Market Leader pre-int (3rd ed.)

3rd Editionl Pre-intermediate David Cotton David Falvey Simon Kent Scanned for Agus Suwanto UNIT 1 CAREERS c:) page6 UNIT2 COMPANIES C) page 14 UNI...

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.. l

3rd Edition

Pre-intermediate

David Cotton

David Falvey

Simon Kent

Scanned for Agus Suwanto

DISCUSSION

Talk about your career plan

UNIT 1 CAREERS c:)

TEXTS

Listening: An interview with the Finance Director of a TV company

LANGUAGE WORK

Career moves Modals 1: ability, requests and offers

SKILLS

Telephoning: making contact

Reading: Facebook profile 'could damage job prospects'-

page 6

CASE STUDY

You)uice: Decide on the successful candidate for a job Writing: e-mail

Telegraph

Talk about companies

UNIT2 COMPANIES

C)

Reading: India: Tata's search for a new CEO- Financial Times

Is John Lewis the best company in Britain to work for?- Guardian

page 1 4

Describing companies Present simple and present continuous

Presenting your company

Dino Conti Ice Cream: Decide on the best way to invest in a company's future Writing: proposal

Listening: An interview with the CEO of a food company Talk about shopping habits

UNIT3 SELLING

C)

Listening: An interview with the Director of Marketing of a TV shopping channel Reading: Women on top in new sales industry survey­ web article

page 22

Making sales

Negotiating: reaching Modals 2: must, need to, agreement have to, should

A partnership agreement: Work on a proposed partnership between a jet charter company and a hotel group Writing: letter

WORKING ACROSS CULTURES:

1

C) C)

SAYING 'NO' POLITELY

REVISION UNIT A DISCUSSION

UNIT4 GREAT IDEAS

C)

··-� i�� _,,. .

Discuss what makes a great idea

page36

TEXTS

LANGUAGE WORK

Listening: An interview with a researcher

Verb and noun combinations

Reading: Who needs translators?- web article

Past simple and past continuous

SKILLS

Successful meetings

page30 page32

CASE STUDY

The new attraction: Decide on the best idea for a new attraction Writing: report

Safer cycling- web article Going for gold- web article

UNIT 5 STRESS

C)

page 44

UNIT6 ENTERTAINING

C)

page 52

Discuss stressful situations and activities

Listening: An interview with the Director of Marketing at a health consultancy

Stress in the workplace Past simple and present perfect

Participating in discussions

Reading: Over half of business owners feeling increasingly stressed - web article Discuss corporate Listening: An interview with the Eating and drinking entertaining Chief Executive of a corporate Multiword verbs entertainment company Reading: Interview with three corporate entertainment experts

Davies-Miller Advertising: Suggest ways of reducing stress amongst staff Writing: report

Socialising: greetings and small talk

Organising a conference: Choose the location for a sales conference Writing: e-mail

WORKING ACROSS CULTURES: 2 DOING BUSINESS INTERNATIONALLY

=page60

REVISION UNIT B

C) page 62

WRITING FILE Cl page 126

c:) page 132

ACTIVITY FILE

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.

CONTENTS

DISCUSSION Discuss new businesses and business seclors

UNIT7 NEW BUSINESS

� page66

TEXTS Listening: Interviews with the CEO of a money-transfer company and the CEO of a food company

LANGUAGE WORK Economic terms Time clauses

SKILLS Dealing with numbers

CASE STUDY Taka Shimizu Cycles: Choose the location for a new factory Writing: e-mail

Reading: Internet whiz-kid's discount idea makes billions in two years- Financial Times Help with exportsFinancial Times - ·--�J

�-·c.

UNITS MARKETING

:

� page 74

Talk about the marketing mix and marketing campaigns

Listening: An interview with the European Marketing Manager of a pharmaceutical company

Word partnerships Questions

Telephoning: exchanging information

Reading: Adidas targets the Chinese interior-

Wincote International: Devise a plan to improve sales at an outdoor-clothing company Writing: e-mail

Financial Times

Discuss how and when to plan

UNIT9 PLANNING

Listening: An interview with a business consultant and author Reading: When there's no Plan A- Financial Times

� page 82

Making plans Talking about future plans

Meetings: interrupting and clarifying

European Press and Media Corporation: Plan a new issue of a magazine Writing: letter

WORKING ACROSS CULTURES: 3 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE CALLS

�page90

REVISION UNIT C

�page92 DISCUSSION

UNIT 10 MANAGING PEOPLE

·



Discuss the qualities of a good manager

TEXTS Listening: An interview with the author of a management book

LANGUAGE WORK Verbs and prepositions Reported speech

SKILLS Socialising and entertaining

Reading: Share the power­ Financial Times

� page96

CASE STUDY Ashley Cooper Search Agency: Advise on improving staff relations at a property company Writing: report

Listening: An interview Do a quiz on managing conflict with an expert in dispute resolution

UNIT 11 CONFLICT

Word-building Conditionals

Negotiating: dealing with conflict

Reading: Intervening quickly in cases of conflict

� page 104

Herman & Corrie Teas: Decide whether a company should accept a buy-out offer Writing: letter

- Chartered Institute a{

Personnel and Development

UNIT 12 PRODUCTS

� page 112

-.....-.,

j»1

Discuss products

Listening: An interview with the editor of a news network

Describing products Passives

Presenting a product

Reading: A path to salvation through innovationFinancial Times

The George Marshall Awards: Choose the winner of a product-innovation competition Writing: report

WORKING ACROSS CULTURES: 4 PREPARING TO DO BUSINESS INTERNATIONALLY

�page 120

REVISION UNIT D

�page 122

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

AUDIO SCRIPTS

GLOSSARY

�page 141

�page 153

�page 167

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What is Market Leader, and who is it fo r?

Market Leader is a multi-level business English course for businesspeople and students of business English. It has been developed in association with the Financial Times, one of the leading sources of business information in the world. It consists of 12 units based on topics of great interest to everyon e involved in international business. This third edition of the Pre-intermediate level features completely updated content and a significantly enhanced range of authentic resource material, reflecting the latest trends in the business world. If you are in business, the course will greatly improve your ability to communicate in English in a wide range of business situations. If you are a student of business, the course will develop the communication skills you need to succeed in business and will enlarge your knowledge of the business world. Everybody studying this course will become more fluent and confident in using the language of business and should increase their career prospects.

The authors

David Falvey (left) has over 25 years' teaching and managerial experience in the UK, Japan and Hong Kong. He has also worked as a teacher trainer at the British Council in Tokyo, and was previously Head of the English Language Centre and Principal Lecturer at London Metropolitan University. David Cotton (centre) has over 40 years' experience teaching and training in EFL, ESP and English for Business, and is the author of numerous business English titles, including Agenda, World of Business, International Business Topics and Keys to Management. He is also one of the authors of the best­ selling Business Class. He was previously a Senior Lecturer at London Metropolitan University. Simon Kent (right) has over 20 years' teaching experience, including three years as an in-company trainer in Berlin at the time of German reunification. He is currently a Senior Lecturer in business and general English, as well as having special responsibility for designing new courses at London Metropolitan University.

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I NTRODUCTION

What is in the units?

STARTING UP

VOCABULARY

READING

LISTENING

L ANGUAGE REVIEW

SKILLS

CASE STUDY

WORKING ACROSS CULTURES

'

REVISION UNITS

You are offered a variety of interesting activities in which you discuss the topic of the unit and exchange ideas about it. You will learn important new words and phrases which you can use when you carry out the tasks in the unit. You can find definitions and examples, and listen to the pronunciation of new vocabulary in the i-Giossary feature on the DVD-ROM. The DVD-ROM also contains practice exercises. A good business dictionary, such as the Longman Business English Dictionary, will also help you to increase your business vocabulary. You will read authentic articles on a variety of topics from the Financial Times and other newspapers and books on business. You will develop your reading skills and learn essential business vocabulary. You will also be able to discuss the ideas and issues in the articles. You will hear authentic interviews with businesspeople and a variety of scripted recordings. You will develop listening skills such as listening for information and note-taking. You can also watch the interviews and find further practice exercises on the DVD-ROM. This section focuses on common problem areas at Pre-intermediate level. You will become more accurate in your use of language. Each unit contains a Language review box which provides a review of key grammar items. A Grammar reference section can be found at the bac_k of the book and on the DVD-ROM. The DVD-ROM also provides extra grammar practice. You will develop essential business communication skills, such as making presentations, taking part in meetings, negotiating, telephoning and using English in social situations. Each Skills section contains a Useful language box, which provides you with the language you need to carry out the realistic business tasks in the book. The DVD-ROM supplements the Course Book with additional activities. The Case studies are linked to the business topics of each unit. They are based on realistic business problems or situations and allow you to use the language and communication skills you have developed while working through the unit. They give you the opportunity to practise your speaking skills in realistic business situations. Each Case study ends with a writing task. Aher you've finished the Case study, you can watch a consultant discussing the issues it raises on the DVD-ROM. These four units focus on different aspects of international communication. They help to raise your awareness of potential problems or misunderstandings that may arise when doing business with people from different cultures. Market Leader Pre-intermediate third edition also contains four revision units, each based on material covered in the preceding three Course Book units. Each revision unit is designed so that it can be completed in one session or on a unit-by-unit basis.

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STARTING UP

IJ

Discuss these questions. 1

How ambitious are you?

2

Do you have a career plan? Where do you want to be in 10 years' time?

3

Which of the following would you prefer to do? a) work for one company during your career b) work for several different companies c) work for yourself

I]

Look at these activities (1-7). In pairs, match each activity to its corresponding area of work (a-g). Which of these areas do you work in or would you like to work in? Why? 1

making/manufacturing things

a) Sales and Marketing

2

being in charge of people and running the organisation

b) Finance

3 selling products or services 4 dealing with clients/consumers

5 working with figures 6

dealing with employees and training

7 investigating and testing 6 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

c) Management

d) Human Resources (H R) e) Production f) Research and Development (R&D) g) Customer Service

UNIT 1

B

...

CAREERS

What should you do to get ahead in your career? Choose the four most important tips from this list. Compare your ideas in a group and try to agree on a final choice. 1

Change companies often.

5

Be energetic and enthusiastic at all times.

2

Use charm with your superiors.

6

Be the last to leave work every day.

3

Attend all meetings.

7

4

Go to your company's social functions.

Find a n experienced person to give you help and advice.

8

Study for extra qualifications in your free time.

These phrases (1-6) all include the word career. Match each of them to its correct meaning (a-f). Use a dictionary to help you. 1

career move

a) chances to start/improve your career

2

career break

b) ideas you have for your future career

3

career plan

c) an action you take to progress in your career

d) a period of time away from your job to, for example, look after your children

4 career opportunities 5

career path

6

career ladder

e) a series of levels or steps in your working life f) the direction your working life takes

I!J

�>l) CDl.l-1.3 Listen to three people talking about their careers. Which person is at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of their career?

B

�>l) CDl.l-1.3 Listen again. Which of the phrases with career in Exercise A does each person use? Which of the experiences do you think are common?

liJ

IJI

Complete the sentences below with the verbs in the box. Use a dictionary to help you.

I climb

decide

ffitve

make

offer

take

I

1

Employees in large multinationals . . h�'{� . . . excellent career opportunities if they are willing to travel.

2

Some people . . . . . . . . . . . . a career break to do something adventurous like sailing round the world or going trekking in India.

3

One way to . . . . . . . . . . . . a career move is to join a small but rapidly growing company.

4

Certain companies . . . . . . . . . . . . career opportunities to the long-term unemployed or to people without formal qualifications.

5

Ambitious people often . . . . . . . . . . . . on a career plan while they are still at university.

6

I n some industries, it can take a long time to . . . . . . . . . . . . the career ladder.

Look at these groups of words. Cross out the noun or noun phrase in each group which doesn't go with the verb in italics. 1

make a fortune I progress I a living I

4

do

part-time work I a mistake I a nine-to-five job I your best a pension I an opportunity I time off I early retirement

atrainil'lgcourse

2

get

progress I a promotion I a bonus I fired (AmE) I the sack (BrE)

5

take

3

earn

commission I a part-time job I money I 40,000 per year

6

work flexitime I anti-social hours I overtime I an office job

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UNIT 1 �� CAREERS

D

Complete each of these sentences with the appropriate form of a word partnership from Exercise E.

1

I n banking, you can . . . . . . . . . . . . with the big bonuses and retire at 35.

2

When you . . . . . . . . . . . . , you can arrange your own schedule, so this is very convenient when you have children.

3

People who work in sales often have the opportunity to . . . . . . . . . on top of a basic salary. .

.

.

4 Luke is ambitious and does not want to be a sales assistant all his life. In fact, he hopes to . . . . . . . . . . . . and become Assistant Manager very soon. See the DVD-ROM for the i·Giossary.

READING

Be aware of your online i mage

5 Many students . . . . . . . . . . . . when they are at university because it fits in with their studies. 6 Go ran is 59, but he does not want to . . . . . . . . . . . . . I n fact, he is taking on more work! Discuss these questions in pairs.

1 What social-networking sites do you a) know, and b) use? 2

Why do you use them?

Scan the article below quickly and answer these questions.

1 What percentage of employers research candidates online? 2

Which social-networking sites are mentioned?

3

Who do Peter Cullen and Farhan Vas in work for?

by Andy Bloxham

Jobseekers have beeniVqmed that their Facebook proi f le could damage their emplo_) men! prospects, after a study found that seven in I 0 employers now research candidates online. According to new figures released by Microsofl. checks on s

Facebook and Twitter arc now as important in the job-selection process as a CV or interview. The survey. which questioned human-resource managers at the top

100 companies in the UK. the US, Germany and France.

found that 70 per cent admitted to rejecting a candidate because 10

of their online behaviour.

LIKE

But HR bosses also said that a strong image online could actually help job hunters to land their dream job. Peter Cullen, of

us

on Facebook

Microsoft. said: '·Your online reputation is not something to be scared of, it's something to be proactively managed. These 15

days. it's essential that web users cultivate the kind of online reputation that they would want an employer to sec." Facebook

faux pas include drunken photographs, bad

language and messages complaining about work. Farhan Yasin. of online rccn1itment network Careerbuilder.co.uk.

twitter

said: "Social networking is a great way to make connections with

20 job opportunities and promote your personal brand across the Interne!. People really need to make sure they are using this

resource to their advantage. by conveying a professional image.'' But Mr Yasin cautioned job seekers to be aware of their online l5

image even after landing the perfect job. after their own research

found that 28 per cent of employers had fired staff for content

found on their social-networking profile. He added. "A huge

number of employers have taken action against staff for writing negative comments about the company or another employee on

Linked 1m.

their social-networking page."

adapted from the Telegraph 8 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 1

II

....

CAREERS

Read the article again and choose the best headline (a, b or c). a) Complaining about your job could lose you your job b) Facebook profile 'could damage job prospects' c) Ambition is key to a successful career

liJ

IJ

D

According to the article, how can social-networking sites make or break your career? In pairs, write a short list of things you should not do on your social­ networking pages. You can include your own ideas. Should staff be allowed to use social-networking sites during the working day? Discuss.

�>)) CD1.4 Melissa Foux is the Finance Director of CSC Media Limited, a television company. Listen to the first part of the interview and answer these questions.

m

1

How does she describe her current company?

2

What was her previous job?

3

Why is it easy to move from sector to sector in the finance world?

�>l) CD1.5 Listen to the second part and complete this extract. When I was a student, although I was studying \ I thought I would like to do something 2 afterwards, and I actually did a summer J with one of the big firms, which was an excellent way to get an 5 of what the job would be like. I started off as an auditor, and it was through that 6 that I got my first job. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .'·

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

Melissa Foux

II

�>l) CD1.6 Melissa is asked if she has had any good advice during her career. Listen to the third part and number these points in the order in which she mentions them. a) maintain clarity b) be able to see the key point and the key decision you have to make c) do not overcomplicate things

m Watch the interview on the DVD-ROM.

�>» CD1.7 Listen to the final part and decide which was the interviewer's question {a, b or c). a) What is the most interesting question you have been asked at interview? b) What is the key difference between people who work in finance and those who work in research? c) How would you advise people who are starting their careers?

IJ

In groups, discuss these questions. 1

What do you hope to do in the future in your career?

2

Do you think there is an ideal career for you? What is it? Why?

3

What is the best advice you have been given during your career or your studies?

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UNIT 1

��

CAREERS Modal verbs are very common i n English. Match these functions (a-c) t o the examples (1-3).

LANGUAGE REVIEW

Modals 1: ability, requests and offers

a) making an offer

b) describing ability

c) making a request

1 Can you help me? Could you say that again, please? 2

Can I help you? Would you like a cup of coffee?

3

I can speak Polish and Russian. She could read and write before she was three.

Cl Grammar reference page 141

EJ

Rearrange the words to make questions from a job interview. Then decide whether each question is a) making a request, b) making an offer, or c) asking about ability.

1 get I you I can I I I a drink I ? Can I 9etyov a drink? (b) 2

e-mail address I your I confirm I I I could I ?

3

can I you I spreadsheets I use I ?

4 speak I languages I any other I you I can I ?

5 about I tell I you I job I us I your present I more I could I ?

1!1

6

tell I your current salary I me I you I could I ?

7

would you I as soon as possible I your decision I let us know I ?

8

start I you I when I can I ?

9

like I tea I some more I you I would I ?

Match the questions in Exercise A (1-9) to these interviewee's answers (a-i). a) It's €60,000 a year. b) Not very well, but I'm doing a course next week. c) I can let you know next week.

d) Thank you. A cup of tea, please. e) The address is correct, but I've got a new mobile number. f) I'd love some. Thank you. g) Well, I'm currently supervising an HR project. h) Yes, I can speak Korean and Japanese. i)

II

My notice period is two months.

Work in pairs. Student A is an interviewer and Student B is an interviewee. Student A: Follow the instructions below. Student B: Answer the questions truthfully.

Then switch roles. Student A • Offer tea or coffee. • Find out Student B's ability to: 1 speak any languages; 2 use Excel, PowerPoint or Publisher; 3 drive.

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Ask Student B: 1 to tell you about themselves; 2 for the best n umber to contact them on tomorrow; 3 to repeat the number; 4 if they would like to work abroad; 5 if there are any hours they wouldn't be able to work.

UNIT 1 �� CAREERS

Telephoning: making contact

fJ

What kinds of phone calls do you make in English? What useful telephone expressions do you know?

[J

�>» CD1.s-1.10 Listen to three phone calls and answer these questions.

