the high street today. I need a new pair of jeans - myoid ones have nearly worn off/out. Ann works on/out for an hour every day at the gym. The boy threw a stone at the window and then ran away/into.

Word formation

3

(word Formation - Prefixes

")

i Prefixes are added at the beginning of words to make new

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Iwords. We use: re- (=: again) (write - rewrite), super- (big/more)

- supermarket), multi- (=: many) (vitamins ! mu/tivitamins), over- (=: too much) (eat - overeat), under(= not enough) (value - undenmlue) "d P"- (= beforej \fbook - prebook) to make new words using prefixes. I

I

2 3 4 S 6

The ................................... (national) company had its website hacked into. Foxton council wants to ..................... (design) the city centre to make it a car free area. The river ............................ (flow) and flooded the nearby village. We shouldn't .................................. (estimate) non-violent protest - it can achieve a lot. Ken wanted to ................................... (pay) his electricity bill before going on holiday. Batman is a .......................... (hero) who fights crime by night.

Collocations

Choose the correct preposition.

1 Crime in the city is increasing at/to an alarming rate. 2 The hacker got the password for/in record time. 3 I've replaced myoid password with/for a more difficult one. 4 Martin Luther King's protests resulted to/in a ban on black and white segregation. S The robbers will appear to/in court tomorrow.

Fill in the sentences with the correct word derived from the word in brackets.

4

Fill in: robbery, power, computer, traffic,

community, theft, hard, online, raise, open. 1 identity .................. 7 2 armed ..................... 3 .................. stations 8 4 ................. accounts S .................... system 9 6 .................... service 10

to . .......................... support to ........................... an attachment '., ...................... jam . ...................... drive

Mark the sentences T (true) or F (false). Read through Module 6 and write a quiz of your own. Banksy is a guerrilla gardener. 4 Martin Luther King Day is in January. 2 Forensic scientists usually solve S Crackers break into computer systems. crimes very fast. 6 Human Rights Day is on 1st December. 3 African Americans didn't use to be 7 A donkey in Egypt was sentenced allowed to sit at the front of to one day in prison. buses. 8 Graffiti knitting was started in Germany.

:

Przeczytaj : j tekst. : Z podanych moi:\iwosci ! odpowiedzi (1-6) wybier : wfasciw'!. zgodn,! : z tresci,! tekstu. Zakresl l \iter~ A. B. Club D.

'reCovering MP3s. Thanks to legal downloading, UK music sales rose from £101.5 million in 2008 to around £154 million in 2010. However, the industry still has a big problem. More than three quarters of music downloaded in Britain today is obtained illegally - £218 million worth, in fact. So, now, faced with a whole generation of young people who have only ever down loaded music, how can the authorities persuade people that music should be paid for? The record Companies argue that for good music to survive, the writers and performers need to profit from their work. However, it seems the public and the record companies disagree as to how much income the artists and record companies deserve. The band Radiohead released their album In Rainbows online in 2008 and invited fans to pay whatever they thought it was worth rather than a set price. The average price paid was just £2.80, with three in five people paying nothing at all. The American singer Tori Amos likens downloading music without paying for it to shoplifting. She said in 2009: "Listening to a song is like a wine-tasting. I can taste the wine, I can decide if I like it or not ... but you don't then take a bottle and put it in your bag. If you don't support the wine producers you like, or the artists you like, then they're not going to be able to continue." Politicians seem to share Amos's opinion that illegal downloading is theft. In 2009, the French parliament created an agency to monitor illegal file sharing. It also passed a law under which anyone who is caught sharing Copyrighted material such as music receives a warning letter. If you are caught three times, you are cut off from the Internet. The Australian, New Zealand and British governments have announced plans for similar legislation, but there have been protests about the proposals in all those countries. Two British Internet service providers have argued in court that they are not responsible for the traffic on their services and -~-'-it's unfair to expect them to take action against people who download ~.;;.,...,,;;,~~~~7illegally. In Ireland, meanwhile, a judge has ruled that people who ~:;~~'07r:f:;;~ down load music illegally cannot be cut off from the Internet. ;.. I seems certain - there will be plenty more debate until harmony is restored between record Companies, governments, performers and music fans.

According to the article, the UK music industry's main problem is that A young people have never paid for music. B most music is now down loaded illegally. C people have stopped buying CDs. D it doesn't make enough money. 2 Radiohead's experiment suggested most music fans want music on the Internet to be A free. C legal. B cheap. D profitable.

112

3 Tori Amos thinks people should be able to A tell musicians what they think of their music. B have music sharing parties. C decide how much music to down load free of charge. D sample only a small amount of music without paying for it.

4 The French created a law with the aim of A counting the number of people down loading music illegally. B following a suggestion by Tori Amos. C making people want to down load music legally. D destroying illegal files online. 5 In Britain, Internet service providers have said they A support the government's efforts to stop illegal downloads. B cannot stop illegal downloads. C don't want to stop illegal down loads. D don't agree with the government's solution. 6 The writer thinks resolving the issue is A important. C difficult. B simple. D impossible.

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2

A An Encounter with a Pickpocket B Mugged for £60 I Speaker 1 1 C A Vandal k 2 I ' Nonetheless I pea_e_r_---l D A Break-In at Speaker 3 I Night I! Speaker 4 , E Speeding Isn't Speaker S Worth it F Shoplifting is a Crime

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"Why don't you report the burglary?" he said. SUGGESTED He ........................................... the burglary. The door was opened with a knife. USED A knife .......................................... the door. "I didn't exceed the speed limit," he said. DENIED He ....................................... the speed limit. A pickpocket stole my wallet. HAD I .............................................. a pickpocket. "John took my jacket," he said. TAKING He ................................................ his jacket. [email protected]'w([;r['tt¥6rgl.\\'[email protected] ~~~=~~=~~~-=~~~=~-=~=~~~=~

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We've all seen heroes from 1) (ACT) ......................... films fight off gangs of bad guys, and many of us have seen similar acts of 2) (BRAVE) ......................... in the real world. But the story of 70-year-old Ann Timson is one of a kind! One afternoon Mrs Timson was in Northampton town centre with a friend. Suddenly, she saw six men trying to break into a jewellery shop, Mrs Timson, wearing a long red coat (although a long red superman cape might have been more 3) (SUIT) .................... , ran towards the criminals and started hitting them with her handbag. The men tried to escape on their scooters but Mrs Timmons managed to hit one of them so hard that he fell to the ground. Other bystanders 4) (EVENT) .......................... ran to help. Due to Mrs Timson's 5) (HERO) ........................ .. courage, the men were arrested and nothing was stolen. lLa' • . a' " 'Iy'¥'Yrpt[J)~./lJre(t:1Z jpiJSremffffl!JJ

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Opisz drugie g i odpowiedz na pytania.

Read the rubric. Listen to two people discussing the topic and make notes of their suggestions and possible results. Use your notes to write your essay.

o

T--------------------------. Wzi~tes/Wzi~aS udziaf w dyskusji klasowej

1 How do you think they feel? 2 Do you participate in recycling projects? 3 How could you help make your area a nicer place to live in?

na temat sposobow poprawy bezpieczenstwa na osiedlach w Twoim miescie. Napisz rozprawk~ (200-250 stow), w ktorej przedstawisz swoje sugestie.

1 13

1

Fill in: dangerous, evidence, brighten up, rights, arrested, speeding, lawyer, fake, protest, private detective.

1 The robber refused to answer the policeman's questions until his ............................... arrived. 2 Amnesty International fights for people's human ......................... . 3 . Jane got a fine for ............... on the motorway. 4 The policeman ....................... the graffiti artist and took him to the police station. 5 The council have been planting a lot of flowers to try to ......................... the town. 6 John has hired a(n) ......................... to find out where his brother is. 7 He was sentenced to two years in prison for ......................... driving. 8 Forensic scientists analyse... ................... found at a crime scene such as blood, hair and saliva. 9 There's going to be a ........................... against unemployment on Station Street at 3 pm. 10 The shop assistant told Tim that he couldn't accept the £20 note as it was ......................... .

4 Match the exchanges. IJIJ Thank you for your time. [I[J [ill [![J 12[] A B C D E

Is there anything else you can tell us? What happened next? My car has just been broken into! Can you tell me what you saw?

The thieves drove away. You're joking? How awful! I don't think so. Two men were mugging another man. You're welcome. 5x4=20 marks

5

Rewrite the sentences using the causative. John's car was stolen last night.

2 Jane will put a new lock on the door tomorrow. 3 A thief is picking that man's pocket! 4 Burglars broke into our house.

70x2=20 marks

2

Complete the sentences with the correct passive form of the verb in brackets.

1 Martin Luther King .......................................... . (assassinate) on 4th April, 1968. 2 An electron microscope ........................... (use) to examine things the eye can't see. 3 In the future, crime ............................... (fight) in different ways. 4 Your laptop ................................ (can/protect) with antivirus software. 5 Unfortunately, the bank robbers ..................... . (not catch) yet.

3

114

5 Someone has vandalised the mayor's statue. 5x4=20 marks

6

You recently read a newspaper article about not having enough green spaces in your town. Write a letter to the editor giving suggestions about what could be done to improve the situation (150-200 words). 20 marks Total: 700 marks

5x2= 70 marks

Rewrite the direct speech as reported speech.

1 "The mugger was sentenced to six months in prison," said Alex. 2 "Step out of your car," the policeman ordered the driver. 3 "Is there a Wi-Fi hotspot nearby?" Beth asked me. 4 "Everyone has the right to freedom of speech," said the protester. 5 "Did anyone disturb the evidence?" asked the 5x2= 70 marks forensic scientist.

• • • • • • •

talk and write about street art talk and write about jobs related to crime give a witness statement talk and write about cybercrime report what people said talk about neighbourhood problems write a letter to the editor

GOOD I

VERY GOOD 11 EXCELLENT I11

MODULE 1 Adverbs Form • We usually form adverbs by adding -Iy to the adjective.

beautiful- beautifully • •

When the adjective ends with a consonant +y, we drop the -y and add -ily to form the adverb. lucky -luckily When the adjective ends in -le we drop the -e and add -y.

simple - simply •

Some adverbs have the same form as their adjectives.

long -7 long, fast -7 fast, hard -7 hard, early -7 early, late -7 late Note: good -7 well

other verbs: belong, contain, cost, fit, have, keep, need, owe, own, etc. This bag costs 75 pounds.



Some of these verbs can be used in continuous tenses, but with a difference in meaning.

S:~Jj;1;;~1~~~t~r

iIthink it's good. I(= I believe)

i"He has a motorbike.

I(= own, possess)

Iam thinking of buying a car. (= am considering) Iam having lunch. (= eating)"-

IHe is having a bath. (= taking)

I~an see the park from my I' He's seeing his friends tomorrow.

Iroom. (= it is visible)

(= meeting)

II see what the problem is.

,

i(= understand)

i IKen is tasting the soup to see if it

'.~.~.~-------+.--:---......,...-----:--l

Use Adverbs usually describe verbs. He walks slowly. Adverbs can show manner (how), place (where), time (when) and frequency (how often). Adverbs usually go after verbs. He speaks loudly, (How does he speak? Loudly, - manner) He went upstairs, (Where did he go? Upstairs, - place) She left early, (When did she leave? Early. - time) He visits us every week, (How often does he visit us? Every week, - frequency)

Present simple - Present continuous Use We use the present simple for: • permanent states, John lives in Russia, • daily routines, He works from 10 to 6 every day. • repeated actions, He usually plays golf at the weekends, We use the present continuous for: • actions happening now, at the time of speaking. •

, This pie tastes very good.

l

(= it is/has the flavour of)

i The roses smell great.

I(= have the aroma)

Ihas enough salt. (= is trying)

IThe dog is smelling the bushes. (= is sniffing)

'-~-------

rHe appears to be upset. I

(= seems to)

IThe jacket fits him well. I(= i~ the right size)

-----,-----1 [Rihanna is appearing in Madrid 1 this week. (= is performing)

IThey are "fitting new windows in

Itheir house.

(= are installing)

Note: The verb enjoy can be used in continuous tenses to express a specific preference. Ireally enjoy dancing. (general preference) BUT I'm enjoying a quiet afternoon at home. (specific preference) The verbs feel (when we experience a particular emotion), hurt and ache can be used in simple or continuous tenses with no difference in meaning. I feel hungry. =I am feeling hungry.

Tony is watching TV right now.

Comparisons

actions happening not necessarily now, but around the time of speaking, Laura is looking fora newjob these days.



We use the comparative to compare one person or thing with another. We use the superlative to compare one person or thing with the others of the same group. We often use than after a comparative.



We normally use the before a superlative. We can use in or of after superlatives. We often use in with places. Anne is the oldest of the three children.

The following verbs do not usually have a present continuous form.

have (=possess), like, love, want, know, live, remember, understand, believe, need, see, smell, ete. Ineed a pen. (NOT: I'm needing a pen.) I have a car. (NOT: I'm hr1"ing a car.) BUT I'm having breakfast now. (= I'm eating)

Stative verbs Stative verbs are verbs which describe a state rather than an action and do not usually have a continuous form. These are: • verbs of the senses (appear, feel, hear, look, see, smell, sound, taste, etc). She sounds worried. • verbs of perception (believe, forget, know, understand, etc). Idon't believe what you're telling me. • verbs which express feelings and emotions (desire, enjoy, hate, like, love, prefer, want, etc). Ihate dancing.

Chris is taller than John.

Pedro is the best student in the class. Formation of comparatives and superlatives of adjectives and adverbs • With one-syllable adjectives, we add -(e)r to form the comparative and -(e)st to form the superlative.

cold - colder - the coldest Note: For one-syllable adjectives ending in vowel + consonant, we double the consonant.

thin - thinner - the thinnest •

With two-syllable adjectives, we form the comparative with more + adjective and the superlative with most + adjective.

115

Note: For two-syllable adjectives ending in consonant + -y, we replace -y with -i and add -er/-est. busy - busier - the busiest •



With adverbs that have the same form as their adjectives

(hard, fast, free, late, high, low, deep, long, near, straight), we add -er/-est. hard - harder - the hardest Note: Adverbs formed by adding -Iy to the adjective take more in the comparative and the most in the superlative form. quickly more quickly - the most quickly

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I better

!much/many/a lot 00more I far bad/badly j/ittle

" I best



after the preposition to with verbs and expressions such as: look forward to, be used to, in addition to, object to, prefer (doing 5th to doing sth else).



after other prepositions. John is good at fixing computers.

Don't waste time trying to fix this.

He isn't used to getting up early.

Infinitive The to-infinitive is used: • to express purpose. He's saving money to buy a car. • after certain verbs that refer to the future (agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, plan, promise, refuse, etc).

Ipromise to return the money soon. •

after would like, would prefer, would love, etc to express a specific preference. I would love to go to the theatre



after adjectives which describe feelings/emotions (happy, glad, sad, etc), express willingness/unwillingness (eager, reluctant, willing, etc) or refer to a person's character (clever, kind, etc); and the adjectives lucky and fortunate. He's always eager to help out. after too/enough. It is too cold to go swimming. in the expressions to tell you the truth, to be honest, to sum up, to begin with, etc. To tell you the truth, I didn't

tonight.

~

-~-~1 most 1farther/further I farthest/furthest i worse I worst _-1/ess I least

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11

Note: We can use elder/eldest for people in the same family. His elder/eldest brother is an actor. Study the examples: • very + adjective/adverb: Diego is a very nice person. • much + comparative form of adjective/adverb: Your hair looks much better now that you've cut it. • (not) as + adjective/adverb + as: David is as old as Carl. Tom isn't as polite as his sister. • comparative + comparative: The weather is getting colder and colder. • a bit/a little/far/slightly + comparative form of adjective/adverb: I feel a bit better today. • by far + superlative form of adjective/adverb: This is by far the best meal you've ever cooked.

-ing form The -ing form is used: • as a noun. Drinking milk is very good for your bones. • after certain verbs: admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, continue, deny, fancy, go (for activities), imagine, mind, miss, quit, save, suggest, practise, prevent. I suggest eating out tonight. • after love, like, enjoy, prefer, dislike, hate to express general preference. I love watching old films. BUT for a specific preference (would like/would prefer/would love) we use to-infinitive. • after expressions such as: be busy, it's no use, it's no good, it's (not) worth, what's the use of, can't help, there's no point (in), can't stand, have difficulty (in), have trouble, etc. Jane is busy cooking dinner.

116

after spend, waste or lose (time, money, etc).

With adjectives having more than two syllables, comparatives and superlatives are formed with more/the

most. exciting - more exciting - the most exciting Note: clever, common, cruel, friendly, gentle, narrow, pleasant, polite, quiet, shallow, simple, stupid form their comparatives and superlatives either with -er/-est or with more/the most. quiet - quieter/more quiet - the quietest/the most quiet

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really think they'd win.

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present infinitive

present continuous/future continuous

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continuous infinitive past simple/present perfect/past perfect

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The infinitive without to (bare infinitive) is used: • after modal verbs. He should see a doctor. • after the verbs let, make, see, hear and feel. They made him pay extra. BUT we use the to-infinitive after be made, be heard, be seen, etc (passive form).

He was made to pay extra. after had better and would rather. You had better book early. • help can be followed by the to-infinitive or the infinitive without to. Ihelped her (to) move the sofa. •



an action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. We use the past continuous for the action in progress (longer action) and the past simple for the action that interrupted it (shorter action). She was

leaving the house when the telephone rang. an action in progress at a stated time in the past.

o

• forget + to-infinitive = He forgot to take his wallet with him. • forget + -ing form = not recall

Jane was watching television at 8 o'clock last night. • background information in a story. It was snowing heavily when Tom left home yesterday morning.

• remem.ber + to-infinitive = not forget Did you remember to wish Sue a happy birthday? • remember + -ing form = recall Iremember going bungee jumping for the first time.

1.T:i.me expressions used. with the past continuous: while, !wh~ri,as;allday/night/mornirig, yes{erday,etc. ...... '.

• mean + to-infinitive = intend to Ididn't mean to hurt her feelings. • mean + -ing form = involve If we go there by car, it will mean

Past simple

• regret + to-infinitive = be sorry to •

the present simple with verbs such as say, tell, inform) Iregret to inform you that your flight is delayed. regret + -ing form = feel sorry about

Iregret spending so much money. • try + to-infinitive = attempt, do one's best I Itried to open the drawer but it was stuck. I • try + -ing form = do something as an experiment 1 He should try cutting down on fatty foods.

I walked/went You walked/went. He walked/went. She walked/went. It walked/went. We walked/went. You walked/went. They walked/went.

Did Did Did Did Did Did Did Did

I you walk/go? he walk/go? she walk/go? it walk/go? we walk/go? you walk/go? they walk/go?

I did not walk/go. You did not walk/go. He did not walk/go. She did not walk/go. It did not walk/go. We did not walk/go. You did not walk/go. They did not walk/go.

I didn't walk/go. You didn't walk/go. He didn't walk/go. She didn't walk/go. It didn't walk/go. We didn't walk/go. You didn't walk/go. They didn't walk/go.

.1

----

• stop + to-infinitive = stop temporarily in order to do i

I

something else

I

On our way to the beach, we stopped to take some photos. stop + -ing form = finish doing something I He stopped talking when the teacher walked in. j I

MODULE 2 Past continuous Form We form the past continuous with was/were (past simple of the verb 'to be') and the base form of the main verb + -ing. I was standing, you were standing, he was standing, etc.

wasn't standing, you standing, he wasn't standing, etc. Was I standing?, Were you standing?, Was he standing?, etc. Yes, I/he/she/it was. Yes, you/we/they were. No, I/he/she/it wasn't. No, you/we/they weren't. We use the past continuous for: • two or more actions happening at the same time in the past. Iwas reading a book while John was watching television.

Did I/you/he etc walk/go?

Yes, I/you/he etc did. No, I/you/he etc didn't.

Form Affirmative • We form the affirmative of most regular verbs by adding -ed to the base form of the verb. Iplay -I played • Other verbs have irregular affirmative forms. (see list of irregular verbs) Icome -I came •

Interrogative We form questions with did + subject personal pronoun + base form of the verb. Did you play golf yesterday? Did you go to the cinema

yesterday? •

Negative We form negations with didn't + base form of the verb.

Ididn't watch a film on TVyesterday. She didn't sleep well last night.

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• We form affirmative short answers with did and negative short answers with didn't. "Did you call him?" "Yes, Idid." "Did you go shopping?" "No, Ididn't." Spelling: affirmative of regular verbs • We add -d to verbs ending in -e. I move -I moved • Verbs ending in consonant + y drop the -y and add -ied. I try -I tried • Verbs ending in one stressed vowel between two consonants double the last consonant and take -ed. Idrop -I dropped Use We use the past simple for: • actions which started and ended in the past. Imet Kobe Bryant and he gave me his jersey. • actions which happened at a specific time in the past. The time is either mentioned or implied. He moved to the US from England in 2003. Beethoven composed a number of symphonies and concerts. Note: When/While/As + past continuous (longer action) When + past simple (shorter action)

Past continuous vs Past simple Past Continuous We use the past continuous: • for an action which was in progress at a stated time in the past. We do not mention when the action started or finished. At eleven o'clock last night we were watching a film. (We don't know when the film started or finished.) • for an action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. We use the past continuous for the action in progress (longer action) and the past simple for the action which interrupted it (shorter action). She was cooking dinner when the phone rang. o for two or more simultaneous past actions. She was talking on the phone while he was having a shower. • to describe the atmosphere, the setting, etc in the introduction to a story, before we describe the main events. Alex was driving to work. It was raining heavily. Past Simple We use the past simple • for an action which happened at a definite time in the past. The time is stated, already known or implied. They travelled to India last summer. (When? Last summer. The time is stated.) They had a greattime. (The time is already known.) • for actions which happened immediately one after the other in the past. First, he had a shower. Then he had breakfast. • for past habits or states which are now finished. In such cases we can also use the expression used to. Paul walked/used to walk to school every day last year.

118

Used to • We use used to or the past simple to talk about past habits or things that do not happen/exist anymore. It has the same form in all persons (used) and it is followed by the infinitive. I used to play/played the guitar in a band. (! don't play the guitar in a band anymore.) • We form questions and the negative with the auxiliary verb did/did not (didn't), the subject and the verb use without -d. Did you use to go to the cinema very often? Robert didn't use to eat junk food. • We use the past simple for an action which happened at a specific time in the past. He went to Paris last month. (NOT: He iJ-~ to Paris last month.)

Used to/Past

simple

• We use used to + infinitive to refer to past habits or states. In such cases, used to can be replaced by the past simple with no difference in meaning. She used to go/went to work by bus. (She doesn't anymore.) • We use the past simple, and not used to, for actions which happened at a definite time in the past. He went to a rock concert last week. (NOT: He lli{?d-~ to a rock concert last week.)

Past perfect Form: subject + had + past participle

We use the past perfect: for an action which finished before another past action or before a stated time in the past. All the guests had left when she arrived at the party. (past perfect: had left before another past action: arrived) Tom had finished his work by noon. (before stated time in the past: by noon) for an action which finished in the past and whose result was visible at a later point in the past. She had passed her test and she was really happy.

!Tirne~xpressionsuse9 with"thepasfperfeh:befdre,! i after, already, just, for" since;tillluntil,when,bythetime,i " "1

! never etc. :.

"0





O.J

Past perfect continuous Form: subject + had + been + main verb -ing

~j{o~/He/She/ltlWelThey had been

running.

Form • We form the simple future with will and the base form of the verb. He will travel abroad. We form questions by putting will before the subject. •

Yes, I/you/he/she/it/we/they had. No, I/you/he/she/itlwe/they hadn't. We use the past perfect continuous: • to put emphasis on the duration of an action which started and finished in the past before another action or stated time in the past, usually with for or

Use We use will: • to make predictions based on what we believe or think. We usually use will with I think, / hope, I believe, I expect, probably and perhaps. Iexpect he'll be here at 10 o'clock tomorrow morning. • to make on-the-spot decisions.

This dress is beautiful. I'll buy it. •

since. •

I had been watching TV for an hour when I remembered I had forgotten to call my friend. for an action which lasted for some time in the past and whose result was visible In the past. Sharon was

very tired because she had been painting her room all day.

ITi'me~*pf:es~ioi1Su.sedidt:hthepastp~rfect.continuouE IJor,:s'in~e{~ow Icing,bef~[e;untitEOt~>,~' '. .....



I'll play. You'll play. He'll play. She'll play. It'll play. We'll play. You'll play. They'll play.

I will not play. You will not play. He will not play. She will not play. It will not play. We will not play. You will not play. They will not play.

Will Will Will Will Will Will Will Will

I play? you play? he play? she play? it play? we play? you play? they play?

I won't play. You won't play. He won't play. She won't play. It won't play. We won't play. You won't play. They won't play.

for promises (usually with the verbs promise/swear etc) I promise I won't be late., threats Don't do this again or I'll leave., warnings Get down from the tree or you'll (all!, hopes / hope /'11 see you soon., offers 1'1/ carry the bags for you. to give information about the future.

When we go to Athens, we'll visit the Acropolis.

Be going to Form: subject + verb to be (am/is/are) + going to + bare infinitive of the main verb ~--------------~-----,

MODULE 3

I will play. You will play. He will play. She will play. It will play. We will play. You will play. They will play.

Will he travel abroad? Will they visit the museum? We form negations by putting not after will. They will not/won't visit the museum.

IHe/She/It am is WelYoulThey are

}." going to leave.

I am not He/She/It is not WelYoulThey are not

},I going to

Ami Is he/she/it Are we/you/they

}' going to leave?

leave.

Yes, I am.lNo, I'm not. Yes, he/she/it is.lNo, he/she/it isn't. Yes, we/you/they are. No, we/you/they aren't. Use We use be going to: • to talk about our future plans and intentions. Kim ;s going to start her new job soon. (She's planning to ... ) • to make predictions based on what we see or know. Look out! You're going to drive into that tree. • to talk about things we are sure about or we have already decided to do in the near future. Oylan is going to travel to China. (He has already decided to do this.)

Present simple/Present continuous (future meaning) •

We can use the present simple to talk about timetables or programmes. The last bus/eaves at 9:00 pm. • We use the present continuous for fixed arrangements in the future. We're having dinner at an Italian restaurant

tonight. Ibooked a table yesterday.

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Clauses of time Clauses of time are introduced by: after, as, as long as, as soon as, before, by the time, (= before, not later than), every time, immediately, just as, once, the moment (that), until/till, (= up to the time when), when, while, etc. They waited for three hours before their plane took off • When the verb of the main clause is in a present or future form, the verb of the time clause is in the present form too. We don't use will/would in a clause of time. I'll help you as soon as I finish my work. (NOT: as soon as'! will finish) • . When the time clause precedes the main clause, a comma is used. When the time clauses follows, no comma is used. When you get home, call Mr Smith. BUT Call Mr Smith when you get home. •

Conditionals: types 10/112/3 Conditional clauses consist of two parts: the if-clause (hypothesis) and the main clause (result). When the ifclause comes before the main clause, the two clauses are separated with a comma. When the main clause comes before the if-clause, then no comma is necessary. If you don't leave now, you'll miss the bus. You'll miss the bus if you don't leave now. Conditional type 0 Form

Use We use the conditional type 0 to say something which is always true (law of nature) or to talk about something that always happens as a result of something else. We can use when instead of if. If/When you heat water to 100°(, it boils. (law of nature) { get seasick when I travel by boat. (always happens) Conditional type 1 Form

Conditional type 2 Form

If + past simple + If { had more money, I would travel the world. (But I don't havej more money. - untrue in the present) i IIf I were you, I would ask for help. (advice) I Use • We use the conditional type 2 to talk about an imaginary situation, unreal in the present or future. It is aIso used to give advice. • We can use were instead of was for all persons in the ifclause of Type 2 conditionals. If Tony was/were here, he would help us. Conditional type 3 Form

Use We use the conditional type 3 to talk about an imaginary situation in the past. It is also used to express regret or criticism.

Wishes We can use wish/if only to express a wish.

+ past

I wish I had called him earlier. (But I didn't.) If only they hadn't broken up. (But they did.)

to express regret about something which happened or didn't happen in the past

i like something to be different about a present situation

If only is used in exactly the same way as wish but it is more emphatic or more dramatic. We can use were instead of was after wish and if only. I wish I were/was on holiday now.

MODULE 4 Modals Can/could, may/might, must/have to, ought to, shall/should, will/would: • don't take os, -ing or -ed suffixes. • are followed by the bare infinitive (infinitive without to).

120

Ito say that we would

I perfect

Use • We use the conditional type 1 to talk about a real or very probable situation in the present or future. • We can use unless instead of if ... not in the if-clause. The verb is always in the affirmative after unless. If you don't do your homework, you'll be in trouble. Unless you do your homework, you'll be in trouble.

I wish I was/were at home now. (But I'm not.) I wish I my tooth didn't hurt. (But my tooth hurts.)

• •

come before the subject in questions and are followed by

Note how the forms of the infinitive are formed:

not in negations.

IPresent: (to) do

don't have tenses in the normal sense. When followed by a present bare infinitive, they refer to an incomplete action or state (i.e. present or future). We should send them a gift for their wedding. When followed by a perfect bare infinitive, they refer to a complete action or state. We should have sent them a gift when they got married.

jAbilityllnability (can, could, was able to)

• Can('t) expresses (in)ability in the present/future. She can sing very well. (She is able to ... )

iObligation/DutylNecessity (must, have to, should/ought to)l

• Must expresses duty/strong obligation to do sth and shows that sth is essential. We generally use must when



• o

the speaker has decided that sth is necessary (i.e subjective). If your licence expires, you must renew it. My room is a mess. I must tidy it. (It is your duty.!You are obliged to do sth.) Have to expresses strong necessity/obligation. We usually use have to when somebody other than the speaker has decided that sth is necessary (i.e. objective). Our teacher says we have to finish the report by Friday. (It's necessary.) Had to is the past form of both must and have to. Should/Ought to express duty, weak obligation. You should send him a thank-you letter for all his help. (It's your duty. -less emphatic than must)

iAbsence of necessity (don't have to/don't need to, needn't) I

• Don't have to/Don't need to/Needn't: It isn't necessary to do sth in the present/future. She doesn't have to book the tickets in advance. You don't need to bring anything to the party. I needn't take the dog for a walk again later. (It isn't necessary.)

• Didn't need to/Didn't have to: It wasn't necessary to do sth. We don't know if it was done or not. They didn't have to take them out to dinner. (We don't know if they took them out. It wasn't necessary.)

Ipermission/Prohibition (can, may, mustn't, can't)

• Can/May are used to ask for/give permission. May is more formal than can. Can/May I sit here? Yes, you can/may. (Is it

• Could expresses general repeated ability in the past. He could walk for hours when he was younger. (He was able to ... ) • Was(n't) able to expresses (in)ability on a specific occasion in the past. He was(n't) able to attend yesterday's meeting. (He (didn't) manage to ... )

• Couldn't may be used to express any kind of inability in the past, repeated or specific. Sue couldn't ride a bike when she was three. (past repeated action) She couldn't/wasn't able to ride her bike yesterday because it was being repaired. (past single action)

IOffers/suggestions (can, would, shall, could)

• Can: Can I get you more coffee? (Would you like me to .. .7) • Would: Would you like some coffee? (Do you want ... 7) • Shall: Shall I help you carry these? (Would you like me to .. .7/ Do you want me to .. .7)

• Can/Could: We can go to the Thai restaurant. You could ask him for help. (Let's ... )

IProbability (will, should/ought to)

• Will: She will agree to marry him. (100% certain) • Should/Ought to: He should/ought to be here by noon. (90% certain; future only; it's probable)

IAdvice (should, ought to, shall)

• Should: general advice She should stop worrying so much. (It's my advice.!1 advise you to ... )

• Ought to: general advice We ought to respect the others. (It's a good thing/idea to do.)

• Shall: asking for advice Shallllook for another job? (Do you

OK if ... 7)

• Mustn't/Can't: It is forbidden to do sth; it is against the rules/law; you are not allowed to do sth. You mustn't/ can't eat in the classroom. (You aren't allowed.) iPossibility (can, could)

• Can + present infinitive: General/theoretical possibility. Not usually used for a specific situation. Mary can be quite unfair at times. (general possibility - it is theoretically possible.) • Could/May/Might + present infinitive: Possibility in a specific situation. It might rain later, so bring an umbrella. (It is possible'/It is likely.!Perhaps.) Note: We can use can/Could/might in questions BUT not may. Could he still be at work? (NOT: r+w.y-)

• Could/Might/Would + perfect infinitive refer to sth in the past that was possible but didn't happen. She would have come to the meeting but no one had told her.

I

I Present continuous: (to) be doing Perfect: (to) have done Perfect continuous: (to) have been doing

think it's a good idea to .. .7)

Past modals • Had to expresses necessity/strong obligation in the past. Had to is the past form of both must and have to. The students who failed the test had to take it again. • Didn't have to/Didn't need to show that it wasn't necessary to do sth. We don't know if it was done or not. They didn't have to take them out to dinner. (We don't know if they did.) • We use could for general ability in the past. Joan could ride a bike when she was three. (She had the ability.)



Was(n't) able to expresses (in)ability on a specific occasion in the past. He was(n't) able to attend yesterday's meeting. (He didn't) manage to ... )

• Couldn't may be used to express any kind of inability in the past, repeated or specific. Sue couldn't ride a bike when she was three. (past repeated action) She couldn't/wasn't able to ride her bike yesterday because it had a puncture. (past single action)

121

Relative clauses Use • We use relative pronouns (who/whose/which/that) and relative adverbs (where/when/why) to introduce relative clauses. We use relative clauses to identify/ describe the person/thing/place in the main clause. Relative Clause

I

I

I

The woman who stars in this play is my aunt. • •

• • •



We use who/that to refer to people. The man who/that rescued the children from the fJ're is a local hero. We use which/that to refer to objects or animals. The house which/that had the best-kept garden was photographed for a magazine. We use where to refer to places. That's the town where they filmed the TV series. We use whose with people, animals and things to show possession. This is the man whose dog barks all night. We use when to refer to time, usually after nouns such as time, period, moment, day, year and summer. That was the year when they got married. We use why to give a reason. He won't tell me why he quit his job.

Defining and Non-defining relative clauses •

A defining relative clause gives necessary information essential to the meaning of the main sentence. It is not put in commas and is introduced with who, which, that, whose, where, when or the reason (why). The students

who were noisy were asked to leave the classroom. •

A non-defining relative clause gives extra information and is not essential to the meaning of the main sentence. It is put in commas and is introduced with who, whom, which, whose, where or when. My mum, who is an excellent

cook, was asked to cater for a dinner party.

MODULE 5 Present perfect

I have worked. You have worked. He has worked. She has worked. It has worked. We have worked. You have worked. They have worked.

122

I've worked. You've worked. He's worked. She's worked. It's worked. We've worked. You've worked. They've worked.

I have not worked. You have not worked. He has not worked. She has not worked. It has not worked. We have not worked. You have not worked. They have not worked.

Have I worked? Have you worked? Has he worked? Has she worked? Has it worked? Have we worked? Have you worked? Have they wo

I haven't worked. You haven't worked. He hasn't worked. She hasn't worked. It hasn't worked. We haven't worked. You haven't worked. They haven't worked.

Yes, I have.lNo, I ha Yes, you have.lNo, you Yes, he has.lNo, he hasn't. Yes, she has.lNo, she hasn't. Yes, it has.lNo, it hasn't. Yes, we have.lNo, we haven't. Yes, you have.lNo, you Yes, they have.lNo, they haven't.