B

�>l) CD1.8 Listen to the first call again. Complete the expressions on the right so they have the same meaning as the ones on the left.

1 What is the purpose of each call?

2

1 Can I talk to ... ?

I'd . . !ik!': . . to . . n��!=!k. . to ...

2

Just a moment . . .

Thank you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

I'll connect you.

I'll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Am I speaking to Carina Molenaar? 5

7

Hello . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carina Molenaar?

Yes, it's me.

6 The reason I'm calling is ...

m

Do the callers know each other?

Yes, I'm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . your advert ...

Can I have your name and address?

your name and address, please?

�>» CD1.9 Listen to the second call again and complete this extract. A: Hello B:

.

..<;�.v.l.�. . ). },P�!=!k.1 to Giovanna, please?

............ ............2

she's not here at the moment. Can 1 . .... . . . .. . ? a . . . . . . . . . . . .''? s

6

7

A: Yes, please . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Johan from I n tee. . . . . . . . . . . . . you . . . . . . . . . . .. her I won't 10 be able to . .. . .. . . .. . .8 the training course on Saturday? She can . . . . .. . . . .. .9 me .. . .. . .. ... 11 if there's a problem. I'm . . . . . . . . . . 0191 498 0051. .

.

D

�>l) CD1.1o Listen to the third call again. Choose the phrases the speakers use. Matt:

Hello, Matt speaking.

Karl:

Hi, Matt. Karl here.

Matt:

Oh, hello, Karl. How are things /you 1 ?

Karl:

2 Fine, thanks. Listen, just a quick word Iquestion •

Matt:

Yeah, go ahead.

Karl: Matt:

3 Do you think you could give me /let me have the other number for Workplace Solutions? I can't get through to them. Their phone's always busy /engaged 4• I've got it here /right in front of me 5• It's 020 9756 4237.

Karl:

Sorry, I didn't hear/catch6 the last part. Did you say 4227?

Matt:

No, it's 4237.

Karl:

OK. Thanks. Bye.

Matt:

D

.

7 No problem /Don't mention it • Bye.

Study the Useful language box below. Then role-play the phone calls. Student A: Turn to page 132.

Student B: Turn to page 136.

U S E F U L LANGUAGE

MAKING CALLS Could I speak to Carmela Cantani, please?

RECEIVING CALLS Who's calling, please?

Yes, this is Erika Mueller from KMV.

Could you tell me what it's about?

Is this the sales/finance/marketing department?

I'll put you through.

I'm calling about ...

Can you hold?

Could you transfer me to the I T department, please?

He seems to be with someone right now. Can I get him to call you?

Could you tell him/her that I called?

I'm afraid there's no answer. Can I take a message?

Could you ask him/her to call me back?

I'm sorry, there's no answer. I can transfer you to his/her voice mail.

Can I leave a message, please?

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• •

increasing sales and developing marketing strategies coordinating the work of the sales teams o that they arc more motivated and effective



carrying out market research to improve customer numbers.

The successful candidate will be: •



a strong personality with leadership qualities energetic. dynamic. and enthusiastic.

He/She will have: •

a good academic background and relevant work experience



organi7A'ltional nnd interpersonal skills



numeracy skills nnd analytical ability



good linguistic ability.

The position will involve frequem travel in the three countries.

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UNIT 1

....

CAREERS

Profiles of the candidates Read the essential information about each candidate. Then listen to the interview extracts. �>)) CD1.11, 1.12 Juana Ramos

�>» CD1.13, 1.14 Chantal Lefevre

Juana Ramos

Chantal

Married, two

Swiss, aged 41

Mexican, aged 30 children (seven and nine years old) Education •

University degree



in Economics Studying for a Master's degree in Marketing (distance learning)

Experience •

American, aged 54 Single

Divorced, one child

Education

(five years old)





then in sales. Has a good knowledge of computing;

Harvard Business School

Two years' market research, then over

Experience

companies, including one year in Spain

worked in sales. In the last five years, Sales Manager (France and Italy).

Joined YouJuice 20 years ago. Has always

1 5 years' sales and marketing in various

and six years in Portugal. • Joined YouJuice three years ago as sales

Achievements

Has increased sales by 8% in the five-year

representative in Switzerland. Very hard·

numerate. Achievements

Master's in Business Administration (MBA) from

Diploma in Marketing

Experience

university.





University degree in Business Administration



University degree in Sociology

Education



Worked in market research for one year,

Jeff Sanderson

Lefevre

Has worked for YouJuice since leaving



�>)) CD1.15, 1.16 Jeff Sanderson

working. Has done an excellent job and

period

earned large bonuses each year.

Languages

Top sales representative in the last five years

Achievements

Languages

A good sales record in all her previous

good reading skills, needs to improve his

Fluent Spanish and Italian; good standard

positions

oral ability

of English; intermediate Portuguese

Languages

Interviewer's comments

Interviewer's comments

Fluent Portuguese; intermediate Spanish;

A serious person. Respected by his staff.

Fluent English and Portuguese; Spanish:

A strong, charismatic personality. Very

excellent English

Has a strong sense of responsibility.'I am

competitive. Not afraid to speak her mind, even if it upsets colleagues. A good sense

Interviewer's comments

a company man.' Not very creative. Believes

of humor.Wants to advance in her career as quickly as possible. Intelligence test (IQ):

progress in her career. Answered questions

very high. Is she diplomatic? Interpersonal

She's chief organizer of her local tennis club.

skills?

new ideas should come from staff. Some

A quiet, modest person, but very eager to directly and honestly. A sociable person. Believes that the new director should involve staff in all decisions. Intelligence test (IQ): average.leadership qualities? Decisive?

1

Work in groups. You are members of the interviewing team. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each candidate. Decide who to select for the vacant position. Note down the reasons for your choice.

2

Meet as one group. Discuss your choices. Decide who should fill the vacant position.

staff say he's a workaholic and difficult to get to know. Very interested in South American cultures. Intelligence test (IQ): above average. Why does he really want the job? Energetic enough?

Watch the Case study commentary on the DVD-ROM.

Writing Complete this e-mail from the head of the interviewing team to Claudia Lopez, Regional Director ofYou)uice. Write about at least three strengths of the candidate you have chosen. Explain how these strengths relate to the job description. To: From: Subject:

I Regional Director [ Head, interviewing team I Appointment of Sales and Marketing Director (Braz

Dear Claudia

We recently interviewed three candidates for We have decided to ap poi n t . ..

I will b riefly describe the candidate's

il , Argentina,

o

Colombia) J

this positi n .

strengths and explain the reasons for our decision.

� Writin g file page

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126

. --STARTING

TI!J

rJ I]

Describing companies

rJ

Which of these companies do you or would you like to work for? 1

a family-owned company

2

a multinational company

3

your own company (be self-employed)

Can you name a company in each of these business sectors? Is there one that you would like to work for? •

Telecommunications/Media



Banking and finance



Food and drink



Engineering



Transport



Retailing



Pharmaceuticals/Chemicals



Manufacturing



Another service industry



Construction



IT/Electronics



Tourism

Complete the chart on the next page with the information in the box below. Then write sentences about the companies. EXAMPLE:

Cis-co Sys-temS" is- an American company Which s-upplies­ Internet e q uipment.

American Express container-ship operator fashion/retail Finnish Japanese Korean Nokia oil and gas pharmaceuticals Toyota

14 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 2

....

COMPANIES

Company

Main activity

Nationality

Cisco Systems

Internet-equipment supplier

American

Car manufacturer Spanish

lnditex Travel and financial services provider

American

Roche

Swiss Electronic-goods maker

Samsung

8

Telecommunications Hapag-Lioyd Petro bras

I]

German

10

Brazilian

Complete the sentences below with the words and phrases in the box.

I head office market share net profit parent company share price

tuffle·o'er

subsidiary

workforce

1

The amount of money a company receives from sales in a particular period is called its :f:Y.rn�.v. er..

2

The money a company makes after taking away its costs and tax is its . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

A company which owns another company is called a . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

The employees in a particular country or business are called the . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

5 The percentage of sales a company has in a particular market is its . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

6 The main building or location of a large organisation is its . . .. . ... . . . . . 7

The cost of a company's shares is its . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

8 A company which is more than 50% owned by another company is called a . . . . . . . . . . . .

II

.

Complete this extract from a company report with appropriate words or phrases from the box in Exercise B. Financial performance

I am pleased to say the. P.�r.�0t. ���-P.'?.0Y..1 has continued its excellent performance. We

are changing, growing and doing well at a difficult time for the industry.............2 was €57 .2 million. an increase or 15% on last year, and ............'1 rose by 5% to €6.4 million. ' We are a highly competitive business. We have increased our ...... ...... ' to 20%. Consequently, our . . . ... . . ... _s has risen and is now at an all-time hi g h or €9.6. Increased production and strong demand have had a positive effect on our cash now, so we arc able to finance a number or new projects. We have successfully moved to our new . .. . . . . . . . . .6 in central London. We are now planning to start full production at the recently opened Spanish . .. . .. . . . . .7 in October. .

Finally. thanks once again to our loyal and dedicated ... . always be our most valuable asset.

liJ

See the DVD-ROM for the i-Giossary.



W

D

.

. .. . 8• Our employees wi l l .

.

.

'4»> CD1.17 listen to the CEO reading from the company report and check your answers to Exercise C. Now talk in the same way about your own company or one you know well. Which other companies in your country are doing well I not doing well at the moment?

15 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 2

,.

.. COMPANIES

LISTENING .:

A successful company

l3

�l» CD1.18 Listen to the first part of an interview with Susan Barratt, the Chief Executive Officer of Nature's Way Foods, and correct the six mistakes i n this paragraph. Nature's Way Foods is a drinks-manufacturing company based on the east coast of Ireland. They put chilled product, the majority of which is milk and cheese, into various types of packaging for the major retailers and various food-service companies in Ireland.

IIJ

�l» C01.19 Listen to the second part, where Susan talks about the reasons for the company's success, and complete these notes with one word in each gap. First reason for success: the •

Susan Barratt

. . . .

.

. . . . ...

Health - desire to eat healthy .

1

. . . . . . .

..



Convenience -



Sustainability - low level of food .



Indulgence - diet Monday to Friday, but have several pieces of cake on Friday night

3

. . . . . . . . . . . .

-poor .

. . . . . . . . .

Second reason for success: the way they •

High-



Produce hundreds of



Need to be very



I nvested heavily in

. . .



. . ..

5

. . . . .

the business

6 business

. . . . . . . . . ...

7

. . . . . . . . . . . .

6

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

.

. . .

of units

in the way they produce them .

9

..

and processes

II

�l» co1.20 Listen to the third part and answer these questions.

m

�)» (01.21 Listen to the final part and complete this extract.

Watch the interview on the DVD-ROM.

1

What two things has Susan enjoyed the most when running a company?

2

What does she not enjoy about running a company?

I've learned a lot of lessons from the companies I've worked for. I think the key thing is that you have to make sure your . .1 in the organisation are engaged with the organisation and have a clear . 2 of what that organisation is trying to . . ?. . . . . .

. .

. . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

If you can get that clarity of . .• and 5 from the people within the organisation, then that will help move the business forward in itself. .

II Two different organ isations

2

. .

fJ

IIJ

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

Discuss this question in pairs. Would you like to run your own company? Why? I Why not?

'Companies should be owned by their employees.' Discuss. Work in pairs. As you read, make a note of the key points about your company in the chart below. Student A: Read Article 1 on the opposite page. Student B: Read Article 2 on the opposite page.

Tata

john Lewis

India1S' bigge>t company

Owned by it> employee>

16 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

.

UNIT 2 �� COMPANIES

Article 1

FT India: Tata's search for a new CEO by Joe Leahy in Mumbai

Mr Tata , Chairman of India's biggest company, is expected to retire - yet again - in two years . But this time things look d i ffere n t . The group 5 appears ready to move on, formally announcing last month that it has set up a special committee to look for a new CEO. I nstead of simply choosing the 10 most obvious successor, the group has said it will consider all candidates for India's biggest corporate job. I n a country where companies are often controlled by influential families, the 15 idea of an outsider, particularly a foreigner, controlling a group ofTata 's size and reputation is revolutionary.

20

25

30

At risk is more than the future of the Tata Group, though this is very important to the national economy. With its I 00 subsidiaries - includjng [ndia's biggest private-sector steel company, its biggest i n formation­ technology outsourcing company and its biggest automotive producer - i t is also the country's first true multinational, with 65 per cent of its $7 1 bn in revenue generated overseas. Analysts question whether Tata can create an example for corporate I n d i a of orderly transition from fam i l y leadership to professional management. "There's a feeling i f an outsider, especially a foreigner, took

Js

-10

over a group as complex as Tata. i t would be disastrous," says a banker who knows the company. However. some critics argue that introducing professionals would help to break down a reputation for weak management i n large, family-run companies.

Article 2

Is J o h n Lewis the best company i n B rita i n to work for? by Jon Henley It is owned by its employees - orpartners

who have a say in how it is run and receive a share of the projlts. Surelv this is the way every organis{//ion should be ntn? lt's just before opening t i me on bonus day at John Lewis and. boy. arc we excited. Up and down the country, the 69 ,000 people who work for the nation's favourite retailer arc gathered, impat ien t . A specially chosen staff member opens an envelope and reads out a number. Fifteen per cent. It's the percentage of their salary that each John Lewis employee takes home as that year's bonus. H a product is on sale in a John Lewis store, you know you can trust it. Plus you can be sure you ' l l be served

20

-

5

10

IS

25

30

35

by someone who really knows what they ' re t a l k i n g about a n d , most unusually of all. is eager to help. U n l ike other high-street names, John Lewis is owned by its employees. each of whom has a say in its running and a share i n its profits. This is Britain's largest example of worker co-owners h i p . Its purpose is ''the happiness of all its members. through t h e i r wort h w h i l e and s a t i s fy i ng employment in a successful business''. ''11 's a good company to work for." says Pedro. a Waitrose* chef. "I didn't realise how good u n t i l I j o i n e d . " Employer-employee relations at John Lewis. says Nicola McRoberts, '·arc completely different. They want you to be happy."

o�o

45

*A supermarket chain, part of the John Lewis group

II liJ D

A veteran of five years, K i rsty Reilly. in womenswear, speaks of the "passion and commitment" that come from "being engaged. because you have a shared interest in making sure i t works, for you and for the people you work with."

adapted from the Guardian

After reading, ask your partner what they have learned about Tata I John Lewis. Add the new i nformation to your chart i n Exercise B. Compare and contrast the two companies. EXAMPLE:

Tata i> a, I,dia, compa ,y, bvt JoJ,, LeWiS' i> a f3ritiS'h compa,y.

Discuss these questions. 1

What are the good and bad points of bringing in someone from outside to run a family·owned business?

2

Do you know of any company like john Lewis in your country? If so, how successful is it? 17 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 2

H

COMPANIES

LANGUAGE REVIEW .

Complete the rules below with these phrases.

Present sim ple and present continuous

a) faetualiflferfflatiefl b) future arrangements c) routine activities and habits d) temporary situations

We use the present simple to: • give f�.�.t��l. i!1f!'r.'Y:l.�.ti�l).1 Tata produces cars. •

talk about . . . . . . . . . . . ? I usually arrive at the office at eight o'clock.

Some verbs are almost always used in the present simple rather than the present continuous, for example like, want, know, need. We use the present continuous to: • describe . . . . . . . . . ? She's staying in Mumbai till the end of the week. .



El

.

talk about . . . . . . . . . _A Whatare you doing on Tuesday afternoon? .

.

c:J Grammar reference page 142

Complete these sentences with either the present simple or the present continuous form of the verbs in brackets. 1

We normally . . . h�)� . .. (hold) our sales conference in Mumbai, but this year we (hold) it in Delhi.

. . .. . . . .. . ..

2

Although we . . . . . . . . . . (use) our own sales representative at the moment, we generally . . . . . . . . . . . . (use) agents in China.

3

Tatsuo . . . . . . . . . . . (work) for a financial magazine. At the moment, he . . . . . . . . . . . (write) an article on insider trading.

4

.

.

.

Usually our Sales Director . . . . . . . . . . . (deaO with important customers, but 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . (deaO with all enquiries while she is on holiday.

5 I

.

. . . . . . ..

. . . (come) from Poland, but at the moment 1 . . . . . . . . . . (live) in Germany. .

.

. . . . . . (want) to continue with expansion this year. .

Complete the job advertisement below with either the present simple or the present continuous form of the verbs i n the box.

I

be

• We

consider

employ

have

grow

look

• We

. . .

�rg . .

. .

1

• We

one of the largest

.........

.

. .2 independent and

. . . . . . . . 3 more than 800 stores .

.

.

.

in 10 countries, and we

.

. . . . . . . .4 fast. ..

.

• We . . . . . . . . . . . .5 over 3,000 workers. Currently, we

. . . . . . . . . .6 the next .

.

in our development, and we

stage

. . . . . . . . . . . .7

for major growth outside Europe.

Ring 020

18

offer

offer

prepare

7946

. . . . . . . . . . .8 for people who .

are reliable , confident and enthusiastic. We

impartial advice on mobile phones. • We

need

Sales Manager

mobile-phone retailers in Europe.

II

.

.

6 John Lewis . . . .

I]

.

.. . .

....

company.

• We . . . . . . . . . . . .10 a competitive salary and private health insurance. We are willing to reward staff with attractive performance-based bonuses.

0008 for an information pack.

Student B: Turn to page

Scanned for Agus Suwanto

.9

to work for an expanding

Work in pairs. Student A: Turn to page 134.

. . .

experienced people who want

136.

U N IT 2

SKIL�

Presenting your company

B IJ D

H

COMPANIES

What sort of presentations have you given? How did you feel?

..ll) CD1.22 Listen to the beginning of a presentation by Robert Pullin, Director of Human Resources at DCV Fashions, and answer these questions. 1

What is the main aim of the presenter?

2

What kind of audience is he probably addressing?

,.ll) co1.22 Listen again and complete this paragraph . . . . . . . . . . . . .\ I'll give you some basic information about DCV Fashions . . . . . . . . . .2, I'll explain why we've been so successful in the fashion industry . ?, I'll tell you about our .

. . . .

.

.

. . . . . . .

mission statement. This describes what we're all about, why we're in business. And 4, I'll explain how we communicate with people through our advertising and promotion. . . . . . . . • . . . .

IJ DCV Fashions Head office Products Turnover (last year) Profits (last year)

IJ D

I n pairs, practise giving an introduction to your own company or one which you know well.

,.l)) CD1.23 Listen to the rest of the presentation. Work i n pairs and complete the information on the left. I f necessary, listen again. Number these phrases which introduce different sections of the presentation in the order in which they appear. a) Moving on now to our mission ... b) Finally, a word about ...

Reasons for success

c) Thanks very much for listening ... d) OK, some basic facts .. .

Advertising and promotion

e) What's the key to our success?

liJ

D D D D D

Choose one of these topics. •



Think about your company or a company you know. Study the Useful language box below, and use the headings in the chart in Exercise E to help you prepare a presentation about it. Use the facts provided on page 133 to make a presentation about Moda International Fashion Group (MI FG).

Work in pairs. Make your presentation and answer your partner's questions. Your audience is a group of young people from a fashion college. U S E F U L LANGUAGE

INTRODUCING YOURSELF

OUTLINING THE PRESENTATION

Hello everyone, my name's Robert Pullin. I'm Director of Human Resources at DCV Fashions.

First, I'll give you some basic information.

Good morning, I'm Robert Pullin, Director of Human Resources, DCV Fashions.

Next, I'll talk about our products. Then, I'll discuss the reasons for our success. Finally, I'll tell you about our advertising and marketing.

STATING YOUR AIM My purpose today is to talk to you about our company. Today, I'd like to talk about our new projects.

INTRODUCING NEW IN FORMATION Here are some basic facts. Here are some key facts about our company.

CHANGING TO A NEW SECTION OF THE TALK Moving on now to our mission. OK/ Right. What about our distribution system?

ENDING THE PRESENTATION Thanks very much for listening to my presentation. Thanks for coming to my talk. Are there any questions?

19 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

I{e Cream How can a popular ice-cream maker i n c rease sales?

Background Dina Conti Ice Cream Inc., based in Santa Barbara (USA), manufactures and distributes ice cream to consumers in California. It produces 15 flavours, which it distributes mainly to supermarkets and company-owned stores. Its most famous product is its classic chocolate ice cream, sold under the SupaKool label. Many people believe that Dina Conti's SupaKool chocolate ice cream is the best in the world. Dina Conti has expanded rapidly in recent years, but now its growth is slowing down. A recent fall in profits has disappointed the management. The owner, Paolo Conti, wants the company to become more international.

�� CD1.24 Listen to an excerpt from a board meeting. Make notes under these headings. Reasons for falling profits •



Prices Products

• •

Equipment Environment



Outlets

Chart 1: Dino Conti's main products (as a % of tu rnover)

Classic SupaKool chocolate ice cream Six top-selling flavours Other flavours Iced yoghurt Novelty products*

14%

41% 3 2% 1 4% 6% 7%

* iced fudge, chocolate bars, lollipops

The futu

e

Paolo Conti has $3 million to invest in his company so that it continues to expand and become an international business. Here is an extract from a company profile that appeared in a business magazine recently. Dina Conti can continue its remarkable growth, but only if it solves its present problems, develops new products, and finds new markets.

So how should Paolo Conti invest the $3 million? Chart 2 on page 2 1 lists the ways he could do that. Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 2 �� COMPANIES

Chart 2: Investment options

Cost (estimated)

Benefit

Build a bigger factory

$2.4 million

More production capacity; lower unit costs

2

Export to China and Russia

$ 1 .2 million

New markets - great sales potential

3

Buy out its major competitor

$2 million+

Reduce competition; increase production capacity

4

Develop a range of exotic fruit drinks

$2.5 million

Move into a new area

5

Upgrade its equipment and fleet of trucks

$ 1 .2 million

Lower costs

6

Distribute to more outlets

$500,000

Increase sales a n d profits

7

Increase its advertising budget

$500,000

Increase sales I I m p rove company image

8

Make the company more ·green

$800,000

I mprove company image and sales

9

Improve the products· packaging

$400,000

Increase sales

$600,000+

Raise awareness of the company; good PR

Option

1 0 Offer free ice cream to all consu mers one day a year

You are directors of Dino Conti Ice Cream. Meet to discuss your investment plan. 1

Work i n pairs. Decide how to spend the $3 m i l lio n Prepare a presentation of your investment plan, with reasons for your choices.

2

Meet as one group and present your ideas.

3

As o n e group, agree on a final investment p la n

.

As a director of Dino Conti Ice Cream, write a proposal document to your CEO in which you: •



l i st t he inv est men t o pti o n s you have c h o sen ; give arguments for each op t io n as well as the cost and benefits. ,

.

Watch the Case study commentary on the DVD-ROM.

I NVESTMENT PLAN 1 Objectives To s o lve o u r current problems a n d enable D i n o C o n t i to become a c o m p etitive international business, we propose a n investment

of

$3

2 Strategy and implementation The Board o f D i rectors has agreed the following investment p l a n .

Begin as shown on the right.

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million.

STARTING Ul»

IJ

1!1

What do you like about shopping? What don't you like? When did you last visit these retail outlets? What did you buy? •

a (street) market



a convenience store



a supermarket



a department store



a specialist retailer



a shopping centre/mall



an online retailer

�>» CD1 .25-1.27 Listen to three people talking about their shopping habits and answer these questions. 1

What do they like and dislike?

2

Which shopper are you most like?

3

How are shopping habits changing in your country?

22 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 3 �� SELLING

Choose the correct word (a, b or c) to complete each sentence . A . �CI."!�ft?.<;:.t�r.er . is another name for a 'producer'.

1

2



b) distributor

a) supplier

Suppliers often sell large quantities of goods to . . . . . . . . . . . . , who do not usually sell directly to consumers. a) wholesalers

3

b) retailers

c) manufacturers

We offer a . . . . . . . . . . . . to customers who buy in bulk. a) refund

b) discount

c) delivery

4 We ask consumers who are not fully satisfied to . . . . . . . . . . . . goods within seven days. a) discount 5

b) refund

c) return

In order to get a full . . . . . . . . . . . . , customers must send back goods in the original packaging. a) discount

c) return

b) refund

6 Goods will be . . . . . . . . . . . . within 24 hours of your order. a) dispatched 7

c) warehouse

b) storage

Products and services offered at a large discount are generally a (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . b) bargain

a) sale

I]

c) exchanged

Goods are kept in our . . . . . . . . . . . . until ready for delivery. a) stock

8

b) purchased

.

c) offer

Combine phrases from Box A with words from Box B to make word partnerships. Use the definitions (1-8) below to help you. A after-sales cooliAgoff credit-card method of money-back out of

interest-free

loyalty-card

B

I credit

details

guarantee

payment

pffiOO

scheme

service

stock

1

the time when you can change your mind and cancel an order coolin9-off period

2

the name, number and expiry date on your payment card

3

the way you pay for the goods you want

4 when you can pay some time after you buy, but at no extra cost 5

when the goods you require are not available

6 a promise to return your money if you are not happy 7 the help you get from a company when you start to use their product 8

II See the DVD-ROM for the i-Giossary.

4 V

llJ

method for customers to obtain a discount on future purchases from the same organisation

Look back at the retail outlets in Starting u p Exercise A. Where would you buy the following items? Why? •



a pair of shoes • music • fruit • a bottle of perfume/cologne • a holiday a watch I piece of jewellery • furniture • a book • concert tickets

Which of the answers in Exercise B would you expect to be i mportant in each situation/ purchase in Exercise C? Discuss your ideas.

23 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 3 .... SELLING

�ll) CD1.28 Sue Leeson is Director of Marketing at QVC, the global shopping channel. Listen to the first part of the interview and answer these q uestions. 1

What are the six product groups that she mentions?

2

QVC sells to consumers in which countries?

3

Which two media are used to sell QVC's products?

�l» C01.29 In the second part, Sue talks about the secret of a really good presentation and developing a sales pitch. Listen and complete this paragraph. Firstly, having a product that you can easily 1 and a product that has a good behind it. Secondly, that the person who's actually giving the sales presentation can engage with their . . ... .. . ? in a credible fashion, can tell the story very clearly and can demonstrate the features and . .. . . . . .4 of each product in a very .... . . . 5 and easy-tounderstand way. . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sue Leeson

. . ...... . . . .2

..

.

.

II

Watch the interview on the DVD-ROM.

.

. .

.

.

. . .

�ll) C01.29 Listen again and complete these notes. You need to know: •

the product . . . . ... . ..



what the product can or can't .



when the product is or isn't

.

. ...

.. .. ..

.

...

...

. . .

.

..

.

...

..

.

..

. .

. .1

?

. . . . . . . . . . .3•

llJ

�l» C01.30 Listen to the third part and answer these questions.

D

�l)) CD1.31 Listen to the final part. If customers want to buy a skin product, what four things can they see on the QVC website?

1

Why are beauty products easy to sell on TV?

2

Which type of product is difficult to sell, and why?

Look at these qualities needed to succeed in sales. Which do you think are the top four? personality • honesty • appearance • confidence • knowing your product • ability to close a deal • ability to deal with people • organisational skills •

1!1

II

Which of the qualities in Exercise A is the most im portant? Turn to page 136 to see how 200 sales professionals answered this question. Work in pairs. Student A: Read the article on the opposite page and match each of these headings (a-h) to one of the paragraphs (1-8). a) b) c) d)

Motivation Professionalism TV Personal qualities

e) f) g) h)

Main finding of the survey 1 Why women make the best salespeople What the survey asked The woman who would make the best salesperson

Student B: Read the article on page 137 and match each of these headings (a-h) to one o f the paragraphs (1-8).

a) b) c) d)

Know your business Appearance Confidence The sales mindset

e) f) g) h)

Numbers, numbers, numbers Know how far you'll negotiate People dislike selling 1 Develop a sales process

24 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

U N I T 3 H SELLING U \J U

r.-------�

Wo men on top in new sales ind ustry survey

A n e w survey o f the sales industry shows who sales professionals believe make the

best salespeople and the qualities needed in order to succeed. 1

A

new survey of over 200 sales professionals has found that two-thirds of women and over half

of men believe that women make the best salespeople, underlining the growing reputation of women in the sales ind ustry.

2 The survey was carried out for Pareto Law, a recruitment a n d training company. It questioned sales professio nals o n what they considered to be the most important qualities for a salesperso n . It also asked who would be most likely to succeed.

3 Both men ( 5 3 % ) a n d women (66%) a g reed that women do make better salespeople, with H i l l a ry Clinton voted as the top female celebrity most likely to succeed in a career in sales.

4 When asked why women make the best salespeople, men believe the main reason is that women are better a t actually closing a deal, while women stated they are better than men when it comes to dealing with people. Other female skills highlighted included being more organised and being able to handle more work, while male skills were identified as strong personalities and selling skills.

5 Jonathan Fitchew, Managing Director of Pareto Law, s a i d : "Television programmes have i ncreased people's interest in the sales industry, but have also hig hlig hted the d ifferent approaches of men a n d women to the same sales issues."

6 When it comes to the individual qual ities required to become a successful salesperson, men ranked honesty as most important (53%), while women placed most value o n personality (47%). Both ag reed that integ rity was also key, coming third overall ( 4 1 % ) . Good looks came at the bottom of the list, with only 3 % of sales professionals ranking this as important.

7 This focus o n professionalism, rather than the hard sell, supports the fact that over half of the sales professionals questioned believe that the reputation of sales has im proved over the last 1 0 years, with 55% of men and 47% of women considering this to b e the case.

8

Both men (87%) and women (86%) ag reed that the top incentive for salespeople was money, with the average sales executive expecting to earn between £25-35k, including bonuses and commission, in their first year of work. Other incentives included verbal praise, overseas holidays and cars.

adapted from www.ukprwire.com

I:J

Work in pairs.

Student A: Ask Student B these questions about their article. 1

What should you do if you are not inwardly confident?

2

What do you need to know well?

3

What do 3 0 seconds' and '15 seconds' refer to?

4

What should you do when you are rejected?

5

What should you focus on?

'

6 What do you need to know when negotiating? 7

What sales mindset should you have?

Student B: Ask Student A what these numbers refer t o

a) two-thirds h) 41 i) 3

b) h alf j) 10

c) 53 I<) 5 5

d) 66 l) 47

in

e) 53 m) 87

their article. f) 47 n) 86

g) third o) 25-35 25

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UNIT 3

...

SELLING •

LANGUAGE REVIEW

Modals 2: must, need to, have to, should







We use should or shouldn't to give advice or make suggestions. You should follow up all your leads. You shouldn't talk about yourself. We use have to or need to to say that something is necessary or very important. I think you have to pay a sales tax. I need to sell my car quickly. We use don't have to or don't need to if something is not necessary. You don't have to make a sale the first time you speak to a contact. Ifyou buy now, you don't need to pay anything until next year. must is very similar to have to. You must sound and appear confident.

But mustn't is not the same as don't have to. We use mustn't to say that somebody is not allowed to do something. You mustn't sell cigarettes to anyone underage. (= Don't sell cigarettes to anyone underage.)

C) Grammar reference page 143

rJI

Read these rules of a timeshare* vacation club. Then answer the questions below. •

T imeshare members must have an income of

$60,000 or over.



You don't have to go to a t imeshare sales presentation.



You have to stay for a minimum of seven nights.

• • • •

You shouldn't play loud music after

1 0 p.m.

You need to make your reservation

1 80 days in advance.

You don't have to attend members' welcome nights. Timeshare members must be

25 or over.

* A timeshare is the right to use holiday accommodation for a specific amount of time each year.

1

Can you be a member if you earn $50,000?

2

Is it necessary to sit through a timeshare sales presentation?

3

Is it necessary to stay for at least seven nights?

No

4 Can you play loud music after 10 p.m.?

5 Can you book 90 days in advance? 6 Is 7

I]

it

necessary to go to members' welcome nights?

Can you be a timeshare member if you are 2 1 ?

Match each of these sentences (1-6) to a suitable ending (a-f). 1 I can pay for the house now,

a) so we don't need to work over the weekend.

2

We've reached our sales targets,

b) so we must not offer any further discounts.

3

Our profit margin is low,

c) so you must be confident.

4

My business is quite small,

d) so you'll have to buy it on disk.

5

It isn't available as a download,

e) so I have to be very careful with cashflow.

6 The job involves sales presentations, f) so I don't have to worry about a bank loan.

II

I n pairs, write an advice sheet on how to be a good salesperson, including the qualities you need to succeed. You may use the reading texts on pages 25 and 137 to help you. EXAMPLE:

You mu>t )ound and appear confident

26 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 3

.. ..

SELLING

Work in two groups, A and B.

SKILLS

Negotiating: reaching agreement

Group A: Look at the negotiating tips on page 132. Group B: Look at the negotiating tips on page 136.

I]

1

Each group agrees on the five most important negotiating tips on its list.

2

Form new groups with members from Groups A and B. Agree on a single list of the five most important tips from both lists.

�>l) C01.32 You are going to hear a conversation between Martin, Sales Manager of Pulse, an electric-car company, and Chen, an official from the Urban Transport Department of a city in China. Listen and answer these questions. 1

Why does Chen want to buy electric cars for the Transport Department?

2

Which of these do they discuss? •

3

II

liJ



quantity

price



discounts



colours



delivery



warranty



models

What will they discuss after lunch?

�>l) C01.32 Listen to the negotiation again and complete these sentences. 1

Chen:

Yes, pollution is a big problem here. We're trying all sorts of ideas to reduce it ... I see from your . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . that a standard two-seater car will cost about €12,000.

2

Martin:

If you order 10 vehicles, you'll be paying us about €100,000 , minus the 2% . . . . . . . . . . . . we offer a new customer.

3

Martin:

We could possibly deliver by late August, all being well.

Chen:

Mmm, that might be OK, if you can . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by then.

4

Chen:

Good, how about the . . . . . . . . . . . . ? We'd like a long period.

5

Chen:

What about payment? Do you offer . . . . . . . . . . . . terms?

Martin:

I'm afraid not. It's company . . . . . . . . . . . . for a new customer. We need payment by bank transfer on receipt of the goods. Oh, and we ask for a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of 20% of the value of the order.

Work i n pairs to role-play this situation. Martin and Chen are continuing the negotiation. They discuss these points. •

four-seater car



colours



after-sales-service



radio/CO player and sat-nav system

Student A: Turn to page 138.

Student B: Turn to page 134.

Read your role cards. Try to agree on the points you negotiate. U S E F U L LANGUAGE

STATING AIMS

REJECTING SUGGESTIONS

GETTING AGREEMENT

We're interested in buying 10 cars.

I'm afraid not. It's company policy.

That's very reasonable, don't you think?

We'd like to start the scheme in June.

I'm sorry, we can't agree to that.

That sounds a fair price to me.

We must have delivery as soon as possible.

Unfortunately, we can't do that.

Fine./OK./Great!

BARGAINING If it works, we'll increase the order later on. If you increased your order, we could offer you a much higher discount. That might be OK if you can guarantee delivery by then.

FINISHING THE N EGOTIATION Right, we've got a deal. Good, I think we've covered everything. OK, how about dinner tonight?

MAKING CONCESSIONS We could possibly deliver by August. That could be all right, as long as you pay more for a longer period. We can do that, providing you make a down payment.

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A partnership agreement How can a jet charter company stay a head of t h e competition?

Background EPJS (Executive and Private Jet Service) is a jet charter company. It arranges travel in private jets for top executives and VIPs (very important people). It provides a customised service, looking after all its customers' requirements, from booking tickets to transporting air travellers to their final destination. It is currently negotiating a partnership agreement with the Megaluxe group of hotels. Based in Stuttgart, Germany, Megaluxe has five-star hotels across Europe, Asia and South America. EPJS has agreed to give Megaluxe 'preferred partner status'. This means that EPJS will always reserve rooms for its customers in a Megaluxe hotel, providing the customer has not expressed a preference for another hotel. EPJS is a fast-growing company, but it is facing strong competition from other charter airlines. To beat the competition, it must offer customers a very attractive package: good·value prices, special assistance at airports, superb hotel accommodation and outstanding service. EPJS and Mega luxe have met several times. They are now ready to negotiate some of the key terms of the contract.

..>)) CD1.33 Listen to a conversation between a director of EPJS and a director of Mega luxe. They are discussing the agenda for the negotiation. Note down the agenda items. 1 I

EPJS customer profile (% of total customers p.a.) 1

*Super-wealthy

2 ** Wealthy 3 Business executives

4 VIPs 5 *** Other

1% 3% 82% 6% 8%

* Very high net worth (over $30 million) ** High net worth (over $1 million) *** Clients chartering for special events, e.g. celebration trips, family reunions, sports·team travel, bands on tour, etc.