Form • We form the present perfect with the auxiliary verb have/has and the past participle of the main verb. We form the past participle of regular verbs by adding -ed to the verb. play - played • We form the past participle of irregular verbs differently. feel- felt (see list of irregular verbs). Use We use the present perfect: • for actions which started in the past and continue up to the present. He has worked as a doctor for five years. (He started working as a doctor 5 years ago and he is still working as a doctor.) • to talk about a past action which has a visible result in the present. She is happy. She has passed her exams. • to refer to an experience. He has tried bungeejumping.

iJrme~xprE!S:si9nSU sed:With'Jh~Pf~s~llt p~'rfecf !=lll~idy, 'y~!,:iJOG':~in(~ie{~r;bey~r/.§tS:~;'>L':" .- .

Already - Yet - For - Since - Never - Ever • We use already in affirmative sentences. Jack has already watered the plants. • We use yet in interrogative and negative sentences. "Has Ryan arrived yet?" "I haven't finished my homework yet. " • We use for to express duration. They've been in Rome for a week. • We use since to state a starting point. They've been in Rome since last Friday. o We use ever in affirmative and interrogative sentences. This is the best film I've ever watched. Have you ever been to Paris? • We use never in affirmative sentences to express a negative meaning. We've never been to Japan.

present perfect vs Past simple • We use the present perfect for an action which happened at an unstated time in the past. He has hurt his leg. (When? We don't know.) • We use the present perfect for an action which started

in the past and continues to the present.



Can't/Couldn't =almost certain that this is/was impossible This painting can't be a copy. It's far too expensive. He couldn't have called you from home. His phone wasn't working all weekend. (I'm sure that sth isn't true, real, etc.)

Tenses of the infinitive/-ing form

She has been in Cairo for ten years. (She went to Cairo ten years ago and she is still there.) • We use the past simple for an action which happened at a stated time in the past. They went to Australia last summer. (When? Last summer.) • We use the past simple for an action which started and

(to) be playing

finished in the past. She was in New York for two years. (She lived in New York for two years. She doesn't live there anymore.)

(to) have played

having played

Present perfect continuous Form: have/has + been + verb -ing

Have I/you/we/they been playing? he she/it been

Yes, l/you/we/they have. No, I/you/we/they haven't. Yes, he/she/it has. No, he/she/it hasn't.

Use We use the present perfect continuous: • to place emphasis on the duration of an action which started in the past and continues up to the present. John has been trying to fix my computer for two hours. • for an action that started in the past and lasted for some time. It may still be continuing or have finished, but it has left a visible result in the present. He's tired because he has been working late at the office all week.

[Time' eXPre~ionsti~ecl vvitilthe 'pif!s~ntp~rfectcontintious: i since; for; howloOg(to plac~emphasiso'nauratronf::,:r;

Present simple/Future simple

Present

she cfeans/she will clean

(to) clean

Present continuous

Present continuous

she is cfeaning

(to) be cfeaning

Past simple/Present perfect/ Past perfect she cfeaned/she has cfeaned/she had cfeaned

Perfect (to) have cfeaned

Past continuous/Present perfect continuous/Past perfect Perfect continuous continuous she was cfeaning/she has been cfeaning/she had been cfeaning

(to) have been cleaning

The simple -ing form refers to the present or future. Swimming is an energetic form of exercise. The perfect -ing form shows that the action of the -ing form happened before the action of the verb. He denied having lied to his parents. We can use the simple -ing form instead of the perfect -ing form with no difference in meaning. He admitted to having stolen/stealing the car.

logical Assumptions/Deductions lmust, may/might, can't) Must = almost certain that this is/was true She must feel very relieved now that she knows she's passed all her tests. Pete isn't answering his home phone. He must have stayed at work. (I'm sure/certain that sth is true.) • May/Might/Could = possible that this is/was true My friend works at the shop so I might get a discount. He may have replied to your email. Check your in box. (It is possible'/It is likely./Perhaps.)



123



MODULE 6 The Passive Form We form the passive with the verb to be in the appropriate tense and the past participle of the main verb. Read the table:

PASSIVE

Sue is baking a cake. Sue baked a cake.

A cake is being

baked by Sue. A cake was baked

by Sue. A cake was being A cake has been

Sue has to bake a

designer. It was made with environmentally friendly fabrics. •

A cake has to be

baked by Sue.



A cake might be

baked by Sue. We use the passive: • when the person/people doing the action is/are unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context. The vase was broken. (We don't know who broke it). The package will be delivered today. (Who will deliver it is unimportant). Our exam papers have been corrected. (It's obvious that the teacher has corrected our exam papers). • when the action itself is more important than the person/people doing it, as in news headlines, newspaper articles formal notices, advertisements, instructions, proces;es, etc. Mobile phones must be turned off during the

examination. •

when we want to avoid taking responsibility for an action or when we refer to an unpleasant event and we do not want to say who or what is to blame.



to emphasise the agent. The announcement was made by

They were cheated out of their money. the Prime Minister himself. to make statements more formal or polite. My book has been torn. (More polite than saying 'You tore my book.')

Changing from the active to the passive • The object of the active sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence. • The active verb remains in the same tense but changes into passive form.

124

Only transitive verbs (verbs that take an object) can be changed into the passive. A house collapsed in the earthquake. (intransitive verb; no passive form).

airport.

baked by Sue. by Sue.

Agent by Lisa.

By + agent is used to say who or what carries out an action. With + instrument/material/ingredient is used to say what the agent used. This dress was designed by a local

A cake had been Acake will be baked

Verb was designed

everyday speech when we talk about things that happen by accident or unexpectedly. Our luggage got stolen at the

baked by Sue.

Sue will bake a cake.

Subject A dress

Note: Some transitive verbs (have, fit (= be the right size), suit, resemble, et c) cannot be changed into the passive. This skirt doesn't fit me. (NOT: i-t.ItJ:[email protected]+!&-skir+.) • We can use the verb to get instead of the verb to be 'In

baked by Sue. Sue has baked a

Object dress.

Subject ACTIVE





The subject of the active sentence becomes the agent and is either introduced with the preposition by or is omitted.

The agent can be omitted when the subject is they, he, someone/somebody, people, one, etc. Someone has broken the window. (= The window has been broken.) The agent is not omitted when it is a specific or important person or when it is essential to the meaning of the sentence. A decision was reached by the

board of directors. •

With verbs which can take two objects, such as bring,

tell, send, show, teach, promise, sell, read, offer, give, lend, etc, we can form two different passive sentences. He offered me a deal. (active) I was offered a deal. (passive, more usual) Adeal was offered to me. (passive, less usual) • In passive questions with who, whom or which we do not omit by. Who painted this portrait? Who was this portrait painted by? • The verbs hear, help, see and make are followed by the bare infinitive in the active but by the to-infinitive in the passive. active: They saw him leave the building. passive: He was seen to leave the building. BUT hear, see, watch + -ing form (active and passive) active: They saw him running down the stairs. passive: He was seen running down the stairs.

Personalllmpersonal Construction The verbs think, believe, say, report, know, expect, consider, understand, etc are used in the following passive patterns in personal and imperso'nal constructions. active: People believe that he lied in court. passive: a) It is believed (that) he lied in court. (impersonal construction) b) He is believed to have lied in court. (personal construction)

active: They expect him to arrive soon. passive: a) It is expected (that) that he will arrive soon. b) He is expected to arrive soon.



Reflexive pronouns are used with the verbs dress, wash and shave when we want to show that someone did something with a lot of effort. Tom managed to shave

himself.

The Causative • We use have + object + past participle to say that we have arranged for someone to do something for us. Mary had her hair dyed. (She didn't dye it herself.) •

Questions and negations in the causative are formed with do/does (present simple) or did (past simple) + have + objeCt + past participle.

Did he have his mail delivered yesterday?

Reported speech Direct speech is the exact words someone said. We use quotation marks in direct speech. Reported speech is the exact meaning of what someone said, but not the exact words. We do not use quotation marks in reported speech. The word that can either be used or omitted after the introductory verb (say, tell, etc). Say - Tell

He is fixing his car.

He is having his car fixed.

He fixed his car.

He had his car fixed.

He was having his He was fixing his car. car fixed.

• say + no personal object Usa said (that) she was hungry. • say + to + personal object Usa said to me (that) she was hungry. • tell + personal object Usa told me (that) she was hungry • We use say + to-infinitive but never say about. We use tell sb, speak/talk about. She said to meet her at the station. He told her/spoke/talked about his new idea.

He has had his car fixed. He had fixed his car.

He had had his car fixed.

He will fix his car.

He will have his car fixed.

hello, good morning/afternoon, etc, something/ nothing, so, a prayer, a few words, no more, for certain/sure, sorry, etc. the truth, a lie, a story, a secret, a joke, the time'l the difference, one from another, somebody one's name, somebody the way, somebody so, someone's fortune, etc. a question, a favour, the price, after somebody, the, time, around, for something/somebody, etc.

I

Reflexive Pronouns I - myself, you - yourself, he - himself, it - itself, we - ourselves, you - yourselves, they - themselves

Reported statements •

We use reflexive pronouns:

• with verbs such as behave, burnl cut, enjoy, hurt, introduce, kill, look at, teach etc or with prepositions •



when the subject and the object of the verb are the same person. She (subject) hurt herself (object) when she fell down. with the preposition by when we mean alone/without company or without help (= on one's own) He lives in that

big house by himself/on his own. in the following expressions: enjoy yourself (have a good time), behave yourself (be good), help yourself (you are welcome to take something if you want).

They enjoyed themselves at the party. •

to emphasise the subject or the object of a sentence. wrote this poem myself. (I wrote this essay. Nobody else wrote it.) Chris met Ronaldino himself. (Chris met Ronaldino, not somebody else.)

Note: • We do not normally use reflexive pronouns with the verbs concentrate, feel, meet and relax. You should concentrate on your work. (NOT: ¥CU should [email protected]+fI.J:€..-¥Owself on your work.)



In reported speech, personal/possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the meaning of the sentence. James said, "I've booked my ticket." (direct statement) James said (that) he had booked his ticket. (reported statement) We can report someone's words either a long time after they were said (out-of-date reporting) or a short time after they were said (up-to-date reporting).

Up-to-date reporting The tenses can either change or remain the same in reported speech. Direct speech: Julia said, "I read an interesting book," Reported speech: Julia said that she read/had read an

interesting book, Out-of-date reporting The introductory verb is in the past simple and the tenses change as follows:

125

Reported orders/commands •

"Go away!" she said. She ordered/told them to go away.

Present Continuous -+ Past Continuous

"I'HeI said h (that) she was cooking

' k' I h 1"5he ISCOO tng unc ,

I I



unc ,

I

Present Perfect -+ Past Perfect

I

"love h boug ht a new, PC" IShe said PC (that) she had bought . new.

We use order/tell + sb + (not) to-infinitive to report commands.

ali i

To report orders or instructions, we use the verbs order or tell + sb + (not) to-infinitive. "Turn off the TV!" she told them. (direct order) She told them to turn off the TV. (reported order) "Don't talk to me!" she said. (direct order) She ordered me not to talk to her. (reported order)

, .'" Past Simple -+ Past Simple or Past Perfect ~

" d h "IThey said (that) they moved/had, We move to a new ouse'lmoved to a new house. i Past Continuous -+ Past Continuous or • Past Perfect Continuous "I was watching TV."

I •

"I



-+ Would

Reported questions are usually introduced with the verbs

ask, inquire, wonder or the expression want to know. •

IHe said (that) he was watching/II Ihad been watching TV. I Will

"/ will rent a OVO."

I

Reported questions

I

IHe said (that) he would rent a Ovo.1



Certain words and time expressions change according to the meaning as follows: now -+ then, immediately; today-> that day; yesterday -+ the day before, the previous day; tomorrow -+ the next/following day; this week -+ that week; last week -+ the week before, the previous week; next week -+ the week after, the following week; ago -+ before; here -> there



When the direct question begins with a question word (who, where, how, when, what, etc), the reported question is introduced with the same question word. "Where does Ben live?" she wondered. (direct question) She wondered where Ben lived. (reported question) When the direct question begins with an auxiliary (be, do, have) or a modal verb (can, may, etc), then the reported question is introduced with if or whether. "Do you have a spare pen?" he asked. (direct question) He asked me if/whether I had a spare pen. (reported question) In reported questions, the verb is in the affirmative. The question mark and words/expressions such as please, well, oh, etc are omitted. The verb tenses, pronouns and time expressions change as in statements. "Can you help me with my homework, please?" she asked him. (direct question)

She asked him if he could help her with her homework. (reported question)

126

fNTRODUCTORY VERB

. DIRECT SPEECH

REPORTED SPEECH

1-+

agree + to-inf demand offer promise Irefuse Ithreaten

"Yes, /'11 lend you some money." "Tell me the truthi" "Would you like me to cook something?" "/'11 try harder." "No, I won't lend you my ca!:" "Leave the building or I'll call the police."

!claim advise + sb + to-inf allow ask beg command encourage forbid instruct

"I saw him take the money."

-+

"You should get more sleep." "You can go to the concert." "Please, turn the volume down." "Please, please stop laughing at me." "Surrenderi" "Go ahead, try it." "You mustn't stay out late." "Type your password and press 'enter'."

-+

invite order permit remind urge warn want

"Would you like to come to the beach with us?" "Go to your roomi" "You may sit here." "Don't forget to lock the door." "Eat your dinner." "Don't dive in the lake." "I'd like you to take extra lessons."

-+

accuse sb of + -ing form apologise for admit (to) boast about complain to sb about deny insist on suggest

"You scratched my CO!" "I'm sorry I was late." "Yes, I failed my exams." "I sing better than Jake." "You never help out." "No, I didn't cheat in the test." "You must take your medicine." "Let's watch a DVD."

-+

agree + that-clause boast claim complain deny exclaim explain inform sb promise suggest

"Yes, it is a great idea." "I'm an expert chef." "I won three awards." "You never do the dishes." "I've never lied to her." "It's amazing!" "It is a simple set of instructions." "Your flight will be delayed." "I won't make noise." "You ought to make reservations."

-+

-+

He agreed that it was a great idea. boasted that he was an expert chef. He claimed that he had won three awards. He complained that I never did the dishes. He denied that he had ever lied to her. He exclaimed that it was amazing. He explained that it was a simple set of instructions. He informed me that my flight would be delayed. He promised that he wouldn't make noise. He suggested that I make reservations.

explain to sb + how

"This is how you save a file."

-+

He explained to me how to save a file.

wonder where!what!why! how + clause (when the subject of the introductory verb is not the same as the subject in the reported question) wonder + whether + to-inf or clause

He asked himself, "How will they get to the airport?" He asked himself, 'Where is everyone?" He asked himself, "Why are they shouting?" He asked himself, "What is she writing?" He asked himself, "Shall I invite them over?"

-+

He wondered how they would get to the airport.

-+ -+ -+ -+ -+

-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+

-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+

-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+

He advised me to get more sleep. He allowed me to go to the concert. He asked me to turn the volume down. He begged me to stop laughing at him. He commanded the enemy to surrender. He encouraged me to try it. He forbade me to stay out late. He instructed me to type my password and press 'enter'. He invited me to go to the beach with them. He ordered me to go to my room. He permitted me to sit there. He reminded me to lock the door. He urged me to eat my dinner. He warned me not to dive in the lake. He wanted me to take extra lessons. He accused me of scratching/having scratched his CO. He apologised for being/having been late. He admitted (to) failing/having failed his exams. He boasted about singing better than Jake. He complained to me about my never helping out. He denied cheating/having cheated in the test. He insisted on me/my taking my medicine. He suggested watching a DVD.

-+ IHe -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+

He wondered where everyone was. He wondered why they were shouting. -+ He wondered what she was writing. -+ He wondered whether to invite them over. [ -+ He wondered whether he should invite the over. -+

-+

wonder where!what!how He asked himself, "When can I call them?"

-+

+ to-inf (when the subject of He asked himself, "What should I say?"

-+

the infinitive is the same as He asked himself, "How can I explain this?" the subject of the verb)

He agreed to lend me some money. He demanded to be told the truth. He offered to cook something. He promised to try harder. He refused to lend me his car. He threatened to call the police if I didn't leave the building. He claimed to have seen him take the money.

1

1-+

He wondered when to call them. He wondered what to say. He wondered how to explain that.

127

for

n

Capital Letters

Exclamation Point (!)

A capital letter is used: • to begin a sentence.

An exclamation point is used: • to end an exclamatory sentence (i.e. a sentence showing admiration, surprise, joy, anger, etc).

Here we are. •

That's a lie! What awful weather!

for days of the week, months and public holidays.

Friday, August, New Year •

for names of people and places.

My teacher's name is Sally and she's from Chester, Vermont. •

for people's titles.

Mr and Mrs Parker; Or Mortimer; Professor Riggs; ete. •

for nationalities and languages.

They are Chilean. He's fluent in German and Russian. Note: The personal pronoun I is always a capital letter. Gus

and / are going on holiday together.

Quotation Marks ("

"")

Single quotes are used: • when you are quoting someone in direct speech (nested quotes).

'Then Helen said, 'Are you sure this is the right address?'" Double quotes are used: • in direct speech to report the exact words someone said.

"What's your name?" she asked him. Full stop (.) A full stop is used: • to end a sentence that is not a question or an exclamation.

We're having a great time. You can never get bored here in Rio. •

A colon is used: • to introduce a list.

There were three of us on the boat: my brother, my cousin Lyn and me.

after abbreviations. Mr Jones is a great teacher.

Comma (,) A comma is used: • to separate words in a list.

We need sugar, milk, tomatoes and app/ejuice. •

Colon (:)

to separate a non-essential relative clause (i.e. a clause giving extra information which is not essential to the meaning of the main clause) from the main clause.

Brackets () Brackets are used: • to separate extra information from the rest of the sentence. The most popular newspapers (i.e. The New York Times, The Observer, etc) can be found almost anywhere in the world.

Tony, who is a doctor, lives in Africa. •

after certain joining words/transitional phrases (e.g. in addition to this, moreover, for example, however, in conclusion, etc).

Moreover, Jenny is very patient with children. •

when if-clauses or other dependent clauses begin with compound or complex sentences.

Apostrophe (') An apostrophe is used: • in short forms to show that one or more letters or numbers have been left out.

I'm (= Iam) writing to complain about ... She left for Italy in the winter of '98. (= 1998)

If you have any questions, don't hesitate to ask. •

Note: No comma is used, however, when they follow the main clause. to separate tag questions from the rest of the sentence.

Mr Stevens is your maths teacher, isn't he? •

before the words asked, said, etc when followed by direct speech.

'Turn down the music," said Sarah. Question Mark (?) A question mark is used: • to end a direct question.

Where are the children?

128



before or after the possessive -s to show ownership or the relationship between people. Tom's car, my friend's husband (singular noun + 's) my parents' friends (plural noun + ') women's dresses (irregular plural + 's)

~;I

Use the words to complete the jobs (1-18).

• artist • fr'ain,er • co~troller , • expert • chaser • persCln • walker • officer • director • designer • decorator • assistant • operator • 'driver • worker • attendant • counsellor • tester

14 camp ........... .. (I

_

-

_

-...:.·i· .••....•..•...... -.••

.2

15

storm .... ,........ /

.;:.

~_r

16 interior ..........

17 social ........... ..

',-, •••••••••••••• " ••••" .', •

• •.• • '"' '•••• -••••••••••• ••

<"'~ ,,~ .' ••••-•••••••• :: • • • • •

vid~o

game

. .....- ....... " ........ .

Choose the correct word. 1 I'm sure, !D1lt working as a gardener is a pleasant way to earn/win a living. 2 Sue decidedto~a~pply/ask for the position of.shop assistant. i\4~~ , .. 3 The company teaches/h~i~'~lall its, new employees. 4 They are thinking of ::prom'oting/advancing him , to manager. _'. 5 Why do you want to transport/trans'fer him to another department? -"-~.~~.. ---'-"",~-,-)

6 They ;!i~~~/5et off Mike after he spoke rudely to his boss. 7 After Sally was made r~dundant/unemployed at work, she opened her own business . .I . 8 They tookjoffe:red Dan the job once they saw his ·~'h....."

CV.

'~.~.J

j

129

,3

a)

11

1 Cl

Match the descriptions to the jobs.

hairdresser

I 2 1~i:1 biologist I 3 1 .; I meteorologist

14 Lill caretaker [I[JJ TV presenter 6

I

1

hi dentist

[2J]J artist lal,~llibrarian

I 9 1J:-;I tailor

"

10 1 rrsecretary

1

IT![] miner 112[// I cashier

ru

living. T, A doctor who operates on a patient. M A person in a bank or a shop who receives or pays out money. N.,Someone who is trained to save people from drowning in the sea or swimming pool.

lifeguard

IT!LJ surgeon ,...

-",,,~

b)

"

A A person who looks after a large building, school or block of flats. B This person makes men's clothes. C This person can cut, style, colour and even curl your hair. D This person works underground and extracts substances like gold and coal. E A scientist who studies all living things. F This person works in an office, types letters, answers phone calls and arranges meetings. A person in charge of a collection of books. G H This person examines and treats people's teeth and gums. I A person who hosts or introduces a programme on TV. 1 This person studies the Earth's atmosphere and predicts the weather. K A person who paints or draws pictures, or creates sculptures for a

Which of these jobs: need a Hniversity

degree?, are manual jobs?, are outdoor 1(1. -". \" ,'\ .. jobs?,,·(n}tolVfshiftS?, are dangerous?, .,: -f... ",- ,, .' " _ ' offer IHgh salaries?, involve coiftact with ' the public? ~

~-:-

Choose the correct word. Tim's got a p~me/full-time job delivering pizzas at the weekend. 2 Gary's working overtime tonight because he's got so much job/'ior~.,._" 3 The locafswimming pool has a job careerIVacancy for a lifeguard.'-~ " 4 She's got five years"experience/qualifications '--------/ working with dogs.

.

5 My company pays my wages/salary into my bank account every month.

"",

, Fill in: per~s, bonus, 9~5, qualities, profession,

tr?itning, uri4erpaid, 'application, recommendation.

~ 'i:,~ ,,~

.~

130

5

\

"

" ''1

\

'>,

1 The business made alProfit th,is year and all the !

'f':

A,' '>'.'"

"

workers got a(n) "."".,'ii/!.. i ..": .. : ....'., ........ "=-<, , • l! 1""'), "..~. 1-.-J \ 2 8arry's father IS a lawyer by ... ,:.::-:....... ;."" ... ,..... ;... . 3 I need to include two letters of .:!.~..... ~..............;......:\:~.~.< '1 ..=/'

from myoid employers. 4 Do you provide .. ~:.I with this job? 5 Tom hates shifts and just wants to work .............. ..

... ,........ i:.........:...

,

",

•••••• , • • • • • • • • • ; •• i •• · • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

,

6 What skills and personal ............................. :... . ........................................... does the job require? 7 I wrote a letter of ...::,: .... :.. :............................ saying why I wanted the job . a Holly works harder than everyone else, but she's still ,.......:...:.... ,.......................... . 9 A company car is one of the ............... :: ......... ::: ...... . of Emily's new job.

Use the words to complete the table in your notebooks. Each sport can match more sky diving

than one category.

ice hockey

.2

skiing

Choose the adjective that best completes each sentence. Sailing offers peaceful/shallow moments when the sea is calm. 2 One of the most popular competitive/relaxing sports in the world is football. 3 It must be a boring/thrilling experience to go skydiving.

---I

4 He enjoys doing brave/dangerous sports like rock climbing. 5 A good game of squash is always careful/challenging. 6 Hiking could be tiring/fun if a person is not fit enough. 7 Surfing the waves is very fearless/exciting. 8 Playing hockey for an hour is gentle/exhausting.

,<~

.:;(--'\

="

Complete the sentences about you and sports.

1 I like ................................ because ..................................... . 2 I don't really like ....................................................... because

3 I prefer .......................................... to .................................. . because I find ..................................... . 4 I hate ................................ because .................................... .

5 I enjoy ............................ because ...................................... .

131

.3 1 "

a)

Fill in: website, link, password, blog, profile, hardware, forum, server.

Match the words to form new words/ phrases.

QIJ

search

[IT] email . . . [IT].• so.cial

[!IJ

. •[I[J

A software

2

B name C network

user

D account

antivirus -

E engine

3

4 b)

Complete the sentences with words/ phrases from Ex. 1a.

1 Internet users need to have ........................... .. to protect their computers. 2 My ..................................... is penguinj, which isn't my real name of course. 3 Jenny doesn't have a(n) .................................. .. so I can't send her the information she needs. 4 Google has been the most popular ................. . since 2010 and 91 % of all Internet users prefer it. S Twitter is a very popular .................................. . for people to send and read short messages.

2.

a)

Match the addresses. Use the key to read them. http://twitter.com/ladygaga http://www.englishgrammar.com

5

6 7

8

4

Fill in: access, hack, browse, download, upload, scan, crash, go online.

2 3

4

[email protected] 5

6

b)

Do you know what these abbreviations stand for? Complete the phrases.

1 FAO 2 AWS 3 AFAICT 4 AFC S AIR 6 ASAP 7 TTYL

132

8 F2F

frequently asked ...................... .. As we ........................................ . As far as I can ........................... .. away from ................................. . Asl ........................................... .. As soon as ................................ .. Talk to you ............................... .. Face to ...................................... .

The central computer from which other computers get information is called a ................................ . You shouldn't tell anyone what your .............. . is . A .................................. is an online discussion site where a large group of people can exchange ideas on many topics. The parts you can actually see and touch on your computer are the ................................... . Can you recommend a ........................ that has information I could use for my science project? The university's homepage contains a ............ .. which takes you to the library webpage. Jack has a lot of information about himself on his Facebook ................................. . / My friend has a ............................... andwfites about his travels.

7

8

5

A thief tried to .................................... into the bank's system and steal credit card numbers. A website can suddenly .......................... when too many people want to use it at the same time. You need a password to ........................... your email account. Mary took photos of her baby and she will ................................. them to her PC and share them with her friends and family. If you go to this website you can .................... . antivirus software for free. Tom likes to .............................. the Internet in his free time. My friend and I live in different cities so we ....................................... every night and chat. Please ......................... these pages so that we have them in digital form. Answer the questions.

1 How often do you go online and for how long? 2 What websites do you usually visit? 3 Do you use social networking sites? Why/Why not?

2. .~

Fill in: set in, written, plot, twist, chapter, character.

Match the types of books to the extracts.

[IT] [IT] [IT] [IT]

crime thriller non-fiction biography horror

[I[J [IT] [IT] [!IJ

adventure romance science fiction fantasy

This crime thriller was 1) .................. bY a young "' ~uthor, Andrew Watts. It's his first book and already c'\

It has

1

113- When the fairy appeared before Alice, the little girl was crying. "Why are you crying Alice?" asked the fairy. "How do you know my name?" Alice replied.

~

Climbing to the top of the bridge was the only way to escape without being seen. Jonathan tried not to think about what might happen if he didn't succeed.

[151 .....-l

This is a complete guide to recycling at .school. There are many helpful tips and

. ideas to make recycling fun.

@ .The th~ef

had escaped once again leaving no fingerprints. This was the second robbery in a week.

!J In deep space,

Planet Oron is at war with Planet· Nordid. The Galactic Government is sending spaceships to that far corner of the universe.

I]] Trevor

said to Annie, ''I'm glad you got home before I left. I wa n ted to sa goodbye to you." "When will you b~ ba.ck?" Annie asked. "I won't be back" saId Trevor with tears in his eyes. '

q~J Jean had never felt so scared in her life. What was that thing chasing her? It was a kind of monster. Where did it come from?

a bestseller. From

the

first

gn~Plng. It is 4) ................... the city of Rome. The

:_~J

Born in a tiny Welsh village in 1853 , no-one ~xpected Danny Wells to become the most important inventor of his time.

become

.'". 2). .................. you will find the 3) .................. .

main 5) .................. is a man who has lost his '1

.1\

me~ory. The police suspect he has committed

terr~ble crime.

I won't tell you any more,

bec~use ~

'-\ d~n t want to spoil the 6) .................. in the story. Highly recommended!

3

Fill in with: a bore to read, an unexpected twist, a waste of time, a dull story, you'll love it.

0rhe Attic Light

is James Boyd's new book. 1) .......... :................. :.... ! !couldn't put it down. The best thing about the stoXyis2) .................. : ...... ;.... ; whi.cb makesitvery int~resting .. .

[!]

I used to like Mike Jameson's books. However, his last book is 3) ...................................... I have never read such 4) ..................................... in my life! Don't buy it because it's 5) ............................. . and money!

Musk Use words from the boxes to complete the sentences about your taste in music. reggae

pop

dance garage techno

punk

jazz hip hop metal

heavy metal rock 'n' roll classical music R&B (rhythm and blues)

loud

happy

enthusiastic slow boring

fast lively

aggressive emotional

monotonous powerful

I love ....................... because it's ......................... . I like ............................... because it's .................. . I can't stand ................... because it's .................. . ........................................ isn't really my cup of tea because it's .................................... .

133

'j

Choose the correct word.

b)

Which of these weather conditions are common/rare in your country?

Fill in: temperatures, cold, overcast, boiling, lightning, clear, winds, heavy.

») ..:......",

2 3 4 S 6 7 S

134

a)

We have to light a big fire; it's going to be freezing ........................................... tonight. Whenever there is thunder and ...................... , our cat hides under the bed. Global warming is already causing more extreme ............................. worldwide. It's only spring and it's already ....................... .. hot; I wonder what summer will be like. On a ....................................... day in Gibraltar, you can see all the way across to Africa. ..................................... skies make me gloomy. Close all the shutters! We're expecting high ........................................... this afternoon. Look at those ....................................... clouds! It's going to start pouring soon.

:3

Complete the sentences with the verbs: set,

pour, blow, drop, reach, wipe, gather, rise.

2 3 4 S 6 7 S

The temperature will ....................................... . a high of 19°C. The rising water level could ............................ . out many coastal villages. The sun will .................................... at 6:54 pm this evening. I heard it's going to .................................. with rain all afternoon. Strong winds will ......................................... in from the Atlantic later today. The sun will ....................................... at exactly 5:58 am tomorrow morning . They're expecting the temperature to ............ .. by SaC at the weekend. Clouds will ......................................... over the mountains bringing rain by the early afternoon.

C~l

Which of these environmental problems can you see in the pictures? • burning fossil fuels 0 rising sea levels 0 overflowing landfill sites 0 industrial waste • exhaust fumes • acid rain • deforestation • destruction of the ozone layer • overfishing • extreme weather • water shortage • oil spills • noise pollution • global warming

:2

Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs in the list.

:3

a)

Fill in: conserve, turn off, take, public,

recycle, throwing, reduce, save, insulate.

• become • add • rise • use • vanish • cut • lose • reduce • melt • starve 1 Sea levels could ................................... another 3 feet within 100 years. 2 The polar ice caps ............................................ . at an alarming rate due to global warming. 3 Pollution from power plants .......................... .. to poor air quality. 4 If sea levels continue to rise, many animals ................................... their natural habitats. 5 Scientists predict that a lot of animals ............ . ............................. extinct in the next 50 years. 6 We have to reduce the amount of trees we ................................... down. 7 Some islands .................................................. .. under the waves already. 8 Polar bears ........................................... as food becomes harder to find. 9 If we want to help this planet, we all have to ....................................... our carbon footprint. 10 We can make a difference if we ...................... . less energy.

b)

Which of these do you do to help protect the environment?

135

1

a)

Label the pictures with words from the list. mask • life jacket G bicycle • oars e snorkel 8 bow e helmet • poles e flippers 8 raft • skates • racquet • kit .. wetsuit • target • skis e arrows • ball • puck • stick • net • gloves • boots • football 8

1 life jacket

)

3 ...................... .

6 ...................... .

24

b) Which of these sports do we: go? do? play?

136

...................... .

. Match the sports in Ex. 1a to the descriptions.

":)

:::h.t

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

In this sport... you need good balance and must always keep your eyes on the road or path ahead. ...................... you need to be flexible, and have strong arms and legs to keep your balance on the hill. ...................... you need to be in control in difficult conditions. If you aren't, you might fall in. ...................... you need to have lots of .., ................... stamina and be able to kick. you need steady hands and a good eye to be able to hit ...................... your target. you need to turn quickly and shoot without losing your balance on the slippery surface . ...................... you need to run across the court to hit the ball with strength and accuracy. . ..................... you don't need to use your hands to move in the water; just let your legs do all the work ......................

~pment

Label the items with: tent, rucksack, penknife,

first aid kit, insect repellent, matches, compass, map, rope, sleeping bag, sunscreen.

Fill in: break, hold, beat, score, points, take.

'3 -.

~

1 The Chicago Bulls ....................................... the 2 3

4 5

6

record for the most wins in an NBA season. You should check your fitness with a doctor before you .............................. up a new sport. Sam is hoping to ............................. the record in his next marathon. Anna .......................... me three times at chess yesterday. Our team lost 12 ............................. in the last ten minutes. Danny will keep the .............................. .. while we play.

137

')

Choose the correct word.

~


a)

Complete the spidergrams with words/ phrases from the list. 8

eye

e

sick • ear

e

wrist "dizzy

" a bad back • skin • insomnia

1 .................. ..

e

e

2

ankle

depression

3

2 ................. .. 4

3 .................. ..

S 4 ................... .

6

S .................. ..

7

6 .................. ..

7 .................. ..

8 9

8 .................. ..

The doctor gave Janet a recipe/prescription for some cough medicine. John had a(n) operation/surgery to improve his eyesight. I have a sore throat and it is very hurt/painful to swallow. This skin cream helps to disappear/remove acne scars. The athlete just broke his arm and he's in terrible pain/ache. Tom's eye is swollen and he should pour/use some eye drops. Don't itch/scratch the rash because it will get worse. How can I relieve/recover sunburn? This is a very deep cut and it will take time to cure/heal.

9 .................. .. 10 .................. ..

b)

Complete the gaps with phrases from Ex. 1a in the correct form.

1 Eva's got a(n) ................................. on her arm that's really red and itchy. 2 People who .................................... find it hard to enjoy anything. 3 A(n) .......................... is very painful, but rarely causes hearing loss. 4 If you ............................ , you should either sit or lie down. S I can't walk for a few days because of my .......

3 2 3 4 S 6

9 My ................................ made it impossible for me to write. 10 Don't lift heavy weights if you ....................... .

138

Take this medicine and in a few days you'll feel as right as ....................................................... . The injured man had lost a lot of blood and looked as ........................................ as a sheet. Holly has recovered from the flu and now looks the ................................................... of health. Even though Grandad's 73, he's as .................. . as a fiddle. Betty isn't coming to school today because she's feeling a bit under the ........................... . Jake had an operation last month but he is ............................................... on his feet now.

Circle the odd one out.

6 Steve ate too much junk food at the party and 7 Robby always looks tired because he ............. . 8 She's wearing sunglasses because she has a(n)

Fill in: fit, picture, back, white, weather, rain.

1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8

pain - ache - illness germ - swelling - virus acne - infection - spots fever - wound - injury flu - cold - bruise cut - sneeze - cough pill - therapy - medicine bandage - plaster - remedy

'a)

Match the words to make phrases.

{IT] upset IITJ:Vl/a~ery

.. jIIJ. 50re

.

JTIJI1:~hy.

) [IT] high

·····[![]~r()kerl

. . . . [I[J •.·runny. ·····.[!IJ~rry.·

<[![]traveJ'

. ····[![]~ye

'.

..

6

What is each person's problem? Match the pictures with the sentences.

A nose B cough C sickness D throat E eyes F stomach G temperature H strain rash bone

b) Fill in with the phrases from Ex. Sa. Some people suffer from ................................ .. when they go on a trip. 2 When I touch this kind of plant, I get a(n) ....... 3 If you have a(n) ............................................... . a doctor has to put it in plaster. 4 John, you feel warm. I'll get the thermometer and see if you've got a(n) ............................... . S A good way to prevent ................................... . is not to watch TV in a dark room. 6 Katy ate a lot of pizza and now she's got a(n) .

1 I ate far too much at Alex's birthday party. 2 I stayed at the beach all day and didn't use sunscreen. 3 I can't take it any more! I really must go to the dentist's. 4 I need another pack of tissues because I've got a runny nose. S I went for a walk in the park and now I can't stop sneezing. 6 I shouldn't have played video games for four hours without a break.

7 The baby caught a cold and has a(n) .............. .. ............................................. , but no fever. 8 When you have a(n) ........................................ . eating or drinking can be really painful. 9 I've got (a) ................................................ that feels like a tickle in my throat. 10 Emma's not crying; she's just got .................... .

'1

Discuss these questions with a partner. 1 How can we prevent sunburn? 2 Have you ever been in hospital? What happened? 3 Do you think everyone should know first aid? Why/Why not.

139

-1

a)

Label the pictures with: exhausted, bored,

.2

confused, confident, depressed, furious, excited, surprised.

Fill in: peer, difficult, welcome, advice, approve,

similar, right, distance, fit, common.

a problem shared is a problem halved

~

Dear Agony Aunt, I've got a problem and I don know what to do. My family just moved to a new city and I had to change schools, but finding it 1) ........................ to make new friends. My classmates keep their 2) ................................ . and ignore me all the time. When I try to be friendly, they just walk away. It might be because they don't 3) .............................. of the clothes I wear. They all seem to dress differently from me. Should I buy some new clothes to 4) .............................. in? Can you help me? What should I do? Lonely

[!] Dear Lonely, b)

Use the words from Ex. 1a to complete the sentences.

1 "I've got nothing to do. I feel really ................ . today." 2 "I'm completely ........................ I need a good night's sleep." 3 "That exam was easy. I'm ......................... that I've passed." 4 "1 didn't expect that to happen to me! I'm very 5 "1 don't know what to do next. I'm completely 6 "How dare you tell lies about me! I'm absolutely 7 "I'm so ................................... ! I've just won a holiday to Italy!" 8 "I've just argued with my best friend. I'm very

140

Try not to worry

too much. This is a 5) ............................. problem when people change schools. First of all, don't try too hard. Everyone needs a little time to get to know someone else and this is true for both you and your classmates. Give it a couple of weeks and I think you'll find they'll get used to you and you'll feel more 6) ........ ..................... . In the meantime, what about joining a school club? It's a great way to meet people who have 7) ............................. interests. Now about your clothes, don't change a thing! You have the 8) ............................. to choose your own style. Don't fall into the trap of 9) ........................... .. pressure. We should all respect each other even if we are different. I hope my 10) ............................. helps.

in Hfs ']

3

a)

Match the words to make phrases.

Label the pictures. o

infant • toddler • child • teenager

e

adult

A grandchildren

• senior citizen

B a wedding C abroad D to the countryside E your job F on a career G a business H a wedding anniversary divorced a house

b)

2 3 4 5 6 7

:2

Put these events in the correct chronological order. 1 get married/start a family/go on honeymoon/ get engaged 2 get a promotion/leave school/find a job/retire with a pension 3 start primary school/go to kindergarten/go to high school/attend college 4 apply for university/graduate with a degree/ take a gap year/go to university

S 9 10

Fill in the sentences with phrases from Ex. 3a in the correct form.

Harry can1t stand renting and wants to ............................................ as soon as he can. Sarah1s been so depressed since she ............... . .......................................... ......... at the factory. Fran was a young grandparent and ................. . ................................... when she was just fifty. They were married for ten years before they ....................................................... Ifs so sad. When you ........................................... , you get to experience another culture in depth. The city was too much for John so he ............ .. ............................................... when he retired. They .......................................... this weekend. Theylve been married for five years now. I need some advice because Ilm finding it really difficult to ...................................................... . Dan1s got a lot of courage to .......................... . .................................. in this economic climate. Mum would love to ......................................... , but Ilm not getting married yet!

141

Discuss these questions in class.

6

1 Do you remember your first day at school? How did you feel? 2 Was going to high school a major turning point in your life? Why? 3 What was the most important event in your . life? Why?

2 3 4

A

5

\}ly~dd!!Iil~

Label the pictures. Use the words in the list.

5

• bride • groom • bridesmaid • best man • wedding dress • wedding ring • veil • bouquet • tuxedo

6

7 8

7

7

Now describe the first photograph.

142

Choose the correct word. The bride and her father entered the church and walked down the corridor/aisle. The film actress decided to have her marriage/ wedding on the beach. Jason was getting married the next day so he had a bachelor meeting/party . It is a custom in some countries for the couple to exchange vows/promises when they get married. After the wedding ceremony, all guests were invited to the reception/event. The bride's parents paid for the tickets to Hawaii where they're going on their holiday/ honeymoon. The best man made/did a toast to the couple and wished them a happy life. If you catch the bouquet/bunch that the bride throws, it means you will be next to get married.

Fill in: honest, hardworking, patient, ambitious,

stubborn, optimistic, sensitive, sociable, modest, generous.

1 Charlie is top of his class because he is very .............................................. and studies a lot. 2 Grandparents are usually very ........................ .. with their grandchildren and give them lots of presents. 3 Our teacher is a very ...................................... .. person and never gets angry with us. 4 Although the scientist has a Nobel Prize, he is quite .......................... about his achievements. 5 Kate is really ..................................... and loves being with other people. 6 He is so ................................. ; I've never heard him tell a lie in all the time I've known him. 7 Betty is a very ................................ person and understands people's feelings and problems. 8 I like Jason because he is ................................ ; he always looks on the bright side of things. 9 My father is so ................................. ; when he makes up his mind about something he doesn't change it. 10 The young lawyer is very ................................ .. and wants to go to the top of his profession.

-\

:8 .Match the opposites. "11 lazy pessimistic messy demanding nasty F mean arrogant

A B C D E

'9

Complete sentences 1-5 using words from the table.

Write the opposites of these adjectives. Use uno, im-, ira, dis-, in-. 1 selfish ;c ............... 2 polite ;c ................ 3 honest ;c ............... 4 responsible ;c ...............................

5 considerate

;c

6 7 8 9 10

sensitive ;c ............. tidy ;c ..................... reliable ;c ............... patient ;c ............... trustworthy ;c

1 This is Janet. She's six years old.

She's got long black ................. . hair and ............... skin.

...............................

...............................

10 Match the characteristics (A-H) to the descriptions (1-8). A B C D

shy aggressive reliable demanding

[IT] [IT] [IT] [IT] [IT] [IT]

C?IJ [!IJ

E arrogant F considerate G easy-going H vain

Angela's parents have taught her to be polite and think about others. Some people shout and become violent when they have an argument with others. Who does he think he is? He thinks he is better than anyone else. Some children are spoilt and are always asking for things from their parents. Poor Ben! He always feels nervous when he meets new people. John is a person you can always depend on. He will never let you down. David spends far too much time checking his hair and clothes in the mirror. My best friend is a person that gets along with anyone.

, 4 Lisa

it in

···Shehas··.· . ,"blonde'hair;l:>!ueeyesand
',' .. ,; .. ~ .... ::, ... ,.; :.::., .... face.

.

12 Use the words in the table in Ex. 11 and describe your best friend.

143

3 1

Match the newspaper headlines (1-8) to the types of crime (A-H).

[BJ [!JJ [£[J lE.:[] 1

burglary

[IT]

shoplifting

arson

ITIJ

smuggling

robbery

@I]

speeding

'vandalism

Q!IJ

kidnapping

\ Hollywood star arrested for driving his Porsche at 180 kroph!

2

3 4

s

Fill in: arrested, broke into, committed, broken,

charged, stole, robbed, accused. 1 The police ............................. him with murder and took him to prison. 2 Thieves .......................... Oscar-winning actress Mary Stone at gunpoint last night. 3 Dan's friends and family couldn't believe he'd ................................ a crime. 4 Someone smashed my window in the car park and ................................ my bag. S They waited until he left the shop and then ................................ him for shoplifting. 6 He wasn't ........................ of anything because the police didn't have enough evidence. 7 Gary's an honest person who's never .............. . the law in his life. 8 Thieves ....................................... her flat when she was out and stole cash and jewellery.

6

Choose the correct words.

7

Armed men steal £2 million from [)anKI!'

8

House broken into while family on holiday

2 3 4

2

Complete the table.

7 8

2 robber

s ................. . thief 8 ................. .

kidnapper

144

S 6

The young man pleaded/begged not guilty to robbery. After a 3-month trial James was tried for/ convicted of arson. The judge examined/tested the evidence/proof against the accused man. The jury got/reached a verdict and the criminal was taken to prison. The court found/said the accused guilty. Jack is going to witness/testify against his friend in court/jury. You have to swear/say to tell the truth in court. The thief was sentenced/charged to ten years in prison.

5 . Match the people (1-7) to the descriptions

6

a)

Match the words to make sentences.

(A-G).

service sentence robbery penalty station scene verdict case b)

Fill in the sentences with phrases from Ex.6a.

Most countries do not have the ..................... .. ........................ and no prisoners are executed. 2 The jury returned a ......................................... . 3 The thief was arrested and taken to the .......... 4 Some citizens are asked to do ......................... . ........................ .......... in a court. S The police are looking for evidence at the ....... 6 There was a(n) ................................................ .. at the jeweller's and a man was shot. 7 The murderer got a(n) .................................... .. ................... and will never come out of prison. 8 This ....................................................... was in the news for months.

Cylbercrime

7

ITIJ I!IJ

viruses. The person who is accused of a crime. The person who saw or knows things about a crime.

~ The person who represents the accused in court.

[IT]

The group of people who have to give a verdict in court.

[I[J [ID

The person who makes the decisions in court. This is a person who takes the defendant from their cell to the court room.

@I]

Fill in: hacker, access, identity, piracy, spam,

This is the person who investigated the crime.

1 Don't open ............................... emails because they could harm your laptop. 2 A(n) ........................................... broke into our company's computer system. 3 The most common form of cybercrime is ......... theft. 4 My laptop has a software program to protect against ................................ . S You can't ........................ this account without the correct password. 6 Illegally downloading computer programs is software .............. ;................. .

145



Prefixes are syllables which we add before certain words to form new words. The meaning of the new word depends on the prefix that has been used. anti- = against (anti-social) bi- =two (bi-monthly) co- = with (co-star) counter- =in the opposite direction (counter-argument) ex- =previous, former (ex-wife) inter- between (intercontinental) mi5- = done wrongly or badly (misjudge) mono- =one (monorail) multi- =many (multimedia) non- =not (non-verbal) out- =more, better (outrun) over- = (done) to a great extent (overcook) post- =after (post-war) pre- =before (pre-war) pro- in favour of (pro-European) re- =again (redo) semi- =half (semi-circle) sub- = under, less (sub-zero) super- = big, more (superhuman) trans- =(travel) from one side, group, etc to another

=

=

(transatlantic) =three (tripod)

tri-

=

under- not enough (underdeveloped) uni- one (unidirectional)

=

The prefixes below are used to express opposite meanings. dedeforest, desensitise disdisagree, dissimilar ininsincere, incomplete BUT iI- (before I) illegible im- (before b, m, p) impolite, imbalance ir- (before r) irrational BUT unrest, unrestricted nonnon-existent, non-stop ununcomfortable, unlucky Some prefixes are added to words to form verbs. enrich - enrich BUT em- (before b, m, p) power - empower •

Suffixes are syllables which we add to the end of certain words to form new words. - Nouns referring to people o verb + -er/-or/oar (drive - driver, conduct - conductor,

lie -liar) .. noun/verb/adjective + Mist

(novel- novelist, cycle -

cyclist, social- socialist) " verb + -ant/-ent (claim - claimant) e noun + -an/-ian (Rome - Roman, politic - politician) e verb + Nee (passive meaning) (escape - escapee)

146

- Nouns formed from verbs -age break - breakage -al arrive - arrival -ance perform - performance Nation represent - representation -ence confide- confidence complete - completion -ion pay - payment -ment extend - extension (verbs ending in -diNt) -sion -Si5

-tion -ure -y

diagnose - diagnosis delete - deletion seize - seizure discover - discovery

- Nouns formed from adjectives -ance arrogant - arrogance -cy accurate - accuracy -ence confident - confidence -ion perfect - perfection

-ineS5 -ness -ity -ty -y

happy - happiness shy - shyness equal- equality safe - safety jealous - jealousy

- Adjectives formed from nouns -ous courage - courageous -al person - personal Mic hygiene - hygienic -ical myth - mythical -ish girl- girlish

-ive -ful (with) -less (without)

-ant -able -y

-Iy

excess - excessive meaning - meaningful meaning - meaningless importance - important comfort - comfortable hand - handy time - timely

- Adjectives formed from verbs -able count - countable -ible comprehend - comprehensible (verbs ending in -diNt) -ive dismiss - dismissive

-ate -ent

consider - considerate depend - dependent

- Verbs formed from adjectives -en bright - brighten Mise immobile - immobilise - Verbs formed from nouns -en length -lengthen

· Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in the gap. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

As her parents speak different languages she grew up to be .......................................... The students were asked to .............................................. the main points in the article. Don't ............................................................................. him. He's cleverer than he looks. The manager was shocked by the amount of ................................................ to his ideas. May I introduce you to an ................................................................. of mine, Mr Moran. Our kitchen was flooded because of a .......................................................... in the pipes. I know a good tailor who could ..................................................... your trousers for you. Emma couldn't help being .......................................... of her friend's glamorous lifestyle. He was a brilliant mathematician and helped ............................................... many secret messages from the Germans during WWII. I have to wait in for a special .................................................... from the postman today. It is ........................................................................... that she is unhappy in her new job. He decided to ..................................................... with the police and tell them the truth. Despite his .............................................................., Simon is excellent at playing sports. Pauline is a ........................................................ in a world famous cookery competition. Anyone caught taking money from the till faces instant ................................................. There is a lot of ................................................. surrounding the government's plans for the banking industry. Diana is very ................................................................. and enjoys playing lots of sports. I think the price of this dress is very ................................ for such good quality material. I really do believe that travel will .............................................................. your horizons. As an .......................................................... company, we do business all over the world. Ben lost his job at the bank for being ................................................................ and lazy. I'm having a meeting with my ................................. this afternoon about my tax return. ......................................................................... at the meeting was lower than expected. Many politicians seem to think that ................................... is not always the best policy. If you want to do well at school you must show a ............................................. to learn. Please hand in the ....................................................... calculations by midday tomorrow. The police did not think her story was very..................................................................... Students who repeatedly .............................................. during lessons will be kept after school for detention. Due to compulsory education, there is now much less ..................................... in society. It took months of ............................................................ to arrange her dream wedding. What a ................................................................................................... seeing you here! She tearfully protested her ........................................................................... to the court. It was very ................................................ to eat the rest of the cake and not leave any. This spray is an ............................................ way to stop pests destroying garden plants. They're building a new ............................................ in the city. It runs on only one track. You can't walk in such high shoes. They're totally........................................................... Carol has been working as a ............................................................... for over ten years. John Kennedy's ............................................................ occurred in Dallas, Texas in 1963. You're always breaking things! I'm really fed up of your ................................................. John sounds very ................................................... when he shouts and points his finger at people like that.

LINGUAL SUMMARY ESTIMATE RESIST ACQUAINT BLOCK SHORT ENVY CODE DELIVER APPEAR OPERATE ABILITY FINAL DISMISS SECRET ATHLETE REASON BROAD NATIONAL COMPETENT ACCOUNT ATTEND HONEST WILLING MATHEMATICS CREDIT BEHAVE LITERACY PREPARE COINCIDE INNOCENT SELF EFFECT RAIL PRACTICAL LIBRARY ASSASSINATE CLUMSY AGGRESSION

147

41 It was ................................. of Kate to leave you waiting outside in the cold for so long. CONSIDER 42 Britain has become a ........................................................... society with lots of different CULTURE 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

148

cultures existing side by side. All company ...................................................... must make sure to use their swipe cards EMPLOY whenever they leave the building. Buying property is always a good ................................................................................... . INVEST It's absolute ............................................................. to say that I treated you badly. I did SENSE not and you know it. An important aspect of environmental conservation is protecting plant and animal DIVERSE On my university course, women ......................................................... men. There are at NUMBER least twice as many women. Jane's behaviour in the restaurant was absolutely .......................................................... . DISGRACE If you ...................................................... again this month, I won't lend you any money. SPEND If you .................................................. then you will lose a lot of weight and become ill. EAT Some women get .................................................... depression after the birth of a baby. NATAL The sound of the ..................................................... was heard from over 10 miles away. EXPLODE Britain is still an .................................................... country and most people live in cities. INDUSTRY There are a large ............................................................. of summer dresses in the shops VARY After a painful divorce Usa decided there was little chance of her wanting to MARRY Jumping off the 2nd floor balcony was an ......................................... stupid thing to do. BELIEVABLE The politician denied that there was any .............................................................. for the BASE allegations made against him. Angela was ............................................ after being hit on the head. She could hear her CONSCIOUS attackers talking, but she couldn't make out what they were saying. Ever since Karl quit university his life has been ............................................................... . AIM He needs to decide what he wants to do. It must be a bit strange working as a sailor on a .............................................................. MARINE and living so many metres under the sea. A lot of people are very ............................................................... about politics and how IGNORANCE democracy works. For your own ................................................ , please do not carry heavy items in the lift. SAFE It is the job of the police to ................................................................................. the law. FORCE Paul is waiting for a kidney donor so that he can have a................................................. PLANT He will be remembered for the ...................................................... he showed to helping DEDICATE others less fortunate than himself. This mobile phone is ................................................................. It doesn't work properly. USE Our ........................................ from the port was delayed because of a dangerous storm. DEPART After months of not eating properly Suzannah was seriously.......................................... WEIGH I found the course I did on public speaking very.............................. .............. ............ ....... POWER and I gained a lot of confidence. Donald Trump is a very ................................................................................ businessman. WEALTH The ................................................. are let into the yard for exercise for one hour a day. PRISON Mr Minfry has been a ............................................................ of this village for ten years. RESIDE

73' The minister said that the unemployment figures were reported ...... ,.............................. in the media and that he had the real figures, 74 The fruit of this tree is not ................................................................... as it is poisonous. 75 Kyle is very ....................................................... for his age, He acts like a three-year-old! 76 It's time you cleaned your room. It's very......................................................................... 77 One of the reasons you keep getting ill is because you don't eat ..................................... enough. 78 Louisa is ............................................................ that she will pass her driving test today. 79 Don't ........................................................ people all the time. You're not perfect either! 80 James claims to be a .......................................................... of King George III of England. 81 The judge warned the witness not to ........................................................... the court by withholding information about the case. 82 Rowan Atkinson is a famous British ................................................................................ , 83 I'm absolutely ...................................... that you kept me waiting here for over an hour! 84 Oh, my mobile phone isn't working. I think I need to ................................... the battery. 85 The investigation into the murder is being lead by........................................................... Varence of the Metropolitan police. 86 Why do some people think it's acceptable to .......................................................... other people's property? 87 Please let me know if you require any.............................................................................. 88 Kim and Dan's party was in ........................................ of their fifth wedding anniversary. 89 Our holiday ................................ was very luxurious. We even had a jacuzzi in the room. 90 Jason is a very ..................................................................... football player and he hopes to play professionally one day. 91 Lady Carter works .................................................................... for charity to help people who are not as fortunate in life as she is. 92 Perhaps you should ............................................. your tie a bit, Chris. It looks very tight. 93 I had a completely ............................................................ day at work today. Everything that could go wrong, did go wrong. 94 He lost his job and became homeless. Now, he's a .... .......... ........... ............. ............ .......... on the streets of London. 95 In his speech, the director praised her for her ................................................................... to the company in her 30 years service as a manager. 96 The USA gained ...................................................... from Great Britain on 4th July, 1776. 97 The .............................................................. reserve the right to refuse admission to the premises at their own discretion. 98 Your first job will be to put all the files in the cabinet in ........................................ order. 99 Bella is a ...................................................................... for a popular national newspaper. 100 Thomas likes his sandwiches cut into ............................................................. rather than squares.

ACCURATE EAT MATURE TIDY HEALTH CONFIDENCE CRITIC DESCEND LEAD COMEDY FURY CHARGE INSPECT VANDAL ASSIST CELEBRATE ACCOMMODATE SKILL TIRE LOOSE DISASTER BEG LOYAL INDEPENDENT MANAGE ALPHABET REPORT ANGLE

149

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use the word given and other words to complete the sentence. People say a ghost haunts the graveyard. SAID A ghost .. """."" ...... """" ... ,,.,,.,,"" "" ........ ""."" ..... ,, ... the graveyard. 2 Although it was snowing, we still went for a walk. OF In " ... " .... " ... "" ... " .... """" .. "",, .... ,, .""" .. ,, .... , we still went for a walk. 3 He could talk by the time he was 6 months old. ABLE

He ... "" ... " ... "" .... "."""" .... " ..... ",,. """ .............. " .............. by the time he was 6 months old. 4 We really must close up the shop now. TIME It's .... "." ..... " ... "" ....... " ..... " .. "",, .. """" ... """ .. ,, .. ,," .... the shop now. 5 I leave early so that I avoid the rush hour traffic. ORDER

I leave early""" ......... "." .. "." .. "" .. """ ....... "" .. " the rush hour traffic. 6 A nice man told us how to get to our hotel.

7

8

9

10

11

12

DIRECTIONS We ."" .... " ... "" ...... " ... "" .. " .... "".". "" ............ our hotel by a nice man. You'd better hurry up or we won't catch the start of the play. WILL If you .. " .... " .. " .... "" .. "" .... ,," ......... " ............ miss the start of the play. She had never been abroad before. FIRST It " ............. " ................. " .. " .. " ...... .. ............ she had ever been abroad. Frank is worried that he won't be able to keep up with his work. BEHIND Frank is worried he will ...... " ......... ........... "" .... ""." .. "." .... ". his work. You shouldn't talk badly about your boss. WRONG It's .. " .... " .. "" .. " ........ " ............ ",, .. . "" .. "" .. "." .... " ..... about your boss. James doesn't agree with what Carol did. APPROVE James ."""""" ..... " ..... " .... " ... ,, .. " .. ...... """ ............... " .. " .. ,, .. Carol did. Has Kerry decided to change jobs? MIND

Has Kerry .... "" .. """" .. " .. " ... " ......... " . ..... " .. " ...... " .... about changing jobs? 13 "It was me who took the last biscuit," said Ryan. ADMITTED Ryan ..... "." .. "" .......... " ...... " ..... " ... """""""'''''''''''''''' the last biscuit.

150

14 He got the job because he could speak four languages. DUE He got the job .. """"" ......... ".,, ..... " .. " ....... " ..... " .. "." .... " .. ,," he could speak four languages. 15 She didn't do the ironing in the hope of leaving earlier. SO She didn't do the ironing .. " ....... ". .." .. "" .. ,, ............................ earlier. 16 This food reminds me of my holiday in Rome. BRINGS This food ...................................... . .. ..... " ......... of my holiday in Rome. 17 My friends all like the new cafe. POPULAR The new cafe ............................... .. .................................... my friends. 18 He spent ages repairing his old motorbike. TOOK It ..... " ............ " .............................. . ...... " ................. his old motorbike. 19 "You had better report it to the police," she said to him. ADVISED She .............................................. .. .. ............................... to the police. 20 As long as you practise your driving, you may pass your test. PROVIDED You may pass your test ............... .. .. ................................ your driving. 21 My sister cut my hair. HAD I .................................................... . .. ................................ by my sister. 22 In Scotland, we visited the place Robert Louis Stevenson wrote Treasure Island. WHERE When we were in Scotland we saw the " ............. " .............................. .. .. ...................... " ........ was written. 23 I don't really want to go to the cinema. PREFER I .... ,," ........................................... .. ............................... to the cinema. 24 It was a mistake for me to change jobs. SHOULD I .... " ............................................. .. .. ............................................ jobs. 25 It's your duty to call the supplier. RESPONSIBLE You .............................................. " .................................. the supplier.

26· He described the event in great detail. DESCRIPTION He ................................................ .. ............................ .......... the event. 27 As long as you inform him in advance there should be no trouble. LET Provided ...................................... .. .............. .......... ............ in advance, there should be no trouble. 28 She put a lot of time and thought into finding him the perfect present. EFFORT She .............................................. ..

29

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33

34

35

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into finding him the perfect present. All this running around has exhausted me. WORN I .................................................... . ................. all this running around. All my colleagues came to my party except Brian. WHO Brian was the .............................. .. ......................... come to my party. She intends to go back to work after a year. INTENTION It ................................................... . ............. back to work after a year. It wasn't necessary for you to wrap the gift. WRAPPED You ............................................... . .................. ........ ............... the gift. The film pitch failed to impress the producers. SUCCEED The film pitch .............................. .. ...................... ......... the producers. You should have gone to the doctor. BETTER It ................................................... . .......... you had gone to the doctor. My brother will let me use his computer. OBJECT My brother .................................. .. ....................... using his computer. We would never have gone to the restaurant if you hadn't recommended it. FOR But .................................................... . ........................................., we would never have gone to the restaurant. They will probably buy the house. LIKELY They ............................................. . ..................................... the house. I'm sorry but there is no sugar left. RUN I'm sorry we .: ............................... . ............................................. sugar.

39 His room is much bigger than mine. NEARLY My room isn't .............................. .. .. ............................................... his . 40 He studied Medicine in order to become a doctor. VIEW He studied Medicine .................... .. .. ...................................... a doctor. 41 I have never read such an interesting book . FAR This is .......................................... .. ................... book I have ever read. 42 The biscuit tin is completely empty. LEFT There ............................................ . ...................................... in the tin. 43 You can plead all you want, but I am not letting you use the car. MATTER I am not letting you use the car, ... ............................................ plead . 44 The lawyer made me wait for three hours before he saw me. KEPT The lawyer .................................... . .. ............. hours before he saw me. 45 They just sat watching television all day. NOTHING They ............................................ .. ...... .......... watch television all day. 46 You'll have no difficulty following the recipe. EASY You'll find .................................... .. ..................................... the recipe. 47 Sarah is very sorry she got her hair dyed. REGRETS Sarah ............................................ . .. .................................... hair dyed. 48 When did you last hear from them? SINCE How long ...................................... . .. ........................ heard from them? 49 I had never driven a car before. FIRST It .................................................. .. .................. I had ever driven a car. 50 I apologised for breaking the vase. SORRY I ................................................... .. ......................... breaking the vase . 51 I might go to Spain this summer. POSSIBILITY There ............................................ . .. ............. go to Spain this summer. 52 I can't wait till the school holidays start. FORWARD I'm really ...................................... . .................. of the school holidays. 53 She made them go to the back of the queue . WERE They ............................................ .. ........................ back of the queue.

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54 I can't meet you for coffee tonight. IMPOSSIBLE It's ............................................... .. .................. you for coffee tonight. 55 This car is cheap and efficient. ONLY This car is .................................... .. ... ............... .. ,................... efficient. 56 Both parties agreed on the decision. FULL Both parties were ........................ .. .................................. the decision. 57 The critics said this is the best book ever written. SUPPOSED This .............................................. .. .. ...................... the best book ever written according to the critics. 58 Malcolm is very surprised he got the job. THOUGHT Malcolm never .............................. . .......................................... the job. 59 My parents said I could go to the concert. PERMISSION My parents .................................. .. ...................... ......... to the concert. 60 It's a good idea to keep the cake in the fridge. SHOULD The cake ...................................... .. ................................. in the fridge. 61 Considering that Alan is so short, you must admit he's doing well in the basketball team. ACCOUNT If you ............................................ . ................................. short Alan is, you must admit he's doing well in the basketball team. 62 "I'm saving for a holiday so I shouldn't buy this dress," Mary said. BETTER "I'm saving for a holiday, so I ........

63

64

65

66

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this dress," Mary said. Shall I make you a coffee? TO Would .......................................... .. ................................. you a coffee? His boss won't tolerate his tardiness any longer. PUT His boss won't .............................. . .................... ................. any longer. The two cats look the same to me. TELL I .................................................... . .................. between the two cats. This mistake wasn't his fault. BLAME He ................................................. . .................................. the mistake.

67 I drove at night because I didn't want to get stuck in traffic. AVOID I drove at night ............................ . .............................. stuck in traffic. 68 She posted her vote too late, so it didn't count in the election . RESULT She posted her vote too late, ........ .. ....................................... it didn't count in the election. 69 Richard definitely won't win the race. CHANCE Richard has .................................. .. .. ...................................... the race . 70 I prefer sitcoms to documentaries. PREFERENCE I have .......................................... .. .. ............................ documentaries . 71 Fruit is not as fattening as chocolate. LESS Fruit .............................................. . .......... .................... ........ chocolate. 72 Gary was responsible for tidying up the lab . CHARGE Gary was ...................................... . .......................................... the lab . 73 We enjoyed ourselves a lot at the bowling alley. TIME We ............................................... .. .. .................... at the bowling alley. 74 She isn't as quiet as she was when she was younger. USED She ............................................... . .................................... she is now. 75 It's possible that she didn't hear you. MAY She .............................................. .. .. ............................................. you. 76 I'm sure it wasn't Kate I saw at the cinema. HAVE It .................................................. .. .............. Kate I saw at the cinema. 77 They were delayed by a traffic jam for five hours . HELD They ............................................. . ............ a traffic jam for five hours. 78 They enjoyed the day trip to the zoo very much . FUN They ............................................ .. .. ..................... day trip to the zoo. 79 It was easy for him to replace the plug. DIFFICULTY He .................... ;........................... .. ........................................ the plug. 80 It isn't worth seeing that film, it isn't any good. POINT There is ......................................... . .. ......... that film, it isn't any good.

Formal letters/emails Formal letters/emails are usually sent to people we don't know or people in an official position, e.g. when applying for a job/course, making a complaint or requesting information, etc. They include: a formal greeting (Dear Sir or Madam, Dear Mr Smith),

an introduction with our opening remarks and the reason for writing, main body paragraphs, one for each separate topic, a conclusion with our closing remarks, a formal ending (Yours faithfully, when you

:p-----------------------------. \1Mm iiH/ Studiujesz w Anglii. PrzeczytateS/-as zawieszone na I tablicy informacyjnej Twojej uczelni ogtoszenie w sprawie pracy : na pot etatu w centrum dziennej opieki nad dziecmi. Napisz list I (120-150 stow). w ktorym: :. poinformujesz. gdzie zauwaZytes/-as ogtoszenie i dlaczego i jestes zainteresowany/ -a t~ praq. : & podasz swoj wiek i opiszesz stosowne kwalifikacje. i · wspomnisz 0 doswiadczeniu wyniesionym z poprzedniej : pracy i wyjasnisz. dlaczego Twoja osobowosc predestynuje ! Ci"t do podj"tcia tej pracy. :. poinformujesz. ile godzin tygodniowo moi:esz poswi"tcic 3 pracy i kiedy moi:esz przyjsc na_rozmow"t kwalifikacyjn~. __ ___ __ ___ __ ____ L~_~

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don't know the person's name/Yours sincerely, when you know the person's name) + your full

name. Formal style is characterised by: formal expressions, advanced vocabulary & longer sentences (I am available for an

use of the passive I am writing to apply for the position \ of part-time daycare centre assistant which was advertised on the

interview at any time convenient to you.) formal linking words (However, In addition) full verb forms (I am writing to ... ) use of the passive (I can be contacted ... )

college noticeboard. I am interested in this 'job since I enjoy working with children.

formallinkin(word

I am twenty-one years of age and am currently studying Child Psychology. In addition, I have a good command of both written and spoken English.

Applying for a job/course • I am writing to apply for the position of ... advertised in (yesterday's 'Evening Post'). • With reference to your advertisement in ... • I have been working as a ... for the last .. , years. • Despite my lack of ... experience, I feel that I would be ... • I consider myself to be (punctual, hardworking, etc.)

childcare, I have often done babysitting for neighbours ds. I feel I would be well suited for this position as I am enthusiastic, energetic and creative. I also consider myself to be patient when dealing with young children.

r3'ca'1tanra

~

am available for work for up to 15 hours a week during

the afternoons and would be glad to attend an interview at any time convenient to you.

• I enclose a reference from my previous employer. • I would be grateful if you would consider my application. • Can you tell me the duration of the course? • Please send me a prospectus giving the course details. • Is it possible to enrol online? • I look forward to hearing from you. Complaining • I am writing to draw your attention to ... • I am writing to express my strong dissatisfaction at the ... • I am writing to complain about the quality of ... I recently purchased from you. • The sales assistant was extremely rude and ... • I demand an immediate replacement or a full refund. • I would appreciate it if .. , could be replaced. • I hope you will replace ... • I hope that this matter will be dealt with promptly.

advanced vo?a;;'ulary

Despite not having any formal work experience in

I look forward to hearing from you./formal expression Yours faithfully, ___ formal ending Ewa KowaL.-fulI name

1

Read the letter again and match the formal expressions in bold to the informal ones below.

1 I'm really good at 2 I'm sure I'd be great at this job 3 whenever is good for you 4 Best wishes 5 I just wanted to ask about 6 Although I've never done anything quite like this before 7 I'd love to have a go at

153

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Stories Stories can be written either in the first or the third-person and present a series of events, real or imaginary. The events in the story should be written in the order in which they happen. Stories include: an introductory paragraph which sets the scene (describes the time, place, people, activity, weather, etc), • main body paragraphs (describing incidents leading UP to the main event, the main event

itself and its climax), a concluding paragraph (describing what happens in the end, people's reactions/feelings, etc) Stories are characterised by: • the use of past tenses (The sun was shining

brightly when they set out. She put on her coat, opened the door and went outside. When the waiter brought the bill, Mr Bartlett was embarrassed to find he had forgotten to bring his wallet.) •

linking words/phrases that convey time and sequence of events (first/at first, then/ next, after/before that, during, while, meanwhile,

as soon as, the moment that, by the time, in the end/finally, etc). •



descriptive adjectives/adverbs to make the story more interesting (elegant, pleasant, breathtaking, fast, politely, softly, etc) direct speech to make the story more dramatic ("Whatever are you doing?" she yelled.)

:

Twoja szkota organizuje konkurs Iiteracki na najlepsze opowiadanie. Tematem opowiadania ma bye przeraiaj,!ce : doswiadczenie. ktore byto Twoim udziatem. Napisz opowiadanie a na konkurs (200-250 stow). I

B

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Traveller's Rest by John Smith . " place people actlvltty ,\O,n~ wee.ke~d last autumnjmy cousin Jack and I/went on~ • hiking triP In the countryside. We had planned to stay at a ~ village hotel on Saturday night and return home on Sunday. ~ As we were walking late on Saturday afternoon, we realised r..::t:!e had lost our way. It was getting dark and we were very tired, Thefi\it started to rain and we started to feel desperate. ~ The next moment, we saw an old-fashioned stone cottage, so we decided to stop and ask directions. A little old lady came ,,",rI~'"";-'ive to the door. She was wearing a long dress and smiling ~.:...::..:::.::.:../.. When she heard that we were lost, she invited us direct . in . "You're welcome to stay the night, " she said. "You can speech reach the village easily in the morning." We felt grateful for h:r hospitality and sat down to a hot tasty meal in her cosy kitchen. After that, she showed us upstairs to two clean comfortable beds, descriptive adjectives""'---The next morning, the old lady was nowhere to be found. We left a thank-you note and set off towards the village. We · stopped for a coffee at the village hotel. Imagine our ' amazement when the hotel owner told us who we had stayed with. "That's old Mrs Heron," he said. "She's been dead for ~ixty years. She used to put up travellers overnight." Jack and I looked at each other in horror. Did we imagine it or · had we seen a ghost? I suppose we will never know, time

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I

people's reactions/feelings Starting a story/Setting the scene • Karen felt (exhausted) as she had been (studying

hard for her exams for six months). • The birds were singing happily when Tom woke up on Saturday.

1

Leading up to the main event • At first, we didn't notice (anything strange). • The (party) had only just (started) when ... • The next thing (Tom) knew, (he was .. .).