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SUITES

ROOMS

RESTAURANT

BUSINESS CENTRE

We lco m e to M e ga l uxe h otels •

Every modern convenience • Splendid views of the city • Elegance, luxury, relaxation

SPA

BARS

REST ROOMS

ROOM RATES Format Platinum Suite Gold Standard Executive Standard

POOL

INDOOR TENNIS

CONCIERGE SERVICE

Arrangement Suite Double room Double room

GOLF COURSE

MEETING ROOMS

Rate per night $4,000 per night $1,000 per night $850 per night

Work in two groups. Group A: You are directors of Megaluxe. Turn to page 133. Group 8 : You are directors of EPJS. Turn to page 138. Read your role cards and prepare for the negotiati on. Use the agenda items that you noted down during the telephone call. Try to agree on a partnersh ip d e al.

Watch the Case study commentary on the DVD-ROM.

Writing As a director of EPJS or as a d irector of Megaluxe, write a letter to the person you negotiated with, summarising what you agreed. 27 November Dear [name], Below is a summary of

the

points we agreed

at our recent meeting.

c:J

Writing file page 128 29

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1 0

0

Saying 'no' politely

I n groups, answer these questions. 1

What excuses do people make when they say 'no'?

2

Have you ever had to say 'no', but been embarrassed?

3

Have you ever said 'yes' to a request, but later wished you had said 'no'?

G

�)» C01.35 Listen to the second part of the talk, which looks at saying 'no' in d ifferent countries. Decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false ones. 1

In Japan, it is very important to focus on verbal communication.

4 When is it rude to say 'no' in your country?

2

In Japan, it will embarrass people if you turn down a request.

�)» C01.34 Listen to the first part of a short talk by a cross-cultural communications expert. Complete these five tips for saying 'no' politely.

3

Indonesians do not like to embarrass people by saying 'no'.

4

Bahasa Indonesian has 12 ways of saying 'yes'.

5

In China, silence can mean there are problems.

6

In the Arab world, silence usually means 'no'.

7

Refusing a cup of coffee from an American host is considered rude.

1 Pay . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Offer . . . . . . . . . . .

3

Show . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Be . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

Avoid . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

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WORKING ACROSS CULTURES

C!)

H

SAYING 'NO' POLITELY

Match the invitations and requests (1-5) to the responses (a-e) .

1

Would you like to go out for a meal later?

2

Would you like some more food?

3

Shall we meet up next Tuesday?

4

Please stay a little bit longer.

5

Can you check that the fire-exit notices a re all in the right place, please?

a) I'm afraid you've come to the wrong person. You'll have to ask Ingrid in Health and Safety. b) Thanks for the invitation, but I'm not feeling so well. Maybe some other time.

c) Nothing more for me, thanks. It was delicious. d) I'm sorry. I'd love to, but I have other plans that evening. e) I've had a wonderful time a n d I wish I could, but I really have to go.

0

�>» CD1.36 Listen and check your answers. In pairs, role-play these situations. Read both roles (A and B). Take it in turns to play Role B, so you both get the opportunity to say 'no' politely. B

A 1

You a re the host at a meal in a restaurant. Offer your client some champag ne.

You do not drink alcohol. Say 'no' politely.

2

You have to complete a short report quickly. Ask a colleague to help you.

You are very busy, and this is not your job. Suggest your colleague asks Freya to help.

3

You are an investment director. I nvite a client to an important hospitality event next month.

You cannot attend this event because you have already accepted another invitation. But you want to maintain a good relationship a n d you would like to attend another event i n the future.

4

You a re the host at a meal i n your home for some business contacts. Offer your guest some lamb, rice a n d vegetables.

You h ate lamb. Say 'no' politely. Say you a re happy with just rice and vegetables.

5

You have just finished writing a very i m portant report, which you need to submit in a n hour. Ask your colleague to check it first.

You are very busy. You have to prepare for a meeting with your boss in an hour.

6

You are in a country where it is common to go out to eat late at night. Invite a business contact who has arrived from another country to go out for a meal at 10 p.m. tonight.

You are very tired and need to prepa re for an i m portant meeting tomorrow.

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1 Careers VOCABULARY

Choose the best word to complete each sentence. 1 Zoltan decided on his career move I plan when he was in his first year of university,

and amazingly, he followed it until he retired. 2 Rupert hopes to make a living I course doing freelance consulting. 3

My company has a training programme that offers career opportunities I breaks to students who have just graduated from university.

4 Helena was very happy with the bonus I progress she got last month. 5 If you want to climb the career plan I ladder, you have to be prepared to work very hard.

6 Dominic was very pleased when he earned his first job I commission. 7 Begonia is ready to make a career opportunity I move, so she's applying for jobs with other companies. 8 Alicia did a mistake I her best when she completed her job application.

9 Some companies help their employees take a career path I break by giving them a few

months off without pay. 10

Pietro was 55 years old when he took early retirement I a pension.

11

Mei-Mei didn't follow the usual career ladder I path for the CEO of a marketing firm. She started out working as a primary-school teacher.

12

Sharon never felt happy working overtime I extra.

13

Magnus earns €6oK per year I f/exitime in his new accounting job.

14 I wasn't surprised to hear that Dean got the sack I a mistake, but I feel very sorry for him. MODALS

Complete each conversation with can, could and would. Use each word once in each conversation. A:

.

.

. . . . . . .

. . . 1 I help you?

B: Yes. My name's Heinz Wagner. I'm here to see Martina Lopez. A: She'll be right out.

2

. . . . . . . . . . . .

you like a cup of coffee or tea?

B: No, thanks. But . . . . . . . . . . . ? you tell me where the men's room is, please? ***

A: My cousin 4 speak French and German by the time she was Five, and now she 5 speak Russian and Greek as well. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . • . • . . • • • .

6 B: Do you think she . . . . . . . . . . . . 1ike to learn any more languages? ***

A:

. . . . . . . . . . .

_7

you like to ask any more questions about Fabian?

B: Yes . . . . . . . . 8 he drive? Does he have a licence? .

.

.

.

.

A: I'm not sure. 1

9

• • • • • • • • • • • •

phone him and ask him.

32

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U N IT A SKI LLS

.. ..

REVISION

Match the halves of the expressions. Part A 1

Can

a) with someone right now.

2

Can I get him to

b) her to call me back?

3

Can I leave

c) to Michael Sands, please?

4

He seems to be

d) you hold?

5

Could I speak

e) him that I called?

6

Could you

f) call you?

7

Could you ask

g) a message, please?

8

Could you tell

h) transfer me to the IT department, please?

Part B 1

Could you tell me

a) Larissa Schulten speaking.

2

Can I take

b) a message?

3

I can transfer you

c) answer.

4

I'll

d) there's no answer.

5

I'm afraid

e) to her voicemail.

6

I'm sorry, there's no

f) what it's about?

7

Is this the

g) put you through.

8

Who's

h) marketing department?

9

Yes, this is

i)

calling, please?

2 Companies VOCABULARY

Complete the text below with the words in the box. net profi t parent company pharmaceutical Spanish subsidiary turnover workforce

share price

Espania-pharm Espania-pharm today announced the opening of its new head office in Barcelona. The

............

the nrst quarter, as its

1 company's effo1ts to boost its market share paid off in

............

2

was a lmost € 1 5 .6 m i ll i o n , leading to a

of €8 m i l l ion. The company has also doubled the size of its

...........

3

............

:1 by hiring

50 new employees in the past four months. However, the company's

5

. . . . ........

is u n l ikely to go up until i nvestors feel confident that the company is strong. Espania-pharm

is

the

6

............

of

the

global

giant.

The

7,

............

based in Stockhol m , reported profits of €950 m i l l ion in the first quarter.

33 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT A .... REVISION PRESENT S IMP.LE AND PRE�P,Nili " ' '

CONTI N U O U S

Complete this text with either the present simple or the present continuous form of the verbs in brackets. Use contracted forms where appropriate. I . . . . . . . . . . . .1 (be) a trainee project manager and I . . . . . . . . . . . _2 (love) my job. I . . . . . . . . . . . _3 (work) for a well-known computer man ufacturer, in the marketing department. Right now, we . . . . . . . . . . . • (develop) an advertising campaign for our newest laptop computers. We . . . . . . . . . . . .5 (try) to find the best artist for our print advertisements, so this week I . . . . . . . . . . . .6 (look) at samples of artists' work every day. I . . . . . . . . . . . .7 (feeO proud to work for a big, well-known company. This week, I . . . . . . . . . . . .8 (start) each day with a planning meeting that includes the CEO. He . . . . . . . . . . . .9 (be) very well known around the world, and my friends all . . . . . . . . . . . .10 (think) I'm lucky to work with someone famous.

SKILL�

Com plete each gap in these presentation extracts with the correct word (a, b or c). Good morning, . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mieko Murata, Director of Marketing, N H HC Telecommunications. Today, . . . . . . . . . . . .2 to talk about our new projects. First, . . . . . . . . . . . J some background information about the company. . . . . . . . . . . . .'' , I'll talk about our marketing activities . . . . . . . . . . . . s. I'll discuss some case studies . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 some background information about the company and about what we've been doing in the past year. ***

I f there are no more questions about background, I'll continue . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 to our marketing activities - we've recently had a really big marketing event in Singapore. ***

Thanks . . . . . . . . . . . .8 my talk. Are there any questions? 1

a) I'm

b) this is

c) it's

2

a) we're

b) it's

c) I'd like

3

a) I've given you

b) I'll give you

c) there's

4

a) Next

b) After

c) Finally

5

a) In the end

b) At last

c) Finally

6 a) Here's

b) Let's

c) There's

7

a) Changing

b) Moving on now

c) Then

8

a) for coming to

b) that you came to

c) for

3 Selling VOCABULARY

Circle the odd word /phrase out in each group. 1

wholesaler I retailer I supplier I offer

2

return I discount I offer I bargain

3

return I exchange I purchase I refund

4

stock I sale I storage I warehouse

5 dispatch I deliver I distribute I manufacture 6

money-back guarantee I out of stock I loyalty-card scheme I interest-free credit

34

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UNIT A MODALS

H

REVISION

Read these tenn is-court rules, then tick the true sentence in each pair below.

Tennis-court rules

WRITING

No music

Respect our neighbours and play quietly

Payment not necessary

Park closes at

Tennis shoes required

Age

12

10

p.m.

and over only

1

a) You don't have to play music.

b) You mustn't play music.

2

a) You don't have to pay.

b) You must pay.

3

a) You must wear tennis shoes.

b) You don't have to wear shoes.

4

a) You don't have to play quietly.

b) You shouldn't make a lot of noise.

5

a) You should leave before 10 p.m.

b) You have to leave at 10 p.m.

6

a) You must be 12 or older to enter.

b) If you're 1 2 years old, you mustn't enter.

Read these instructions and write a letter {60-90 words). Begin it with a salutation and end politely. You had a meeting with Mr Ulrich last week. You want to move ahead with a distribution agreement with his company. You are sending him with this letter a draft contract for his approval. You want him to read through it and tell you if there are any changes or additions.

Cu ltures 1: Saying no politely

·

A Unscramble the polite refusals. 1

could I wish I a I I I I I . I really I but I have I I I go I to I .

2

the I invitation I for I Thanks I. I I'm I feeling I but I not I very I well I . I some I time I Maybe I other I .

3

more I me I Nothing I for I , I thanks I . I was I It I delicious I .

4

you've I I'm I afraid I come I the I to I wrong I person I . I Keith I You'll I to I have I ask I .

5

sorry I I'm I . I to I love I I'd I . I have I but I I I other I that I plans I day I .

·

:

B Match each polite refusal in Exercise A with one of these requests. a) Would you like some more cake? b) Shall we meet up for a game of golf on Saturday? c) Please stay a little bit longer. d) Would you like to go out for a curry with me and Mr Takahashi? e) Can you arrange drinks and snacks for this afternoon's meeting?

35

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STARTING U P

a

llJ

VOCABUl!ARY

Verb and noun combinations

a

Which of these statements do you agree with? Which do you disagree with? Why? 1

There are no new ideas.

2

Most of the best ideas are discovered by accident.

3

Research and development is the key to great business ideas.

4

There is nothing wrong with copying and improving the ideas of others.

5

The best way to kill an idea is to take it to a meeting.

Discuss these questions. 1

What do you think are some of the best ideas in the last 20 years?

2

What is the best idea you have ever had?

3

Which creative person do you most admire? Why?

4

What should companies do to encourage new ideas?

Match the word partnerships (1-6) to their definitions (a-f). 1

to take advantage of an opportunity

a) to offer a larger variety of goods

2

to raise some body's status

c) to do something when you get the chance to do it

3

to enter a market

4

to extend a product range

5

to meet a need

b) to do or provide something that is necessary

d) to make an important discovery or change e) to start selling goods or services in a new area

f) to make somebody look or feel more important

6 to make a breakthrough 36

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UNIT 4 H GREAT IDEAS

D

Read this extract from a talk by the head of a research and development department. Then complete the gaps (1-6) with the correct form of a word partnership from Exercise A.

Great ideas are generated in d i fferent ways. Sometimes a n idea may s i m p ly be when a

! � .� 9.":'�.�t�9-�.?f �':t.?P.P.?.r.�t:0.i:t/ to . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,

compa ny � -��

to offer more choice to

. .........

3

existing customers. Or a great idea could allow a company to . .

which was closed

to it before. Companies which are prepared to spend a lot on R & D may

............

4

by having an original

idea for a product which others later copy, for example Sony and the Wal k m a n . On t h e other h a n d , some products a r e developed i n response to customer research. They come from customer ideas. These products are made to

............

5,

to satisfy consumer

demand. Or the product does something similar to another p ro d u ct, but faster, so it saves time. Some people will buy new products because the product

............

6-

gives t h e m a

new, more u p m a rket image.

II m

�>» CD1.37 Listen and check your answers to Exercise B. �>» CD1.38 Listen carefully to the last part of the talk and complete the gaps to form word partnerships with the words in italics.

Other people will buy a n y 'green' product which

............

1

waste o r

............

2

the

environment, even if it is more expensive. If an idea is really good and the product . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . .3 a gap •m t h e m a r k et, 1t may even . . an award fo r 1 n n ovat 1 o n .

.... .. ....

II

See the OVO-ROM

for the i-G/ossory.

1

were completely original and later copied?

2

are green?

3 won an award?



4

W

Great business ideas

Work in pairs. Exercise B refers to the Sony Walkman. Can you think of any other examples of products which:

were developed from customer ideas?

Compare your ideas in small groups.

rJ D B

Dr Kate Pitts is a researcher at the e-Research Centre, University of Oxford. She was asked the question: In your opinion, what were the best business ideas of the last 15 years? Predict what she will say. Think of prod ucts and services.

�») CD1.39 Listen to the first part of the interview. What products and services does Kate mention? Why does she think they were excellent ideas? �>» CD1.40 Listen to the second part and answer these questions. 1 What types of company spend a lot of time and money on research and development? 2

Which company spends nearly 25% of the cost of sale on research and development?

Dr Kate Pitts 37

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UNIT 4

....

GREAT IDEAS

m

�») (01.40 Listen to the second part again and complete the gaps i n the audio script. I strongly believe that most companies can benefit from using 1 and 2 within their own company to actually develop new 3 and services. My definition of • is to look at what everybody else sees, and see something 5• . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

Watch the interview on the DVD-ROM.

. . . . . . . . . . . .

So that might mean looking at what you already do, and looking at where you can do it slightly differently to 6 your product range, or 7 your products into new markets. This can save . 8 and money. . . . . . . . . . . . .

..

D Three great ideas

IJ IIJ

Discuss these questions. 1

What will be the best business idea in the next 1 5 years?

2

What would you like someone to invent?

What makes a business idea a really great idea? Brainstorm as many points as you can. EXAMPLE: It re>vlt>

it) at) il)crea)e it) >ale> al)d profit

Work i n groups of three. Make quick notes i n answer to the questions below about your article. Student A: Read Article 1 on the opposite page. Student B: Read Article 2 on the opposite page. Student C: Read Article 3 on the opposite page.

Who needs translators?

Questions

B

I:J

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

1

What is the great/unusual idea?

2

What problem does this idea solve?

3

Which markets are mentioned in relation to this idea?

4

In terms of time, at what stage of development is the idea?

Safer cycling

Going for gold

Ask your partners the four questions in Exercise B and make notes on what they say. Discuss these questions in pairs. 1

Which of the ideas do you find the most interesting? Why?

2

Which idea do you think will be the most profitable?

3

Which idea will reach the most markets?

4 Can you think of any problems any of the ideas might have? 38

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....

UNIT 4 w�v

GREAT IDEAS

---------------. cI ( .._

r -� �� � -----------------------1

� [+ Article

)

Q _, ·

_ _ _ _

WHO N EEDS TRANSLATORS? Google is developing software for the first phone capable

of

translating foreign languages almost instantly. By building on

..><: ::l

existing tecl1nologies in voice recognition and automatic translation,

ci

u

Google hopes to have a basic system ready within a couple of

(]) c

years .

c 0 Vl (])

If it works,

it could eventually transform communication

among speakers of the world's 6,000-plus languages. The company has already created an automatic system for translating text on computers,

E

which is being honed by scanning millions of multilingual websites and documents. So far, it

covers 52 languages. Google also has a voice-recognition system that enables phone users to conduct web searches by speaking commands into their phones rather than typing them in.

Now it is working on combining the two technologies to produce software capable of understanding a caller's voice and translating it into a synthetic equivalent in a foreign language. Like a professional human interpreter, the phone would analyse "packages" of speech, listening to the speaker until it understands the full meaning of words and phrases, before attempting translation.

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SAFER CYCLING

Swedish designers have created a cycling "collar" that is worn around the neck with an airbag hidden inside. When sensors in the device determine a crash has happened, an airbag instantly inflates around the cyclist's head to form a helmet.

)



The invention was presented today in Stockholm. It w i l l go on sale in Sweden early next year for about £50. The designers have spent six years developing it. Terese Alstin. one of the inventors, said. "The protection should include keeping the sense of freedom and not ruining your hairstyle." The device has been improved by recreating hundreds of' accidents using crash-test dummies and real riders. "We have developed a unique. patented, mathematical merhod to distinguish these movement patterns," say the inventors. A small helium­ gas cylinder in Oates the airbag in 0 . 1 seconds and is designed to let cyclists see at all times . The airbag stays inf-lated for several seconds. It is powered by a rechargablc battery. Co­ inventor Anna Haupt said. "The shell of' the collar is removable and available in many di fferent styles and fabrics, and will be launched in new fashion collections."

c

l (

Apart from be i ng go ld-p lated - a n d the fact that they are bu l letproof - they seem much l i ke any other v e n d i n g mach i n e . But i n stead of choco late bars , a n etwork of " g o ld -to-go" machines d i s pe n ses 24- ca rat bul l i o n i n a smart pres e ntati o n box . Originally designed as a marketing device for an online gold-trading

Since the first machine was

installed in May, in the lobby of

business, the machines have

Abu Dhabi's E m i rates Palace hotel,

become such a success that their

20

inventor plans to build a global

appeared across E u rope. Germany

gold-to-go machines have

network, installing them everywhere

a l ready has eight. Next month,

from fitness centres to cruise ships.

the first machines will open i n

Thomas Geissler, the German businessman behind the machines,

the United States - i n Las Vegas and Florida.

said their unexpected success was

The company claims its gold is

the result of a recent interest i n

cheaper than that available from

gold. " O u r customers are those who

the banks, largely because its

are catching on

overheads are lower, and that

to

the idea that

gold is a safe investment at a time

unlike at a bank, the machine

of financial instability," he said.

gold is available i m m ediately.

39 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 4

��

GREAT IDEAS

LANGUAGE REVIE�]

Study these examples. a) Yesterday afternoon, the CEO was meeting the research team in Dublin. (past continuous)

Past sim ple and past continuous

b) We were having a successful negotiation when suddenly they made new demands. (past simple) (past continuous) c) The advertising agency started in 1982, and Wieden came up with the 'lust Do It' slogan (past simple) for Nike in 1988. (past simple) Now read through these rules. We use the past continuous to talk about something that was going on around a particular time in the past, as in example a).







We often use the past continuous to describe an action which was already in progress when something else happened, as in example b). We use the past simple to talk about actions or events that we see as completed, as in example c). Grammar reference page 144

Et

laszlo Biro

IJ

Read the Laszlo Biro story and choose the correct form of the verbs.

�1

People wrote with quills, pens and pencils long before Laszlo Biro invented I was inventinl his biro in 1938. While he worked /was workinl as a journalist in Hungary, he noticed /was noticing4 that the ink used in newspaper printing dried quickly. But this ink would not flow into the tip of a fountain pen. In 1938, he developed /was developinl a new tip using a ball that was free to turn in its socket. He died /was dying 6 in Buenos Aires in 1985.

I n pairs, take it in turns to tell your partner that you saw them doing these things at work. Your partner has to think of a good reason why they were doing it. EXAMPLE:

WJ,e" I )a IN yovJ yov Were pvtti"9 a pack of paper i" yovr ba9. Student B: OJ,J my boH as-ked me to pri"t ovt a lo"9 report at home to"i9J,t

Student A:

When I saw you, you were:

SKI LLS

S u ccessful meetings



looking at Facebook during office hours.



studying Japanese instead of working.



talking with friends in the staff restaurant.



playing games on your mobile phone.



reading a book.



collecting money from your colleagues.

Which of these statements do you agree with? Why? 1

The best number for a meeting is six people or fewer.

2

Never have food or drink during a meeting.

3

Always start and finish a meeting on time.

4 You should sit round a table when you have a meeting. 5

A meeting must always have a leader.

6

At a formal meeting, each person should speak in turn.

40

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H

UNIT 4

ll

II

m

GREAT IDEAS

��) CD1.41 DC Dynamics is an electronics company based in Boston, USA. The marketing department held a meeting to discuss their new smartphone. Listen to the meeting, then answer these questions. 1

What were the main aims of the meeting?

2

Which month did they choose for the launch?

�>» CD1.41 Listen again and tick the expressions which the chairperson uses. 1

OK, everyone, let's begin, shalt we?

2

Our main purpose is to decide the date of the launch.

3

Mei, what do you think?

4

Cheng, can you give us your opinion about this?

5

Any thoughts on that?

6

Let's get back to the point.

7

Now, I'd like to move on to sates outlets.

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

�)» CD1.41 Listen to the meeting again and complete these extracts. Mei:

Personalty, I'm 2 our . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

i n fqYf? l.!r 1 of June. Let's get into the market early and surprise .

.

.

Wan: Yeah, June's too early. I think September's the best time. We can promote the smartphone strongly then, with a multimedia . . . . . . . ?. .

.

. .

Lincoln: What about the recommended retail price for the phone? Any thoughts on that? Mei:

. . . . . . . . . . . .4

a minute. I thought we were talking about the . . . . . . . . . .5 date, not .

.

the price. Lincoln: OK, Mei, maybe we are moving a little too fast. Let's get back to the .

.

. . . . . . . . . .6•

Lincoln: Good. We need to be sharp on pricing. Now, what sates outlets do you think we should . . . . . . . . . . 7 , Wan? .

Wan:

IJ

.

No problem there. We could start with the specialist mobile-phone stores and big . . . . . . . . . . . .8 stores. After that, we could took at other distribution . . . . . . . . . . . .9•

Work i n groups of four. GLP of Buenos Aires has developed a new wallet, code-named 'The Hipster'. It will be launched in the US. The marketing department holds a meeting to discuss a strategy for selling it. Student C: Turn to page 132. Student 0 : Turn to page 136.

Student A: Turn to page 134. Student B: Turn to page 138.

Read your role card, then hold the meeting. U S E F U L LANGUAGE

"

CHAIRPERSON/LEAD Beginning the meeting Can we start, please? Right, let's begin. Stating the aim The main aim/purpose of this meeting is to ... Asking for comments What do you think?

Changing the subject Let's move on now to ... The next thing to discuss is ... Clarifying What do you mean by ... ? Sorry, I don't quite understand. Summarising OK, let's summarise.

How do you feet about this?

Right, let's recap.

PARTIC I PANTS Giving opinions I think we should ... I'm in favour of ...

Making suggestions Perhaps we should ... We could ... Agreeing I think you're right. I (totally) agree.

::·_,-�:];,.;t�·

Disagreeing I don't know about that.

(I'm afraid) I don't agree. Interrupting Hold on (a moment). Can I just say something?

41

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The new attraction A n i nterna t i o n a l c o m petition will encourage great i d eas for a new visitor attract i o n

�> CD1.42 Listen to a conversation between Dilip Singh i s a very rich man. H e gives money generously to charities att over the world and provides finance for projects which wilt help local communities. He has recently organised an international competition for people wanting to create a new attraction in their country. The winner(s) wilt receive $20 million to finance and develop their project.

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Dilip and his personal assistant, Jane Ferguson. Note down the three key points that Dilip makes about the new attraction.

UNIT 4

....

GREAT IDEAS

Here are three attractions that have impressed Dilip because they are unusual and exciting. He has put them on the website as examples to stimulate the imaginations of competitors.

Which one would you like to visit? Why? Have you visited any attraction which greatly impressed you? If so, tall< about it with your colleagues.

attractions

Shakespeare's Globe Theatre - London, England Opened in

1997, this modern building is a

reconstruction of the original Globe Theatre, which was built in

1599. It was an open-air

playhouse where Shakespeare's plays were

2

\

The town of Vulcan is in Alberta, Canada,

3

and its name has helped it to become a

underwater. The main exhibit is an BOO-year­

The Vulcan Tourism and Trek Station - Alberta, Canada

tourist attraction. It has built a tourist station based on the theme of the famous Star Trek

performed. An exhibition and tour show what

television and feature-film series. It shows

life was really like in Shakespeare's time.

many objects from the series, and there is

The Globe Theatre is a popular London

a replica nearby of the starship Enterprise

attraction. MORE



from Star Trek V. MORE

The Sunken Ship Museum Yangjiang, South China

Opened

in 2010, the museum is located

old ship which is 24 metres below the surface

of the sea. Visitors can see the ship from

underwater corridors. In addition, they can view the precious objects which have been

taken from the ship. MORE

Work in small groups.

� L3--

1

Brainstorm ideas for a new attraction in your area/country.

2

Choose the best idea. Then discuss your concept, using these q uestions as a guide. Choose someone to lead your discussion. 1 What are the strong points of your great idea?

4 How can you attract tourists?

2 What kind of experience will your attraction offer visitors?

5 What are your plans for marketing and promoting the attraction?

3 How will it make money for the local community?

6 What corporate sponsorships will you try to obtain?

3

Describe your ideas to the other groups. Answer their questions.

4

Meet as one group. Choose someone to lead the meeting. Discuss all the projects and decide which one should be presented to Dilip Singh's committee. If you cannot agree, take a vote.

j

Watch the Case study commentary on the DVD-ROM.

G

NEW AITRACTION - RECOMMENDATION FOR WINNING ENTRY

Introduction

Writing

This report outlines the key features of the new

You are a member of the committee which helps Dilip to judge the projects. H e has asked you to write a short report on the project you think should win, with your reasons for recommending it.

attraction that we feel should win the competition. It

Outline the key features of the project and say why it would be a commercial success.

gives reasons why the project was selected and explains why the new attraction should be a comm e rci al su ccess.

=:J Writin g file page 1 2 9

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43

STARTING U P

a

Add the verbs from the box to the phrases below to create some common stressful situations. being finding geffig taking waiting 1

.

having

making

9 �in 9 to the dentist ..

moving

6

shopping

travelling

. . . . . . . . . . . .

house

. . . . . . . . . . . .

an interview

2

. . . . . . . . . . . .

in a long queue

7

3

. . .. . . . . . . . .

stuck in a traffic jam

8

. . . . . . . . . . . .

a speech

4

. . . . . . . . . . . .

a parking space

9

. . . . . . . . . . . .

by a ir

5

. . . . . . . . . . . .

with your partner /family

. . . . . . .. . . . .

an exam or test

10

Which of the above situations is the most stressful for you? Can you add any others to the list?

1!1

What do you do to relax? Which of these activities are the most effective for you, and why? In what other ways do you relax? playing a sport • reading • eating/drinking • having a bath • walking gardening • massage • shopping • listening to music • watching TV • browsing online • blogging • meditating • using Facebook/YouTube •



44 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 5

II

VOCABULARY

Stress in the workplace

EJ

H

STRESS

Rank these situations from 1 (most stressful) to 10 (least stressful). Then discuss your choices. •

making a presentation to senior executives





leading a formal meeting





telephoning in English





writing a report with a tight deadline



negotiating a very valuable contract

meeting important visitors from abroad for the first time asking your boss for a pay rise dealing with a customer who has a major complaint



covering for a colleague who is away



taking part in a conference call

Match the words (1-8) to their definitions (a-h). 1 lifestyle 2

workaholic

3

workload

a) a system where employees choose the time they start and finish work each day b) a time or date by which you have to do something

c) how personally satisfied you are with the way you live and work

4 deadline 5 flexitime 6 work-life balance 7

quality of life

8

working environment

d) someone who cannot stop working and has no time for anything else e) the ability to give a good amount of time to your work and to outside interests, e.g. family

f) the amount of work a person is expected to do g) the people, things and atmosphere around you at work h) the way people choose to organise their lives

I]

Complete each sentence with an appropriate word or phrase from Exercise A. 1

I

worked until 1 1 o'clock at night to meet the . . . . . . . . . . . . for presenting the report.

2

I

work six days a week and never have a holiday. My girlfriend says I'm a . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

Karl has a heavy . . . . . . . . . . . . at the moment because several colleagues are off sick.

4

She gave up a highly paid job to join a meditation group in India. She's completely changed her . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 A . . . . . . . . . . . . system can help to reduce stress levels of employees by giving them more control over their working hours.

6 If you have children, working from home may help im prove your . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Many people argue that technology has greatly improved our . . . . . . . . . . . . and the way we feel about work. Others disagree, arguing it actually increases stress. 8

II

I!J

A clean, quiet, comfortable and friendly . . . . . . . . . . . . can actively reduce levels of stress.

Mal
Diplomat

45

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UNIT 5

....

STRESS

your p1 ace

.

m

th e s tress league

Miner Police officer Construction worker

8.3

Film producer

7.7 7.5

!U

D

m �

W

��� ��; -

· r·

-

.

·

_

_ _

Vet Accountant

5.5

5.4 -+-

6.

II

.- ---=--

5.7

7.2

Actor Doctor

Psychologist

�11 �... . .. c����� -1 j

3

············

See the DVD-ROM for the i-G/ossary.

6.2

fffi

journalist Airline pilot



,.----

olicitor

. -

=���

---;·�

_

O pt ic ia n ostman -=-=--"'---L . ......... . . Minister/Vic a r N u rsery n urse _ _ Librarian

J

_

_

---



� l �

3.7 ---1 35

Source: University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UK)

Choose three jobs from the stress league i n Exercise D. What do you think makes these particular jobs stressful? Compare your ideas. Is your own job (or one you intend to do) included in the stress league? Do you think it is in the right place? What about the other jobs in the league? If your job is not included, where would you place it? Discuss these questions. 1

Do you like working under pressure? Why? I Why not?

2

What deadlines do you have to meet in your daily life? Which are the most difficult to meet?

3

Why do people become workaholics?

4

How important is the working environment in reducing stress?

What are the main causes of stress at work?

Dealing with stress

jessica Colling

Watch the interview on the DVD-ROM.

[I

,.>)) C01.43 jessica Colling is Director of Marketing at Vielife, a Consultancy

that advises businesses on health at work. Listen to the first part of the i nterview and answer these questions. 1

What three examples are given of things that make people feel under pressure at work?

2

What is resilience to stress?

II

,.>» C01.44 Listen to the second part. What can happen if you have to manage stress for a long time without a break?

m

..>» (01.44 Listen again and complete this extract.

IJ D

m

...

... ... ....

It's difficult to say really what's a . _ . . . . 1 level of stress for somebody to feel at work. The problem with that is that what one person finds really . . . . . .2 and it excites them to be able to do their job well, somebody else might find really, really . . . . . . ?. What we do see is that actually a high level of continued . . . . . -'• can actually sometimes spill over into feelings of stress.

. . ..

,.>)) C01.45 Listen to the third part. What two examples are given of companies

being flexible in how they expect staff to work?

,.>» C01.46 Listen to the final part. What two reasons are given for why women report higher levels of stress than men? Discuss these q uestions. 1

What is a good work-life balance for you? Is it easier for men than women to be a manager?

2

Is it important to have a certain level of stress in the workplace?

46 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT

5 �� STRESS

I n pairs, rank these countries according to those where you think business leaders feel the most stress (1 = most stress, 9 = least stress).

READING

Business owners feeling stressed





I]

Australia Mexico





China Sweden





Denmark Turkey





Finland Vietnam



Greece

Read the first two paragraphs of this article. Then check your answers to Exercise A.

Over half of business owners feeling increasing! y stressed

More than half the leaders of privately

5

10

held busi nesses globally feel t h e i r s t ress levels have i n c reased over the last year. The research from the Grant Thornton I n te rn a t i o n a l Business Report ( I B R ) 2 0 I 0 covers the opinions of over 7.400 business o w n e r s a c r o s s 36 e c o n o m i e s . M a i n l and China tops the league for the most stressed leaders. with 76% of b u s i ne s s owners s a y i n g t h e i r stress levels have increased over the

last year. Other economics that were high i n 15 t h e stress league table were Mexico (74%), Turkey (72%), Vietnam (72%) and Greece (68%). At the opposite end of the scale, business owners in Sweden (23%), Denmark (25%), Finland 20 (33%) and Australia (35%) have the lowest stress levels in the world. There appears to be a l i n k between stress l e v e l s a n d GOP. B u s i n e s s

25

owners i n mainland C h i n a , Vietnam, Mexico, India and Turkey arc all high on the stress league table and are

working i n environments where high growth is expected. But it's not just i n countries expecting high growth that 30 tress levels are high - at the opposite end of the growth scale, Ireland, Spain

35

and Greece arc all high on the league table. Said Alex MacBcath, Global Leader - Markets at Grant Thornton

International, "We have busi nesses at both ends of the GOP growth scale experiencing h i g h stress for very d i fferent reason . I n mainland China. the pressure i s on to keep up with the 40 speed of expansion, while in Ireland, for example, the economy is shrinking, and business owners arc worried about how they will keep their busi ness alive.'' 45 Business owners were asked about the major causes of workplace stress.

so

Not surprisingly, the most common cause during 2009 was the economic c l i m ate, w i t h 38% of respondents globally saying t h i s was one of their major causes o f stress. This was fo l l o wed by pressure on cashflow

ss

ro

65

(26%), competitor activities ( 2 1 %) and heavy workload ( 1 9% ) . A l e x MacBeath comments, "The causes of workplace stress can be put into three distinct group - economic, business and personal. An employee may place more i mportance on personal clements s u c h as t h e i r work-l i fe balance. The business owner has additional pressures to consider." T h e survey a l so found a l i n k between stress levels and the number o f clays taken off by an individual in a year. Countries at the top of the stress league are those where business owners . o n average, take fewer holidays each year.

adapted from http:/ /www.grantthorntonibos.com

II

Read the whole article and answer these questions. 1

What is the difference between these groups of countries in terms of reasons for high-level stress? a) China, Vietnam, Mexico, India and Turkey

b) Ireland, Spain and G reece

llJ

2

According to Alex MacBeath, how do business leaders experience stress differently in China and Ireland?

3

What are the four major causes of workplace stress?

4

According to Alex MacBeath, what three types of pressure are there?

Look at this list of countries. Vietnam

Sweden

Denmark

Mexico

China

Finland

In which countries do business owners take: 1

fewer holidays?

2

more holidays?

(You will need information from paragraphs 1, 2 and 5.)

IJ

I n pairs, discuss these questions. 1

What are the additional pressures that business owners might have?

2

Should companies do more to reduce stress at work? What could they do?

3

How many days' holiday per year do you think people should get? 47 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 5

....

STRESS Answer the q uestions in brackets about the sentences in italics.

LANGUAGE REVIEW

Past simple and present perfect

1

She has worked in Paris for five years. (Does she work in Paris now?)

2

She worked in Hong Kong for three years. (Does she work in Hong Kong now?)

Which sentence above (1 or 2) uses the past simple? Which uses the present perfect? We use the past simple to: •

talk about completed actions that happened in the past. Larry Page and Sergey Brin created Google in January 1996.



refer to a definite moment or period in the past. I spoke to her on Tuesday.

The present perfect connects the past and the present. We use the present perfect to: •

talk about past actions that affect us now. The boss has just given her a pay rise, and she's very pleased.



talk about life experiences. I've worked with many companies where stress was a problem.



announce recent news. Coca·Cola has just confirmed it has dropped Wayne Rooney.