They reached the hotel. An old lady came to the door. They heard a scary story. The writer and his cousin were out hiking. They talked to the hotel owner. They stopped to ask the way. They went to bed. They got lost. They ate a mea\. She invited them to stay the night. They saw a cottage,

The main event/climax of the story • They started (screaming and shouting in panic). e I felt sure (the plane) was going to (crash). Describing people/places/ objects/feelings • The old man behind the counter ... • The streets of the small town were crowded and bustling during Carnival week. • Small puffy white clouds drifted lazily above our heads. • To their (surprise/disgust/horror, etc) ... , • Imagine our (disappointment) when .. . Ending a story • I've never felt so (relieved/scared, etc) in my whole life. • He knew he would never ... again. • It was the most (embarrassing) moment I've ever experienced.

154

Put the events in the story in the order in which they happened.

2

Underline all the time words and phrases in the story that show the sequence of events. Compare with your partner.

Semi-formal letters/emails Semi-formal letters/emails are usually sent to someone we know but not very well, e.g. a routine em ail to a business/website asking for or giving information, a thank-you letter to your friend's parents, etc. They include: • a formal greeting (Dear Ms Co le, DearMrand Mrs Jackson ), • an introduction with your opening remarks and the reason for writing, main body paragraphs each containing a separate topic, • a conclusion with your closing remarks, • an informal ending (Best wishes/Kindest regards/Yours, +your full name). Note: when we want to be brief and to the point, emails are usually preferred to letters. Semi-formal style is characterised by: relaxed, friendly language (Thanks so much for having me to stay with you.) a polite and respectful tone, depending on the relationship you have with the person (I'm really grateful for all your help.) some short verb forms (I'm writing to enquire about tennis lessons in my area. full inclusion of pronouns (We'd be happy to answer your queries.) • some use of idioms/colloquial expressions but use with care (I hope this information will come in handy sometime.) linking words/phrases for listing points (first of all, secondly, also, finally, etc).

Chcesz zarezerwowac wakacje pod namiotem przez Internet. Znalaztes/-as miejsce. kt6re Ci si~ podoba. ale potrzebujesz wi~cej informacji na jego temat. Napisz list adreso· wany do Billa Forbesa z Golden Sun Campsite i zapytaj w nim: •

0 moiliwosc zabrania z sob,! zwierz'!tka domowego.

o koszt miejsca na parkingu. !.

dost~pne na miejscu moiliwosci gotowania.

I

!.

sporty_wodne. kt6re moina uprawiac w okolicy. __ __

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Dear Mr Forbes/ formal greeting I'm writing to enquire about staying at your campsite this summer. Can you please give me some further information? short

' " polite respectful tone

Firstly, I'd like to know about the cooking facilities. For

verb form example, is there a shared kitchen for cooking and if so, will I need to bring any equipment? Also, could you tell me if there is an extra charge for car parking and linking whether I can bring my dog along to the campsite? to list points~, your advert mentions the campsite is near the beach, but it doesn't say which water sports are inclusion

available.

I

am

particularly

interested

in

doing

of pronoun-windsurfing- and would like to know if this is possible. relaxed ........ Many thanks in advance for your help. friendly language YOUrS,_informal ending Aleksander Belinski ____ full name

Opening remarks • I hope you are well. • I'm sorry I haven't been in touch sooner. • I'm writing in connection with ... Thanking • I can't thank you enough. • I don't know how to thank you. • I really appreciate it. Giving information • I'd be glad to answer your questions. • Another point to bear in mind (is that) ... • I would also like to point out ... Asking for information • I'd like to (ask/enquire/knowetc) ... • Could you please inform me ... ? • Will it be necessary to ... ?/Willl need to ... ? • Is there an extra charge for ... ? • What kind or (equipment) is provided? Closing remarks • Many thanks (in advance) for ... • I'm looking forward to hearing from you. • Please give my regards to ... • I hope you find this information helpful.

1

Read the model below. Compare and contrast it with the model above. Why isn't it appropriate? Think about: • layout

Cl

the way it starts/ends • tone and style of language

• use of pronouns/linking words

Dear Bill Forbes, Just writing to ask about staying at your campsite this summer. Unfortunately, quite a bit of information is missing from your website! I'd like to know if there is a shared kitchen for cooking. If there is, I'll probably need to bring some equipment, won't I? Do you charge extra for car parking? Furthermore, are pets prohibited from the campsite? It's great that you're just a stone's throw from the beach. However, your advert doesn't say which water sports are available. I would particularly welcome the opportunity to experience windsurfing for the first time. Yours faithfully, Aleksander

155

Essays suggesting 'solutions to a problem Essays suggesting solutions to a problem are formal pieces of writing in which a problem is introduced and suggestions are made on how to deal with it. The expected result of each suggestion is mentioned, together with the writer's opinion at the end of the essay. Essays suggesting solutions to a problem include: • an introductory paragraph stating the problem, • main body paragraphs (up to 3) each presenting a separate suggestion, Q supporting sentence to develop the idea or give an example and the possible results, • a concluding paragraph which restates the problem and summarises the writer's opinion. Essays suggesting solutions to a problem are characterised by: • formal/semi-formal vocabulary and some longer sentences (If these suggestions are

• • •

p-----------------------------. Nauczyciel zadat Twojej klasie wypracowanie na j

!

temat problemu nl'!kaj,!cego okoliczn'! spotecznosc. Wybrates/ : -as temat zasmieconych ulic. Napisz rozprawkl'! (200-250 stow). i w ktorej zawrzesz sugestie. jak kai:dy z mieszkancow moze : przyczynic siI'! do rozwictZania problemu. oraz opis mozliwych i skutkow podjl'!tych dziatan. __ ___ __ __ I

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Fight litter now!

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Nowadays, litter on the streets is a common problem in ~ . many cities and towns. There is no doubt that it is an \J unpleasant and annoying sight. The question is, what can I. [ we as individuals do about it? In fact, there are a number N of solutions.

I

Para 2 [In the first place, we should make sure we dispose of our I= 1st sugge;tion . ?wn rubbish.respo.nsi?ly. In other words, vo:e sh.ould all ~et supporting Into the habit of finding the nearest rubbish bin or taking sentence + it home ,:"ith us for recycling. If. e~eryone does this, the streets will be much cleaner and tidier. I

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taken into consideration, I am convinced that the problem will be resolved.) formal linking words to join ideas (Moreover, Nevertheless, However, etc). full verb forms (There is no doubtthat ... )

Para 3 [secondlY, don't ignore litter that you see lying around suggestion pick it up. It is important to set a good example for others .. supporting Then, when someone sees your concern for the I + environment, they will hopefully follow your example and! resu t do the same.

a mild impersonal style that avoids colloquial expressions or strong personal feelings (Most people would agree street litter is

Para 4 [AS a final idea, you can join or create a local litter group. I suggestion You could not only get involved in litter picking but also supporting . work with the local council to give talks in schools. As a + result, children will learn at an early age how important it ~ result is not to litter.

unpleasant.)

1. ·., I ~

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o sum up, it cannot be denied that street litter poses a problem in many neighbourhoods. It is an ugly nuisance that will not go away unless we do something about it. I believe we should do more as individuals to reduce the . roblem.

Listing points • Firstly,!ln the first place, • Secondly, • Furthermore, • In addition, • Finally,lLastly,

U

Making suggestions • One way of solving the problem ... o Another helpful suggestion would be to '" o We/People should ... • It is important/It would be a good idea to ... Adding supporting details

Developing a point:

1

Find and replace all the linking words and phrases in the essay with different ones from the Useful Language box.

• For instance,!For example, • In particular,

2

Presenting results • As a result, 0 Consequently, • By doing this, • In this way, • Therefore, • Then, • If (people) ... , the (situation) will/would ....

Find examples of formal vocabulary and mild impersonal style in the essay. Compare with your partner.

3

Write a supporting sentence and a sentence presenting results for the following suggestions. Use language from the Useful Language box.

• In other words,!ln short, • This means that ... • After all,

Giving examples:

Expressing opinion • In my opinion/view, • I believe/think/feel (that} ... • It seems to me/It is obvious (that) ...

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Concluding • To conclude,lTo sum up, • All in all,

1 One way of solving the problem of graffiti is for the council to provide a graffiti park. 2 People suffering from stress should take up yoga.

For-and-against essays For-and-against essays are formal pieces of writing which discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a topic. Arguments on both sides of the topic are presented in equal detail and the writer's opinion is included at the end of the essay. For-and-against essays include: an introductory paragraph introducing the topic and its two sides, two main body paragraphs - one presenting arguments for together with justifications/examples and the other presenting arguments against with justifications/examples, a concluding paragraph which summarises the arguments and gives the writer's opinion. Note: in for-and-against essays, each main body paragraph begins with a topic sentence that outlines the main idea of that paragraph. For-and-against essays are characterised by: formal/semi-formal vocabulary and some longer sentences (Although some people may disagree, in my view, the advantages

far outweigh the disadvantages.) formal

linking words to join ideas

(Although, Whereas, For this reason, ete). full verb forms (ltis well worth ... ) a mild impersonal style that avoids colloquial expressions or strong personal feelings (Renting a home is thought by some

people to be a better solution than buying one.)

Listing points • Fi rstly,lTo beg i n with, • Secondly, • Furthermore,/Moreover, • Finally,

!

Napisz rozprawk~ (200-250 stow) przeznaczon~ do : publikacji w magazynie poswi~conym urz~dzaniu do mu i ogrodu ! na temat zalet i wad kupna wtasnego domu. I

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To buy or not to buy?

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Para 1 [ManY yo~ng people today, e.specially those planning to ~ introduces topic get married, dream of owning their own home some + presents the day. Some people would agree that home ownership is a good thing, while others believe it is not worth the two sides trouble.

/"" topic sentence

Para 2 1st advantage + justification

There are certain advantages to having a home of your own. To begin with, it can be considered a good [ investment. After all, you can sell it at any time and possibly make a profit. Furthermore, home ownership 2nd advantage means you have greater freedom to please yourself. You + example [ can redecorate your house or keep a pet dog, for example, without having to ask the landlord. topic /sentence However, buying a house can also have a number of Para 3 disadvantages. One major drawback is the high cost. 1s~ di~~dv~ntage This is because you need a large amount of money as a + Justification [ down payment before you can buy, in addition to the expense of maintaining and repairing your house. Secondly, a homeowner tends to be tied down to one 2nd disadvantage + . place. This means that you can't just get up and move if justification [ you do not like the neighbourhood, because you will have to sell your house first. Para 4 All things considered, there are both advantages and summarises the disadvantages to buying your own home. It seems to arguments + me, though, that it is a good idea if you can afford it. It gives the writer's opinion [ . is something that belongs to you and can give you security in the future.

Introducing advantages • One/An important/The main advantage of ... , • Another/An additional benefit of ... , • Some/Many people are in favour of ... , Introducing disadvantages • A serious drawback/major disadvantage of ... , • Some/Many people are against ... ,

1

Find examples of longer sentences and formal/advanced vocabulary in the essay.

2

Rewrite the topic sentences in the main body paragraphs of the model. Use phrases from the Useful Language box to help you.

3

Write one additional advantage and one additional disadvantage of buying your own home, together with justifications/examples.

Justifying points and giving examples

Justifying a point: • This is because... • The reason for this is ... • This means that... • After all,

Giving examples: • For instance,lFor example, • such as Contrasting ideas • On the other hand, • However,lNevertheless, • Despite/In spite of (the faetthat) ... Expressing opinion • In my opinion/view, • I believe/think/feel ... , Concluding • In conclusion, • All things considered,

157

letters to the editor

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making suggestions

:"MmlB/l·W

Letters to the editor making suggestions are pieces of writing which appear in newspapers or magazines. They express the writer's ideas concerning issues of public interest at local, national and even international levels, e.g. improving community facilities, health issues, etc. Letters to the editor are often written in direct response to a published article or news item and are usually formal in style. They include:

i



a formal greeting (Dear Sir/Madam, Dear

Editor, Sir,), •



an introduction in which we refer to the article/news item we are responding to (when applicable), say when and where we read it. state our reason for writing (to make suggestions on a given topic), and briefly give our opinion, at least two main body paragraphs, one for each suggestion and the possible results/consequences,



a conclusion which summarises our opinion/restates the topic, • a formal ending (Yours faithfully, + your full name). Letters to the editor making suggestions are characterised by: •

formal vocabulary & some longer sentences (In view of the widespread extent of

the problem, security systems should be upgraded frequently as a precaution.) •

formal



(Furthermore, Nevertheless, For this reason ete). the use of full verb forms (/t is important that we raise public awareness of this issue).



linking

words

to

join

ideas

a mild impersonal style that avoids colloqUial expressions or strong personal feelings (Another point to keep in mind is that

Przeczytales/-as artykul 0 osobach, ktorych : komputery zostaty zaatakowane przez hakerow. Napisz I : list (150-200 stow) do redakcji ,Jhe Daily Chronicle", : ! przedstawiaj'!:c czytelnikom sposoby ochrony komputerow. I ~~~~==-~~-~-~-~--~-~=~~~=~-~

Dear Sir/Madam, yrmal

i~

greeting

Further to your article in today's issue of The Daily Chronicle about cyber hacking, I would like to express my concern about this issue. Most of us are familiar with firewall and anti-virus protection. However, there are one or two other suggestions which I/hope readers may find helpful. formal linking word

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First of all, it is important for PC users to keep their security programs up-to-date. You should upgrade them frequently and regularly to ensure you have the latest versions of security software. These are often free over i the Internet. As a result, your chances of being hacked will be reduced. Another point to keep in mind is to change your personal password from time to time. Do this regularly, say, every 90 days, to keep your PC access secure. Consequently, you will make it more difficult for hackers to break into your account. full verb form To conclude, cyber hacking can pose a serious security threat to information systems. Nevertheless, I believe a few simple suggestions like the ones above can I considerably reduce our risk of a cyber attack. Yours faithfully, Katarzyna Kraje~ formal vocabulary/ I

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security systems need regular updating.)

longer sentence ¥[email protected]

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Listing points • Firstly/In the first place • To begin with, • Secondly, • Additionally, • Finally/Lastly, Making suggestions • One good idea is to .... • WelYou/People should/could .... • Another helpful suggestion would be to ....

1

Underline the topic sentences in the main body paragraphs. Then, rewrite them using language from the Useful Language section.

2.

Write two main body paragraphs making suggestions on how your local town council can improve road safety in your town/village.

Presenting results • By doing this, • In this way, • Therefore, • If (people) ... , the (situation) will/would .... Expressing opinion • I believe/think/feel (that) ... , • It seems to me/It is clear (that) .... Concluding • To sum up, • All things considered,

1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ZADANIE I.

Prawda/faisz

(5 pkt)

o Ustyszysz dwukrotnie

wypowiedi: George'a. bezrobotnego pracownika sfui:by cywilnej. Na podstawie zawartych w niej informacji zdecyduj, kt6re zdania (1-5) s,! zgodne z tresci,! tekstu (TRUE). a kt6re nie (FALSE). Zaznacz znakiem X odpowiedni,! rubryklt w tabeli. Za kai:d,! poprawn,! odpowiedi: otrzymasz 1 punkt.

George lost his job half a year ago. 2 Younger workers take less time off work than older workers. 3 George would feel too embarrassed to be a road sweeper. 4 George has found a job as a clerk.

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I.

I

1

t

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1

S George didn't like his old job.

ZADANIE 2. I

Dobieranie

(5 pkt)

o

Ustyszysz dwukrotnie wypowiedzi piltciu os6b na temat problem6w zwi¥anych z ich miejscem zamieszkania. Przyporz'!dkuj m6wi,!cych do pytan. kt6re najlepiej podsumowujC); ich wypowiedzi. wpisujC);c odpowiednie litery (A-F) w kratki (1-5). Jedno pytanie zostato podane dodatkowo i nie pasuje do i:adnej wypowiedzi. Za kai:d,! poprawnC); odpowiedi: otrzymasz 1 punkt. Which speaker:

Speaker 1

A lives in the countryside? B doesn't have enough room to live the way they did in the past?

Speaker 2 Speaker 3

C is not completely in charge of running their home?

Speaker 4

D has a home that gets messy in bad weather?

Speaker 5

E wants to move somewhere else? F says something in their home needs replacing?

ZADANIE 3. I

Wyb6r wielokrotny

(5 pkt)

o Ustyszysz dwukrotnie wywiad z europarlamentarzystkC); June Stewart. Z podanych moi:liwosci odpowiedzi wybierz wtaSciwC);, zgodnC); z tresciC); tekstu. Zakreslliterlt A, B lub C. Za kai:dC); poprawnC); odpowiedi otrzymasz 1 punkt. June says she spends most of her working life A in Brussels. B in Strasbourg. C travelling between offices.

3 You can't become an MEP if you A work in a bank. B have a conviction. C are a local councillor.

2 Strasbourg is where June A writes new laws. B holds meetings with other MEPs. C takes part in votes.

4 The interviewer suggests the European Parliament is too A big. B weak. C disorganised.

S June presents herself in the interview as someone who is A right-wing. B left-wing. C environmentally aware.

159

lE 4.

I: Dcbier~mie I

pkt)

Przeczytaj tekst dotycz~cy pracy na farmie ekologicznej. Do katdej czersci tekstu (1-7) dopasuj nagt6wek (A-H) i wpisz w kazd~ kratker odpowiedni~ literer. Jeden nagtowek zostat pod any dodatkowo i nie odnosi sier do zadnej czersci tekstu. Za kazd~ poprawn~ odpowiedi otrzymasz 1 punkt.

Chelsea MacDuff spent six months working on Golden Valley Organic Farm in Oregon, Canada. Here's what she says about it

[}I] Last summer I finished secondary school and decided I wanted a year out to gain some work experience before I started university. I planned to study Agriculture, so it made sense to do a farming job of some kind. That's when I saw an advert for a farm hand at Golden Valley Organic Farm. [}I] The 1aa-acre farm produces a wide range of fruit and vegetables and raises pigs and hens, using 100% organic methods. No chemicals are used in fertilisers and pesticides, so the soil and air remain unpolluted. It's also really good news for the river near the farm, which is clean enough to drink!

[ID I worked there with three other helpers. From June to November we were out in the fields, planting seeds, weeding and harvesting. In addition, we were given our own special jobs. Nuala and I looked after the chickens. Chet and Sam had carpentry work to do, building and repairing barns and outhouses.

~ Obviously, you have to be very strong, fit and energetic, as farm work is very physically demanding. If you have previous farm experience, it's helpful but not essential. It's more important in Golden Valley to be enthusiastic, cooperative and willing to learn.

[}I] Of course,

some things were hard to get used to. For me, the worst thing was getting up at six in the morning and feeding the chickens before breakfast. Cleaning out the chicken coop wasn't exactly my favourite job, either!

160

A A REWARDING EXPERIENCE B DEALING WITH DIFFICULTIES C RESPECTING THE ENVIRONMENT D COMMUNAL LIVING E THE SKILLS NEEDED F EXPLORING THE COUNTRYSIDE G ASSIGNING THE CHORES H A LOGICAL CHOICE

[!IJ Most of the time, though, I thoroughly enjoyed myself. You get a tremendous sense of satisfaction watching the seedlings you planted grow into strong healthy plants. I learnt how to make an organic pesticide from garlic, onions and hot peppers. No insect would go near a plant sprayed with that!

[ID For accommodation, I shared a cosy log cabin with Nuala. At mealtimes we all ate together in the main farmhouse and everyone had a turn at cooking. All the food was organic farm produce and so we ate really healthily. All in all, Golden Valley is an experience I would recommend to anyone who likes working alongside Mother Nature!

s. I Prawda/fafsz

(7 pkt)

Przeczytaj tekst 0 nowoczesnych robotach ufatwiajC!cych wykonywanie obowi
How would you like to have a robot to do your household chores for you? It may sound like fantasy, but think about the electrical appliances we already have to do our housework. Early in the 20th century, everybody did their washing-up and their laundry by hand. The dishwashers and washing machines of today were undreamt of. So, how will technology help us in the home in the next 1 00 years? It looks like we won't need to vacuum our floors so much, for one thing. There are several robotic vacuum cleaners now available to buy online. They can find their way around a room without any human help. Unfortunately, they don't do the job as well as a person -- and at the moment there's only one that can empty itself of dirt! If you don't have carpets, how about a machine that can wash hard floors? There is one - and reviewers say it does the job better than a mop. However, it takes a lot longer than a person and it's somewhat noisy. Of course, that won't bother businesses if they can stop paying people to clean their floors. It may also be harder in the future to make money as a window cleaner. A South Korean company has invented a machine that sticks to windows and can clean a square metre of glass in ten minutes. While floor-cleaning and window-cleaning robots are small machines that can do only one task, human-like robots that can do more than one chore are also appearing. In Japan, scientists have invented a robot that moves around on wheels and can tidy up, put dishes away and load a washing machine. Its creators hope it will be on sale by the middle of this decade. The most advanced robots can pour drinks and serve them. So perhaps a robot that is gentle enough to water plants, dust and polish furniture or even iron clothes isn't too far away. But there is one big problem. None of these robots are able to get upstairs on their own!

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i 2 Robotic vacuum cleaners perform better than humans.

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3 if you like peace and quiet, don't buy a fioor-washing machine.

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4 Businesses can't afford to keep paying window cleaners,

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5 Robots that can do a number of chores are now available.

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, 6 It is unlikely that robots will ever iron clothes., ___________________,

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7 Robots are limited in their movements.

161

ZADANIE 6.

Wyb6r wielokrotny

(6 pkt)

Przeczytaj tekst 0 niebieskich pokarmach. Z podanych mozliwosci odpowiedzi wybierz wlaSciw<);. zgodn<); z tresci<); tekstu. Zakreslliterte A. B. Club D. Za kai:d<); poprawn<); odpowiedi otrzymasz 1 punkt.

part from blueberries, can you think of any blue foods? Blue food is quite rare in nature and ecause of that, the colour blue can suppress your appetite! That's right - believe it or not, experts claim that blue will make you eat less. They actually recommend that people on diets should try eating from blue plates. Painting your dining area blue or putting a blue light in your fridge could also stop you getting hunger pangs. Dyeing food blue will produce the same effect. In Japan you can even buy blue 'weightloss' glasses! The idea is that when you put them on, they make all foods look blue and therefore unappetising. But why is this? Millions of years ago, when our ancestors looked for food, they learned to avoid eating anything blue, purple or black, which could be poisonous in some way. Just like our ancestors, the first thing we do before we eat something is look at it; our sight plays an important role when we decide whether or not to put something in our mouths. One test showed that when people ate food in the dark, they enjoyed it much less than when they According to the writer, blue food is A becoming fashionable. B unusual in nature. C never found in nature. D common in nature. 2 The article says people can use the colour blue to try to A make their food more interesting. B remind themselves what to eat. C reduce the amount of food they eat. D create a pleasant dining atmosphere. 3 The reasons people first rejected blue foods were connected with A politics. C money. B religion. D health.

162

could see it. So it seems our sight can play a more important role than smell, texture and even taste in our appreciation of food. However unnatural they are though, it seems some people do want to eat blue foods. When an American sweet manufacturer asked people what colour sweets they would like added to their selection, the answer was blue. But was this just for novelty value because blue food is so unusual? When a different American company actually put a blue product on the marketblue cola - it quickly disappeared from supermarket shelves because of poor sales. Many food products fail because of their unappetising appearance, but green, white and brown foods are very popular. The colours that are the best appetite stimulants, however, are red and yellow. Have you noticed thatcmany big fast food chains use red and yellow in their logos? These are the best colours to paint your dining room to make people enjoy any food you cook as much as possible!

4 Researchers found that to really enjoy food, we need to A see what we are eating. B know what we are eating. C show our appreciation of it. D avoid blue foods. 5 In America A blue is people's favourite colour of sweet. B blue cola sold quickly. C food companies favour blue. D blue cola was a failure. 6 Red and yellow A encourage people to eat quickly. B are the colours preferred by most restaurants. C have a big effect on appetite. D help you feel more sociable.

I

J

NIE

lE 8.

(5 pkt)

Krotki tekst uzytkowy

I

Szukasz mieszkania do wynajltcia. Napisz ogtoszenie przeznaczone do umieszczenia na tablicy informacyjnej uczelni. na ktorej studiujesz. W ogtoszeniu: • poinformuj. w Jakiej okolicy szukasz mieszkania. okresl gorn'l; graniclt czynszu. wspomnij 0 posiadanym zwierz'l;tku domowym. poinformuj. jak dtugo zamierzasz wynajmowac mieszkanie.

Podpisz si~ jako XYZ. W zadaniu nie jest okreslony limit sf6w. Oceniana jest umiej~tnosc zwi~zfego przekazu wszystkich informacji okreslonych w poleceniu (4 punkty) oraz poprawnosc j~zykowa (1 punkt).

(H) pkt)

I Dtuzs:zy tekst uvjtkowy I Przeczytates/-as ogtoszenie popularnej restauracji znajduj'l;cej silt w znanej miejscowosci turystycznej. Restauracja poszukuje kelnerek i kelnerow znaj'l;cych jltzyk angielski. Napisz list (120-150 stow). w ktorym: pOinformujesz. gdzie natkn'l;tes/ natknlttas silt na ogtoszenie i wyjasnisz. dlaczego jestes zainteresowany / -a ofert'l; pracy. opiszesz swoje dotychczasowe doswiadczenie zawodowe i poziom znajomosci jltzyka angielskiego. opiszesz swoje cechy osobowosci i wyjasnisz. dlaczego nadajesz silt na to stanowisko. poinformujesz. w jakim terminie mozesz stawic silt na rozmowlt kwalifikacyjn'l;. i wyrazisz nadziejlt na szybk'l; odpowiedi.

Pamilttaj 0 zachowaniu odpowiedniej formy i stylu listu. Nie umieszczaj zadnych adres6w. Podpisz si~ jako XYZ. Dfugosc listu powinna wynosic od 120 do 150 sf6w. Oceniana jest umiej~tnosc pefnego przekazania informacji (4 punkty). forma (2 punkty). bogactwo j~zykowe (2 punkty) oraz poprawnosc j~zykowa (2 punkty).

163

lE I.

I (5 pkt)

[prawda/faisz

O' Uslyszysz dwukrotnie fragment radiowej audycji popularnonaukowej. Na podstawie zawartych w niej informacji zdecyduj. kt6re zdania (1-5) s~ zgodne z tresci~ tekstu (TRUE). a kt6re nie (FALSE). Zaznacz znakiem X odpowiedni~ rubryk~ w tabeli. Za ka±d~ poprawn~ odpowiedi otrzymasz 1 punkt. 1 Most scientists think global dimming is a real phenomenon. 2 Between 1950 and 1990, the amount of sunlight reaching the earth's surface fell by 6% every decade. 3 Burning fossil fuels causes both global warming and global dimming. 4 Scientist Gerry Stanhill invented a way to reduce the amount of water crops need to grow. 5 In the 1980s, Israel got 22 % of the sunlight it did in the 1950s.

ZADANIE 2.

I

Dobieraraie

I (5 pkt)

o

Uslyszysz dwukrotnie wypowiedzi pi~ciu os6b na temat sn6w. Przyporz~dkuj m6wi~cych do pytan. kt6re najlepiej podsumowuj~ ich wypowiedzi. wpisuj~c odpowiednie litery (A-F) w kratki (1-5). Jedno pytanie zostato podane dodatkowo i nie pasuje do ±adnej wypowiedzi. Za ka±d~ poprawn~ odpowiedi otrzymasz 1 punkt.

A B C D E F

Dreams are basically meaningless. We dream to rehearse responses we need when we're awake. The purpose of dreams is to filter information. We will never know the meaning of dreams. We dream in order to lose information. Dreams have a problem-solving function.

ZADANIE 3.

Speaker 1 Speaker 2 Speaker 3 Speaker 4 Speaker 5

I Wyb6r wielokrotray I (5 pkt)

o

Uslyszysz dwukrotnie wywiad z naukowcem na temat niedawno odkrytej skamieliny. Z podanych mo±liwosci odpowiedzi wybierz wtasciw~. zgodn~ z tresci~ tekstu. Zakresl liter~ A. B. Club D. Za ka±d~ poprawn~ odpowiedi otrzymasz 1 punkt.

The spider Nephi/a Jurassica A evolved before dinosaurs. B gets its name from the time period it existed. C had short legs but a huge body. D is the largest spider to have ever lived. 2 The fossil spiders found in England are A not as old as Nephila Jurassica. B directly related to Nephila Jurassica. C smaller than Nephila Jurassica. D not as complex as Nephila Jurassica.

164

3 Scientists believe Nephila Jurassica is an ancient relative of today's golden orb-weave spiders because of its

A diet. B appearance.

C size. D habitat.

4 When asked about Nephi/a Jurassica's diet, Dr Seldon says the spider A was probably eaten by small dinosaurs. B ate small birds as part of its diet. C may have been preyed upon by other spiders. D lived on a diet of insects. 5 Bigger body size for female spiders means they A live longer than males B mature later than males. C face less danger than males. D can mate more often than males. \

L

ZADANIE 4. I \Vyb6r wielokrotny

(5 pkt)

Przeczytaj opowiadanie. Z podanych mozliwosci odpowiedzi wybierz wfasciw<);. zgodn<); z tresci<); tekstu. Zakresl liter~ A, B, Club D. Za kazd<); poprawn<); odpowiedi otrzymasz 1 punkt.

While outside, Molly felt A grateful to be outside for the first time in 6 months. B happy about her future. C puzzled that she wasn't allowed to stay out longer. D regret about the past. 2 Molly's recovery A was not helped by her mother. B happened more slowly than her doctors expected. C began once she remembered she had a daughter. D got faster as time went on.

3 Molly discovered she had a daughter because A her mother told her. B of a recurring nightmare. C Ashley came to see her. D she recognised Ashley from photos. 4 Molly's accident was the resu It of A driving along a poorly-surfaced road. B being blinded by another vehicle's headlights. C the weather causing slippery road conditions. D the tyres on her car being too old. S At the end of the story, Molly's main emotion is A gratefulness. C nervousness. B expectation. D longing.

165

ZADANIE S.

Dobieranie I (4 pkt)

Przeczytaj tekst, z kt6rego usunifCto cztery zdania. Dobierz brakuj~ce zdania (A-E), tak aby otrzym~c sp6jny i logiczny tekst. W kaZd~ lukfC (1-4) wpisz literfC, kt6r~ oznaczone jest brakuj~ce zdanie. Jedno zdanle zostafo podane dodatkowo i nie pasuje do tekstu. Za kazd~ poprawn~ odpowiedi otrzymasz 1 punkt.

Music is found in every known culture, past and present. The origin of music will likely forever remain a mystery as it occurred prior to the invention of writing. However, one thing seems probable: the first 'object' used to produce music was in all probability the human voice, which can create a wide range of sounds, including humming, whistling and clicking. It is not certain when the first musical instrument was invented. Archaeologists have discovered flutes made from animal bones that are at least 37,000 years old. Objects that mayor may not be musical instruments have also been found that are 67,000 years old. QIJ Images of musical instruments appear in Mesopotamian artwork dating back to 2800 BC. By far the most frequently-depicted instruments are harps, lyres and lutes, suggesting stringed instruments were favoured in Mesopotamia. Ancient Egyptian instruments bear striking similarity to those from Mesopotamia. [ID Egyptian tomb paintings depict lutes, lyres and harps, as well as vertical flutes, double clarinets and drums. As far back as 3000 BC in India, musicians were using rattles, whistles and harps. A clay statue from

the time also indicates the use of drums. The Chinese had over 70 types of musical instruments by 1000 BC. The Chinese believed that music was an essential part of character and community, and could purify people's minds. String, wind and percussion instruments were all popular. The chief instrument in ancient Greece was the phorminx, a lyre used to accompany poet-singers. Harps, flutes, castanets, cymbals and pipes were also popular. The favoured musical instrument of the ancient Romans was the kithara, a type of guitar. Artwork also shows the Romans played trumpets, harps, flutes, drums, pipes and lutes. Interestingly, the development of musical instruments in ancient Greece and Rome stood in marked contrast to these cultures' outstanding-and original achievements in architecture and sculpture.

[IT] The ancient Greeks used music during religious and military ceremonies, at sporting events and in theatre performances. The Greeks considered it extremely important that poetic and dramatic performances be coupled with music. As in Greece, music was central to Roman religious ceremony, entertainment and the military. [ID To the Greeks, music was central to the education of every citizen and professional musicians were publicly recognised for their talent. By contrast, music for the Romans was seen as mere entertainment; it was not considered a serious art form. Hence, the Romans held music and musicians in much lower regard than the Greeks.

166 I

1.

ZADANIE 6.

Test luk

(3 pkt)

Przeczytaj tekst. Z podanych mozliwosci odpowiedzi wybierz wfasciwi!, tak aby otrzymac sp6jny i gramatycznie poprawny tekst. ZakreslliterEt A, B, Club D. Za kazde poprawne rozwi¥anie otrzymasz 0,5 punktu.

What do you think it would be like to live on a tropical island? Close your eyes for a moment. What do you see? Perhaps you're [ID palm trees swaying gently in a warm tropical breeze. Maybe the image of an azure blue ocean lapping against a golden shore has sprung into your mind. Believe it or not, recent research shows that there' are more tropical paradises in the world than previously thought. In 2011, researchers at Duke University and Meredith College in the USA located 657 previously undiscovered 'barrier islands' across the world. Barrier islands are long, narrow strips of sand that [I[J parallel to coastlines. They are built up by the action of waves and currents and they're found along the coastlines of all the world's continents, [I[J Antarctica. Barrier islands play an important [ill in coastal geology and ecology. Firstly, they protect coastlines 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 A 5 A 6 A

dreaming reach apart role shouldn't be appearing

B B B B B B

picturing travel except responsibility haven't been coming

from erosion and storm and hurricane damage. Secondly, they harbour habitats that are refuges for wildlife. One famous series of barrier islands lies along the coast of southern Texas in the Gulf of Mexico. These islands attract large numbers of tourists who come for the excellent dolphin and bird-watching opportunities. They are home to an amazing array of wildlife including turtles, crabs, foxes, squirrels, shore birds and migratory birds. Barrier islands I}I] permanent - their contours are constantly reshaped by wind, waves and storms. But most exist for thousands of years. Researchers are excited about their recent discovery as it will give them an even better chance to understand the formation and function of barrier islands. However, given the importance of barrier islands to coastline ecology, they are also concerned about how climate change and rising sea levels will affect these fragile landmasses in the [I[J decades. C C C C C C

imaging run other task won't be arriving

D D D D D D

visioning go aside job aren't forwarding

167

S·iowot'lNorstwo

(3 pkt)

Przeczytaj tekst. Przeksztak wyrazy podane drukowanymi literami i uzupefnij nimi luki w taki sposob, aby otrzymac logiczne. i gramatycznie poprawne zdania. Wymagana jest pefna poprawnosc ortograficzna wpisywanych wyrazow. Za kai:de poprawne rozwi¥anie otrzymasz 0,5 punktu.

The pressures and challenges of the workplace can be immense. It is 1) ....................................... (HARD) surprising, therefore, that nine in ten employees complain of suffering from work-related stress. If stress on the job is interfering with your ability to work, care for yourself, or manage your 2) .............................. . (PERSON) life, it's time to take action! Start by paying attention to your physical and emotional well-being the better you feel, the better you'll be able to cope with stress on the job without becoming overwhelmed. Taking care of yourself doesn't require a total lifestyle overhaul. Even small changes can make a significant 3) ................................. (DIFFERENT). Aerobic exercise is an excellent way to lift your mood, increase your energy, sharpen your focus and relax your mind and body. For maximum stress relief, try to get at least 30 minutes of heart-pounding 4) ............................... (ACTIVE) a day. Take a look at your eating habits. Eating small, healthy meals frequently throughout the day maintains stable blood sugar levels in your body. Lack of food will lead to low blood sugar and leave you 5) ...................... (FEEL) anxious and irritable. On the other hand, eating too much can make you lethargic. Lack of sleep also leaves you vulnerable to stress. So make sure you get a good night's sleep every night, even at the weekend. When you're well-rested, it's much easier to keep your 6) .................................. (EMOTION) balance, a key factor in coping with work-related stress.

ZADAN

8.

Transformacje

(2 pkt)

Uzupefnij kai:de zdanie, tak aby zachowac znaczenie zdania wyjsciowego. Nie nale±y zmieniac podanych fragmentow. Wymagana jest pefna poprawnosc gramatyczna i ortograficzna wpisywanych fragmentow zdan. Za kai:de poprawne rozwi¥anie otrzymasz 0,5 punktu.

It isn't worth having the party on a weekday. There is no ....................................... the party on a weekday. 2 They had just started their journey when it began to rain heavily. They had just set ..................................... their journey when it began to rain heavily. 3 Not many people came to the performance. Only ........................................ came to the performance. 4 Tara's neighbours looked after her dog while she was away. Tara's dog was taken.... ................ ........ ......... by her neighbours while she was away.

168

lE 9.

(18 pkt)

Wypowiedz siEl: na jeden z trzech ponizszych temat6w. Wypowied± powinna zawierac od 200 do 250 st6w i spetniac wszystkie wymogi typowe dla formy wskazanej w poleceniu. Zaznacz wybrany temat. zakreslaj1!c jego numer. 1. Napisz artykuf prasowy na temat uroczystosci obchodzonej w Twoim miescie. Napisz, jak wyglC);dajC); przygotowania do obchodow i ich przebieg. 2. Napisz opowiadanie, ktorego bohater/-ka iatuje, ie nie postuchati-a rady przyjaciela/przyjaciotki i stracit/-a doskonatC); okazj~.

3. Napisz rozprawkEl: przedstawiajC);cC); dobre i zte strony podrozy zagranicznych. podroinikow, jak i mieszkancow odwiedzanych przez nich krajow.

Uwzgl~dnij

zarowno punkt widzenia

Uwaga: jesli prow b~dzie zawierac wi~cej nii: 300 si6w, otrzymasz za jej kompozycj~ 0 punktow.

169

----------------------------

Rozmowa

wst~pna

(ok. :2 minut)

r-----------------------~~--~~I : Przyktadowe pytania do rozmowy wstfCpnej: I

I I I I ! i Praca' I I i I How many people in your family work and I I I I what do they do? !

ZADAN

I ! I I B i I 2 What do you spend most of your money on? I I I I 3 Are you good at saving money? Why?/why I I ! not? I I I 4 Is there any kind of shop you would like to see I I I I I opening in your area? I i Would you like to be a shop owner? Why?/why 5 I I I I not? I I I I I Czas wolny I I I I 1 Do you think you have enough free time? I I I i I Why?/why not? I i I 2 How much of your free time do you spend I I I with other people? (Who do you spend it I I I I with?) I I I 3 Do you prefer indoor or outdoor free time I I i activities? I I i I I 4 Why is it important for you to have free time? I I 5 What's your favourite thing to do in your free I I I IL _ _ _time? Why? ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ _ _ _ ~dI I I

170

(maks. 3 minuty)

Rozmowa z odgrywaniem roB

I

Chcesz sprzedac swoj rower gorski. Twoj znajomy jest zainteresowany kupnem. Omow z nim warunki sprzeda±y. uwzglfCdniaj'"!c nastfCpuj'"!ce kwestie: powod sprzeda±y

CcenfC~

2 Do you do any part-time jobs? Tell me about them, / Would you like to? Why?/why not? 3 What job do you hope to do when you finish your studies? 4 Would you like to work abroad? Why?/why not? 5 What is your ideal job?

I Zakupy i I 1 Do you like going shopping? Why?/ Why not?

L

wiek/stan roweru

dodatkowe oprzyrz,"!dowanie Rozmow~

rozpoczyna egzaminujQcy.

r-------~--------------------~ :

: Dodatkowe uwagi dla egzaminuj,"!cego

: Jest Pan/Pani r6wiesnikiem zdajQcego. Zgfasza si~ do Pana/ : Pani zdajQcy, kt6ry chce sprzedac sw6j rower g6rski. Prosz~ ~ porozmawiac ze zdajQcym. Rozpoczyna Pan/Pani rozmow~. I W zaleznosci od tego, jak potoczy si~ rozmowa, prosz~ : wfQczyc do rozmowy wszystkie/wybrane punkty. I I Prosz~ poprosic zdajQcego 0 dokfadniejsze I objasnienie jakiejs kwestii. I I Prosz~ grzecznie nie zgodzic si~ ze zdajQcym. tak aby I I musiaf podac kolejne argumenty lub zaproponowac i I inne rozwiQzanie. I Jako przykfadowy pow6d sprzedazy mozna podac I i kupno nowego roweru lub dfuzszy wyjazd za granic~. I I Cl Rower mozna opisac jako stary/nowy, b~dQcy i I w dobrym/srednim stanie, po wymianie niekt6rych I I cz~sci (np. fancucha, kofa czy siodefka). I Jako dodatkowe oprzyrzQdowanie mozna wymienic I I licznik kilometr6w, pompk~ i zestaw do naprawy I IL_~ _d~tek, _ _ _bagaznik _____ ____ ______ z_ sakwami rowerowymi itp._ _ _ _ _ _ I





..



lE 2.

n: 3.

(maks, 4 minuty)

(maks. 5 minut)

Wypowiedi na podstawie materiaiu stymuiujC!cego i odpowiedzi na trzy pytania

Opis ilustracji i odpowiedzi na trZ"J pytanua Opisz zdjftcie i odpowiedz na poni:i:sze pytania:

Przyjrzyj sift plakatom 1 i 2. Tw6j wujek z Anglii poszukuje student6w do pracy podczas wakacji na p6t etatu na jego jachcie wycieczkowym. Kandydaci do pracy na jachcie powinni bye pracowici i towarzyscy. Wybierz plakat. kt6ry Twoim zdaniem bardziej zachftci potencjalnych kandydat6w. i uzasadnij sw6jwyb6r. Wyjasnij. dlaczego odrzucasz drug~ propozycjft.

r------~--------~-----~------~i : Egzaminuj~cy zadaje zdaj~cemu poni:i:sze pytania: I I I I ! I I ! I i i I I I

I

Who do you think is enjoying themselves I I I the most? i 2 How could you improve the flat or house i I where you live? I 3 Have you ever changed the style of your ; I bedroom? How? I

EARN MONrN OUR'NGYOUR uoUOAygf

I

:

Egzaminuj~cy zadaje zdaj~cemu dwa z poni:i:szych :

: pytan:

l :

l : : : : :

:

1 Do you think students should work during : the holidays? Why? Why not? I 2 If you had to choose between a job you like and a well-paid one, which would you choose? Why? 3 Would you rather work inside or outside? 4 Do you enjoy team work or do you prefer working alone?

171

i

1

(ok. :2 minut)

lE I. (maks. 3 minuty)

p----------------------------.

Rozmowa z odgrywaniem roH

: Przykfadowe pytania do rozmowy wstf(pnej: i I I ~

:

1 How often do you play sports?

I I I I I

2 Do you prefer indoor or outdoor sports? Why? 3 Would you like to try an adventure sport? If so,

:

4 5

I I

l

Zamierzasz spf(dzic wakacje w egzotycznym miejscu. Jestes w biurze podro±y. Porozmawiaj z pracownikiem biura na temat swoich planow wakacyjnych, uwzglf(dniaj~c nastf(puj~ce kwestie:

Sport

which one? Which is your least favourite sport? Why? Do you think your school offers (offered) a big enough variety of sports?

: I I I B I

: : I I I I I

: I I I

: D I I I I I I I

Rozmow~

1 Do you enjoy visiting zoos? Why?/ Why not? 2 Which animal do you think makes the best pet? Why? 3 Would you like to work with animals? Why?/Why not? 4 Can you see much wildlife where you live? 5 Did you have a favourite toy animal when you were a child? What was it?

Czas wolny 1 How much time do you spend watching TV? 2 How do you usually prefer to learn about world events? 3 Do you prefer watching TV or listening to the radio? 4 Do you find advertisements on TV enjoyable to watch? 5 What sections in a newspaper do you find most interesting?

atrakcje turystyczne

zajf(cia podczas pobytu

: Zwlerzf(ta I I

koszt wakacji

oferowane miejsca pobytu

rozpoczyna egzaminujqcy.

r-----~-~---------=~---------~ :

: Dodatkowe uwagi dla egzaminuj~cego I I

D

Jest Pan/Pani pracownikiem biura podrozy. Zgfasza si~ do B : Pana/Pani zdajQcy, ktory chce skorzystac z oferty biura : i sp~dzic wakacje w egzotycznym miejscu. Prosz~ porozma- : I wiac ze zdajQcym. Rozpoczyna Pan/Pani rozmow~. I

I I

i

: W zaleznosci od tego, jak potoczy si~ rozmowa, prosz~ I wfQczyc do rozmowy wszystkie/wybrane punkty. I I Cl Prosz~ poprosic zdajQcego 0 dokfadniejsze : objasnienie jakiejs kwestii. : Cl Prosz~ grzecznie nie zgodzic si~ ze zdajqcym, tak aby I musiaf podac kolejne argumenty lub zaproponowac I I inne rozwiQzanie. I I Cl Mozna podac wyjazd do Tanzanii jako przykfad egzotycznych wczas6w pofQczonych ze zwiedzaniem. : Cl Mozna wspomniec 0 takich atrakcjach turystycznych, I jak park narodowy Serengeti, gora Kilimandzaroczy i I sfynna Wielka PiQtka dzikich zwierzQt: sfoti, : nosorozec, bawof, lew, lampart : III Mozna wymienic zaj~cia proponowane turystom I podczas pobytu: safari z przewodnikiem po parku I I narodowym i zwiedzanie wioski Masajow. : El Mozna wspomniec 0 tym, ze koszt wyjazdu : uwzg/~dnia promocN dla studentow i na pewno nie ! ulegnie zmianie.

:

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I

I ! I

:

! I I

a ! !

: : ~

I I

: : I I i

i : !

n

~~-----------~-~~---~--~-----~

172

2. (maks.

4 minuty)

Opis ilustracji i odpowiedzi na trzy pytania

Opisz zdj~cie i odpowiedz na ponizsze pytania:

: Egzaminuj'!cy zadaje zdaj,!cemu ponizsze pytania:

:

i : : I i ! I

ZADANIE 3. (maks. 5 minut)

1 Do you think the people are enjoying their holiday? 2 Where do you prefer going on holiday, to the mountains or to the seaside? 3 What was the best holiday you've ever been on?

Wypowiedi na podstawie materiaiu stymuluj41cego i odpowiedzi na dwa pytania

I Egzaminuj'!cy zadaje zdaj,!cemu dwa z ponizszych pytan: : I I I i I I I R

I I

1 What are some interesting museums in your country? 2 Is it expensive to eat out in Poland? 3 What's a popular form of entertainment with young people where you live? 4 How did people entertain themselves before there was television?

173

ord List IAbbreviations I

(adj) (adv)

l

I

i ---------------------------------------------------------------------------+--

adjective adverb

1 (p. 7)

apply the law (phr) stosowac prawo camp counsellor /,kremp 'kaunsai;)/ (n) opiekun-wychowawca na obozie court /bt/ (n) s~d customer /kAstall;)/ (n) klient dangerous !demd3arns/ (adD niebezpieczny demanding /dI'mo:ndl~/ (adD wymagaj~cy difficult /dIflblt/ (adD trudny easy !i:zi/ (adD latwy firefighter /faIa,farta/ (n) straiak flight attendant /fIaIt a,tendant/ (n) steward, stewardessa interesting !llltrnStI~/ (adD interesuj~cy judge /dy,d3/ (n) s~dzia look after /luk 'o:fta/ (phr v) opiekowac si~ obey the law (phr) przestrzegae prawa operate (on) /oparelt on/ (v) operowae passenger !presand3a/ (n) pasaier photograph tornadoes (phr) fotografowac tornada police officer /pa'li:s ,ofasa/ (n) funkcjonariusz policji, oficer policji put out /put 'aut/ (phr v) ugasic (ogien) shop assistant /JoP a,slstant/ (n) sprzedawca storm chaser !st~:m ,tJ eIsa/ (n) osoba poszukuj~ca trudnych warunk6w pogodowych w celu przeprowadzenia badan lub zaspokojenia ciekawosci supervise !su:pavarz/ (v) nadzorowac, dogl~dae

surgeon /s3:d3an/ (n) chirurg well paid /,wel 'peld/ (adD dobrze platny

(conj) conjunction (n) noun '

(phr) phrase (phr v) phrasal verb

get paid well (phr) dobrze zarabiae helmet /helmW (n) kask, helm improve /Im'Pru:v/ (v) ulepszac long hours (phr) dlugo (pracowae) low wages /,Iau 'weld3n/ (n) niskie zarobki nurse /n3:S/ (n) piel~gniarka, piel~gniarz on his own (phr) samodzielnie organised /":ganaIzd/ (adj) zorganizowany padded !predad/ (adj) wywatowany parachute !prernJu:t/ (v) skakac ze spadochronem patient !peIJant/ (adj) cierpliwy polite /pa'lalt/ (adj) uprzej my, grzeczny put out /put 'aut/ (phr v) ugasic (poiar) quality !kwolati/ (n) jakosc read a map (phr) czytae map~ remote area /n,maut 'earia/ (n) odlegly obszar risk /nsk/ (v) ryzykowac secretary !semtari/ (n) sekretarka shift /JIft/ (n) zmiana smokejumper !smauk,d3Ampa/ (n) straiak, kt6ry skacze ze spadochronem na teren obj~ty poiarem sports coach !sp~:ts kautJ/ (n) trener sportowy stay calm (phr) zachowac spok6j taxi driver !treksi ,dram/ (n) taks6wkarz tool /tu:1/ (n) narz~dzie, przyrz~d tough /tAf/ (adj) twardy, wytrzymaly tough job /,tAf 'd30b/ (n) trudna, wymagaj~ca praca train /trem/ (v) trenowac training !tremI~/ (n) trening with a team (phr) z druiyn~

1a (pp. 8-9)

annoyed /a'n~Id/ (adD rozdrainiony, poirytowany artist /o:tast/ (n) artysta background !brekgraund/ (n) srodowisko, pochodzenie backpack !brekprek/ (n) plecak beat !bi:t/ (v) pobic, wygrac (z kims/czyms) brave !brelv/ (adD odwainy bravely /breIVli/ (adv) odwainie bucket !bAkat/ (n) wiadro caring /kearlI]/ (adD opiekunczy, troskliwy conditions /kan'dIJanz/ (pi n) warunki creative /kri'eltIv/ (adj) tw6rczy, kreatywny deal with !di:1 WIO, W18/ (phr v) miec do czynienia (z kims/czyms) develop ideas (phr) opracowywac, rozwijae pomysly drop /drop/ (v) zrzucic duty /dju:ti/ (n) obowi~zek elite /eI'li:t/ (adD elitarny equipment /rkwlpmant/ (n) sprz~t face mask !feIS mo:sk/ (n) maska na twarz fight a fire (phr) walczye z ogniem Fire Service /fala ,S3:VIS/ (n) strai poiarna fire zone !fara Z;)un/ (n) obszar obj~ty poiarem fit /fIt/ (adD w dobrej formie, wysportowany get annoyed (phr) rozzloscie si~

174

1b (pp. 10-11) analyse /renal-aIZ/ (v) analizowae camcorder !krem,b:da/ (n) kamera wideo curious !kjuarias/ (adj) ciekaw, zaciekawiony device /dl'VaIs/ (n) urz~dzenie enthusiastic /m,8ju:zi'restIk/ (adj) entuzjastyczny exist /Ig'ZlSt/ (v) istniec explanation /,ekspla'neIJan/ (n) wyjasnienie fascinated !fresaneltad/ (adj) zafascynowany find out /,famd 'aut! (phr v) dowiadywac si~ ghost hunting !gaust ,hAntI~/ (n) polowanie na duchy hang out /,hre~ 'aut/ (phr v) sp~dzac czas hillside !hIlsaId/ (n) stok, zbocze hotspot /hotspot/ (n) miejsce pojawiania si~ in fact (phr) wlasciwie interested (in) !mtrnstad m/ (adD zainteresowany (czyms) interview witnesses (phr) rozmawiae ze swiadkami investigate /m'VeStIgeIt/ (v) badae involve /m'volv/ (v) poci~gae za sob~, wi~zac si~ z join a club (phr) wst~pic do klubu metal detecting !met! dl,tek~/ (n) wykrywanie metali meteor !mi:tia/ (n) meteor military plane /,lllIlatari 'plem/ (n) wojskowy samolot

(pi n) plural noun (prep) preposition

(pro) (v)

pronoun verb

mostly !maustli/ (ad) gl6wnie patient /peIJant/ (adj) cierpliwy planet /plrenat/ (n) planeta possibility /,posa'bIlati/ (n) moiliwosc record information (phr) zapisywac informacje robot building /rnubot ,bIldI~/ (n) konstruowanie robot6w rooftop /ru:ftop/ (n) dach science fiction /,saIans 'fikJan/ (n) fantastyka naukowa shape /Jelp/ (n) ksztalt sighting !saItI~/ (n) sytuacja, w kt6rej cos zauwaiono (np. UFO) spot /spot/ (v) zauwaiyc strange object (phr) dziwny obiekt take up /,teIk 'Ap/ (phr v) zaj~c si~ (czyms) telescope !telasbup/ (n) teleskop, luneta tornado chasing /t~:'neldau ,tJelSI~/ (n) pogon za tornadami UFO hunting /ju: ef au 'hAntI~/ (n) polowanie na UFO 1c (p. 12)

accommodation /a,koma'deIJan/ (n) zakwaterowanie assistant #sIstant/ (n) asystent, pomocnik available /a'veIla\i;)1/ (adD osi~galny, dost~pny

average wage /,revand3 'weld3/ (n) srednia placa camp counsellor I,kremp 'kaunsala/ (n) opiekun-wychowawca na obozie campus !kremp;)s/ (n) kampus, miasteczko uniwersyteckie cash /kreJ/ (n) got6wka cashier /kre'JIa/ (n) kasjer clerk /kIa:k/ (n) pracownik biurowy, urz~dnik

customer service /,kAstama 'S3:vas/ (n) obsluga klienta delivery /drlmri/ (n) dostawa earn h:n/ (v) zarabiac experience /iksplarians/ (n) doswiadczenie graduate !grred3uelt/ (v) ukonczyc (szkol~, uniwersytet) ideal /,ar'dI;)\/ (adj) idealny internship /mt3:nJlp/ (n) praktyka, stai law firm !b: f3:m/ (n) kancelaria prawna make a delivery (phr) zorganizowac dostaw~

offer /ofa/ (v) zaoferowac part-time /,pa:t 'taIm/ (adD niepelnoetatowy profession /prn'feJan/ (n) zaw6d research /n's3:tJ, 'ri:S3:tJ/ (n) badania room and board /,ru:m and 'b~:d/ (n) zakwaterowanie i wyiywienie wait tables (phr) pracowac jako kelner 1d (p. 13)

apply (for) #plaI fa/ (v) ubiegac si~ (0 cos) (be) in touch (phr) bye w kontakcie have a seat (phr) usi~d:i: have experience in (phr) miec doswiadczenie w honest !onast/ (adj) uczciwy

, I !

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Word list

interviewer /mt;lVju:g/ (n) osoba przeprowadzajC[ca rozmow~ kwalifikacyjnC[ job applicant /d30b ,replIk"nt/ (n) osoba ubiegajC[ca si~ 0 prac~ letter of recommendation (phr) list polecajC[cy reliable /n'laI"bgl/ (adj) godny zaufania 1e (pp. 14-15)

air tank leg tre~k/ (n) zbiornik/butla z powietrzem bark /baIk/ (v) szczekae break a record (phr) pobie rekord carry on /,kreri 'on/ (phr v) kontynuowae champion /tJrempign/ (n) mistrz come naturally (phr) przychodzie naturalnie deep breath /,di:p 'bree/ (n) gf~boki oddech distraction /dI'strrekJ"n/ (n) zakf6cenie spokoju dive /dmv/ (v) nurkowae double in size (phr) podwoie rozmiar environmental campaign /m,vaINn'mentl krernpem/ (n) kampania na rzecz srodowiska naturalnego expand /Iksprend/ (v) powi~kszye si~, rozwinC[e si~ final /faml/ (adj) ostatni flipper /flIpg/ (n) pfetwa freediving /fri: ,dmvlIJ/ (n) nurkowanie na wstrzymanym oddechu, nurkowanie swobodne goggles /gogglz/ (pi n) okulary ochronne, gogle hold a record (phr) miee rekord, bye rekordzist'[ hold your breath (phr) wstrzymac oddech lung /IA~/ (n) pfuco meditate /medgteIt/ (v) medytowac meditation /,medg'teIJ"n/ (n) medytacja mermaid /m3:meId/ (n) syrena motocross /m"ut"ukros/(n) motokros, wyscigi motocyklowe monofin /momufm/ (n) monopfetwa motorcycle racing !mgut"saIkgl ,reIsII]/ (n) wyscigi motocyklowe mountain biking !mauntgn ,bmkllJ/ (n) kolarstwo g6rskie paragliding /prer;:,glmdII]/ (n) paralotniarstwo rock climbing !rok ,klarmllJ/ (n) wspinaczka scenery !si:ngri/ (n) sceneria set a record (phr) ustanowie rekord shallow tJrelgu/ (adj) pfytki shrink /JrllJk/ (v) kurczye si~ silent !saIlgnt/ (adj) cichy speed skiing !spi:d ,skiaI]/ (n) narciarstwo szybkie street luge !stri:t lU:3/ (n) jazda na specjalnej desce w pozycji leiC[cej surface !s3:fgs/ (n) powierzchnia terrific MnfIk/ (adj) niesamowity thrill (of) !enl "v/ (n) dreszcz emocji thrilling !8nlllJ/ (adj) ekscytujC[cy totally /t"utl-i/ (adv) cafkowicie

wetsuit !wetsu:t/ (n) pianka do nurkowania white-water rafting /,waIt w~:t" 'ro:ftII]/ (n) spfyw g6rskC[ rzekC[ windsurfing !wmcl,s3:fiI]/ (n) windsurfing 1f (pp. 16-17)

boss /bos/ (n) szef careers centre !kg'ngz ,sent,,/ (n) centrum doradztwa zawodowego co-worker !kgu ,w3:b/ (n) wsp61pracownik criticism !kntgSIZ"m/ (n) krytyka dress smartly (phr) ubierae si~ elegancko employee /Im'pbI-i:, ,empbI'i:/ (n) pracownik enthusiastic /rn 8ju:zi'restIk/ (adD pelen zapalu, entuzjastyczny fidget !fId3"t/ (v) wiercic si~ firm handshake /,f3:m 'hrendJeIk/ (n) mocny uscisk dfoni fill/fIl/ (v) zapelnie, uzupetnie flip burgers (phr) wykonywae nisko platnc[ prac~

fold clothes (phr) skladae ubrania graduate !grred3Ugt/ (adD dla absolwent6w uczelni greet /gri:t/ (v) przywitae interior design /m,tI"ri" dI'zam/ (n) wystr6j wn~trz

interviewee /,mt"vju:'i:/ (n) kandydat (w czasie rozmowy kwalifikacyjnej) job vacancy !d30b ,veIkgnsi/ (n) wolne miejsce pracy lean (forward) /li:n/ (v) pochylie si~ (do przodu) letter of application (phr) podanie 0 prac~ look your best (phr) wyglC[dae jak najlepiej maintain eye contact (phr) utrzymywae kontakt wzrokowy make your mind up (about) (phr) podjC[e decyzj~

order h:dg/ (n) polecenie, rozkaz post /pgust/ (n) stanowisko quiz IkwIZ/ (n) kwiz sit up straight (phr) usiC[se prosto skill/slal/ (n) umiej~tnose smart clothes /,sma:t 'klgUGZ, 'klguz/ (pi n) eleganckie ubrania start my own business (phr) rozpoczC[e wlasnC[ dzialalnose support /Sg'p~:t/ (v) uzasadnie, poprzee top employer /,top ml'pl:)!,,/ (n) najlepszy pracodawca top job /,top 'd30b/ (n) najlepsza praca work skills !w3:k slalz/ (pi n) umiej~tnosci potrzebne do wykonywania pracy write a CV (phr) pisae iyciorys 19 (p. 18)

animal shelter !remm"l ,feltg/ (n) schronisko dla zwierzC[t babysitter !beIbi,sItg/ (n) opiekunka do dzieci conservation group /,kons,,'veIJgn ,gru:p/ (n) grupa dzialajC[ca na rzecz ochrony przyrody degree /dI'gri:/ (n) stopien (uniwersytecki) delivery person /dI'lIvgri ,p3:s"n/ (n) dor~czyciel, roznosiciel

dishwasher !dJJ,woJ;:,! (n) zmywad
married !mrerid/ (adD ionaty/zam~ina qualification /,kwol"f,,'keIJgn/ (n) kwalifikacja scuba diving !sku:bg ,daIvlIJ/ (n) nurkowanie z akwalungiem secret shopper /,si:kr;:,t 'Jopg/ (n) tajemniczy klient single !SIlJ9"V (adD kawaler, panna, singiel travel abroad (phr) podr6iowae za granic~ video game tester !vIdi"u germ ,test,,/ (n) osoba sprawdzajC[ca gry wideo volunteer /,vol"n'tI"/ (n) ochotnik waitress !weItr;:,s/ (n) kelnerka 1h (p. 19)

at sb's convenience (phr) kiedy komus pasuje best regards (phr) z powaianiem current position hk=nt pg'zIJ"n/ (n) obecne stanowisko find enclosed a copy of my CV (phr) zalC[czam kopi~ mojego CV first aid /,f3:St 'eId/ (n) pierwsza pomoc get a certificate (phr) otrzymae swiadectwo/zaswiadczenie go on holiday (phr) jechae na wakacje previous /pri:vigs/ (adj) poprzedni Yours faithfully (phr) z powaianiem Yours sincerely (phr) z powaianiem 1i (p. 20) agree (on) #gri: on/ (v) zgadzae si~ (na) architect !a:btekt/ (n) architekt artistic /o:'tIstIk/ (adD artystyczny blanket !blreI]kgt/ (n) koc by myself (phr) sam, samodzielnie come up with /kAm 'AP WIG, wI8/ (phr v) zaproponowae comfort !kAmfgt/ (v) pocieszae creative /kri'eItIv/ (adD tw6rczy, kreatywny down-to-earth I,daun tu '3:8/ (adD przyziemny, praktyczny electrician /,elIktnJgn/ (n) elektryk engineer /,end3,,'rn,,/ (n) iniynier film director !fIlm dg,rekt", dm-/ (n) reiyser filmowy interest !mtr;:,st/ (n) zainteresowanie interior designer /In,tIgrig dI'zmm/ (n) projektant/-ka wn~trz key /ki:/ (n) klucz mood /mu:d/ (n) nastr6j

175

Word List _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

. personality types /,p3:sG'nreIGti ,taIps/ (n) typy osobowosci psychologist /saI'kolgd3gst/ (n) psycholog realistic /,m'lrstrk/ (adj) realistyezny result /ITZAlt/ (n) wynik, rezultat skill/slal! (n) umiej~tnose, zdolnose social worker !sguJgl ,w3:kG/ (n) pracownik opieki spotecznej solution Mlu:Jgn/ (n) rozwi,!zanie solve a problem (phr) rozwi'!zac problem spontaneous /spon'temiGs/ (adj) spontaniezny suit /su:t, sju:t/ (v) odpowiadae, pasowae surgeon !s3:d3Gn/ (n) chirurg useful !ju:sfgl! (adj) uiyteczny Language in Use 1 (p. 21) assist /g'SISt/ (v) asystowae, pomagae assistant /G'SIstgnt/ (n) asystent, pomocnik attend /G'tend/ (v) bye obecnym, towarzyszye attendant /g'tendGnt/ (n) opiekun break down /,brerk 'daun/ (phr v) zepsuc si~, zatamac si~ break in /,brerk 'm/ (phr v) wtamae si~ break into /,brerk 'mtg/ (phr v) wtamae si~ do break out /,brerk 'aut/ (phr v) wybuchn,!e (0 wojnie), uciec break up /,brelk 'Ap/ (phr v) odpase bring about /,bnq g'baut/ (phr v) spowodowae bring off /,bnq '8:f! (phr v) dokonae bring (sb) around /,bnq sAmbgdi g'raund/ (phr v) ocucic, przekonae bring up /,brII) 'Ap/ (phr v) wychowywae by force (phr) sit,!, przy uiyciu sity electric /I'lektnk/ (adj) elektryczny electrician /,ehk'tnJGn/ (n) elektryk employ /Im'pbI/ (v) zatrudnie employee /rm'pbI-i:, ,empbI'i:/ (n) pracownik gently !d3entli/ (adv) delikatnie interview tmtGvju:/ (n) rozmowa kwalifikacyjna interviewee /,llllgvju'i:/ (n) kandydat (osoba, z ktor'! przeprowadza si~ rozmow~ kwalifikacyjn'!) magic tmred3Ik/ (n, adj) magia, magiczny magician /mg'd3IJgn/ (n) czarodziej, iluzjonista mind /mamd/ (v) miec cos przeciwko persuade /pg'sweld/ (v) przekonac raise a child (phr) wychowywac dziecko regain consciousness (phr) odzyskae przytomnose sculpt /skAlpt/ (v) rzezbic sculptor !skAlptg/ (n) rzezbiarz tour /tuG/ (n, v) wycieczka objazdowa tourist !tmrdst/ (n) turysta Matura Skills 1 (p. 22-23) banged-up /,breqd 'Ap/ (pp) potrzaskany, porozbijany body part !bodi pa:t/ (n) cz~se ciata bunch /bAntJ/ (n) grupa, grono career path /kg'ng pa:8/ (n) scieika kariery creaky !kri:ki/ (adj) trzeszcz'!cy death-defying stunt /,de8 dI,fm-II) 'sLAnt/ (n) groi,!cy smierci,! wyczyn kaskaderski

176

do stunts (phr) wykonywac popisy kaskaderskie enrolment /m'rdulmgnt/ (n) nabor flip /fhp/ (v) podrzucac infected /m'fektgd/ (adj) zakaiony, zaraiony initiation /I,mJi'eIJgn/ (n) inicjacja, wprowadzenie location /lgu'keIJgn/ (n) potoienie on the edge of (phr) na skraju requirement /n'kWaIgmGnt/ (n) wymaganie set (sth) on fire (phr) podpalic severe weather (phr) trudne warunki pogodowe space /speIs/ (n) miejsce, przestrzen stand out /,strend 'aut/ (phr v) wyroiniac si~ stuntman !SLAntmren/ (n) kaskader there's no room for (phr) nie ma miejsca na vocalist !vgubhst/ (n) wokalista

2 (p. 25) classic novel/,klresIk 'novgl/ (n) klasyczna powiese culture !kAltfg! (n) kultura guided tour /,gaIdgd 'tu,,/ (n) zwiedzanie z przewodnikiem take a class (phr) wzi,!c udziat w zaj~ciach practise playing the flute (phr) cwiczye gr~ na flecie rock concert !rok ,konsgt/ (n) koncert rockowy traditional dancing /trd,dIJgml 'da:nsIq/ (n) tance tradycyjne 2a (pp. 26-27) adventure /gd'ventJg/ (n) przygoda arrive /g'raIV/ (v) przybyc backpack !brekprek/ (n) plecak bite /baIt/ (V) gryie blow /blgu/ (v) wiae boat trip !bgut tnp/ (n) wycieczka statkiem branch /bra:ntJ/ (v) gatqz bush /buJ/ (n) krzak buzz (around) /bAZ/ (v) brz~czee, bzyczec can't stand (phr) nie moc wytrzymae catch the bus/train (phr) ztapae autobus/poci'!g culture !lvdtJg/ (n) kultura divide /dI'vmd/ (v) dzielie embassy !embGsi/ (n) ambasada end up /,end 'Ap/ (phr v) skonczyc experience /rk'spIgrigns/ (n) doswiadczenie, przeiycie get bitten (by) (phr) zostae ugryzionym (przez) get caught (in) (phr) zostac zaskoczonym (przez) go on a (boat) trip (phr) pojechac na wycieczk~ (statkiem) get seasick (phr) cierpiee na chorob~ morsk,! get stolen (phr) zostae ukradzionym grab /grreb/ (v) ztapae, chwycic head (back to) /lIed/ (v) kierowae si~, pod,!iyc (z powrotem do) in the middle of nowhere (phr) na koncu swiata

kayaking !kmrekn]/ (n) kajakarstwo long-tail boat /,loq teIl 'bgut/ (n) dtuga t6dz lose my passport (phr) zgubie moj paszport make friends (with) (phr) zaprzyjainie si~ (z) oxcart !okska:t/ (n) woz ci,!gni~ty przez woty pass by /,pms 'baIl (phr v) przejechac obok passport !pa:sp8:t/ (n) paszport pineapple tpamrepgl/ (n) ananas puff /pAf/ (v) dyszee, sapae reach /ri:tJ/ (v) dotrzee (do) relieve /rrli:v/ (v) uliye ride a camel (phr) jechac na wielbt,!dzie run after !rAn ,a:ftg/ (phr v) biec za sack /srek/ (n) worek share (sth with) tJeg WIG, WI8/ (v) dzielic (cos z kims) take a trip (phr) pojechac na wycieczk~ travel (on) !trrevgl on/ (v) podr6iowac (na) try spicy food (phr) kosztowae pikantnego jedzenia unfortunately /An'htJgmtli/ (adv) niestety 2b (pp. 28-29) a fair amount (of) (phr) spora ilosc argue !a:gju:/ (v) kt6cic si~ argument !a:gjgmgnt/ (n) kt6tnia billion !bIljgn/ (n) miliard brainchild !bremtJmld/ (n) pomyst catchy !kretJi/ (adj) chwytl iwy calculate !krelkjGlelt/ (v) kalkulowae, obliczae commitment /kg'mItlmnt/ (n) poswi~cenie, oddanie complicated !komplgkeItgd/ (adj) skomplikowany computer science /kgm,pju:tg 'smgns/ (n) informatyka criticism !kntGSIZgm/ (n) krytyka disagree /,dISg'gri:/ (v) nie zgadzae si~ endless !endlgs/ (adj) niewyczerpany, niekoncz,!cy si~ expand /Ik'sprend/ (v) powi~kszae, rozszerzac expert !eksp3:t/ (n) ekspert face /feIS/ (v) zmierzye si~ z fade /feId/ (v) zanikac, slabn,!e frustrating /frA'streltII)/ (adj) frustruj'!cy garage !gamd3, -a:3/ (n) garai get on /get 'on/ (phr v) lubic si~ headquarters !hed,kw8:tGZ, ,hed'kw8:tn/ (n) gtowna siedziba idea /aI'dIg/ (n) pomyst insist /m'SIst/ (v) nalegae inspired /m'spaIGd/ (adj) zainspirowany introduce /,mtrd'dju:s/ (v) wprowadzie investor /m'vestg/ (n) inwestor launch /b:ntJ/ (v) wypuscie nowy produkt neat /ni:t/ (adj) schludny operation /,opg'reIJGn/ (n) dzialal nose, dzialanie performance /pg'hmgns/ (n) dziatanie popularity /,popjg'lrerdti/ (n) popularnose profile !prdufaIl/ (n) profil project !prod3ekt/ (n) projekt, przedsi~wzi~cie

request /rI'kwest/ (n) prosba respond /n'spond/ (v) odpowiedziee

_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - W o r d List

search engine /S3:tJ ,end3'1ll/ (n) wyszukiwarka search term /S3:tJ t3:m/ (n) szukany termin seek /si:k/ (v) szukac senior /si:ni,,/ (n) senior sign /sam/ (v) pod pi sac sign up /,sam 'Ap/ (phr v) zapisac sif,! social network /,s"uJ"l 'netw3:k/ (n) siec spoleczna speedy /spi:di/ (adj) pr~dki user /ju:z,,/ (n) uzytkownik user-friendly iju:z;:, 'frendli/ (adj) przyjazny dla uzytkownika

ballet /ba;leI/ (n) balet classical music concert /,kla;sIkdl 'mju:zrk ,kons"t/ (n) koncert

muzyki klasycznej disbelief /,dISb"'li:f/ (n) niedowierzanie enthusiasm /m'8ju:zia;z"m/ (n) entuzjazm musical /mju:zrk;:,l/ (adj) muzyczny negative /neg"nv/ (adj) negatywny nothing special (phr) nic specjalnego opera /op"r.o>/ (n) opera play /pleI/ (v) grac pop/rock concert /pop, 'rok ,kons;:,t/ (n) koncert muzyki pop I rockowy positive /pOZgtIV/ (adj) pozytywny