C) Grammar reference page 145

l3

Cross out the incorrect sentence in each pair. 1

a) Stress levels have increased in recent years. b)

2

S t r e s sl e v e l si RereasediRreeeRty ·e a r s.

a) The finance sector changed dramatically over the past five years.

b) The finance sector has changed dramatically over the past five years. 3

a) The risk factors for stress have risen significantly since 2009. b) The risk factors for stress rose significantly since 2009.

4 a) I resigned three months ago. b) 5

I

have resigned three months ago.

a) Have you ever been to a stress counsellor before? b) Did you ever go to a stress counsellor before?

1!1

Write the time expressions from the box in the correct column of this chart. Past simple

Present perfect

two year� a9o

�o far

se-faf

h o · ey e ever in 2009 yet just yesterday for the past two weeks e a r sa g already never last Friday during the 1990s in the last few days since 2005 when I was at university

Now talk about your life using the time expressions.

B

The present perfect is often followed by more detailed information in the past simple. Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions about these subjects. •

attend a conference



travel abroad on business



be late for an important meeting



make a presentation



make a telephone call in English



go on a training course

EXAMPLE:

A Have yov ever travelled abroad Ofl bv�ifle��? A Where did yov 90?

B: Ye�1 I haVe. B: Fra"kfvrt I Wefltthere three year� a9o1 Ofl a �ale� trip.

48

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UNIT 5 .... STRESS

Participating in discussions

fJ m B

liJ

IJ

You are going to hear three members of the human resources department of a transportation company discussing ways of improving the staff's health and fitness. What ways do you think they will mention?

�l)) (01.47 Listen to the conversation and check your answers. �ll) CD1.47 The speakers use several expressions to make suggestions. Listen to the conversation again and complete the gaps in these sentences. 1

Well, I think . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . carry out a survey, find out why the staff are so stressed .. .

2

I have another idea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . we encourage staff to keep fit? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . paying their subscription to a gym?

3

We . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . more staff for them, give them an assistant.

4

Well, it might be a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to set up a counselling service .. .

5

. . . . . . . . . . . . meet tomorrow, same time, and try to come up with a plan ...

�ll) CD1.48 At the next meeting, the team discusses plans for staff to attend a local sports centre. Listen and tiel< the expressions they use in their conversation. Then write 'A' if the expression shows agreement or '0' if it shows disagreement. 1

Mm, I don't know.

2

I t would be popular, but it could be expensive.

3

I think I agree with you.

4

OK, but we can solve it. The sports centre has great facilities ..

5

Exactly. It would really help staff to be more healthy ...

6

I'm not in agreement, Danielle. It isn't a great idea.

7

I still think it's a good idea. It's well worth trying.

.

Work in pairs. You work in the human resources department of a large company. Discuss how you would deal with these problems. Use expressions from the Useful language box below to help you. 1

More and more staff are taking medicine, e.g. anti-depressants, because they feel highly stressed at work. They are often sick, or pretend they are sick, and take days off work.

2

Many employees feel uncertain about their jobs and careers in the company. They worry about the future. They are constantly anxious and don't sleep well.

3

Some staff are stressed because they feel they have no control over their work and they don't participate in decisions. They say they feel 'worthless' and are not valued by management.

U S E F U L LANGUAGE

MAKING SUGGESTIONS I think we should carry out a survey. Why don't we encourage staff to keep fit? How about paying for their subscription to a gym? It might be a good idea to set up a counselling service.

DISAGREEING

GIVING OPINIONS

AGREEING

We've got to do something about it.

I suppose we could do that.

Mmm, I don't know.

I think I agree with you.

I can't agree with you there.

I think we should definitely pay staff's subscriptions. It would be popular, but it could be expensive. It'd cost a lot, and attendance would be difficult to monitor.

Yeah, you're right.

I'm not sure it's a good idea.

Exactly.

I still think it's a good idea. I'm afraid that's out of the question because ...

Good. I Excellent idea. I Great.

I completely agree. 49

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Background Davies-Miller is a large advertising agency on Madison Avenue in New York. It has expanded rapidly in recent years and has a number of famous companies as its clients. There is very strong competition in the US advertising industry. Agencies compete to win new contracts or take clients away from their rivals. Advertising staff are well paid, but they work long hours. They worry about job security and become anxious if their company loses an important client. Recently, Davies-Miller lost two of its major accounts. This had a significant effect o n the employees. The agency decided t o carry out a survey o f the staff's opinions about their working conditions. It showed that 65% of staff felt 'highly stressed' in their jobs.

Discuss how the high levels of stress could affect the performance of the agency.

Listen to I read on page 51 about four incidents at Davies-Miller which involved stress. In each case, note down briefly the key points of each incident.

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2

1

UNIT 5 �� STRESS

Birgitte,

jam es,

Sch edule Coo rdin ator

Account Executive

,.ll) CD1.49 Jessi ca Parker, a junio r acco unt executive, calls Shei la Murray in the huma n resources t depa rtme nt from Rio de Janei ro, Braz il, abou ating her boss , Jame s. They are curre ntly negoti . an i m po rt an t contr act with a clien t there

3

J uliana, Art Director Extract from an e-mail sent to Head of H R

S��mary of an interv iew with Brrgrtte by a member of staff (HR) Birgitte regul ates the flow of work, coord inates sche duling and prepa res cost estim ates Acco rding to he r, she is stres� e d beca use she is often interrupt ed at work by visits from othe r memb ers of staff. She beli eves there is too much . . gossip ing in the office , whrch stops her from doing her work. She says that her super . visor favo urs c : rtam memb ers o f staff and does not want to . send h er on trarn mg courses . . She lrves a long way . from work . Be cause of thrs, she gets back hom e very late and has no t 'rme to relax.

I have no time I've never been under such pressure in my work since I joined the agency. impossible meet to trying time my all to listen to the problems of my colleagues. I spend too many for competing We're . Executives Account the for deadlines to produce designs w?n't help It agency. the of policy the d understan don't just I problem. the contracts, that's me. Somet1mes I to hire more staff. Most of the creative ideas in the agency come from worried because the wonder if they want me to leave and bring in someone younger. I'm I get back home. when relax to seem can't I situation's beginning to affect my health.

4

Jolant a, Assistant to Art Director Part of an informal conversation between )olanta and a membe r of the HR depart ment "I'll be looking for anothe r job soon. I feel really stresse d out. Juliana never tells me anythin g. She never asks for my opinion . It's incredib le. I 've got a Master's in advert isi n g but it doesn't seem to impress her. She only gives me boring jobs and shouts at me if I make a mistake . I t h ink she'll have a nervous breakdo wn soon. She never praises anythin g I d o it really upsets me. I was hoping to have a career here. No chance of that." ,

-

1

You are members of the H R department. Work in small groups and discuss these q uestions. 1 What are the main reasons why the staff mentioned above are highly stressed or demotivated? 2 What action(s)

should the

HR department take i n each case?

2

Compare the results of your discussion with other groups.

3

Meet as one group. Make suggestions for practical ways of reducing the stress levels of staff in the agency.

Watch the Case study commentary on the OVD-ROM.

Writing As Head of Human Resources, write the recommendations section of a report to Davies-Miller's CEO. Outline your practical suggestions for reducing stress in the company, both in the short and long term.

0

Rccommendat ions

The management team met on July 5 to discuss ways or dealing with stress in the company.

The fol l owing recommendations were made:

C)

Writing file page 129

51 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

STARTING U Jj

EJ llJ

EJ

Imagine you have to entertain a group of foreign businesspeople. Which of these activities would you choose? What would you add? •

historic site(s) • an opera I a concert • motor racing • tennis a bar I a nightclub • wine tasting • a game of golf • a restaurant • the theatre • a football match • an art gallery • horse racing



Many companies are spending less on corporate entertaining. Do you think this is a good idea? Why? I Why not? Work with a partner. Which adjectives in the box form partnerships with the words below {1-6)? convenient

cosy

efficient

exciting location

1

atmosphere

3

2

food

4 prices

local/regional

reasonable



5

service

6

entertainment

You plan to take a foreign visitor out for d i nner. How important are the above factors for you when entertaining guests? Discuss your ideas in pairs.

52 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 6

[J

""

ENTERTAINING

Match the words in the box to the correct food categories below (1-4). beef

broccoli cabbage chicken crab cucumber duck lamb lobster mushroom onion pork prawns/shrimp salmon spinach tuna turkey veal venison

beef

1

meat

2

poultry

3

fish/seafood

4 vegetables/salad

D

liJ

Combine the words in the box with the headings below (1-3) to create word partnerships related to drinks. alcohol-free bottled draught dfy house rose sparkling still sweet tap vintage 1

wine dry

2

beer

3

water

medium white

mineral

red

Wil)e, ...

Think of a typical or unusual dish from your country. How would you describe it to a foreign visitor? Use these phrases to help you. It's a meat/fish/rice/vegetarian dish. It's a kind of seafood/vegetable/dessert, etc. It's quite spicy /rich/hot/ sweet/ salty /bitter I sour. It's called . . . . . . . . . . . . and tastes a bit like chicken/cabbage, etc. It comes with I We usually eat it with ... People often have a glass of . . . . . . . . . . . . with it. It's got an unusual taste. It's served with rice I pasta I a salad I a side dish, etc. It's quite healthy/fattening/unusual, etc.

IJ

Put these stages into a logical order for entertaining in a restaurant. a) Look at the menu. b) Ask for the bill (Br[) I check (Am[). c) Book a table (Br[). I Make a reservation (Am[). d) Leave a tip. e) Have the main course. f) Have a dessert. g) Order a starter (Br[) I appetizer (Am[). h) Have an aperitif.

D See the DVD-ROM

for the i-Giossary.

A W

D D [I] D D D D D

,.>l) CDl.SO Listen to the dialogues and check your answer to Exercise E. Imagine a small group of foreign visitors is coming to your city. 1

Decide where you would take them for dinner. Choose a menu and a location to give them a 'taste' of your city/region/country.

2

Explain your choices to a partner.

3

join up with another pair and compare your ideas. 53 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 6

....

ENTERTAINING LISTEN I NG

Corporate events

EJ

1!1 Dr Chris Bruton

Watch the interview on the DVD-ROM.

B

m II

,.>» CD1.51 Dr Chris Bruton is Chief Executive of the Cavendish Consultancy, a corporate entertainment company. Listen to the first part of the interview and answer these questions. 1

Which sports are popular?

2

Which sport is not popular? Why?

3

What was the most popular musical at the time of the interview?

,.>» co1.s2 Listen to the second part. What is surprising about how the financial sector has reacted to the latest recession? ,.>» CD1.53 Listen to the third part. What makes a corporate event successful? Complete these notes. 1

lde11tify your . . . . . . . . . . . .

Z

Plalllli119: l-.avi119 . .

)

Cateri11g: 1-.igl-. rta 11dard of . . . . . . . . . . . . a 11 d . . .

lf

5taff:

S

AI�.-Vayr . . . . . . . . . . . . up afteri.Wardr

.

.

. . . . . . . . 1 e.g. umbrellar

............1 ..•..••••..•

. . . .

. . .

.

.

a11d briefi119

,.>» CD1.54 Listen to the final part and answer these questions. 1

Which two events were offered together on the same day?

2

How did people travel from London to the first event?

3

How did people travel from London to the second event?

I n groups, discuss these questions. 1

What event would you most like to be invited to? Why?

2

How does entertaining affect a company's image?

3

When can corporate entertainment become bribery?

Discuss these questions.

Corporate entertainment

1

How important is corporate entertaining in your a) country? b) company/organisation?

2

What corporate-hospitality event would you like to be invited to?

The corporate-hospitality club asked three entertainment experts some questions. In pairs, read the article on the opposite page and put four of these questions in the appropriate places. a) What is the most effective way of measuring corporate hospitality?

b) What are the key elements required to produce successful corporate hospitality? c) If you had an unlimited budget, what would be included in your dream corporate-hospitality package? d) What is the best corporate-hospitality programme you have witnessed that wasn't your own? e) What are the biggest challenges in creating corporate hospitality? f) How have corporate-hospitality offerings changed in the past decade?

54 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 6 .. ENTERTAINING

I

5

Question . . . . . .

3

Question . . . . . .

Kate Kassar (Director, Beyond Events)

Kate

Listen to the client's aspirations and needs. Success then

Six Nations rugby hospitality in a brewery next to Murrayfield

depends on the creation of a dynamic event, which matches

Stadium. It captured the spirit of the rugby audience. Whereas

and reflects the company culture and the tastes of guests.

other facilities offered the usual fine dining, this one boasted

Andrew

Hodgkins

( P re m i e r S e r v i c e

30

draught beer, wooden benches, wintery food, rugby celebrities mingling and a party spirit, all on a lower budget.

D i rector,

Keith Prowse) What makes corporate hospitality so successful is being able

Andrew

to offer tickets or packages for events that are sold out or

The packages at the Emirates, Arsenal's home ground, are

extremely popular. 10

35

Ryder Cup Europe packages.

Alex Hewitt (Managing Director, AOK Events) Invite your guests to something they genuinely want to attend

Alex

and ensure you get the right clients attending. Make sure the

A few years ago, my sister invited me to a private sponsor's

event is memorable. This way the event lives forever and makes

concert in a tiny London venue in the middle of the Wimbledon

your marketing budget go further.

fortnight, which featured John McEnroe and Pat Cash on guitar,

2

-lO

Nick Mason on drums and Chrissie Hynde on vocals. Fantastic food and an unlimited bar made it the perfect event.

Question . . . . . .

15 Kate

4

Creating an event with universal appeal to a potentially highly

20

spectacular. and we wish we could have been involved in the

Question . . . . . .

diverse audience. Finding the balance between limitless client

Kate

aspirations and the boundaries of logistics and cost.

A one-off interactive experience that money can't buy. An 45

Andrew The

biggest challenge

is

to

make

corporate

event that gives its audience a real feel of the host brand, combining the adrenaline of sport with the feel-good factor of entertainment and the glamour of the Monaco F I Grand Prix.

hospitality

accessible to everyone - no matter what their budget is. Andrew

25

to

Alex

If we had an unlimited budget, we'd love

Getting the pricing right and making it easy for people to

packages with a twist. For example, offering high-profile former

attend. Few of us want to be entertained on a Sunday night at

so

offer sporting

sportsmen and women to give clients a coaching session in their chosen sport before the event.

a venue with poor transport links.

Alex Morning golf at Wentworth with Tiger Woods and Sean 55

Connery, followed by a helicopter ride to Le Manoir, where Raymond Blanc would oversee a spectacular lunch.

adapted from www.eventmagazine.co.uk

II

liJ

Work in pairs. Overall, who do you think gave the most interesting answers, and why? I n pairs, answer this question. If you had an u nlimited budget, what would be included in your dream corporate­ hospitality package? 55

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UNIT 6 H ENTERTAINING A multiword verb is a verb and one or two particles (prepositions or adverbs). •

Multiword verbs

It is sometimes possible to guess the meaning from the context. August is too early for our conference. Let's put it off until October. ( to delay, to arrange to do something at a later date) =



However, sometimes the meaning is difficult or impossible to guess. I turned down their offer. ( to refuse) =

� Grammar reference page 146

a

Match the multiword verbs in bold (1-8) with their definitions (a-h). 1

Who's going to look after our guests tonight?

a) see the sights

2

We have two hou rs to look around the city.

b) arrive/appear /come

3

We're really looking forward to the Tokyo trip.

c) get involved in

4

Let's take the clients out to a Chinese restaurant.

5

Seventy staff took part in our fundraising events.

d) give attention to I protect I take care of

6

The CEO would like to take up your kind offer.

7

We were delighted that so many sponsors turned up at the event.

8

I]

Socialising: greetings and small talk

56

f) await with pleasure g) entertain

As we had another engagement, we had to turn down their invitation.

h) refuse/decline

Choose the correct options to complete this e-mail extract.

Just a quick e-mail to say thank you for organising the Monaco Grand Prix hospitality event. Everyone who took care of I part in I up 1 the event thoroughly enjoyed looking around I forward to I after2 the city and the Grand Prix itself. Our clients were looked around I forward to I after3 very well by your events team. I am afraid I am going to

II

e) accept (an offer)

have to take care of I turn down I turn up • your kind offer of free tickets for the film premiere as I have another engagement that night. However, we would like to take up I turn up I turn down 5 your offer of organising our corporate events next year. We are all really looking forward to I around I after6 discussing your proposals.

I n pairs, take turns to ask and answer these questions. 1

What are you looking forward to most th is m on th ?

2

Have you ever turned down an important invitation?

3

What is the best team event you have taken part i n ?

4

Which famous person would you most like to look after for a day?

What do you say to a business contact when you: 1 introduce yourself?

I

2 introduce another person?

3 a re introduced to another person?

What topics can/do you talk about?

II

�>» CD1.55-1.59 Listen to five conversations at a conference. Match the speakers in each one, then decide whether they know each other or not. Speaker 1

Speake r 2

1

a) Linda Eriksson

Liz

2

b) JOrgen

3

c) Lisa

4

d) Jane

5 Carla

e) Sam Clarke Scanned for Agus Suwanto

Do they know each other?

UNIT 6 .,. ENTERTAINING

II

,.>» CD1.56, 1.58 Try to complete the gaps i n Conversations 2 and 4. Then listen again and check your answers. Conversation 2 A: James, . . . l:P.V.� . . . you . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Sam Clarke? B: No. Hello, Sam . . . . . . . . . . . . . to meet . . . . . . . . . . .2• I think we both . . . . . . . . . ? Mike Upton. We . . . . . . . . . . . .'' together in Turkey. .

.

.

C: Oh, yes ... Mike. He's in China now. B: Really? I didn't know that. . . . . . . . . . . . . him my . . . . . . . . . . .5 next time you see him. .

C: Yes, I will.

Conversation 4 A: Hi, I'm John. B: Hello, John . . . . . . . . . . . .6 to meet you. I'm Lisa, from the Amsterdam office. .

A: O h , Amsterdam. I've never been, but I . . . . . . . . . . . .7 it's a . . . . . . . . . . .8 city, very lively. .

B : Yes, it is. It's great. You should come. The conference is going to be there next year. A: I'd . . . . . . . . .9 to. I'll look . . . . . . . . . . .10 to it. .

I!J

D II

.

.

.

Read these expressions (1-10). Decide whether each one is said by the host (H) or the guest (G). 6 Yes, please. I'll have a white wine.