2c (p, 30)

achieve NtJi:v/ (v) osiqgnqc armful /a:mf;:,l/ (n) nar~cze artist /a:t;:,st/ (n) artysta award Nw~:d/ (n) nagroda available Nvell;:,b;:,l/ (adj) dostf,!pny, osiqgalny chart-topping /tJa:t ,topID/ (adj) znajdujqcy sif,! na czele list przeboj6w classical /kla;srk;:,l/ (adj) klasyczny club /klAb/ (n) klub composer /k;:,m'pguz;:,/ (n) kompozytor down load /daunl;:,ud/ (n, v) sciqgae (np. pliki) z Internetu fan /fa;n/ (n) fan fame /felm/ (n) slawa fashion statement (phr) ekstrawaganckie ubranie, ubranie/rzecz przyciqgajqca uwag~ flat /fla;t/ (n) mieszkanie follow a dream (phr) zrealizowac swoje marzenie follower /£ol;:,u,,/ (n) nasladowca hit /lnt/ (n) przeb6j icon /aIkon/ (n) ikona inspiration /,mspg'reIJ;:,n/ (n) inspiracja lyrics /lrrrks/ (pi n) slowa piosenki make-up /merk Ap/ (n) makijai: music executive /mju:zik Ig,zekj"tlvl (n) producent muzyczny outrageous /aUrreId3gs/ (adj) oburzajqcy, skandaliczny performance style /pg'hm;:,ns ,staIl/ (n) styl wykonania/wystf,!powania phenomenal /fI'nom;:,n;:,l/ (adj) fenomenalny, wyjqtkowy play by ear (phr) grac ze sluchu pop culture /pop ,kAltJ;:,/ (n) kultura masowa profile /pr;:,ufaIl/ (n) profil promote /pr.o>'m;:,ut/ (v) promowac reigning !reInID/ (adj) panujqcy sensation /sen'seIJ;:,n/ (n) sensacja string /strID/ (n) seria success /s;:,kses/ (n) sukces social media (phr) media spoleczne slow down /,sl;:,u 'daun/ (phr v) zwolnic talent /trel;lllt/ (n) talent turning point /t3:nID ,p~mt/ (n) punkt zwrotny wig /WIg/ (n) peruka worldwide /w3:ldwaId/ (adj) og6lnoswiatowy, na swiatowq skalf,! 2d (p, 31)

annoyed Nn~Id/ (adj) rozdrazniony

2e (pp, 32-33) a pile of (phr) sterta acrobatics /,a;m'ba;nks/ (pi n) akrobacje actor /a;kt;:,/ (n) aktor admit MmIt/ (v) przyznac ancient times /emJ"nt taImz/ (pi n) czasy starozytne attract attention (phr) przyciqgnqe uwagf,! audience h:di;:,ns/ (n) publicznosc bravery /breIv;:,ri/ (n) odwaga breathtaking /bre8,terkID/ (adj) zapierajqcy dech w piersiach carry (over) /,ka;ri '''UV''/ (v) niese sif,! change (into) /tJemd3 mt,,/ (v) zmienic sif,!

w kogos/cos combine /k;:,m'bam/ (v) lqczyc costume /kostjum/ (n) kostium crowd /kraud/ (n) dum cruelty /kru:"lti/ (n) okrucienstwo curtain /b:tn/ (n) kurtyna design /dI'zam/ (n) projekt effect /r'fekt/ (n) efekt emotion /I'm"uJ;:,n/ (n) emocja fall in love (with) (phr) zakochac sif,! (w) fiery /far"ri/ (adj) ognisty, plomienny finale /n'na:li/ (n) final (be) for me (phr) (bye (zyms) dla mnie furniture /f3:mtJ;:,! (n) meble gallop /ga;l"p/ (v) galopowac gather /ga;&!/ (v) gromadzic sif,! gold /g"uld/ (n) zloto grand /gra;nd/ (adj) wielki, wspanialy hanging /ba;DID/ (adj) wiszqcy high-pitched /,haI 'PItJt/ (adj) przenikliwy, wysoki (0 diwif,!ku) insist /m'sIst/ (v) nalegac kaleidoscope MlaId;:,sk"up/ (n) kalejdoskop lantern /la;nt;:,n/ (n) lampion, latarnia lighting /lartID/ (n) oswietlenie live /laIV/ (adj) na zywo loyalty /bIglti/ (n) lojal nose on stage (phr) na scenie prop /prop/ (n) rekwizyt reveal /n'vi:l/ (v) wyjawic ribbon /nbgn/ (n) wstqzka rise /raIz/ (v) podnosic sif,! scenery /si:mri/ (n) dekoracja sharp /Ja:p/ (adj) ostry, przenikliwy silver /sIlv;:,/ (n) srebro somersault /sAm;:,s~:It/ (n) salto stage /steId3/ (n) scena stage props /steId3 props/ (pi n) rekwizyty

stand out /,sta;nd 'aut/ (phr v) wyr6zniae sif,! start out /,sw:t 'aut/ (phr v) rozpoczynac striking /straIkn]/ (adj) uderzajqcy symbol /sImbgl/ (n) symbol temporary /temp;)r.o>ri/ (adj) tymczasowy warrior /wori;)/ (n) wojownik whip /Wlp/ (n) bat whole /b'lUl/ (adj) caly wild /warld/ (adj) dziki 2f (p, 34-35) ancient wall (phr) starozytny mur cobbled street /,kobgld 'stri:t/ (n) brukowana ulica compass /kAmpgs/ (n) kompas explore /Ikspb:/ (v) odkrywac, badac fascinating Ifa;sgneItID/ (adj) fascynujqcy find (sth) out /,famd 'aut/ (phr v) dowiedziec sif,! ghost /ggust/ (n) duch ghostly attraction (phr) upiorna atrakcja get stuck (phr) zaciqc sif,!, utknqc go missing (phr) zaginqc haunted /h~:ntgd/ (adj) nawiedzony historic /bI'stonk/ (adj) historyczny march /ma:tJ/ (v) maszerowae medieval cathedral /,medi'i:v;:,1 k,,'8i:dr;:,l/ (n) sredniowieczna katedra shield /Ji:ld/ (n) tarcza spear /SPIg/ (n) dzida, wl6cznia spooky /spu:ki/ (adj) straszny stand out /sta;nd 'aut/ (phr v) wyr6i:niae sif,! terrified /ter;:,fard/ (adj) przerazony treasurer /tre3gr;:,/ (n) skarbnik wander /wondg/ (v) wf,!drowae 2g (p. 36)

adventure /gd'ventJ;:,/ (n) przygoda biography /bar'ogr;:,fi/ (n) biografia can't put it down (phr) nie da sif,! odlozyc (przestac czytae) classic novel /,kla;sIk 'nov;:,l/ (n) klasyczna powiesc crime thriller /krarm ,8rr!;:,/ (n) thriller z elementami kryminalu dull /dAl/ (adj) nudny fantasy /fa;nt;:,si/ (n) fantasy horror /hor;:,/ (n) horror majority /m;:,'d3or.o>ti/ (n) wif,!kszosc non-fiction /,non 'fIkJgn/ (n) literatura faktu percent /pg'sent/ (n) procent recommend /,rek;:"mend/ (phr v) polecae romance /r.o>u'ma;ns, 'r.o>U-/ (n) romans science fiction /,sargns 'frkJgn/ (n) fantastyka naukowa similar /sIm"l;:,/ (adj) podobny slow-moving /,slgu 'mu:vID/ (adj) 0 wolnym tempie akcji 2h (p, 37) carry a lantern (phr) niese latarnif,! chat /tJa;t/ (v) gawf,!dzie chilly ItJrli/ (adj) chlodny corridor /korId~:/ (n) korytarz empty /empti/ (adj) pusty entrance hall /entr.o>ns h~:l/ (n) hol wejsciowy

177

Word List _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___

freezing cold /,fri:zll) 'buld/ (adj) lodowaty guide /gard/ (n) przewodnik hear the sound (of) (phr) slyszec diwi~k (czegos) heavily !hevrli/ (adv) ci~iko, mocno huge /hju:d3/ (adj) ogromny old-fashioned /,auld 'freJaud/ (adj) staromodny stone floor (phr) kamienna podloga roaring !f8:l1lJ/ (adj) rycz-qcy terrifying !terrfaIII)/ (adj) przeraiaj-qcy turn a corner (phr) skr~dc za r6g turn around !t3m a'raund/ (phr v) odwr6cic si~ go white (as a sheet) (phr) zrobic si~ bialym jak przescieradlo 2i (p. 38) allow Mau/ (v) pozwolie blogger !blnga/ (n) osoba pisz-qca blog browse /brauz/ (v) przegl-qdac community /ka'mju:nati/ (n) spolecznose company !kAmpani/ (n) firma, sp61ka connection /ka'nekJ:m/ (n) zwi-qzek, powi-qzanie contact !kontrekt/ (n) kontakt email account !i:merl a,kaunt/ (n) konto mail owe expand /rksprend/ (v) rozszerzac, rozwijac independent /,rnda'pendant/ (adj) niezalezny interact /,mtarrekt/ (v) oddzialywac wzajemnie, nawi'lzywac kontakty location /lau'kerJan/ (n) lokalizacja login name !!ogrn ,nelm/ (n) login media !mi:dia/ (n) media member !memoo/ (n) czlonek offline !oflarn! (adj) niepodl-qczony password !pa:sw3:d/ (n) haslo personal profile /,p3:sana! 'praufall/ (n) profil osobisty personalise !p3:sanalarz/ (v) personalizowac photo !fautau/ (n) zdj~cie post /paust/ (v) umiescie profile !praufarl/ (n) profil promote /pra'maut/ (v) promowac network !netw3:k/ (n) siec sex /seks/ (n) ptee share /Jea/ (v) dzielic social connection (phr) powi-qzania spoleczneltowarzyskie social network /,sauJa! 'netw3:k/ (n) siec spoleczna social networking site /,sauJa! 'netw3:krq ,sart/ (n) portal spolecznosciowy specialise !speJa!alz/ (v) specjalizowac (si~) straightforward /,strerthwad/ (adj) bezposredni tight-knit /,tart 'rut! (adj) zintegrowany, zzyty trend /trend/ (n) tendencja, trend upload /Ap'laud/ (v) wysylae (np.pliki) user-friendly interface (phr) interfejs przyjazny dla uzytkownika video !vrdiau/ (n) film wideo workplace !w3:kplers/ (n) miejsce pracy

178

Language in Use 2 (p. 39) act /rekt/ (v) grae, dzialae action !rekJan/ (v) akcja advertise !redvatarz/ (v) reklamowac annoy /a'n;)J/ (v) zloscic, denerwowac annoyance j-;,'nOlans/ (v) irytacja, rozdraznienie appear /a'pIa/ (v) pojawic si~ argue !a:gju:/ (v) kl6cic si~ arrive /a'rarv/ (v) przybyc attract /a'trrekt/ (v) przy<;:i-qgac brightly-coloured /,brartli 'kA!ad/ (adj) jaskrawo ubarwiony business trip /brzms ,trrp/ (v) wyjazd sluzbowy chord /ko:d/ (v) akord clap /klrep/ (v) klaskac, bic brawo enjoy /m'd30I/ (v) bawic si~, cieszye si~, lubic enjoyment /rn'd30Imant/ (v) przyjemnosc, radose erupt /I'rApt/ (v) wybuchac fall for !bl fa/ (phr v) zainteresowac si~, stracie glow~ (dla kogos) fall out /,b:l 'aut/ (phr v) pokl6cic si~ fall through /,bl 'Brn:/ (phr v) nie powiese si~ get along with (sb) /get g'loq Wlij/ (phr v) dobrze si~ dogadywac (z kims) get on/off /get 'on. 'off (phr v) wsi-qsClwysi-qsc get through /get 'Brn:/ (phr v) pol-qczyc si~ (przez telefon) give away /,grv a'wel/ (phr v) wydac, rozdac give off/out /,gIv 'of, 'aut/ (phr v) wydzielac (zapach) give up /,grv 'Ap/ (phr v) zrezygnowac, rzucic (naI6g) go sailing (phr) p6jse ieglowae highlight !harlart/ (v) uwydatnie, podswietlie musician /mju:'zrJan/ (n) muzyk orchestra !o:bstra/ (n) orkiestra on stage (phr) na scenie perform /pa'bm/ (v) wyst~powac (na scenie) perfect !p3:frkt/ (adj) doskonaly refusal /rr'fju:zal/ (v) odmowa refuse /rr'fju:z/ (v) odm6wic Matura Skills 2 (p. 40-41) asthma !resma/ (n) astma carve /ku:v/ (v) rzeibic chamber !tJelmba/ (n) sala, komnata chandelier /,Jrenda'lra/ (n) iyrandol chapel !tJrepal/ (n) kaplica distant !dIstant/ (adj) odlegly eczema !eksama/ (n) egzema emerge /I'm3:d3/ (v) wyjsc, wytonie si~ in (sb's) memory (phr) ku czd (kogos) polish !polrJ/ (v) polerowac relative !re!atrv/ (n) krewny remains /rr'memz/ (pi n) pozostalosci stalactite !strelaktart/ (n) stalaktyt stalagmite !strelagmart/ (n) stalagmit

3 (p. 43) blizzard !blrzad/ (n) zamiec snieina extreme weather /rk,stri:m 'weija/ (n) ekstremalne warunki pogodowe heatwave !hi:twelV/ (n) fala upal6w hurricane !llArabn/ (n) huragan Mother Nature /,mAoa 'nertJ;)/ (n) Matka Natura thick fog /,erk 'fog/ (phr n) g~sta mgla storm /stO:1U/ (n) burza 3a (pp. 44-45)

adapt (to) f;J'drept ta/ (v) przystosowae si~ (do) at least (phr) przynajmniej blizzard !blrzgd/ (n) zamiec snieina blog /blog/ (n) blog boiling hot /,brlll) 'hot/ (adj) wrz'lcy breeze /bri:z/ (n) bryza, wiaterek can't wait (phr) nie m6c si~ doczekac cloud /klaud/ (n) chmura chilly !tJIli/ (adj) chlodny cold /kau!d/ (adj) zimny continent !kontanant/ (n) kontynent cover !kAva/ (v) przykryc crack /krrek/ (n) p~kni~cie crevasse /krr'vres/ (n) szczelina lodowa do a survey (phr) przeprowadzic badanie, sondai drizzle !drrzal/ (n) miawka drop /dmp/ (v) spasc Emperor Penguin /,empaf;) 'peqgwan/ (n) pingwin cesarski flood /flAd/ (n) pow6di freezing cold /,fri:zll) 'kau!d/ (adj) lodowaty gale /gell/ (n) wichura, zawierucha give (sb) a hand (phr) pom6c (komus) go on a course (phr) ise na kurs hail /hell/ (n) grad heat /lu:t/ (n) upal heavy clouds /,hevi 'klaudz/ (pi n) ci~ikie chmury (przed burz-q) heavy rain /,hevi 'rem/ (n) ulewny deszcz hot /hot/ (adj) gor-qcy humpback whale /,hAmpbrek 'werl/ (n) wieloryb faldowiec ice /ars/ (n) 16d inland !mland/ (adv) w gl~bi l-qdu lead (to) !li:d ta/ (v) prowadzie (do) light clouds /,lart 'klaudz/ (pi n) lekkie chmury lightning !lartnlq/ (n) blyskawica marine biologist /ma,rim bar'0!ad3ast/ (n) biolog morski mild /marld/ (adj) lagodny, umiarkowany newcomer !nju:kAma/ (n) nowo przybyly put on /put 'on/ (phr v) wl-qczyc rain /rem/ (n) deszcz research station /rr's3:tJ ,steIJan. 'ri:S3:tJ-/ (n) stacja badawcza rise /rmz/ (v) wzrastac, wschodzic scenery !si:mri/ (n) sceneria scientific /,salan'nflk/ (adj) naukowy seal /si:l/ (n) foka set /set/ (v) zachodzic shower /Jaua/ (n) przelotny deszcz

_ - - - -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Word List

ski-doo Isla'du:1 (n) skuter snieiny (firmy Ski-Doo) sledge Isled31 (n) sanki sleet Isli:t/ (n) deszcz ze sniegiem, gololedi snow ISll'dul (n) snieg snow storm !sngu st~:ml (n) zamiee snieina, snieiyca storm Ist~:ml (n) burza sun ISAnl (n) slonce sun rises (phr) slonce wschodzi sun sets (phr) slonce zachodzi sunny spell !SAni ,spell (n) okres slonecznej pogody sunshine !sAnJaml (n) sloneczna pogoda survey !S3:vell (n) badanie, przeglqd survival course IS~'VaIvgl b:sl (n) kurs przetrwania take off I,telk 'ofl (phr v) startowae (0 samolocie) temperature !temprgtfg! (n) temperatura threaten !8retnl (v) zagrozie thunder !8Andgl (n) grzmot tornado It~:'neldgul (n) tornado warm Iw~:mj (adj) cieply warn Iw~:n/ (v) ostrzegae weather !weilg/ (n) pogoda weird IWlgd/ (adj) dziwaczny wildlife !wmldlarf/ (n) dzika przyroda wind /wmdl (n) wiatr

3b (pp.46-47) ash /reJ/ (n) popiol backwards !brekwgdzl (adv) do tylu beat /bi:t/ (v) pokonae, pobie board /b~:d/ (n) deska boil /b~d/ (v) wrzee bottom !botgm/ (n) dno, spod bungee jumping !bAnd3i ,d3Ampl~/ (n) skoki na bungee compete (in) /bm'pi:t m/ (v) brae udzial w zawodach, wspolzawodniczye competitor /bm'petgt,,/ (n) zawodnik connected (to) /b'nektgd tg/ (adj) polqczony z control/brrtfQul/ (v) kontrolowae craze /Iaelzl (n) szalenstwo, moda na cos elastic rope /I,lresnk 'l'dUP/ (n) elastyczna lina erupt /1'rAptl (v) wybuchae extreme activities /Ik;stri:m rek'nvgtiz/ (pi n) zaj~cia ekstremalne extreme ironing IIk;stri:m 'm"llIl]/ (n) ekstremalne prasowanie (prasowanie ubran w miejscach trudno dost~pnych) feel better (phr) czue si~ lepiej float Iflgut/ (v) unosie si~ na powierzchni frying pan !frar-l~ prenl (n) patelnia get wet (phr) zmoknqe have control of (phr) miee kontrol~ nad heat /bi:t/ (v) podgrzae ice climbing !ms ,k:lmml~/ (n) wspinaczka lodowa ice tool !als tu:l/ (n) czekan lodowy inflatable Im'fleltgbQl/ (adj) nadmuchiwany iron !algnl (n) ielazo

ironing board !aIgnu] b~:d/ (n) deska do prasowania kite surfing !kaIt ,s3:fl~1 (n) surfing z latawcem ladle /leld"l/ (n) chochla melt Imelt/ (v) topic perfect (for) !p3:fIkt fgl (adj) doskonaly (dla) protective Iprg'teknv/ (adj) ochronny quad racing !kwod ,relsll]1 (n) wyscigi na quadach rapids /rrep"dzl (pi n) progi rzeczne rest /rest/ (n) odpoczynek river bugging !nv" ,bAgl~/ (n) jednoosobowy splyw rWqC'! rzekq w specjalnym, nadmuchiwanym pontonie rust /rAst/ (v) rdzewiee slope /slgupl (n) zbocze smoking volcano /,smgukl~ vol'kemgu/ (n) dymiqcy wulkan speed (down) Ispi:dl (v) p~dzie (w dol) spike /spark/ (n) kolec (na podeszwie buta) sunscreen !SAnskri:n/ (n) filtr przeciwsloneczny thrill-seeker !8nl,si:b/ (n) poszukiwacz wraien throw out 1,8rgu 'autl (phr v) wyrzucae tip ItIpl (n) wskazowka volcano surfing Ivol'kemgu ,s3:fl~1 (n) zjazd z wygaslego wulkanu na desce watch out l,wotJ 'autl (phr v) uwaiae webbed gloves /,webd 'gLwzl (pi n) r~kawice z blonq mi~dzy palcami weird /wI"d/ (adj) dziwaczny win Iwml (v) wygrae wok racing !wok ,relSl~1 (n) wyscigi na wokach world championship /,w3:ld 'tJrempignJIp/ (n) mistrzostwo swiata 3c (p. 48)

all the way (phr) cala trasa, pelna dlugose avoid /g'V~ldl (v) unikae bobcat !bobkret/ (n) rys rudy breathtaking view /,bre8teIIa~ 'vju:/ (n) widok zapierajqcy dech w piersiach campsite !krempsaIt/ (n) kemping cover !kAvgl (v) obejmowae coyote !k;)!-gut, bI'guti! (n) kojot deer IdI,,1 (n) jelen footpath !futpa:81 (n) scieika get lost (phr) zgubie si~ guide /gaIdl (v) prowadzie harmless !ha:mlgsl (adj) nieszkodliwy heap /bi:pl (n) sterta hike /hark/ (v) w~drowae hut /bAt! (n) chata, szalas incredible /m'kred"b"l/ (adj) niewiarygodny keep away from I,ki:p g'WeI frgml (phr v) trzymae si~ z daleka od make it (phr) dae rad~ moose /mu:sl (n) los mountain top !maunt"n top/ (n) szczyt, wierzcholek gory natural beauty l,nretJ"rgl 'bju:ti/ (n) natural ne pi~kno

pass (through) I,pa:s '8ru:/ (v) przechodziClbiec (przez) pile (of) !pad "vi (n) sterta quarter-mile /,kw~:tg 'maIl/ (n) ewiere mili racoon Irg'ku:n, rre-I (n) szop rocky !mki/ (adj) skalisty run (through) l,rAn '8ru:1 (v) przebiegaClprzedostawae si~ (przez) scenery !si:n"ril (n) sceneria shelter /felt,,/ (n) schronienie show the way (phr) pokazywae drog~ special offer /,speJ,,1 'of"/ (n) oferta specjalna step /step/ (n) krok stunning !stAm~/ (adj) olsniewajqcy trail /treIl/ (n) szlak 3d (p. 49)

agree (on) fg'gri: onl (v) zgodzie si~ (na) ask /a:skl (v) pytae available fg'vedgb"l/ (adj) dost~pny, osiqgalny bed & breakfast I,bed "n 'brekf"st/ (n) pensjonat book a room (phr) rezerwowae pokoj confirmation l,konfg'meIJ"n/ (n) potwierdzenie cost /kostl (v) kosztowae double room l,dAb,,1 'ru:ml (n) pokoj dwuosobowy hotel /h"u'tel/ (n) hotel per night (phr) za noc plus tax (phr) plus podatek repeat /n'pi;t/ (v) powtarzae room service !ru:m ,S3:V"S/ (n) obsluga hotelowa self-catering flat /,self ,keItgn~ 'flret/ (n) mieszkanie z wyiywieniem we wlasnym zakresie single room /,sI~g,,1 'ru:m/ (n) pokoj jednoosobowy ski lodge iski: lod3! (n) domek w gorach najcz~sciej uiywany przez narciarzy state IsteIt/ (v) okreslie youth hostel !ju:8 ,hostl/ (n) schronisko mlodzieiowe 3e (pp. 50-51)

according to /,,'b:dII] t,,1 (prep) wedlug average !rev"nd31 (adj) przeci~tny, sredni become extinct (phr) wymrzee, wyginqe (be) in great danger (phr) (bye) w wielkim niebezpieczenstwie (be sb's) fault (phr) (bye czyjqs) winq (be) under threat (phr) (bye) zagroionym blanket !blre~bt/ (n) koc burn /b3:n/ (v) spalae, palie car exhaust !ka:r IgP:St/ (n) spaliny samochodowe, rura wydechowa carbon dioxide I,ka:b"n dm'oksaIdl (n) dwutlenek w~gla carbon footprint /,ka:bQn 'futprmt/ (n) slad w~glowy cause Ib:zl (v) powodowae changeable !tJemd3"b"l/ (adj) zmienny chilly !tJllil (adj) chlodny

179

Word List _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

climate /klaIm'dt/ (n) klimat climate change /klarm'dt ,tJernd3/ (n) zmiana klimatu climatologist /.klarm'd'toi'dd3'dst/ (n) klimatolog coastal /k'dustl! (adj) nadbrzeiny, przybrzeiny cover /kAV'd/ (v) przykryc, zakryc die from hunger (phr) umrzec z gtodu die out /.dar 'aut/ (phr v) wymierac drought /draut/ (n) susza drown /draun/ (v) utomp= energy-saving bulb /,emd3i ,SelVI!] 'bAlb/ (n) iarowka energooszcz~dna expert leksp3:t/ (n) ekspert extinct /rkstII]kt/ (adj) wymarly extreme weather /I~stri:m 'weo'd/ (n) ekstremalne warunki pogodowe fossil fuel /,fos'dl 'fju:'dl/ (n) paliwo kopalne further /ho'd/ (adv) dalej glacier /glresi'd/ (n) lodowiec global warming /,gl'dub'di 'w~:mII]/ (n) globalne ocieplenie greenhouse gas /,gri:nbaus 'gres/ (n) gaz cieplarniany heat up /.hi:t 'Ap/ (phr v) rozgrzac heating /hi:tlI]/ (n) ogrzewanie ice sheet /ms Ji:t/ (n) pokrywa lodowa immediately /rmi:di'dtli/ (adv) natychmiast increase /rnkri:s/ (n) wzrastac, zwi~kszac instead (of) /rn'sted 'dV/ (adv) zamiast (czegos) lose (their) habitat (phr) tracic (swoje) siedlisko/miejsce wyst~powania low-lying /,l'dU 'Iar-I!]/ (adj) nisko potoiony major /meId3'd/ (adj) glowny melt /melt/ (v) topniec polar ice cap /,p'dul'dr 'ars krep/ (n) polarna czapa lodowa power plant /pam plo:nt/ (n) elektrownia produce /pf'd'dju:s/ (v) wytwarzac radiate /reIdieIt/ (v) promieniowac reduce /rr'dju:s/ (v) zmniejszac report /n'p~:t/ (n) raport, sprawozdanie sea level/si: ,Iev'dl/ (n) poziom morza serious /SI'dri'dS/ (adj) powainy species /spi:Ji:z/ (n) gatunek, gatunki starve /sta:v/ (v) glodowac surround /s'd'raund/ (v) otaczac threat (to) ISret/ (n) zagroienie (dla) tornado /t~:'neId'du/ (n) tornado trap /rrrep/ (v) uwi~zic, zatrzymac trouble /trAb'dl/ (n) problem, klopot turn up /,t3:n 'Ap/ (phr v) podkl-~cic, zwi~kszyc

unpredictable /,Anpn'dIkt'db'dl/ (adj) nieprzewidywalny vanish /vreruJ/ (v) znikn~c wave /weIV/ (n) fala

3f (p. 52-53)

180

alight MaIt/ (adj) plon~ey bounce /bauns/ (v) odbic branch /bra:ntJ/ (n) gal~z compass /kAmp'ds/ (n) kompas crash (into) /krreJ/ (v) zderzyc si~ (z) crawl /kr~:1/ (v) czolgac si~, pelzac fast-flowing /,fa:st 'tl'dUII]/ (adj) wartki

first aid kit /,f3:st 'eId kIt/ (n) apteczka pierwszej pomocy flashlight /fIreJlart/ (n) latarka hypothermia /,harp'dU'S3:mi'd/ (n) hipotermia insect repellent /rnsekt n,pel'dnt/ (n) srodek odstraszaj~cy owady life jacket /lmf ,d3rebt/ (n) kamizelka ratunkowa lighter /Ian'd/ (n) zapalniczka map /mrep/ (n) mapa oar h:/ (n) wioslo overhead /,'dUY'd'hed/ (adv) nad glow~ penknife /pen-narf/ (n) seyzoryk pick (sb) up /,pIk 'Ap/ (phr v) odebrac (kogos), wzi~c (kogos) na poklad pilot Iparl'dt/ (n) pilot rafting /ro:ftlI] / (n) splyw pontonem gorsk~ rzek~

rescue helicopter /reskju: ,helIkDpt'd/ (n) helikopter ratunkowy rope /f'dUP/ (n) lina rucksack /rAksrek/ (n) plecak scare off /,ske'dr 'Df/ (phr v) odstraszyc set off /,set 'Df/ (phr v) wyruszyc shelter /Jelt'd/ (n) schronienie shore /J~:/ (n) brzeg signal /sIgn'dl/ (v) sygnalizowac sleeping bag /SIi:PIIJ breg/ (n) spiwor spot /spot/ (v) zauwaiyc suck /sAk/ (v) wci~gn~c, ssac suffer (from) /sAf'd/ (v) eierpiec (na) sunscreen /sAnskri:n/ (n) filtr przeciwsloneczny surface /s3:f'ds/ (v) wynurzyc si~ sweep /swi:p/ (v) zmiesc tent /tent/ (n) namiot terrifying /tef'dfar-II]/ (adj) przeraiaj~cy to (sb's) horror (phr) ku (ezyjemus) przeraieniu torch /t~:tJ/ (n) latarka wilderness /wrld'dn'ds/ (n) dzicz, odludzie 3g (p. 54)

aqua aerobics /,rekw'd e'd'f'dUbIks/ (n) aqua aerobik bird watching Ib3:d,WDtJII]/ (n) obserwowanie ptakow card !ka:d/ (n) karta community centre /k'd'mju:mti ,sent'd/ (n) centrum kultury nature reserve /neItJ'd n,z3:v/ (n) rezerwat przyrody paintballing /pemtb:):lrI]/ (n) gra w paintball ski resort Iski: np:t/ (n) osrodek narciarski zip-lining /zIP lamII]/ (n) kolejka tyrolska zorbing /Z~:bII]/ (n) zorbing (turlanie si~ w plastykowej kuli)

3h (p. 55) ending /endI!]/ (n) zakonczenie forest adventure /,fof'dst "d'ventJ'd/ (n) przygoda w lesie greeting /gri:tII]/ (n) pozdrowienie, powitanie opening comment /,,,up,,ruI] 'koment/ (n) wst~pna uwaga

polite /pg'iaIt/ (adj) uprzejmy, grzeczny reason /ri:z'dn/ (n) powod

3i (p. 56) abseil lrebserl/ (v) schodzic przy uzyciu liny acidic rain /,res'dd 'rern/ (n) kwasny deszcz adapt (to) /'d'drept t,,/ (v) przystosowac si~ (do) become stiff (phr) zesztywniec blind /blarnd/ (adj) slepy calcite /krelsart/ (n) kaleyt cave !keIV/ (n) jaskinia chalk /tJ:):k/ (n) kreda cliff /klrf/ (n) klif column /kDI"m/ (n) kolumna crab /krreb/ (n) krab crawl /kr~:1/ (v) pelzac, czolgac si~ crayfish /kreIfIJ/ (n) rak creature /kri:tJ'd/ (n) stworzenie dark /da:k/ (adj) ciemny discover /dIS'kAV'd/ (v) odkryc dissolve /dI'zolv/ (v) rozpuscic drip /dnp/ (v) kapac drop /drop/ (v) spadac eat away /,i:t 'd'WeI/ (ph r v) wierac si~ erode /I'f'dud/ (v) zniszczyc w procesie erozji, podmyc form /hm/ (v) tworzyc, formowac formation /h'meIJ'dn/ (n) formacja glacier /glresi'd/ (n) lodowiec glow /gl'du/ (v) jarzyc si~, swiecic glowing /gl'dUII]/ (adj) jarz~cy si~ go off /,g'dU 'off (phr v) eksplodowac, dzwonic (a budziku) go over /,g'dU ''dUY''/ (phr v) przej rzec go round /,g"u 'raund/ (phr v) wystarczac harden /ha:dn/ (v) twardniec hole /h'dul/ (n) dziura involve /rn'volv/ (v) poci~gac za sob~, wi~zac si~ z lava /la:v'd/ (n) lawa limestone /larmst'dun/ (n) wapien look after /luk a:ft"/ (phr v) opiekowac si~ look for /luk f,,/ (phr v) szukac look through /Iuk Srn:/ (phr v) przejrzec look up /Iuk Ap/ (phr v) sprawdzac millipede /mrl'dpi:d/ (n) krocionog natural /nretJ'df'd1/ (adj) naturalny rafting /ra:ftII]/ (n) splyw pontonem po rw~cej gorskiej rzece remain alive (phr) pozostac przy iyciu scorpion /sbpi'dn/ (n) skorpion so far (phr) jak dot~d species /spi:Ji:z/ (n) gatunek, gatunki stalactite /strel'dktaIt/ (n) stalaktyt stalagmite /strel'dgmaIt/ (n) stalagmit survive /S'd'varv/ (v) przetrwac, przeiyc worm /W3:m/ (n) robak Language in Use 3 (p. 57) athlete lreSIi:t/ (n) atleta, lekkoatleta athletic /reS'letIk, "S-/ (adj) atletyczny, wyspartowany care /ke,,/ (v) dbac careful /ke'df'dl/ (adj) ostrazny

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_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Word List

careless Ikeglgs/ (adj) niedbaly economical /,eb'nomrbl, ,i:-/ (adj) oszcz~dny economy /I'kommi/ (n) gospodarka effect /rfekt/ (n) efekt, skutek effective /I'fektIv/ (adj) skuteczny examine /Ig'zremgn/ (v) badac expense /Ikspens/ (n) wydatek expensive /Ik'spensIv/ (adj) drogi explode /Iksplgud/ (v) vvybuchac fool /fu:l/ (n) glupiec foolish !fu:lrf/ (adj) gfupi, nierozs~dny go around /,ggU g'raund/ (phr v) vvystarczyc go off /ggU 'off (phr v) eksplodowac, zadzwonic (0 budziku) go over /ggU 'gUV;;'/ (phr v) przejrzec look after /luk 'a:ft;;,/ (phr v) opiekowac si~ look for !luk f;;,/ (phr v) szukac look through /,luk 'em:/ (phr v) przejrzec look up /,luk 'Ap/ (phr v) sprawdzic poison Ip'Jrzgn/ (n) trucizna poisonous !p~IZgn;;,s/ (adj) truj~cy, jadowity ring /rlIJ/ (v) dzwonic salt /s~:lt/ (n) s61 salty !s~:lti/ (adj) slony spoil /sP:)Jl/ (v) zepsuc si~ stunning scenery /,SlAm!] 'si:ngri/ (n) oszafamiaj~ca sceneria warn (sb) about IW'J:n gbaut/ (v) ostrzec (kogos) przed youth hostel Iju:e ,hostl/ (n) schronisko mlodzieiowe Matura Skills 3 (p. 58-59) abandoned /;;,'brend;;,nd/ (adj) opuszczony attendant /g'tendgnt/ (n) opiekun, towarzysz~cy

(be) in high demand (phr) (jest) vvysoki popyt na (be) on a tight budget (phr) miec ograniczone moiliwosci finansowe full board /,ful 'b:J:d/ (n) pelne vvyiywienie funding IfAndlIJ/ (n) finansowanie neglected /nrglekt;;,d/ (adj) zaniedbany province Iprovms/ (n) prowincja pursue a career in (phr) robic karier~ w rewarding /rrW:J:dI!]/ (adj) daj~cy satysfakcj~, dochodowy spare the time (phr) znaleiC czas 4 (p. 61)

exercise regularly (phr) cwiczyc regularnie exercise your mind (phr) cwiczyc umysf get sleep (phr) przespac si~ make ethical choices (phr) dokonywac etycznych wybor6w manage stress (phr) radzic sobie ze stresem peace of mind (phr) spok6j ducha practise meditation (phr) uprawiac medytacj~

solve a crossword (phr) rozwi~zywac krzyi6wk~

spend time in the sunshine (phr) sp~dzac czas w sloncu

4a (pp. 62-63) ache /eIk/ (v) bolec acne lrekni/ (n) tr~dzik against the rules (phr) wbrew zasadom bacteria /brekngri;;,/ (n) bakterie (be) better off (phr) lepiej na czyms wyjsc (be) obliged to do (sth) (phr) bye zobowi~zanym do blurred vision /,b13:d 'VI3gn/ (n) rozmyte widzenie borrow Ibof'du/ (v) poiyczac cause tb:z/ (v) powodowac confined space !kgn,famd 'speIs/ (n) ograniczona przestrzen conversation /,konVg'SeIJ;m/ (n) rozmowa cope (with/without) Ik;;,up WIO, WIo,aut/ (v) radzic sobie (z/bez) dermatologist /,d3:mg'tol;;,d3gSt/ (n) dermatolog directly /dg'rektli, daI-/ (adv) bezposrednio distinguish (between) /dI'StI!]gWIf bI,twi:n/ (v) rozr6inic, odr6inic ear canal IIg b,nrel/ (n) przew6d sfuchowy zewn~trzny

entertainment /,entg'temmgnt/ (n) rozrywka extended period /Ik,stend;;,d 'pIgri;;,d/ (n) wydfuiony czas eye strain lar strem/ (n) przem~czenie wzroku face the consequences (phr) liczyc si~ z konsekwencjami forbidden /f;;,'bIdn/ (adj) zabroniony, zakazany hearing loss Ihrgrr!] ,Ios/ (n) utrata sfuchu lead (to) lli:d tg/ (v) prowadzic do low volume /,Igu 'voljgm/ (n) niska gfosnosc modern marvel /,modn 'ma:vgl/ (n) wsp6kzesny cud motion !mgufgn/ (n) ruch nasty Inresti/ (adj) okropny, nieznosny optician /op'tIfgn/ (n) optyk pain /pem/ (n) b61 prevent /pn'vent/ (v) zapobiec rash /rref/ (n) vvysypka repeated /n'pi:tgd/ (adj) wielokrotny, powtarzaj~cy si~

restriction /n'smkfgn/ (n) ograniczenie result /n'zAlt/ (n) rezultat set /set/ (v) zachodzic shoulder strain /f;;,uld;;, ,strem/ (n) zapalenie mi~snia barkowego shout (at) /faut ;;,t/ (v) krzyczec (na) skin infection Isbn m,fekfgn/ (n) infekcja sk6rna stare (at) Istegr gt/ (v) gapic si~ (na) strain /strem/ (n) napi~cie, naderwanie swelling Iswelll]/ (n) opuchlizna symptom ISImptgm/ (n) objaw, symptom take frequent breaks (phr) robic cz~ste przervvy thumb arthritis /,eAm a:'erartgs/ (n) zapalenie kciuka tool (for) ltu:l/ (n) narz~dzie volume Ivoljgm/ (n) glosnosc, obj~tosc warm up /,w:J:m 'Ap/ (phr v) rozgrzewac si~ warn /W:J:n/ (v) ostrzec

4b (pp. 64-65)

ability /g'brlgti/ (n) umiej~tnosc acid !resgd/ (n) kwasny allow Mau/ (v) pozwolic antibacterial /,rentIbrek'tIgrigl/ (adj) antybakteryjny anti-perspirant /,rentr 'P3:spgI"dnt/ (n) antyperspi rant bad breath /,bred 'bree/ (n) nieswieiy oddech baking soda Iberb!] ,s;;,ud;;,/ (n) soda oczyszczona (do pieczenia) bandage IbrendId3/ (n) bandai blood vessel IblAd ,vesgl/ (n) naczynie krwionosne chew /tfu:/ (v) iuc constricted !kgn,stnkt;;,d/ (adj) zw~iony cover (sth) with !kAv;;, ,SAmeI!] wra/ (v) przykryc (cos) czyms cure !kjUg/ (v) vvyleczyc feel (sth) coming on (phr) przeczuwac fight an illness (phr) pokonac chorob~ flu /flu:/ (n) grypa garlic Iga:lrk/ (n) czosnek germ /d33:m/ (n) zarazek get a cold/the flu (phr) przezi~bic si~, zlapac gryp~ get rid of (phr) pozbyc si~ get a sunburn (phr) nabawic si~ oparzenia sfonecznego ginger !d3md3g/ (n) imbir graze /greIz/ (n) otarcie have a bad cough (phr) mocno kaszlec have a headache (phr) cierpiec na b61 gfovvy have a minor cut (phr) miec niewielkie skaleczenie have a mouth ulcer (phr) miec aft~ have a sore throat (phr) cierpiec na b61 gardfa have a stomachache (phr) cierpiec na b61 brzucha have an itchy rash (phr) miec sw~dz~q wysypk~

have bad breath (phr) miec nieswieiy oddech have hay fever (phr) miec katar sienny have insomnia (phr) cierpiec na bezsennosc have smelly feet (phr) miec smierdz~ce stopy have watery eyes (phr) miec fzawi~ce oczy honey lhAni/ (n) mi6d immune system /I'mju:n ,sIstgm/ (n) system odpornosciovvy/immunologiczny indigestion /,mdr'd3estf;;,n/ (n) niestrawnosc insomnia /m'somnig/ (n) bezsennosc kettle Iketl/ (n) czajnik lack (of) !Irek gv/ (n) brak natural remedy (phr) natural ne lekarstwo necessary !nesgsgri/ (adj) potrzebny neutralise !nju:trdlaIz/ (v) zneutralizowac odour-free /,gudg 'fri:/ (adj) bezzapachowy permission /pg'mIfgn/ (n) pozwolenie possibility /,posg'brlgti/ (n) moiliwosc prohibition /,pf'duhg'brf;;,n/ (n) zakaz quality !kwolgti/ (n) jakosc raw /D:/ (adj) surovvy refuse /n'fju:z/ (v) odm6wic reputation /,repj;;,'teIfgn/ (n) reputacja, opinia

181

Word list _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

rub /rAb/ (v) wetrzec soot.he /su:o/ (v) usmierzyc, uspokoic spr~m my ankle (phr) skr~cic sobie kostk~ spnnkle /spn!]bl/ (v) posypac stomach acid /,SlAm;)k 'aesld/ (n) kwas iol,!dkowy suffer (from) /sAf;) frgm/ (v) cierpiec (na) swallow /swol;)u/ (v) polkn,!c tannin /taerun/ (n) tanina travel sickness /traev;)l ,sIkn;)s/ (n) choroba Iokomocyjna upset stomach /,Apset 'SlAmgk/ (n) rozstrojony iol,!dek vinegar /vlmg;)/ (n) ocet 4c (p. 66)

anti-venin /,aentl 'vemn/ (n) antytoksyna at all costs (phr) za wszelk,! cen~ attack fg'taek/ (v) atakowac avoid /;)'v'Jld/ (v) unikac backyard I.baek'ja:d/ (n) podw6rko za domem bite /baIt! (v) gryzc circumstances /s3:bmstaens;)z. -stgnsn/ (n) okolicznosci deadly /dedli/ (adj) smiertelny death /deS/ (n) smierc :o.rtunately /f'J:tI;)n;)tli/ (adv) na szcz~scie' ~nJect /m'd3ekt/ (v) wstrzykiwac ~nl~n.d /ml;)nd/ (adv) w gl~bi I,!du InvIsible /m'vmrol/ (adj) niewidoczny, niewidzialny jellyfish !d3elifII/ (n) meduza kick M! (v) kopn,!c last !la:st/ (v) trwac needle /ni:dl/ (n) igla pain /pem/ (n) b61 poisonous /p'Jlz;)n;)s/ (adj) truj,!CY, jadowity rock pool /rok pu:l/ (n) zagl~bienie z wod,! w nadmorskich skalach scary /ske;)ri/ (adj) straszny scratch !skraetIl (v) drapac self-defence /,self dl'fens/ (n) samoobrona shark /Ia:k/ (n) rekin spike /spalk/ (n) kolec sting /Stl!]/ (n) z,!dto stripe /stralp/ (n) pasek sweating /swetl!]/ (n) poty tentacle /tent;)bl/ (n) macka unpleasant /An'plez;)nt/ (adj) nieprzyjemny venom /vemm/ (n) jad victim /vlkt;)m/ (n) ofiara vomiting /vom;)tII]/ (n) wymioty 4d (p. 67)

antibiotic cream I.aentlbarotlk ,kri:m/ (n) mase antybiotykowa drought /draut/ (n) susza give a pres~ription (phr) wypisac recept~ go to hospital for an X-ray (phr) isc do szpitala na przeswietlenie ground /graund/ (n) ziemia infecte? /m'fekt;)d/ (adj) zakaiony, zaraiony mosquito bite /m;)'ski:t;)u ,balt/ (n) ugryzienie przez komara

182

put (antiseptic/antibiotic) cream on it (phr) posmarowae masci,! (odkaiaj'!q/antybiotykow'!) reason M:z;)n/ (n) pow6d rough /rAf/ (adj) szorstki, chropowaty round /raund/ (adj) wok6t sound /saund/ (n) diwi~k swollen /sw;)ul;)n/ (adj) spuchni~ty take a look (phr) rzucic okiem, spojrzec take a seat (phr) usi,!sc take some pain killers (phr) zaiye srodki przeciwb610we take some (cough) syrup (phr) zaiyc syrop na kaszel toe /t;)u/ (n) palec u nogi tough /IAf/ (adj) trudny use some (eye/ear/nose) drops (phr) zastosowac krople (do oczu/uszu/nosa) wound /wu:nd/ (n) rana 4e (pp. 68-69)

arrest /;)'rest/ (v) aresztowac bare hands (phr) gote r~ce bend /bend/ (v) schylac si~ broken bone /,brguk;)n 'b;)un/ (n) ztamana kosc challenge /tJael;)nd3/ (n) wyzwanie concrete /ko!]kri:t/ (n) beton confidence /konf;)d;)ns/ (n) pewnosc siebie crawl (along/through) /,kr'J:I ;)'b:I), 'Srn:/ (v) ... czotgac si~, petzac (wzdtui:/przez) CrIticise /krlt;)SaIZ/ (v) krytykowac crowd /kraud/ (n) dum daredevil /de;)dev;)l/ (n) smiatek, ryzykant edge (of) /ed3 ;)v/ (n) skraj, brzeg (czegos) encourage /m'kATId3/ (v) zach~cac extraordinary /Ik'str'J:d;)n;)ri/ (adj) niezwykty feel dizzy (phr) miec zawroty gtowy fracture /fraektI;)/ (n) p~kni~cie, ztamanie gathertgaeo;)/ (v) zebrac si~, zgromadzic si~ get a fine (phr) dostac mandat!grzywn~ get stuck (phr) utkn'!c grab /graeb/ (v) chwycic grip /gnp/ (v) scisn,!c halfway (up) /,haefwel 'Ap/ (adv) w potowie drogi (w g6r~) handcuffs /haendkAf/ (n) kajdanki hang /baeIJ/ (v) wisiee, wieszac height !llaIt/ (n) wysokosc ill~gal /J'li:g;)l/ (adj) nielegalny Injure /md3;)/ (v) zranic kick /kIk/ (v) kopac kneel /ni:l/ (v) kl~czec ledge !led3/ (n) gzyms movement /mu:vm;)nt/ (n) ruch natural landscape /,naetI;)rgl 'Iaendskelp/ (n) naturalny krajobraz nickname /rukneun/ (n) przezwisko, pseudonim pavement /pelvm;)nt/ (n) chodnik public b~ilding /,pAbhk 'bddII]/ (n) budynek uzytecznosci publicznej purpose /p3:p;:,S/ (n) cel raise awareness (phr) podnosic swiadomosc risk my life (phr) ryzykowac moim iyciem rope /rgUp/ (n) lina

safety net /seJfti net/ (n) siatka asekuracyjna shock /Iok/ (v) zaszokowac si~h with relief (phr) westchn'!c z ulg,! sl~p /sllp/ (v) poslizgn,!c si~ slippery surface /,shp;)ri 's3:f;)s/ (n) sliska powierzchnia storey /st'J:ri/ (n) pi~tro structure /strAktI;)/ (n) struktura, budowa suffer from vertigo (phr) cierpiec na zawroty gtowy (spowodowane np. I~kiem wysokosci) tower /tau;)/ (n) wieia urban /3:ron/ (adj) miejski vertigo /v3:ng;)u/ (n) zawroty gtowy (spowodowane np. I~kiem wysokosci) world i~s~es /,w3:ld 'IIu:z/ (pi n) problemy sWlata

4f (pp. 70-71) adrenalin /g'dreml-;)n/ (n) adrenalina beat /bi:t/ (v) bie catch your breath (phr) ztapac oddech crowd /kraud/ (n) tlum (the) dark /da:k/ (n) ciemnosc enclosed /m'kl;)uzd/ (pp) osloni~ty, ogrodzony, zamkni~ta (przestrzen) fear /fl;)/ (n) strach flying tflalII]/ (n) latanie get stung (phr) zostac ui,!dlonym go. to the dentist (phr) isc do dentysty heights !llG!ts/ (pi n) wysokosci injection /m'd3ekI;)n/ (n) zastrzyk lift /lIft/ (n) winda lit~le by little (phr) stopniowo, po trochu miss out (on} j.mls 'a~t/ (phr v) przegapic, straClC okazl~ muscle /mAS;)l/ (n) mi~sien nightmare /naItme;)/ (n) koszmar senny odd /od/ (adj) dziwny pump /pAmp/ (v) pompowac r~t.ional /raeI;)n;)l/ (adj) racjonalny, rozs,!dny ndlculous /rrdIkj;)l;)s/ (adj) smieszny, absurdalny sense /sens/ (v) wyczuwac shake /Ielk/ (v) trz'!sc signal /slgml/ (n) sygnat snake /snelk/ (n) w,!i spider /spmoo/ (n) paj,!k suffer (from) /sAf;)/ (v) cierpiec (na) sweat /swet/ (v) pocic si~ tense /tens/ (adj) napi~ty thunderstorm /SAnd;)st'J:m/ (n) burza z piorunami trigger /trlg;)/ (v) wywotywac work up to (phr) przygotowywac si~ na cos

49 (p. 72) argue /a:gju:/ (v) kt6cie si~ fall out ~ith /,b:1 'aut WIO/ (phr v) pokt6cic Sl~ z have similar interests (phr) miec podobne zamteresowania ignore /Ig'm:/ (v) lekcewaiye, ignorowac laugh (at) /Iaef ;)t/ (v) smiac si~ (z)

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Word list

make an appointment (phr) umowie siE2 na wizytE2/spotkanie peer pressure tprg ,prefg/ (n) presja grupy rowiesniczej pressurise tpreJgrarz/ (v) naciskae na kogos, wywierae presjE2 shy /Jar/ (adj) niesmiaty stressed out /,strest 'aut/ (adj) zestresowany strict /stnkt/ (adj) surowy, wymagaj,!cy study plan tstAdi plren/ (n) plan uczenia siE2 talk (sth) through /,t~:k sAm8rl) '8ru:/ (phr v) przedyskutowae work out /,w3:k 'aut! (phr v) obmyslie, zrozumiee worried (about) tWMid g,baut/ (adj) zmartwiony

immune system /r'mju:n ,srstgm/ (n) system odpornosciowy/immunologiczny keep (sb) awake (phr) nie pozwolie (komus) zasn'!e lack (of) !lrek gv/ (n) brak light /,lart/ (adj) lekki rapid eye movement /.rrepgd 'ar ,mu:vmgnt/ (n) faza snu, w ktorej wystE2puj'! gwattowne ruchy gatek ocznych, faza REM repair /n'peg/ (v) naprawiac replace /n'plers/ (v) zast,!pie resting state trestrl) ,stelt/ (n) stan spoczynku shorten tJ~:tn/ (v) skrocie slow down /,slgu 'daun/ (phr v) zwolnic stage /sterd31 (n) stadium, etap

4h (p. 73)

Language in Use 4 (p. 75) accept /gk'sept/ (v) akceptowae acceptable fgk~septgbgl/ (adj) akceptowalny, zadowalaj'!cy compensate tkompgnsert/ (v) wynagrodzie, zrekompensowae connect Mnekt/ (v) l,!czye curable tkju;,rgbg1/ (adj) uleczalny cure /kjUg/ (v) wyleczye damage tdreIllId3/ (n) uszkodzenie, uszczerbek depend /dr'pend/ (v) zaleiec dependent /dr'pendgnt/ (adj) zaleiny extinguish /rkstuJ9wrJ/ (v) ugasie hurt !b3:t/ (v) ranic increase /m'kri:s/ (v) zwiE2kszae, wzrastac injury tmd3gri/ (n) rana, zranienie invent /m'vent! (v) wynaleiC make out /,merk 'aut/ (phr v) dostrzec, zrozumiec make up /,melk 'Ap/ (phr v) wymyslie, pogodzic siE2 z kims make up for /merk 'AP fgr/ (phr v) nadrobie, wynagrodzic cos observant !"b'z~:v"nl/ (adj) spostrzegawczy observe /gb'Z3:V/ (v) obserwowac pleasant tplezgnt/ (adj) przyjemny please /pli:z/ (v) zadowalac postpone /pgus'pgun/ (v) przeloiyc na inny termin put on /put 'on/ (ph r v) przybrae (na wadze), zatoiye (ubranie) put out /put 'aut/ (phr v) ugasie put (sb) through tput ,8ru:/ (phr v) pol,!czye (w rozmowie telefonicznej) put up with /put 'Ap wra/ (phr v) wytrzymac z kims/czyms sense /sens/ (v) wyczue sensible tsensgbg1/ (adj) rozs'!dny tolerate ttnlgrert/ (v) tolerowae

belief /br'li:f/ (n) pogl,!d confident tkonbdgnt/ (adj) pewny siebie consequence tkonsgkwgns/ (n) konsekwencja, rezultat consequently tkonsakwgntli/ (adv) w rezultacie discuss a problem (phr) przedyskutowae problem editor /edgtg/ (n) redaktor eventually /r'ventJugli, -tJgli/ (adv) w koncu focus (on) tfgubs on/ (v) skupie siE2 na czyms get out of control (phr) wymkn,!e siE2 spod kontroli goal /ggu1/ (n) cel limit thmgt/ (n) ograniczenie linker tlrl)b/ (n) spojnik reduce /n'dju:s/ (v) zmniejszae refuse /rrfju:z/ (v) odmawiae resist /rtzrst/ (v) opierae siE2 respect /n'spekt/ (n) szacunek stick (to) tstrk tg/ (v) trzymae siE2 (czegos) study timetable tstAdi ,tarmterbg1/ (n) harmonogram nauki suggestion /sg'd3estJgn/ (n) propozycja, sugestia summarise tSAmgrarz/ (v) strescie take care of (phr) opiekowae siE2 4i (p. 74) active treknv/ (adj) aktywny affect Mekt! (v) wplywae na, dotykae bodily function /,bDdgli 'fAI]kJgn/ (n) funkcja iyciowa brain /brem/ (n) mozg caffeine tkrefi:n/ (n) kofeina cell /se1/ (n) komorka concentrate /konsgntrert/ (v) koncentrowac siE2 contain /kgn'tem/ (v) zawierae deeply tdi:pli/ (adv) glE2boko depression /dr'preJgn/ (n) depresja drop /drop/ (v) spadae fall asleep (phr) zasn'!e forgetful /fg'getfg1/ (adj) zapominalski function tfAI]kJan/ (n) funkcja get into a routine (phr) wpasc w rutynE2 growth /grnu8/ (n) wzrost grumpy tgrAmpi/ (adj) gderliwy heart rate tha:t relt/ (n) tE2tno

Matura Skills 4 (p. 76-77) artificial finger /,a:t"frJgl 'fII)gg/ (n) sztuczny palec breakthrough (in) tbrerk8ru:/ (n) przelom (w czyms) chunk /tJAl)k/ (n) kawal (czegos) claustrophobia /,ldDStf;)'fgubig/ (n) klaustrofobia conflict tkonfhkt/ (n) spor, konflikt

emerge /r'm3:d3/ (v) wylonie siE2 frostbite tfrostbart/ (n) odmroienie go fly-fishing (phr) pojse towie ryby na muchE2 heart-warming story /,ha:t w~:mrl) 'st~:ri/ (n) pokrzepiaj,!ca opowiesc hypothermia /,harp"u'83:mig/ (n) hipotermia inuit tmjugt, 'mugt/ (adj) Inuit irrational /r'rreJ;;mg1/ (adj) nieracjonalny minor operation /,maimr Dpg'rerJgn/ (n) drobna operacja motto tmDtgu/ (n) motto near-miraculous rescue /,mg mg,rrekjglgs 'reskju:/ (n) niemal cudowne ocalenie out of the ordinary (phr) nadzwyczajne poor condition /,p~: kgn'drJgn/ (n) zty stan raise the alarm (phr) podniese alarm resurface /,ri:'s3:fgs/ (v) pojawic siE2 na nowo retrieve /rttri:v/ (v) odzyskae settlement tsethngnt/ (n) osada spring into action (phr) zacz'!c dziatae, rozpocz'!e dzialanie undergo /,And,,'ggu/ (v) poddawae siE2 czemus, przechodzie cos Revision 4 (p. 78) associate (with) /g'sguJiert wrG, g'sgusi-/ (v) kojarzye z czyms/kims check off /,tJek 'Df! (phr v) zaznaczye, odhaczye clue /ldu:/ (n) wskazowka, pojE2cie common cold /,komgn 'kguld/ (n) przeziE2bienie mnemonic /ru'momk/ (n) pamiE2ciowy recall tri:b:1/ (v) przypomniec sobie 5 (p. 79) buy a house (phr) kupic dom get a divorce (phr) dostac rozwod, rozwiese siE2 get a Job (phr) dostae pracE2 get a promotion (phr) dostac awans get fired (phr) zostae zwolnionym get married (phr) pobrae siE2, wzi,!c slub graduate from university (phr) ukonczye studia, skonczyc uniwersytet have grandchildren (phr) miee wnuki lose your job (phr) stracic pracE2 move (house/abroad) /mu:v/ (v) przeprowadzie siE2 (do innego domu, za granicE2) retire /n'targ/ (v) przejse na emeryturE2 start a business (phr) rozpocz'!e dziatalnose gospodarcz,! start a family (phr) zaloiye rodzinE2 recall tri:b:1/ (v) przypomniec sobie

Sa (pp. 80-81) accept /gk'sept/ (v) akceptowac annoying Nn~r-rl)/ (adj) denerwuj,!CY appointment /a'p~mtmgnt/ (n) umowione spotkanie/wizyta (be) (sb's) fault (phr) (bye) czyj,!s win,! (be) stuck (phr) utkn'!e behave /br'herv/ (v) zachowywac siE2

183

Word list _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___......

'body odour !bodi ,gudg/ (n) naturalny zapach ciata break down /,breIk 'daun/ (phr v) zepsuc si~, zatamac si~ cheer up i,tSrgr 'Ap/ (phr v) rozweselic si~ complain /kgm'plem/ (v) narzekac, skariyc si~ cover /hvg/ (v) przykryc deal with /di:l wra/ (phr v) miec do czynienia z deep breath /,di:p 'bre8/ (n) gt~boki oddech demanding /dr'ma:ndn]/ (adD wymagaj,!cy feel sorry for (phr) wsp6tczuc komus furious /fjugrigs/ (adD wsciekty get on my nerves (phr) dzialac (komus) na nerwy gossip (about) /gOSgp g,baut/ (v) plotkowac ignore /rg'n~:/ (v) lekcewaiyc laugh my head off (phr) p~kac ze smiechu let off steam (phr) wyladowac si~, wypuscic par~ lose my temper (phr) stracic cierpliwosc notice !mutgs/ (v) zauwaiyc plenty (of) /plenti/ (pronoun) mn6stwo polluted /pg'ln:tgd/ (adD zanieczyszczony press (against) /pres g,genst/ (v) przycisn,!c (do czegos) public transport /,pAblrk 'trrensp~:t/ (n) transport publ iczny pull into /,pul 'mtg/ (phr v) wjechae na stacj~ rail /reIl/ (n) kolej reach /ri:tS/ (v) osi,!gn,!c restaurant critic /restgmnt ,kntIk/ (n) krytyk kulinarny (sb's) heart sinks (phr) (ktos) traci zapal do robienia czegos section /sekSgn/ (n) dzial slurp your soup (phr) siorbac zup~ sneeze /sni:z/ (v) kichac suffer (from) /sAfg mm/ (v) cierpiec na sympathise (with) !srmpg8arz wra/ (v) wsp6tczuc (komus) table manners /terbgl ,mremz/ (pi n) zasady zachowania przy stole the final straw (phr) ostatnia kropla tough /tAf/ (adD twardy usher /ASg/ (n) biletowy

Sb (pp. 82-83) afternoon siesta i,a:ftgnu:n si'estg/ (n) popotudniowa sjesta architecture /a:kgtektfg! (n) architektura ask for directions (phr) pytae 0 drog~ century /sentJgri/ (n) wiek challenging /tSrelgnd3IIJ/ (adD ambitny find sth hard (phr) uwaiac cos za trudne foreign /fONn/ (adD obey, z innego kraju get used to (phr) przyzwyczaic si~ do czegos go for it (phr) zawaiczyc 0 cos have difficulty (phr) miee trudnosci w robieniu czegos host !hgust/ (n) gospodarz host family /,hgust 'fremgli/ (n) rodzina goszcz'!ca improve /rm'pru:v/ (v) ulepszye, polepszye

184

language /lreDgwrd3/ (n) j~zyk language skills /lrerJ9wrd3 ,slcrlz/ (n) umiej~tnosci j~zykowe

make friends (phr) zaprzyjainic si~ miss family (phr) t~sknie za rodzin,! opportunity /,opg'tju:ngti/ (n) okazja, szansa outgoing /,aut'gguIIJ/ (adD otwarty, towarzyski overwhelming /,guvC'l'welmrD/ (adD przyttaczaj,!cy, nieprzeparty patient /perSgnt/ (adD cierpliwy rewarding /n'w~:drD/ (adD satysfakcjonuj'!cy, optacalny self-confident /,self 'konfgdgnt/ (adD pewny siebie social etiquette /,sguSgl 'etIkgt/ (n) etykieta, spoleczne normy zachowania spicy food /,sparsi 'fu:d/ (n) pikantne jedzenie struggle /StrAggl/ (v) borykac si~, walczyc study abroad (phr) studiowae za graniq treat /tri:t/ (v) traktowae turn up /,I:.3:n 'Ap/ (phr v) zjawic si~ without a doubt (phr) bez w'!tpienia Se (p. 84) a sign of (phr) znak (czegos) (be) aware jg'weg/ (adj) (bye) swiadomym between friends (phr) mi~dzy przyjaci6tmi chew /tSu:/ (v) iue compliment /komplC'lment/ (v) komplementowac crowded place /,kraudgd 'plers/ (n) zattoczone miejsce disgusting /drs'gAShl]/ (adj) obrzydliwy elbow /ellY.:>u/ (n) lokiee expect /rkspekt/ (v) oczekiwac extend /rlCstend/ (v) wydluiye extend a hand (phr) wyci,!gn,!c r~k~ firm handshake /,f3:m 'hrendSerk/ (n) mocny uscisk dtoni greet (sb with) /gri:t wra/ (v) powitac (kogos czyms) greeting /gri:trI)/ (n) powitanie hug /hAg/ (n) uSciskae, przytulic in public (phr) publicznie index finger /mdeks ,fiD9g/ (n) palec wskazuj'!cy insincere /,msrn'srg/ (adD nieszczery kiss on the cheek (phr) pocalowae w policzek long reply /,IOD n'plar/ (n) dtuga odpowiedz make eye contact (phr) nawi'!zae kontakt wzrokowy palm /pa:m/ (n) dton peace sign /pi:s sam/ (n) znak pokoju rare /reg/ (adD rzadki return the gesture (phr) odwzajemnic gest second rate /,sebnd 'relt/ (n) drugorz~dny share a meal (phr) dzielic si~ positkiem talk loudly (phr) rozmawiae glosno talk with my mouth full (phr) m6wie z petnymi ustami tip /trp/ (n) napiwek title /tartl/ (n) tytul token /tgukgn/ (n) oznaka, symbol

token of thanks (phr) symbol podzi~kowania

typical /trprbl/ (adj) typowy typical greeting /,trpIkgl 'gri:trD/ (n) typowe powitanie, pozdrowienie wide smile /,ward 'smarl/ (n) szeroki usmiech Sd (p. 85)

appreciate /g'pri:Jiert/ (v) doceniae bother /boag/ (v) przeszkadzae complaint /kgm'plemt/ (n) skarga damage /dremrd3/ (n) niszczye driveway /drarvwer/ (n) podjazd make a complaint (phr) ztoiyc skarg~ property /pmpgti/ (n) wtasnosc, nieruchomosc Se (pp. 86-87) abroad fg'bD:d/ (adv) za granic,! achieve /g'tSi:v/ (v) osi,!gn,!e adopt a child (phr) adoptowae dziecko argue /a:gju:/ (v) twierdzic, dowodzie award-winning /g,w~:d ,willIlJ/ (adj) nagrodzony bullying /buli-IIJ/ (n) tyranizowanie, zmuszanie challenging /tSrelgnd3IIJ/ (adj) trudny, stawiaj'!cy wyzwania comb /kgum/ (n) czesae community /kg'mju:ngti/ (n) spotecznosc consumer /kgn'sju:mg/ (n) konsument dedication /,dedr'kerSgn/ (n) zaangaiowanie, poswi~cenie

determination /dr,l:.3:mg'nerSgn/ (n) determinacja, zdecydowanie drug addict /drAg ,redIkt/ (n) narkoman fuel /fju:gl/ (n) paliwo give up /,grv 'Ap/ (phr v) rzucie, zrezygnowae graduate /grred3mt, -ert/ (n,v) absolwent; ukonczye szkol~/uniwersytet grow food (phr) produkowae iywnosc hand out /,hrend ~aut/ (phr v) rozdae have cosmetic surgery (phr) zrobie sobie operacj~ plastyczn,! home-grown /,hgum 'gNun/ (adD wyhodowane/wyprodukowane przez siebie homeless /hgumlgs/ (adj) bezdomny ice cube tars kju:b/ (n) kostka lodu install /m'st;:>:l/ (v) instalowae move into a caravan (phr) wprowadzic si~ do przyczepy kempingowej organic food h:,grenIk 'fu:d/ (n) iywnose organiczna packaging /prelcrd3IIJ/ (n) opakowanie park bench /,pa:k 'bentS/ (n) lawka w parku passionate /preSgngt/ (adj) nami~tny pick wild berries (phr) zbierae dzikie jagody population /,popjg'lerSgn/ (n) populacja profit /pmfgt/ (n) zysk property /pmpgti! (n) nieruchomose, wlasnose prove /pru:v/ (v) dowiese put in /put 'm/ (phr v) zainstalowac

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racism !reISIZgm/ (n) rasizm razor !reIZg/ (n) maszynka do golenia reach your goals (phr) osiqgnqc swoje cele reduce /n'dju:s/ (v) zmniejszyc risky !nski/ (adj) ryzykowny salary !srelgri/ (n) pensja satisfying /sretgSfaI-II]/ (adj) zadowalajqcy scholarship /skolgJIp/ (n) stypendium scissors /SIz;)Z/ (pi n) nOiyczki set up a charity (phr) zaioiyc organizacj~ dobroczynnq share the stage (phr) wyst~powac z kims shave /JeIv/ (v) golic shelter /Jeltg/ (n) schronienie social issue /sguJgl ,IJU:/ (n) problem spoieczny solar panel /,sgulg 'prenl/ (n) panel sioneczny start a business (phr) rozpoczqC dziaialnosc gospodarczq starve /sta:v/ (v) giodowac throwaway /,ergU g'WeI/ (phr v) wyrzucac tube of toothpaste /,tju:b gV 'tU:epeIst/ (n) tubka pasty do z~b6w turn around /,o:n g'raund/ (phr v) odwr6cic si~ win /wm/ (v) wygrac win a scholarship /,wm g 'skolgJIp/ (phr) zdobyc stypendium

Sf (p. 88-89) adult /redAlt/ (n) dorosly awkward /:J:kwgd/ (adj) niezr~czny ceremony !sergmgni/ (n) ceremonia child /tJard/ (n) dziecko dye /daI/ (n) barwnik, farba elderly /eldgli/ (adj) starszy (grzeczn.) embarrass (oneself) /rm'brergs/ (v) wprawic w zaienowanie, wstydzic si~ entrance /entrgns/ (n) wejscie fairytale wedding !fegriteli/ (phr) wesele jak z bajki garland /ga:lgndl (n) girlanda get a promotion (phr) awansowac greet /gri:t/ (v) powitac, pozdrowic groom /gru:m/ (n) pan mlody have a baby shower (phr) uczestniczyc w I organizowac przyj~cie dla kobiety spodziewajqcej si~ dziecka have a family reception (phr) organizowac przyj~cie rodzinne hustle and bustle (phr) rozgardiasz, zgielk infant /mfgnt/ (n) niemowl~ last /la:st/ (v) trwac leap at the chance (phr) skorzystac z okazji marching band /ma:tJI~ ,brend/ (n) orkiestra d~ta

middle-aged /,mIdl 'eId3d/ (adj) w srednim wieku nickname /nrknenn/ (n) przezwisko, pseudonim prosperity /pm'spergti/ (n) dobrobyt, pomyslnosc rickshaw /nkJ;):/ (n) riksza sari /sa:ri/ (n) sari signify /sIgngfar/ (v) oznaczac

silk /SIlk! (n) jedwab steaming hot (adj) gorqce stick /strk/ (n) kij, patyk stunning /StAnI~/ (adj) oszalamiajqcy teenager /ti:neId3g/ (n) nastolatek toddler /todlg/ (n) brzdqc, dziecko uczqce si~ chodzic tradition /U'd'dIJgn/ (n) tradycja 5g (p. 90)

affect Mekt/ (v) wplywac na bald /b;):ld/ (adj) Iysy beard /bIgd/ (n) broda blond(e) /blond/ (adj) blond celebrity /sg'lebrgti/ (n) celebryta cheerful !tJIgfg1/ (adj) radosny curly /k3:li/ (adj) kr~cone dark /da:k/ (adj) ciemny dark/pale skin /,da:k'skm, ,peIl-/ (n) ciemna/blada sk6ra fat /fret/ (adj) gruby freckles /freblz/ (pi n) piegi generous /d3engrgs/ (adj) hojny glasses /gla:sgz/ (pi n) okulary grow a beard (phr) zapuscic brod~ honest /ongst/ (adj) uczciwy in (sb's) early forties (phr) okolo czterdziestu lat in (sb's) early twenties (phr) okolo dwudziestu lat in (sb's) late teens (phr) starszy nastolatek in (sb's) mid-thirties (phr) (miec) okolo 35 lat lazy !leIzi/ (adj) leniwy long /lo~/ (adj) dlugi lose weight (phr) stracic na wadze middle-aged /,mIdl 'eId3d/ (adj) w srednim wieku moustache /mg'sta:J/ (n) Wqsy of medium height (phr) sredniego wzrostu old /guld/ (adj) stary outgoing /,aut'ygUIIj/ (adj) otwarty, towarzyski oval /gUVg1/ (adj) owalny overweight /,gUVg'WeIt/ (adj) z nadwagq patient /peIJgnt/ (adj) cierpliwy pierced ear /,PIgSt 'r~/ (n) przeklute ucho plump /plAmp/ (adj) pulchny popular /popjgb/ (adj) popularny recognise /rekggnarz, 'rebn-/ (v) rozpoznac round /raund/ (adj) okrqgly rude /ru:d/ (adj) niegrzeczny selfish /selfIJ/ (adj) samolubny short /J;):t/ (adj) niski shy /JaI/ (adj) niesmialy skinny /skmi/ (adj) chudy small /sm;):1/ (adj) maly straight /streIt/ (adj) prosty tall /t;):1/ (adj) wysoki tattoo Mtu:, tre'tu:/ (n) tatuai thin /em/ (adj) szczuply wavy /weIvi/ (adj) falujqcy well-built /,wel 'bIlt/ (adj) dobrze zbudowany wrinkle /n~bl/ (n) zmarszczka young /jA~/ (adj) mlody