H

1

Can I get you a drink?

2

Yes, it's just down there on the left.

7 Can I give you a lift to the airport?

3

It all looks good. What do you recommend?

8 Yes, I'd love to see some of the sights.

4

Would you like me to show you round?

5

Help yourself to some food.

9 Could you tell me where the toilet is,

please? 10 Thanks, but my taxi's coming.

Put the sentences from Exercise D i n logical pairs. EXAMPLES:

1+"

Cat) I 9etyou a dritlk?

Yes-} pleas-e. rll have a White Wifle.

Work i n pairs. Role-play the conversation. Student A: Turn to page 134.

Student B: Turn to page 139.

U S E F U L LANGUAGE

;··.

INTRODUCING PEOPLE

MAKING SMALL TALK

Jurgen, this is Lisa.

How's business?

Anita, do you know lan?

We're having a great year.

Have you met Mauro?

Have you heard about ... ? How are things?

ACCEPTING Yes, I 'd love to. Thank you. That would be very nice. RESPONDING Pleased/Nice to meet you. Good to see you again.

REQUESTS Could I use your printer, please? Do you mind if I take a map? CLARIFYING Sorry, I didn't catch your name. I'm afraid I missed the name of your company.

--:�·

,.

. .' ��.: �

OFFERS Would you like to have dinner with us tomorrow night? How about coming to the Cabaret Club with us?

REFUSING POLITELY I'm really sorry, but I'm meeting a client then. Thank you very much for asking, but I'm afraid I can't make it tomorrow. THAN KING Thank you for the meal. It was really good. Thank you for a lovely evening. I had a great time. 57

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Bamboo Conference Centre, Macau (south-east China)

Seagreen Hotel, Miami, Florida {US)





location: seafront, close to beach



Access: half an hour from airport, no shuttle service















Conference facilities: one conference room (capacity 200), two meeting rooms, a large lounge (capacity 60 people) ­ could be used for workshops if necessary

· Conference facilities: conference room (capacity 300), eight meeting rooms (extra reservation charge $100 per room per hour)

Bedrooms: small, all with sea views, well-designed with modern furniture/facilities



leisure: Olympic-size swimming pool, gift shop, art gallery, small fitness centre (not much equipment)



Price: $2,200 per participant, including meals and all entertainment

Restaurant: spacious (capacity 250), mainly Spanish and Mexican dishes, famous Hispanic chef. Entertainment: local musicians and singers, lively and noisy at night Guest reviews: excellent service, business centre - limited hours

location: city centre

· Access: 40 minutes from the airport, shuttle service, taxis, buses









Bedrooms: spacious, luxurious, satellite television, free mini bar Leisure: casinos, night clubs, shopping mall (five minutes from hotel) Price: $3,100 per participant, including meals and two guided tours

Restaurant: private dining hall (capacity 1 50), chef james lee offers Cantonese cuisine, many unique dishes Entertainment: wide range available in the area Guest reviews: beautifully furnished rooms, reception desk slow to respond to service calls

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You are members of GFDC's marketing department. 1

Work in small groups. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each hotel as the venue for the conference.

2

Rank the hotels 1-4 (1 = the most suitable hotel for the conference, 4 = the least suitable).

3

Meet as one group and listen to each other's ideas. Make your final choice. Take a vote if necessary.

As Chief Executive of GFDC, write a n e-mail inviting the overseas sales managers to attend this year's conference. Inform them of the dates, the purpose of the conference and the details of the location.

Hotel Steffanberg, rural area (Sweden)

Hotel Porte Ouverte, Monte Carlo (Monaco) · Location: on a hill overlooking city, Palace and beach



10 minutes to the

· Access: at least 45 minutes from Nice airport, longer if traffic jams, no shuttle service · Conference facilities: conference room (capacity

500),







Bedrooms: award-winning designs, well equipped, some have balconies/sea views



Leisure: outdoor swimming pool, spa and fitness centre,

·

free trips to old town of Nice • •

·

·

$4,000 per participant Restaurant: capacity for 250 di ners, international cuisine



Price:



Entertainment: pianist plays every night in the hotel lounge Guest reviews: service OK, but not outstanding; bars very busy at night, expensive drinks

Access: regular hotel bus service from the airport to the castle (three-hour journey)



many meeting rooms, with up-to-date equipment •

Location: a modernised castle, 200 kilometres from Stockholm Airport



Conf�rence facilities: conference room (1 SO capacity), five meet1ng rooms, all rooms large and bright Bedrooms: bright and comfortable, antique furniture, well equipped, no mini bar Leisure: nine-hole golf course near the castle, extra charge for pool and sauna, excellent spa Price:

$3,600 per person

Restaurant: dining hall for 200 people, two other smaller dining rooms, Swedish dishes, other dishes if requested Entert ainment: �vening entertainment by young Swedish . . mUSICians, class1cal music at lunch G� est reviews: beautiful views of castle grounds; owners fne�dly/helpful, but staff need more training on customer serv1ce

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2 0

Doing business internationally

A meeting in Morocco What do you know about Morocco? In pairs, do this quiz. Decide whether each statement is true (T) or false (F). If the statement is false, correct it. Check your answers on page 134. 1

Morocco, a country in North Africa, has a border with Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

2

Religion plays a big role in Morocco's day-to-day life and business culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

3

Moroccans always use Arabic when they do business internationally.

4

It is good to ask Moroccans about their family and work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

5

Friday is a good day to do business. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

6

Networking is very important in Moroccan business culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

7

Moroccans value greatly the reputation of their business. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

In Moroccan business, who you know is more important than what you know. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

Meetings often go on longer than scheduled. Moroccans do not like time pressure when doing business

.

. .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . ....................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

Moroccans are usually looking t o build long-term business relationships. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 ,.l)) co1.61 Andrew Morgan is not very familiar with Moroccan business culture. H e is meeting an Arab businessman, Karim Mansour in Rabat, who has been recommended by a colleague at head office. Listen and answer these questions. 1

Why is Andrew Morgan visiting Morocco?

2

How does Morgan's company plan to distribute its products in Morocco?

3

What contacts does Morgan want to get during the visit?

2 ,.l)) co1.61 Listen again and note down the cultural errors And rew Morgan makes. If necessary, refer to the audio script of the conversation on page 159. Compare your answers with those on page 135.

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WORKING ACROSS CULTURES

0

H

DOING BUSINESS INTERNATIONALLY

A posting to Mexico joanna Simmons works for a large food company based in Dallas, Texas. She has been posted to the company's subsidiary in Monterrey, Mexico. Unfortunately, she is having difficulties adjusting to the local business culture. joanna sends some e-m ails to her friend, Samantha, who works at head office. Work in groups of three. Each of you reads one e-mail. Summarise it briefly to the others in your group. Then do Task 2 below.

2

1

3

4 May

1 1 March

1 3 June

Hi Samantha!

You know, the Mexican way of

You wanted to know how I ' m getting on

doing business is so different. I

have to go to business breakfasts

here. Not too well, I'm afraid. I'm having problems adapting to the business culture. My knowledge of Spanish is not as good as I thought. I sometimes get invited to dinner at colleagues' homes. My hosts ask me a lot of questions about serious topics back home, but it's really difficult for me to have a conversation in Spanish with them. So I ' m taking Spanish classes at the weekend to improve my language skills. Actually, I 've been trying to make things

every week, usually from

8 to

11.

I'm not used to that. And business

I 've noticed a few things about the business culture here. Mexicans don't seem to like mucl1 eye contact. Maybe they think it isn't polite. And they've got strange

lunches are very important

ideas about personal space. They

here. They go on for hours, and

stand very close to you and they

business is discussed only at

often touch your shoulder or arm.

the end of t11e meal. Also, no

But if I step back to get a bit more

one seems very interested in my

space, they're not happy.

marketing ideas. I feel my Mexican colleagues are watching me and trying to decide if they like me.

easier for myself by asking questions about Mexican culture. T11at way, my hosts do most of the talking!

I n small groups, discuss these questions. 1 What features of Mexico's business culture is joanna having difficulties dealing with? 2 Has she done anything to overcome her difficulties? If so, what has she done? 3 What advice would you give her to help her adapt to the local business culture?

4 Is she the right person for a posting to Mexico? Why? I Why not? 5 Do you think you would have any problems working in a situation like this? If so, why?

G

Doing business in South Korea

1 o4>» CD1.62 - 1.65 Listen and make notes about the key points in each extract. Listen again if necessary.

In a radio programme called Business Today, four people talked about their experiences of doing business in South Korea.

2 Write a list of dos and don'ts for someone visiting Korea. EXAMPLES:

Do Get irJormation abovt people yov are 9oin9 to do bv>ineH with. Don 1t For9et tJ.,attJ.,e olde>t per)on i> often the mo>t>enior in a grovp of f(.orea n executive).

Q

Work in groups. Consider the business cultures of the three countries featured in this section: Morocco, Mexico and South Korea. 1

If you could have a one-year posting to one of these countries, what would be your order of preference? Discuss your ranking with other members of your group and give reasons.

2

Choose one of the three countries. How does the business culture in your own country differ from the country you have chosen? In what ways is it similar?

3

Choose a country that interests you. Do some research into its business culture, then present what you've learned to your colleagues. Scanned for Agus Suwanto

61

VOCABU LARY

Complete the text below with the words in the box.

I enter

extend

fill

made

meet

protect

reduce

take

Company news The Research and Development team have recently . . . . . . . . 1 a .

..

.

breakthrough that w i l l allow us to significantly reduce the size of our 5 ,000-watt generator. We plan to . . . . . . . . . .2 advantage of this opportunity .

to . . . . . . . .

. . .

?

.

a gap in the market by introducing a product that is not

only powerfu l , but also very compact. This w i l l

. . .

. . . . . . . . .4

the needs o f

c ustomers who need t o l imit the size and weight of the i r equipment because of the restrictions of their working environment. On the production side , makjng a smaller product w i l l help us

5

. . . . . . . . . . . .

waste

and energy use in the manufacturing process. This w i l l demonstrate that we are keeping our commitment to

. . . . . . . .

. . . .6

the environment. We

aren't planning to stop making our larger generators; we w i l l . . . . . . . . . . .

7

our generator product range to incl ude the new ' m icro-generator' l ine . We ' re hoping to

8

. . . . . . . . . . . .

the highly competitive North American

market with the new product next year.

PAST S I M f!LE AND PAS1i

Complete this text with either the past simple or the past continuous form of the verbs in brackets.

CONTINUOUS

While Trevor Baylis

. . . . . . . . . . . .

v i l l ages in rural Africa, he

1

(listen) to a radio programme about 2

. . . . . . . . . . . .

to the programme, most v i l l ages

( lz a ve) a great idea. According

. . . . . .

.....?

(not have) electricity, so

communication with the outside world . . . . . . . . . 4 (be) a problem. W h i l e .

.

people i n cities . . . . . . . . . .5 (receive) the latest health information , people .

in the countryside B ay l i s

..

. ........?

He soon

. . . . . . . . .

6

(not get) enough i nformation and education.

. . . . . . . . . . . .

(go) to his workshop and

..?

radio. While he

.

. . . .

. . . . . . . .8

(begin) experimenting.

(make) a working radio with no batteries - wind-up

. . . . . . . . . . . .

companies, he . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1

10

(try), without luck, to sell his idea to

(have)

a lucky break. H i s radio . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 .

(appear) on a B B C TV programme, and someone who had money to invest in the project . . . . . . . . . 13 (1Vatch.) . As a resul t , the Freeplay radio .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 14

.

.

(become) a huge success.

62 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT B H REVISION SKILLS'i

J

Put this conversation into the correct order. a) Ben:

I think we should hire Jenny Wong.

b) Lisa:

I totally agree with Ben. Jenny's the strongest candidate.

c) Lisa:

Yes, OK. I think everyone's here.

d) Lisa:

I mean that she has a lot of experience.

e) Anna: Yes, she's experienced. But I think we should consider Klaus Lehman, too. f) Tom:

Can we start, please?

g) Tom:

The main aim of t�e meeting is to decide who to hire as the new office assistant. Ben, what do you think?

h) Anna: Sorry, I don't quite understand. What do you mean by 'strongest'?

5 Stress VOCABULARY

[I [ I lJ rI I �

LI D

Complete the sentences below with the words i n the box. deadline flexitime lifestyle quality of life work-life balance workaholic working environment workload

SKI LLS

1

A firefighter's . . . . . . . . . . . . can be extremely dangerous. Lars had special training to deal with emergency situations.

2

Ahmed loves the . . . . . . . . . . . . associated with his job as an international airline pilot. He travels the world and he's paid very well.

3

Construction workers sometimes have to work hard to meet a . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building work must be done to a strict schedule.

4

Lois, a n accountant, likes to start work very early i n the morning, so working . . . . . . . . . . . . allows her to start at 7.30 and finish at 4.30.

5

Su-Lee's . . . . . . . . . . . . as an actor is very good. She is well paid and she loves what she does.

6

Pietro is a nursery nurse. His young children attend the nursery, so he can see them during the day. This gives him a good . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

Steve's . . . . . . . . . . . . as a social worker can be a real challenge for him. Sometimes he has to visit 10 or 1 2 families in one day.

8

To succeed as an advertising executive, Joanna has to be a . . . . . . . . . . . . . She works 12-hour days, six days a week.

Match the halves of these expressions. 1 How about

a) a good idea.

2 I can't agree

b) further thought.

3 I still think it's

c) encourage staff to work flexitime?

4 I think

d) buy new laptops for them.

5 I think I

e) about it.

6 I think this needs

f) paying for the cost of car parking?

7 It might be a good idea

g) we should do more research.

8 We could

h) with you there.

9 We've got to do something

i)

agree with you.

j)

to set up a childcare service.

10 Why don't we

63

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U N IT B

....

REVISION WRITING

Read these notes, then write an e-mail (70-100 words) to your boss, Mike. Points for update e-mail to Mike:

VOCABU��



Had a project meeting this morning.



Project going wel l - on time because everyone working hard.



Everyone loves work, but feeling very stressed.



We work late, but must start next day at 8.30.



Consider f\exitime system - reduce stress and overwork?

Choose the best options to complete this text. For business dinners, I usually go to Peking House, a Chinese restaurant. It has a regional I convenient' location about five minutes from the office, and the atmosphere is cosy I reasonable2, so we can talk quietly and comfortably. It's also very important for a business meal to have local I efficient 3 service, and the staff at Peking House are the best. Chinese food is good because they have something for everyone. Peking House is famous for its seafood, especially the dishes with prawns I vea/ 4 • They also serve a wonderful lamb I cabbage5 soup that's very popular with vegetarians. It isn't the cheapest Chinese restaurant in the area, but the prices are very exciting I reasonable 6, especially when you consider that the service and atmosphere are both excellent. Chinese restaurants don't always have a wide selection of drinks, but Peking House has a wonderful choice of good wines I poultry ' and beers, including several mineral I non-a/coho/ic 8 ones for people who don't like alcohol.

M U LTIWORD VE]iD

Complete the text below with the words in the box.

I after

around

down

out

part

to

up

up

1

Leya n and Rupert took . . . . . . . . . . . . in a charity marathon.

2

Beatta turned . . . . . . . . . . . . the invitation to go out for a meal after work because she was very tired.

3

We always take visitors . . . . . . . . . . . . for an expensive meal.

4

I'd like to take . . . . . . . . . . . . your kind offer to organise the after-work entertainment for next week's meeting.

5

Did you have a chance to look . . . . . . . . . . . . Barcelona when you were there?

6

How many people turned . . . . . . . . . . . . for your presentation?

7

Marcus is really looking forward . . . . . . . . . . . . his visit to Moscow.

8

Alberto's going to look . . . . . . . . . . . . the team from the Beijing office.

Match each statement (1-8) to a response (a-h). 1

Would you like to have lunch with us?

a) We're having a great year.

2

Piet, this is Alfonso.

b) Yes, that's right. Warsaw.

3

How's business?

c) Sure. No problem.

4

Sorry, I didn't catch your name.

d) Thank you. That would be very nice.

5

Sorry, did you say you're from Poland?

e) No, I haven't. What is it?

6

Ingrid, do you know Dugald?

7

Could I use your pen, please?

f) Yes, we met last year. Good to see you again.

8

Have you heard Liam's news?

g) It's John. John Hicks. h) Pleased to meet you.

64

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UNIT B H REVISION

Cultures 2: Doing business internationally Com plete the tips below on doing business internationally with the words in the box. business breakfasts and business lunches business card business culture eye contact food local language personal space red tape the oldest person trust and respect

Seniority • Pay attention to who's who. In a group of Korean executives, . . . . . . . . . 1 is often the most senior. In Mexico, you may need to take the time to socialise with other businesspeople so you can earn their . . . . . . . . .2• .

.

..

..

Communication • In most cases, your . . . . . . . . ? should be translated into the local language where you're doing business. This helps people understand who they're dealing with. .



.

.

I f you need to socialise in the . . . . . . . . . . . . work as hard as you can to improve your ability to speak it. '' ,

Business culture • I n Mexico, you can expect long . until the very end of the meal. .



. . . .

.. . .

5,

..

but you might not talk about business

Wherever you go, try to learn as much as you can about the . . . . . . . . . . . .6 before your visit. The more you know, the easier it is to do business. For example, in some countries, there can be a lot of . . . 7• You'll need a lot of official documents before you can go ahead with a project. You need to be patient. ..

..

.

. . . .

Politeness and personal space • Accept . . . . . . . . . . .8 when someone offers it. It's better to accept it and leave some of it on your plate, rather than say 'no' to the offer. .



In some cultures, looking directly into someone's eyes shows honesty. But in other cultures, too much . . . . . . . . ? may be impolite. .



.

.

Different cultures also have very different ideas about . . . 10• In Mexico, people may stand very close to you and they often touch your shoulder or arm. . .

.

. .

. . . .

65 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

STARTING U P

11

Discuss these questions. 1

Would you like to start your own business? Why? I Why not?

2

What conditions are important for people starting new businesses? Choose the three most important from this list. Can you think of any others? low taxes • good transport links • skilled staff • training courses low interest rates • high unemployment • cheap rents • a strong currency • a healthy economy • government grants • a stable political situation • easy access to credit •



I]

Many economies contain a mix of public- and private-sector businesses. Think of companies you know in the areas below. Which are public-sector companies, and which are private-sector ones? •



II

post office • railways • television • water • energy • telecoms cars • banks • newspapers • airlines • roads • mining

Many companies in the U K have been privatised. What are the trends in your country? Talk about the business sectors in Exercise B.