5h (p. 91) addictive /g'drktIV/ (adj) uzaleiniajqcy (be) obsessed with (phr) miec obsesj~ na punkcie czegos/kogos boost /bu:st/ (v) poprawic, wzmocnic conclusion /kgn'klu:3gn/ (n) wniosek counselling /kaunsglr~/ (n) doradztwo defect /dI,fekt, ,di:fekt/ (n) wada, defekt go under the knife (phr) isc pod n6i introduction /,mtrg'dAkJgn/ (n) wst~p, wprowadzenie main body /,mem 'bodi/ (n) gl6wna cz~sc normal life /,n;):mgl 'laIf! (n) normalne iycie obsessed /gb'sest/ (adj) op~tany, majqcy obsesj~

painful /pemfg1/ (adj) bolesny recover /n'kAvg/ (v) wyzdrowiec scar /ska:/ (n) blizna self-image /,self 'ImId3/ (n) obraz samego siebie take medication /,teIk medI'keIJgn/ (n) przyjmowac lekarstwa worrying !wAfi-II]/ (adj) niepokojqcy Si (p. 92) adrenalin /g'dreml-gn/ (n) adrenalina airway /egWeI/ (n) drogi oddechowe alert /g'l3:t/ (adj) czujny allergy /relgd3i/ (n) alergia barking noise /ba:kr~ ,n;)Iz/ (n) odglos szczekania become aware (phr) uswiadomic sobie blush /bIAJ/ (n, v) zarumienic si~; rumieniec brain /brem/ (n) m6zg breathe deeply (phr) oddychac gl~boko carbon dioxide /,ka:bgn dar'oksaId/ (n) dwutlenek w~gla cold virus !buld ,VaIgrgs/ (n) wirus przezi~bienia

contagious jkgn'teId3gS/ (adj) zakainy cough /kof/ (n, v) kaszel; kaszlec diaphragm /dargfrrem/ (n) przepona dome-shaped /dgum JeIpt/ (adj) w ksztakie kopuly dust /dAst/ (n) kurz embarrassed /Im'brergst/ (adj) zawstydzony, zaienowany eyelid /arlId/ (n) powieka flow /flgu/ (n) przeplyw heart rate /ha:t reIt/ (n) t~tno hiccup !lukAp, -bp/ (n, v) czkawka; miec czkawk~

increase /m'kri:s/ (v) zwi~kszac, wzrastac infectious /m'fekJgs/ (adj) zakainy irritate /ll'dteIt/ (v) drainic irritation /,Irg'teIJgn/ (n) podrainienie jerky /d33:ki/ (adj) nerwowy lung /IA~/ (n) pluco muscle /mASg1/ (n) mi~sien nasal passage /neIzgl ,presId3/ (n) nozdrze oxygen /OksId3gn/ (n) tlen pollen /polgn/ (n) pylek kwiatowy release /n'li:s/ (v) uwolnic self-conscious /,self 'konJgs/ (adj) skr~powany, niesmialy

185

Word List ____________________________________-..,-

. separate !sepgrgt/ (adj) odr~bny sneeze /sni:z/ (n, v) kichni~cie; kichae snore /sn~:/ (n, v) chrapanie; chrapae stretch /stretJ/ (v) rozci,!gae throat /8Nut/ (n) gardlo vibrate /var'brert/ (v) drgae, wibrowae virus !vargNS/ (n) wirus vocal cords !vgukgl b:dz/ (pi n) struny glosowe voice box !v~rs boks/ (n) krtan yawn /j~:n/ (n, v) ziewni~cie; ziewae Language in Use 5 (p.93) accurate !iEkjgNt/ (adj) dokladny dishonest /drs'ongst/ (adj) nieuczciwy dissatisfied /dr'SiEtgsfard, drs'siE-/ (adj) niezadowolony end up /,end 'Ap/ (phr v) skonczye existent /rg'zrstgnt/ (adj) istniej,!cy formal !b:mgl/ (adj) formalny give a hug (phr) usciskae happy !hiEpi/ (adj) szcz~sliwy helpful !helpfgl/ (adj) pomocny homeless shelter !hgumlgs Jellg/ (n) schronisko dla bezdomnych honest !ongst/ (adj) uczciwy host family /,hgust 'fiEmgli/ (n) rodzina goszcz'!ca illegal /rli:ggl/ (adj) nielegalny illogical /r'lod3rbl/ (adj) nielogiczny impolite /,rmp",'lart/ (adj) nieuprzejmy impossible /rm'posrbgl/ (adj) niemoiliwy inaccurate /m'iEkjgNt/ (adj) niedokladny informal /m'b:mgl/ (adj) nieformalny irregular /r'regjglg/ (adj) nieregularny irresponsible /,rrg'sponsgml/ (adj) nieodpowiedzialny legal /li:ggl/ (adj) legalny logical !lod3rkgl/ (adj) logiczny lose your temper (phr) macie cierpliwose non-existent /,non rg'zrstgnt/ (adj) nieistniej,!cy plastic surgery /,pliEstrk 's3:d3gri/ (n) chirurgia plastyczna, operacja plastyczna polite /pg'lart/ (adj) uprzejmy possible Ipasrbgl/ (adj) moiliwy punctuality /,pA~ktJu'iElgti/ (n) punktualnose reach your goals (phr) osi,!gn,!e swoje cele regular !regjgb/ (adj) regularny reject /rr'd3ekt/ (v) odrzucie relative Irelgtrv/ (n) krewny remove /rr'mu:v/ (v) usuwae responsible /r[sponsgbgl/ (adj) odpowiedzial ny run a business (phr) prowadzie biznes satisfied !siEtgsfard/ (adj) zadowolony sense of achievement (phr) poczucie sukcesu social etiquette /,sguJgl 'etrket/ (n) etykieta, spoleczne normy zachowania sorry (about) !sori g,baut/ (adj) ialowae (kogos) stay alert (phr) bye czujnym take a deep breath (phr) wzi,!e gl~boki oddech take after !terk ,a:ftg/ (phr v) przypominae kogos, bye podobnym

186

take off /,terk 'off (phr v) zdj,!C ubranie, wystartowae (0 samolocie) take risks (phr) podejmowac ryzyko take up /,terk 'Ap/ (phr v) zaj,!e si~ czyms turn down /,t3:n 'daun/ (phr v) sciszye turn off /,o:n 'off (phr v) wyl,!czye turn over /,o:n 'gUVg/ (phr v) przewracic stron~

turn up /,o:n 'Ap/ (phr v) poglosnic, pojawie si~ unhappy /An'hiEpi/ (adj) nieszcz~sliwy unhelpful /An'helpfgl/ (adj) nieskory do pomocy vocal cords !vgukgl b:dz/ (pi n) struny glosowe Matura Skills 5 (p. 94-95) adopt an attitude (phr) przyj,!c postaw~ change gears (phr) zmieniac biegi competitive drive /bm,petgtrv 'drarv/ (n) poci,!g do rywalizacji competitive spirit /kgm,petgtrv 'sprrgt/ (n) duch wspalzawodnictwa encounter problems (phr) napotykae problemy gender bias !d3endg ,bargs/ (n) nierawne traktowanie ze wzgl~du na plec genuine love of (5th) (phr) szczere uwielbienie dla (czegos) if anything (phr) jesli jui in a lesser way (phr) w mniejszym stopniu look down on /luk 'daun on/ (phr v) spogl,!dac na kogos z gory masculine !miEskjglgn/ (adj) m~ski native !nertrv/ (adj) rodzinny naval engineer /,nervgl ,end3g'nrg/ (n) iniynier marynarki objective /gb'd3ektrv/ (n) cel opposed (to) fg'pguzd/ (adj) w przeciwienstwie do pointless !p:)mtlgs/ (adj) bezcelowy prosthetic leg /pms,8etrk 'leg/ (n) proteza nogi put your mind to (5th) (phr) postarae si~, bye zdeterminowanym secondary !sebndgri/ (adj) na drugim miejscu soft-spoken /,soft 'spgubn/ (adj) olagodnym glosie Revision 5 (p. 96) have a quick word (phr) zamienic slowo reaction (to) /ri'iEkJgn tg/ (n) reakcja (na) 6 (p.97) arson !a:sgn/ (n) podpalenie break into /,brerk 'mtg/ (phr v) wlamac si~ burglary !b3:glgri/ (n) kradziei z wlamaniem deliberately /dr'lrbgNtli/ (adv) celowo mugging !lIIAgr~/ (n) rozbaj pickpocketing !prk,pobtr~/ (n) kradzieie kieszonkowe public property /,pAblrk 'pmpgti/ (n) wlasnosc publiczna robbery !mbgri/ (n) rabunek

shoplifting !Jop,lrftr~/ (n) kradziei sklepowa speeding !spi:dr~/ (n) przekroczenie pr~dkosci

vandalism !viEndgl-rzgm/ (n) wandalizm witness !wrtms/ (v) swiadek 6a (pp.9S-99) approval /g'pru:Vgl/ (n) poparcie architecture !a:kgtektfg! (n) architektura arrest /g'rest/ (v) aresztowac brighten up /,brartn 'Ap/ (phr v) rozjasnic bullet-proof vest /,bulgt pru:f 'vest/ (n) kamizelka kuloodporna carving !ka:vr~/ (n) rzeiba, grawerowanie catch (sb) red-handed (phr) zlapae (kogos) na gor,!cym uczynku click /klrk/ (v) stukac collage !kola:3/ (n) kolai computer graphics /kgm,pju:tg 'grrefrks/ (pi n) grafika komputerowa concrete !ko~kIi:t/ (n) beton crack /krrek/ (n) p~kni~cie crumbling walls (phr) kruszej'!ce sciany/mury divide /dr'vard/ (v) dzielie dove of peace /,dAV gV 'pi:s/ (n) gol,!bek pokoju drawing !dr:):r~/ (n) rysunek exhibit /rg'zrmt/ (v) wystawiae, pokazywac na wystawie (have your) fair share (of 5th) (phr) (miec swaj) sprawiedliwy udzial, dostac to, co si~ komu naleiy fit a burglar alarm (phr) zainstalowae alarm antywlamaniowy graffiti /grre'fi:ti/ (n) graffiti graffiti knitting group /gN,fi:ti 'mtll] ,gru:p/ (n) grupa zajmuj,!ca si~ odmian,! graffiti polegaj,!c,! na stosowaniu wyrobaw wlaczkowych zamiast farb grate /grert/ (n) zetrzec have (your) (fair) share (phr) miee (swaj) (sprawiedliwy) udzial illegal /rli:ggl/ (adj) nielegalny knit /nrt/ (v) robic na drutach neglected /m'glektgd/ (adj) zaniedbany offensive jg'fensrv/ (adj) obrailiwy painting !pemtr~/ (11) obraz patch /PiEtJ/ (n) grz,!dka photography /fg'tOgNfi/ (n) fotografia pottery !potgri/ (n) garncarstwo print making !prrnt ,merkn]/ (n) rytownictwo public opinion /,pAblrk gpmjgn/ (n) opinia publiczna repair work /rr'peg w3:k/ (n) naprawy rundovyn /,rAn 'daun/ (adj) zniszczony sculpting !skAlptrI)/ (n) rzeiba skip /skIp/ (n) kontener steel /sti:l/ (n) stal transform /trrens'f~:m/ (v) przeksztakie true identity /,trn: ar'dentgti/ (n) prawdziwa toisamosc volunteer /,volgn'trg/ (n) ochotnik worldwide phenomenon /,w3:ldward fg'nomgmn/ (n) fenomen na skal~ swiatow'!

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Word List

Gb (pp.100-101) analyse trengIQIz/ (v) analizowe armed robbery /.a:md 'robgri/ (n) napad z broni,! w r~ku arrest tgrest/ (v) aresztowae blood analysis !blAd g,melgsrs/ (n) analiza krwi commit /kg'mrt/ (v) popelnie crime scene tkrarm si:n/ (n) miejsce zbrodni distressing /dI'stresn]/ (adj) bolesny DNA analysis /,di: en 'er g,nrejgSIs/ (n) analiza

DNA dramatic arrest /dN,mretIk g'rest/ (n) dramatyczne aresztowanie electron microscope /r,jektron 'markrgsbup/ (n) mikroskop elektronowy examine /Ig'zremm/ (v) badae fibre !farbg/ (n) wl6kno fingerprint !fi~ggpfInt/ (n) odcisk palca fit security lights (phr) zaloiyc swiatla alarmowe fluid !flu:gd/ (n) ciecz forensic scientist /fg,renSIk 'sargntgst, -zrk-/ (n) specjalista w dziedzinie medycyny s,!dowej get away with /get g'WeI WIa/ (phr v) unikn'!c kary za cos identify /aI'dentgfar/ (v) zidentyfikowac in record time (phr) w rekordowym czasie install a burglar alarm (phr) zainstalowac alarm antywlamaniowy judge /dy..d3/ (n) s~dzia lab /Ireb/ (n) laboratorium lawyer !b:jg/ (n) prawnik lock /Iok/ (n) zamek physical evidence /,fIzrbl 'evrdgns/ (n) fizyczne dowody play a role (phr) grac rol~ police detective /pa,li:s dI'tektrv/ (n) detektyw present evidence in court (phr) przedstawic dowody w s,!dzie prison guard !prrz;m ga:d! (n) strainik wi~zienny

private detective /,pramt dI'tektrv/ (n) prywatny detektyw represent (sb) in court (phr) reprezentowae (kogos) w s,!dzie saliva /sg'larvg/ (n) slina scientific method /,saIgntrfIk 'me8gd/ (n) metoda naukowa scientific technique /,saI;mtrfIk tek'ni:k/ (n) technika naukowa security guard /sr'kjoordti ga:d/ (n) strainik ochrony severely burnt (phr) powainie oparzony shoplifter !Sop,Irfta/ (n) zlodziej sklepowy silicon chip /,srIIbn 'tSIp/ (n) uklad scalony solve a crime (phr) wyjasnic zbrodni~ spectrometer /spektromatg/ (n) spektrometr stain /stem/ (n) plama store detective tst:): dI,tektrv/ (n) detektyw sklepowy supervise !su:pavarz/ (v) nadzorowac suspect tSAspgkt/ (n) podejrzany take (sb's) fingerprints (phr) zdj,!e (czyjes) odciski palc6w

trace /trers/ (n) slad ultra-violet light I,AItrd varglgt 'Iart/ (n) swiatlo ultrafioletowe Gc (p.102)

assassinate h'sreSgneIt/ (v) dokonac zamachu attract the attention of (phr) przyci,!gn,!c uwag~

ban /bren/ (n) zakaz boycott tb:)rkot/ (n) boj kot bravery !bremri/ (n) odwaga civil rights movement /,sIvgl 'rarts ,mu:vmgnt/ (n) ruch na rzecz praw obywatelskich Congress !ko~gres/ (n) Kongres (w USA) content tkontent/ (n) zawartosc create positive change (phr) wywolae pozytywn,! zmian~ give up /,grv 'Ap/ (phr v) zrezygnowae (have an) impact !rmprekt/ (n) (miee) wplyw incident !rnsadgnt/ (n) wydarzenie, zajscie inspirational figure /,mspg'rerSan ,frgg/ (n) inspiruj,!ca postac inspire /m'spara/ (v) inspirowae judge /d3Ad3/ (v) s,!dzie legacy /Iegasi/ (n) spuscizna march /ma:tS/ (n) marsz minister !mrngstg/ (n) minister mourn (sb's) loss (phr) oplakiwae czyj,!s strat~

pass an Act (phr) uchwalic ustaw~ protest tprgutest/ (n) protest race /reIs/ (n) rasa racial discrimination /,reISgj dI,sknmg'neISgn/ (n) dyskryminacja rasowa racist opposition /,rersgst ,opa'ZISgn/ (n) rasistowska opozycja receive low wages (phr) otrzymywac nisk,! plac~

result in (sth) /nTaIt rn/ (phr v) konczyc si~ (czyms) rule lru:l/ (v) orzekac segregation /,segrd'geIS,m/ (n) segregacja spark a revolution (phr) wywolac rewolucj~

treat (sb) equally (phr) traktowae r6wno

Gd (p.103) gang /gre~/ (n) gang give a witness statement (phr) ztoiyc oswiadczenie jako swiadek I appreciate your help. (phr) Jestem wdzi~czny za Twoj,! pomoc. investigate /rn'vestIgeIt/ (v) prowadzic sledztwo mugging tIllAglIJ/ (n) rozb6j newspaper report extract tnju:zperpa rr,p:):t, ,ekstrrekt/ (n) fragment reportaiu nuclear tnju:kIrg/ (adj) nuklearny push (sb) to the ground (phr) powalic (kogos) na ziemi~ witness an incident (phr) bye swiadkiem zajscia

6e (pp.104-105)

alter h:Itg/ (v) zmienie computer whiz people /karn'pju:tg WIZ ,pi:pgl/ (n) spece od komputer6w confidential /,konfg'denSgl/ (adj) poufny, tajny cracker !krreb/ (n) wlamywacz komputerowy crash /krreS/ (v) zawiesic si~ (0 komputerze) defense /dr'fens/ (n) obrona devastating tdevasteI~/ (adj) druzgoqcy disruption /drs'rAPSgn/ (n) zak16cenie drive (to do sth) /drarv/ (n) starania, d,!ienie (do zrobienia czegos) email attachment /i:merl g,tretSmgnt/ (n) zat'!cznik exploit !ekspbrt/ (n) wyczyn expose (sb to sth) /rkspguz/ (v) narazie (kogos na cos) gain access to (phr) zdobyc dost~p do hack /hrek/ (v) wtamywac si~ do sieci komputerowej hacking !hrekr~/ (n) wlamywanie si~ do sieci komputerowej, hakowanie harmless geek /,ha:mjgs 'gi:k/ (n) nieszkodliwy maniak komputerowy have access to (phr) miee dost~p do havoc !hrevak! (n) spustoszenie hijack !hard3rek/ (v) przej,!c kontrol~ nad identity theft /ar'dentgti ,Seft/ (n) kradziei toisamosci illegal downloading /,li:ggl 'daunlgudr~/ (n) nielegalne pobieranie np. plik6w immediate /I'mi:digt/ (adj) natychmiastowy make mischief (phr) narozrabiac naVigation system /,nrevI'gerSgn ,sIstgm/ (n) system nawigacji on a global scale (phr) na skal~ globaln,! online account /,onIarn g'kaunt/ (n) konto online online credit card fraud /,onjam 'kredrt ka:d ,fD:d/ (n) oszustwa z wykorzystaniem karty kredytowej online phishing tfrSI~/ (n) wyludzanie za pomoc,! poczty elektronicznej poufnych informacji osobistych przez podszywanie si~ pod godn,! zaufania osob~ lub instytucj~ power station tpaug ,sterSgn/ (n) elektrownia rely on (sb/sth) /n'jar on/ (phr v) polegac na (kims/czyms) resort to (sth) /rr'z:):t tg/ (phr v) v uciekae si~ do scenario /sg'na:rigu/ (n) scenariusz, przewidywany rozw6j zdarzen script buddy, script kiddie tsknpt bAdi/ (n) niedoswiadczony cracker, uiywaj,!cy program6w napisanych przez innych, aby wlamywae si~ do komputer6w security risk /sr'kjuardti ,fIsk/ (n) potencjalne zagroienie bezpieczenstwa spread computer viruses (phr) rozprzestrzeniac wirusy komputerowe

187

Word list _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

steal (sb's) identity (phr) ukrasc (czyj~s) toisamosc strengthen !streI]flgn/ (v) wzmocnic traffic jam !tnefIk d3rem/ (n) korek uliczny warn /W'J:n/ (v) ostrzec worm /W3:m/ (n) robak zombie !zombi/ (n) zombi 6f (pp.106-107) attend /'d't'Cmd/ (v) tu: stawic si~ (w s~dzie) break into /,breIk 'mt,,/ (phr v) wlamae si~ do scheme /ski:m/ (n) plan sprain your ankle (phr) zwichn~e nog~ w kostce spray graffiti (phr) wykonae graffiti sprayem street lighting !stri:t ,laItII]/ (n) oswietlenie ulic traffic congestion !trrefrk k'dn,d3estJ'dn/ (n) zag~szczenie ruchu ulicznego trip /trIp/ (v) potkn~e si~ vandalism !vrend'dl-IZ'dm/ (n) wandalizm waste ground !weIst graund/ (n) ug6r, ziemia niczyja What a nightmare! (phr) Co za koszmar!

unfair /An'fe'd/ (adj) niesprawiedliwy war-torn !W~: t~:n/ (adj) rozdarty wojn~ wipe out /,WaIP 'aut/ (phr v) zmiesc z powierzchni ziemi Language in Use 6 (pp,111) appear in court (phr) stawie si~ w s~dzie at an alarming rate (phr) w zastraszaj~cym tempie book /buk/ (v) rezerwowac by accident (phr) przypadkiem expert !eksp3:t/ (adj) biegly gradually !grred3U'dli/ (adv) stopniowo run away /,rAn 'd'wel/ (phr v) uciec run into IrAn 'mt'd/ (phr v) wpase na kogos run out (of) /,rAn 'aut/ (phr v) konczyc si~ set off /,set 'of/ (phr v) vvyruszyc set up /,set 'Ap/ (phr v) zaloiyc undervalue /,And'd'vrelju:/ (v) nie doceniac wear off /,we'dr 'of/ (phr v) mijac, przestac dzialac wear out /,we'dr 'aut/ (phr v) zuiyc si~, zniszczyc work on !w3:k on/ (phr v) pracowac nad work out /,w3:k 'aut/ (phr v) cwiczyc, obmyslic

6h (p.109) (be) in favour of (sth) (phr) (bye) za (czyms) (be) (totally) opposed to (sth) (phr) (calkowicie) si~ czemus sprzeciwiae a sense of (phr) poczucie abandoned /'d'brend'dnd/ (adj) opuszczony community spirit /k'd,mju:n'dti 'SPIf'dt/ (n) duch wsp61noty in response to (phr) w odpowiedzi na keep off /,ki:p 'of/ (phr v) trzymac si~ z daleka need extensive repair (phr) vvymagae gruntownej naprawy parkland !pa:klrend/ (n) park renovate !ren'dvelt/ (v) odnawiac 6i (p.110) campaign /krem'pem/ (n) kampania candle !krendl/ (n) swieca curse /k3:S/ (v) przekl~e dictator /dIk'telt'd/ (n) dyktator drink a toast (phr) wzniese toast found /faund/ (v) zaloiyc have the right (phr) miec prawo human rights /,hju:m'dn 'raIts/ (pi n) prawa czlowieka human rights abuse /,hju:m'dn 'raIts 'd,bju:s/ (n) naruszenie praw czlowieka imprison /Im'pnZ'dn/ (v) uwi~zic outstanding contribution /au~strendII] kontr'd'bju:f'dn/ (n) vvybitny wklad poverty !pov'dti/ (n) bieda, ub6stwo prisoner of conscience /,pnZ'dO'dr 'df 'konf'dns/ (n) wi~zien sumienia race /reIS/ (n) rasa raise support (phr) zdobyc wsparcie release /n'li:s/ (n) uwolnic soldier !S'duld3'd/ (n) iolnierz trial !traI'dl/ (n) proces s~dowy

188

Matura Skills 6 (pp. 112-113) a rude awakening (phr) brutalne przebudzenie authorities h:'SOf'dtiz/ (pi n) wladze average price /,rev'dnd3 'praIs/ (n) przeci~tna cena (be) one of a kind (phr) jedyny w swoim rodzaju bystander !ba,strend'd/ (n) przypadkovvy przechodzi en! obserwator copyright material/,kopiraIt m'd'tl'dri'dl/ (n) materialy chronione prawem autorskim cut off (from) /,kAt 'of! (phr v) odci~c od debate /dI'belt/ (n) debata deserve /drZ3:V/ (v) zaslugiwac exceed the speed limit (phr) przekroczyc dozwolon~ pr~dkosc

falling sales (phr) spadek sprzedaiy file-sharing !faIl ,fe'dnI]/ (n) udost~pnianie plik6w free of charge (phr) darmovvy generation /,d3en'd'reIJ'dn/ (n) pokolenie go bump (phr) halasowac income /II]k'dm, '10-/ (n) doch6d internet service provider /,mt'dnet 'S3:V'dS pf'd,vaId'd/ (n) dostawca Internetu leaking tap /,li:1aIJ 'trep/ (n) przeciekaj~cy kran legislation /,led3'd'sleIf'dn/ (n) ustawodawstwo liken (sb/sth to sb/sth) !lmk'dn/ (v) przyr6wnac (kogos/cos do kogos/ czegos) monitor !moOItsJ/ (v) monitorowac music industry !mju:zlk ,md'dstri/ (n) przemysl muzyczny obtain /'db'tem/ (v) uzyskac pass a law (phr) wydac prawo

pride /praId/ (n) duma profit !prof'dt/ (v) zysk record company !reb:d ,kAmpgni/ (n) wytw6rnia plytowa recover (from) /n'kAv'd/ (v) dochodzic do siebie recycling project /ri:'sarklII] ,prod3ekt/ (n) projekt poswi~cony recyklingowi release /n'li:s/ (v) uwolnic resolve /n'zolv/ (v) rozwi~zac np. problem restore /n'st~:/ (v) przywr6cic scooter !sku:t'd/ (n) skuter set price /,set 'prars/ (n) ustalic cen~ share (sb's) opinion (phr) podzielac (czyj~s) opini~ take action (against) (phr) podj~c dzialanie (przeciwko) theft /Seft/ (n) kradziei trial and error (phr) metoda pr6b i bl~d6w wine-tasting !wam ,teIstII]/ (n) degustacja win Revision 6 (p. 114) anti-virus software /,renti 'var'df'dS ,softwe'd/ (n) oprogramowanie antywirusowe cutbacks !kAtbreks/ (pi n) redukcja zatrudnienia, ci~cia mugger !illAg'd/ (n) bandyta uliczny pick up /,prk 'Ap/ (phr v) odebrac kogos z jakiegos miejsca take (sth) into consideration (phr) wzi~c pod uwag~ wi-fi hots pot /,war faI 'hotspot/ (n) punkt dost~pu do Internetu bezprzewodowego

America

nglish - British English uid 1

,

.1

P

A account airplane anyplace/anywhere apartment

bill/account aeroplane anywhere flat

B

bathrobe bathtub bill billion=thousand million busy (phone)

dressing gown bath banknote billion=million million engaged (phone)

C call/phone can candy check closet connect (telephone) cookie corn crazy

ring up/phone tin sweets bill (restaurant) wardrobe put through biscuit sweetcorn, maize mad

pants/trousers pantyhose/nylons parking lot pavement pedestrian crossing (potato) chips public school purse

trousers tights car park road surface zebra crossing crisps state school handbag

R railroad rest room

railway toilet/cloakroom

5 sales clerk/sales girl schedule shorts (underwear) sidewalk stand in line store, shop subway

shop assistant timetable pants pavement queue shop underground

T

desk clerk dessert downtown drapes drugstore/pharmacy duplex

receptionist pu dd i n g/ desse rt/sweet (city) centre curtains chemist's (shop) semi-detached

truck two weeks

lorry, van fortnight/two weeks

V vacation vacuum (v.) vacuum cleaner vest

holiday(s) hoover hoover waistcoat

E eggplant elevator

aubergine lift

W with or without (milk/cream in coffee)

F fall faucet first floor, second floor, etc flashlight French fries front desk (hotel)

autumn tap ground floor, first floor, etc torch chips reception

G garbage/trash garbage can gas gas station grade

rubbish dustbin/bin petrol petrol station/garage class/year

I intermission intersection

interval crossroads

D

janitor

caretaker/porter

K kerosene

paraffin

L lawyer/attorney line lost and found

solicitor queue lost property

M mail make a reservation motorcycle movie movie house/theater

post book motorbi ke/motorcycle film cinema

N newsstand

newsagent

0 office (doctor's/dentist's) one-way (ticket) overalls

surgery single (ticket) dungarees

black or white

y yard

garden

Z (pronounced, "zee") zero zip code

(pronounced, "zed") nought postcode

Grammar He just went out.! He has just gone out.

He has just gone out.

Hello, is this Steve?

Hello, is that Steve?

Do you have a car?/ Have you got a car?

Have you got a car?

Spelling aluminum analyze center check color honor jewelry practice (n,v) program realize tire trave(l)ler

aluminium analyse centre cheque colour honour jewellery practice (n) practise (v) programme realise tyre traveller

Expressions with prepositions and particles different from/than live on X street on a team on the weekend Monday through Friday

different from/to I ive in X street in a team g1 the weekend Monday 1.Q Friday

189

Pronunciation Vowels a

e

o

00

u

Y

leel lell

care, rare, scare, dare, fare, share name, face, table, lake, take, day, age, ache, late, snake, make 1331 apple, bag, hat, man, flat, lamp, fat, hand, black, cap, fan, cat, actor, factor, manner I'O:J ball, wall, call, tall, small, hall, warn, walk, also, chalk 101 want, wash, watch, what, wasp lel alarm, away, America la:J arms, dark, bar, star, car, ask, last, fast, glass, far, mask lel egg, end, hen, men, ten, bed, leg, tell, penny, pet, bell, pen, tent III in, ill, ink, it, is, hill, city, sixty, fifty, lip, lift, silly, chilly lall ice, kite, white, shine, bite, high, kind loul home, hope, bone, joke, note, rope, nose, tone, blow, know, no, cold 101 on, ox, hot, top, chop, clock, soft, often, box, sock, wrong, fox laul owl, town, clown, how, brown, now, cow book, look, foot lul room, spoon, too, tooth, food, moon, lu:1 boot blood, flood IAI door floor, I'O:J turn, fur, urge, hurl, burn, burst 13:1 up, uncle, ugly, much, such, run, jump, IAI duck, jungle, hut, mud, luck pull, push, full, cushion lul unique, union IjJ laIl sky, fly, fry, try, shy, cry, by

m n

P q

5

v

w Y z

map, man, meat, move, mouse, market, some, small, smell, smile 1nl next, not, tenth, month, kind, snake, snip, noon, run pay, pea, pen, poor, pink, pencil, plane, Ipl please Ikwl quack, quarter, queen, question, quiet rat, rich, roof, road, ready, cry, grass, Irl bring, fry, carry, red, read sit, set, seat, soup, snow, smell, glass, Isl dress, goose houses, cousin, husband Izl two, ten, tooth, team, turn, tent, tool, It I trip, train, tree veal, vet, vacuum, vote, arrive, live, /vI leave, view /wl water, war, wish, word, world youth, young, yes,yacht,year Ijl zoo, zebra, buzz, crazy Izl

Iml

Diphthongs ea,ee Ilel

li:J ei

ai ea ie ou

lell lall lell leel 13:1 lall I AI laul

oi

1'011

oy

1'011

ou au

I'J:J I'O:J

Consonants b c

d

9

h

i

k I

190

box, butter, baby, bell, bank, black cat, coal, call, calm, cold Ikl cell, city, pencil, circle Isl down, duck, dim, double, dream, drive, Idl drink fat, fan, first, food, lift, fifth IfI grass, goat, go, gold, big, dog, glue, get, Igl give Id:) gem, gin, giant heat, hit, hen, hand, perhaps Ihl BUT hour, honest, dishonest, heir I d31 jam, just, job, joke, jump keep, king, kick Ikl lift, let, look, lid, clever, please, plot, III black, blue, slim, silly

Ibl

ear, near, fear, hear, clear, year, dear, beer, cheer, deer eat, each, heat, leave, clean, seat, neat, tea, keep, feed, free, tree, three, bee eight, freight, weight, vein height pain, sail, tail, main, bait, fail, mail pear, wear, bear earth, pearl, learn, search die, tie, lie tough, touch, enough, couple, cousin, trouble mouse, house, round, trout, shout, doubt oil, boil, toil, soil, coin, choice, voice, join boy, joy, toy, annoy, employ court, bought, brought naughty, caught, taught

Double letters

sh ch ph th

IfI Itfl If I 181

101 n9

/rJI

nk /rJkl

shell, ship, shark, sheep, shrimp, shower cheese, chicken, cherry, chips, chocolate photo, dolphin, phone, elephant thief, throne, three, bath, cloth, earth, tooth the, this, father, mother, brother, feather thing, king, song, sing think, tank, bank

Irregular Verbs east! eal1tliGiDI~ o

bear Ibeerl beat Ibi:tI become IblkAml beg i n Iblglnl bite Ibaltl blow Iblool break Ibrelkl bring IbnDI build Iblldl burn Ib3:rnl

learn 113:rnl leave Ili:vl lend Ilendl let Ilet/ light Ilmtl lose ilu:zl

lent ~l),ntl let IIl),tI litll[tl lost Ilgstl

make Imelkl mean Imi:nl meet Imi:tl

made Imjl!dl meant/mll.ntl

made Imjl!dl meant Iml),ntl

met/mll.tI

met/ml),tI

pay Ipell put Ipot/

paid Ipjl!dl put IpQti

paid Ipjl!dl put IpQ.t/

read Iri:dl ride Irmdl ring In!]1 rise /ralzl run IrAnl

read Irl),dl rode IrQ!ldl rang Ir<&DI rose IrQ!lzl ran Ir<&nl

read Irll.dl ridden /r[d'nl rung Irt.,DI risen Ir[z'nl run Irt.,nl

tore Itg!/ told ItQ!lldl thought 18Q;tI threw 18rl£/

torn Itg;'nl told ItQ!lldl thought 18g;tI thrown 18rQ!lnl

understood

understood

woke IWQ!lkl

woken IWQ!lkenl rn Iwg;'nl won Iwt.,nl written Ir[t'nl

Isendl

(drtmd)1 drank Idr<&Dkl drove IdrQ!lvl ate ljl!tI felllfll.11 fed Ifl),dl felt Ifl),ltI fought IfgJI found IfijQndl flew /fI1£/ forbade Ife'b<&dl forgot Ife'ggtl forgave Ife'gjl!vl froze IfrQ!lzl

>

got Iggtl gave Igjl!vl Iwll.ntl grew/grl£/

Isool Ijelkl

Ijalnl Iju:tl liool ut liAtl ISlrjl

ISIt/

Isli!]1

hung (hanged) Iht.,D (h<&D d)1

had Ih<&dl heard /h;rdl hid Ih[dl hit Ih[tI held Ihll.ldl understand ndl InlILI

wake Iwelkl wear Iweerl win IWlnl write Iralt/

Iwg!l won Iwt.,nl wrote IrQ!ltl

"

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