66 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 7 H NEW BUSINESS

m

Match the economic terms (1-10) to their definitions (a-j) . 1 interest rate 2 exchange rate 3 inflation rate

4 labour force 5 tax incentives 6 government bureaucracy 7 G O P (gross domestic product) 8

unemployment rate

9 foreign investment 10 balance of trade

1!1

a) total value of goods and services produced in a country b) percentage increase in prices c) cost of borrowing money d) price at which one currency can buy another e) percentage of people without jobs

f) the number of people working g) tow taxes to encourage business activity h) money from overseas i)

official rules/ regulations/ paperwork

j)

difference in value between a country's imports and exports

Try to complete this economic profile without looking back at the terms in Exercise A. The economy is stable following the problems of the past two years. By following a tight monetary policy, the government has reduced the i."!Ha.t i�0 . r.af:�. 1 to 2%. For borrowers, after going up dramatically, the i. . . . . . . . . . . . r. . . . . . . . . . . . 2 is now down to 8%. The last six months have seen a slight improvement in the e. . . . . . . . . . . . r. . . . . . . . . . . . 3 against the dollar. For the country as a whole, the G. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 has grown by 0.1 5%. Exports are increasing, and the b. . . . . . . . . . . . o f t. . . . . . . . . . . . 5 is starting to took much healthier. In terms of jobs, the u. . . . . . . . . . . . r. . . . . . . . . . . . 6 continues to be a problem, as it is stilt 16%. In order to stimulate the economy and attract f... . . . . . . . . . i. . . . . . . . . . . . 7 from abroad, the government is offering new t. . . . . . . . . . . . i. . . . . . . . . . . . 8, as welt as making a renewed effort to reduce g. . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . 9 and red tape. Fin a tty, a large skilled t. . . . . . . . . . . . f. . . . ... . . . . . 10 means there could be attractive investment opportunities over the next five years.

II

I!J

See the DVD-ROM for the i-Glossary.



W

IJ IJ

o4J» co2.1 Listen and check your answers to Exercise B. Think about some of the economic terms you looked at above in relation to your own country. Which do you think are going u p I going down I staying about the same? Also consider the following: •

consumer prices (the price of things in the shops)



public spending (the money the government spends)



consumer spending (the money people spend)

What do you think are the biggest economic problems in your country at the moment? What do you think the government's priorities should be? Talk to a partner about your ideas. Write a short paragraph about the economic profile of your country.

67 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 7 .... NEW BUSINESS

�>» CD2.2 Abdirashid Duale is the Chief Executive Officer of Dahabshiil, a global money-transfer company. Listen to the first part of the interview and answer these questions.

I]

1

How many countries does the company transfer money to?

2

Dahabshiil helps four types of people or organisations. What are they?

�>» C02.3 Listen to the second part and complete these notes. All successful new businesses have to: •

have a .



Abdirashid Duale

II

.

....... . 1

have a . . . . . . .

..

. . . .

.2



know how they are going to



motivate their . . .



keep their customers ...



maintain their



make sure that the customers are happy with their



manage the difference between their income and their

. .

. . .

..

.

.

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

.

.

. . 3 that vision .

' •

.

........ 5

6 with their customers .

. . .

. . . . . . . .

.

7

.. .... ... 8 .

.

�>l) C02.4 Susan Barratt, the CEO of Nature's Way Foods, talks about the advice she would give to anyone starting their own business. Listen and complete this extract from the audio script. hope they've got lots of . . 1• I think it is difficult and quite hard 2, and needs a significant level of commitment. I think it's really, really important to make sure you understand the 3 and who your customers are going to be. And how you differentiate yourself, or make yourself different, from any of your . 4 in that marketplace. I

. . . . . .. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .. . . . . . . .

. .

Susan Barratt

. . . . . .. . .

People will only go to you and buy your . . . . . . . . . . 5 or your service if they feel it is added . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 over and above what they can get elsewhere, or something they can't get .

Watch the interviews on the DVD-ROM.

.

elsewhere. So, for me, understanding the market and the . . . . . . . . . . . 7 is absolutely critical to the success of the business. The other key thing is that you've got sufficient 8. .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

I!J New business ideas

�� ll

I n groups, discuss these questions. 1

What sort of problems do new businesses face?

2

What advice would you give to someone starting their own business in your country?

Which new business has impressed you most in the last six years? Why did it impress you? Work in pairs. Student A, read Article A on the opposite page. Student B, read Article B. Make notes in this chart. Article A name of new business name of founder age of founder age of business at time of writing location of new business (city and country) number of employees what the new business is/does

68 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

Article B

UNIT 7 .... NEW BUSINESS

A

Internet whiz-kid ' s di scount idea makes billions in two years by Jonathan Birchall

b i l l ion offer from Yahoo. because the

"Groupons'' t h a t can be s p e n t a t

40

valuation was too low. Groupon employs about I

,000

participating retailers. Every user

people, mostly based in Mr Mason's

u n i versity. where he dreamt about

huge discounts exp ire unless enough

u p an I nternet business that offer

across the Web, and Groupon was

in more than 80 countries and is grow­ ing at the rate of I 0 per cent

discounts on everything from restaurant

described by Forbes as "the world's

a

meals to hair transplants and yoga

fastest-growing company".

adding

Instead. the 29-year-old decided to set

him into the latest web bill ionaire.

25

30

Google is preparing to buy Groupon.

$5.3

people sign up. The trend, described

45

as "social buying". has spread rapidly

l t s explosive growth and healthy

so

week

by new

users through

profits have convi nced Google to dig

Facebook and

into its deep pockets. I t is believed to

Twitter.

have started its bidding at

$3 billion.

a price that has been steadi l y rising

Hel p with exp orts by Peter Marsh

for their products and handle ship­

J u s t over a year ago, Sandra

r5

20

Felsenste i n , a 27-year-old former

ments and customs formalities i n

industrial engineer. decided to start a

exchange for a proportion o f sales

business that would try to l i n k these

35

revenues.

two groups. Her approach was to find

She has laid the fou ndations, too,

a series of high-quality manufactur­

for establishing a network of retail

ers i n her native Arge n t i n a - a

outlets i n other countries, arranging

country with a good reputation for design. yet poor connections to the

40

connections with retailers i n Chile, Peru and Ecuador as a first step, while

rest of the craft trade worldwide ­

signing up a distributor in Austin.

thousands of"micro-manufacturers"' of

and l i n k them w i t h shops a n d

Texas. that she hopes will help them

craft items such as jewellery and hand­

distribution companies elsewhere.

enter the potent ially large US market.

Scattered around the world are many

bags. often offering high standards of design and quality. Most. however,

25

Dinka. the four-person company she founded in Buenos Aires, is

45

Ms Felsenstein says she is also ·'exploring several opport u n i t ies"

have little idea of how to sell their

now s h o w i n g s i g n s o f success.

products in international markets.

Ms Felsenstein has organised links

part icularly in Spain. ltaly, Germany

with 30 Argent inian companies that

and S w i tzerland - where she thinks

At the same time, retail outlets arc ro

$2

reported that he turned down a

Page and Sergey Brin.

home town of Chicago. It is active

b i l l io n . accord ing to reports. The

5

Mr Mason appears to be a man who knows his worth. l n April. it was

book and the Google founders, Larry The site offers vouchers named 20

over the past few weeks.

her location and profi l e . but these

his two-year-old company. for

B

including Mark Zuckerberg of Face­

35

gets a discount otTer based on his or

classes. The big idea is about to turn ro

r5

group of young I n ternet b i l l ionaires

Andrew Mason studied m u s i c at making h i s riches as a rock star. 5

proposed deal will put Mr Mason i n a

eager to get their hands on products that look new and different - but lind

llJ

II

so

sizeable sales could be established for Argentinian-made goods.

these deals. Dinka w i l l find buyers

i t difficult to discover them.

II

have agreed to let Dinka promote

30 their goods in export markets. Under

for finding retailers i n Europe -

Note down two other interesting pieces of information about your article. Give your partner an oral summary of your article, then take notes as you listen to your partner's summary. Work in groups of three or four. Think about a business you could start as a group. Consider these questions. 1

What kind of business would it be?

2

Which country and city would you like to locate your new business in? Think of the factors mentioned in Starting up, Exercise A.

3

What do you already have as a group? Think about skills, experience and contacts.

4

What other strengths do you have? What about your gaps?

5

What difficulties do you think you may face? How will you overcome them? 69

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UNIT 7 H NEW BUSINESS Time clauses provide information about actions and events in the past, present and future.

Time clauses

1

We often use when to introduce time clauses. She remembers when she first started her business. (past time) When you fly first class, you get more leg room. (present time) When I'm in Geneva, I'll review all the start-up costs. (future time)

2

We can also use while, before, after, until and as soon as to introduce time clauses. He looked at our business plan while we were waiting. We need to have a solid business plan in place before we launch our online business. After we finish this project, we'll look at new markets. He waited until she finished speaking.

3

When we use a time clause to talk about the future, the verb in the time clause is in the present tense or the present perfect tense. We'll deliver as soon as they pay their last bill. When we've finished the report, we'll e-mail it to you.

C) Grammar reference page 147

IJ

ll

II

Match the sentence halves to make appropriate sentences. 1

Could you check the departure time

a) until the meeting has finished. b) as soon as you get to the office.

2 As soon as interest rates rise, 3

We need to stay

c) until we've saved enough money.

4

The Finance Director needs to speak to you

d) while you are still working.

5

She will move to Frankfurt

e) when the conditions are right.

6

We won't open our new office

f) when she finds a good job.

7

I think you should save some money

g) before we leave for the airport.

8

We can set up in that country

h) the economy will slow down.

Complete these sentences with when, while, before, after, until or as soon as. More than one answer may be possible i n each case. 1

We won't buy anything new . . . . . . . . . . . . we've paid off all our debts.

2

They'll start the meeting . . . . . . . . . . . . the manager arrives.

3

I was finishing the report. . . . . . . . . . . . my boss went out with clients.

4

It's urgent, so I'll phone you . . . . . . . . . . I get home.

5

Can you check the figures . . . . . . . . . . . . you go home?

.

.

Birgit Scheider is writing to her previous boss, a successful American businesswoman. Read her questions about starting a new business and choose the most appropriate option i n each case. I remember before I as soon as I when 1 I first thought about quitting my job and you advised me to gain some experience as soon as I while I before 2 I started a new business. I need to earn some profit until I as soon as I before 3 possible, as I don't have much spare cash. Or do I have to accept that I won't have much money as soon as I until I while '• I'm starting up my new business? Do I need to have some savings when I while I as soon as 5 I get my new business off the ground? I'm just not sure how I'll survive as soon as I when I unti/ 6 my company starts earning money.

Please advise me before I as soon as I while 7 you can.

70

liJ

�>l) CD2.5 Listen and check your answers to Exercise C.

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UNIT 7 .... NEW BUSINESS

Dealing with numbers

a

I]

D

,.l» CD2.6 Say these numbers. Listen and check after each group. 1

a) 362

b) 1,841

c) 36,503

2

a) 3.5

b) 2.89

c) 9.875

3

a)

4

a) 15%

5

a) £80

e) 4,537,295

c) 617

d) lh

e) 2 / J

b) 50%

c) 97%

d) 100%

b) $5,800

c) €150,000

d) €20,000

b)

I

Is

Try to answer these questions. 1

What is the population of your a) country? b) city?

2

How many people work for your company I study at your institution?

3

What is the average salary in your country?

4

What is the current inflation rate?

5

Approximately how many people are unemployed?

6

What is the interest rate for savings?

7

What fraction of their income do you think people spend on living costs?

8

What percentage of your income do you spend on transport?

,.l» CD2.7-2.10 Listen to four extracts from a radio business-news programme. Underline the numbers you hear. 1

2

3

4

liJ

Jl4

d) 684,321

a) Inflation rate:

2.0% I 1.2 %

b) Unemployment:

1 ,258.ooo I 1.soo.ooo

a) Profits increase:

$1.8 billion I $1.8 million

b) Sales increase:

80% I 18%

a) )ob tosses:

1/ J I 11•

b) Workforce reduction:

1 s,ooo I s,ooo

a) Interest rate reduction:

o.s% I 1 . 5%

b) Economic growth:

2.8% I 1.8%

Work i n pairs. You work for a marketing department, which is launching a new range of mobile phones in an overseas market. You are gathering statistical i nformation. Student A: Turn to page 135.

Student B: Turn to page 140.

1

Ask each other questions to complete your charts.

2

Discuss which are the best markets to launch the new range of phones in.

U S E F U L LANGUAGE

SAYING LARGE NUMBERS 912,757,250 912 nine hundred and twelve million, =

=

757 = seven hundred and fifty-seven thousand,

BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH DI FFERENCES 320 three hundred and twenty (BrE) three hundred twenty (ArnE) noughtloh (BrE) I zero (ArnE) 0= =

250 = two hundred and fifty DECIMALS 1.25 one point two five 0.754 = nought point seven five four (BrE) zero point seven five four (Am E) point seven five four (BrEI Am E)

CURRENCIES £3,000,000 = three million pounds €16,000 = sixteen thousand euros

=

FRACTIONS 5h = five-sevenths 1/l = a half

PERCENTAGES 65% = sixty-five per cent

2

Is = two-fifths 11• = a quarter

71 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

Background Taka Shimizu Cycles (TSC) is based in Nagoya, Japan. Its brand is well known in Japan and in the U nited States. The company sells four models of bicycle: •







Workers will be recruited locally and trained, if necessary, at a special school set up for that purpose.

road bicycles for the non-enthusiast, general user. Price: US$100-$300

The company is considering four countries as a location for the factory. There is some information about each country on page 73. They are code­ named A, B, C and D .

touring bicycles for serious cyclists who travel long distances. Price: US$600-$3,000

Sales revenue o f cycle models a s a percentage of turnover

racing bicycles for professional cyclists. Price: US$1,000 upwards

Last year

mountain bicycles for energetic, adventurous, keep-fit cyclists. Price: US$100-$250

touring bicycles

Note: The company is about to launch a new bicycle for children, which has great sales potential. In the next 10 years, TSC plans to expand in Europe and South-East Asia so that it becomes a global company. To do this, it has decided to build its own factory in an overseas country. The factory will have approximately 2,000 workers, who will produce the frames for the cycles locally. Other components, such as saddles, gears, chains, tyres, etc., will be imported.

road bicycles

racing bicycles mountain bicycles

Previous year road bicycles

3

touring bicycles racing bicycles mountain bicycles

You are members of the planning committee, which must choose a location for the new factory. 1

Work in pairs. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each location.

2

Work in small groups. Discuss the four countries and rank them in order of suitability as a location.

3

Meet as one group, with one of you leading the discussion. Decide which is the most suitable location for the new cycle factory.

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Population 120-150 million

Population 4.6 million

Population 1 1 0 million

Population approximately

(exact figure not available)

GOP per capita* US$65,800

GOP per capita* US$3,800

262 million

GOP per capita* US$21,100

Geography No mountains.

Geography Several mountains

GOP per capita* US$3,580

Geography A variety of physical

few hills; very flat land

i n the north, flat i n coastal

Geography Mountains, hills

features + cli mate changes

Economy

areas

and flatlands

Economy

Economy

Economy



Growth rate (last year): 1.9%



Growth rate (last year): 2%



Inflation rate: 1.6%



Growth rate (last year): 8.9%



Growth rate (last year): 4.6%



Inflation rate: 7.2%



Interest rate: 2.2%



Inflation rate: 7.25%



Inflation rate: 8.7%

Interest rate: 6.5%



Unemployment rate: 3%



Interest rate: 7.8%



Unemployment rate: 6.9%



Unemployment rate: 7. 1 %

• •

Unemployment rate: 8.25%

Taxes •

components: 8%







New international airport





Sea ports not very efficiently

a lot of training needed for cycle workers •

Wage rates: rising in major cities

Comments •

to become independent. •

The government will contribute 30% towards the



Two modern seaports; high







Not much skilled labour

Business tax on annual



Import tax on cycle components: 5%



Wage rates: high

handling cargo •

Road network needs a lot of



Plenty of skilled labour



Wage rates: low but rising

available

The country has a stable government.



There are generous tax credits

programme to improve labour •



large supply of unskilled workers who are used to working long hours

About 70% of the population



Unions i n cycle ind ustry

i n major cities are under the



Wage rates: average

age of 30.

for building new factories.

Government has a five-year transport system

Comments •

Road and rail network needs investment

fast

There are strict new laws on

Several modern, well-run airports; low rates for

Small but well-managed

investment

profits: 28%

Transport

Labour

pollution. •

Good transport around the

airport

Comments •



main seaports



available

Political problems: people i n some southern provinces want

Transport

International airport

labour •

Import tax on cycle

Interest rate: 8%-12%

Taxes

components: 35%

Has a fully integrated road

charges for handling goods

Unskilled labour available;

Business tax on annual profits: 1 5 %



and rail network •



Import tax on cycle

Tra nsport

roads (frequent traffic jams)

Labour

Taxes •

components: 18%

Good rail network. but poor

run

Busi ness tax on annual profits: 1 2 %

Import tax on cycle

Transport •



Business tax on annual profits: 22%



Taxes



There is a strong protest

Comments •

A lot of paperwork is required



There are serious problems

movement against international companies.

for new businesses. with air and water pollution. •

Profits are tax free for the first three years after a factory has been built.

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STARTING U !ij

a

'The four Ps' form the basis of the 'marketing mix'. If you want to market a product successfully, you need to get this mix right. Match the Ps (1-4) to their definitions (a-d). 1

product

a) the cost to the buyer of goods or services

2

price

3

promotion

b) informing customers about products and persuading them to buy them

4

place

c) where goods or services are available

d) goods or services that are sold

m II

liJ

..)» (02.11-2.14 Listen to four consumers talking about d ifferent products. Decide which of the four Ps each speaker is discussing: product, price, promotion or place. Think of some products you have bought recently. Why did you buy them? Which of the four Ps influenced your decision to buy? Tell your partner about a marketing campaign that impressed you.

74 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 8 •• MARKETING

For each group of words below (1-5):

Word partnerships



fill in the missing vowels to complete the word partnerships;



match each of the three word partnerships to the correct definition (a-c).

1

market

r � s � E! r c h s_g m_n t

3

4

5

consumer

product

sales

a) the percentage of sales a company has b) information about what customers want and need

b- h -v---

c) a group of customers of similar age, income level and social group a) description of a typical customer

p r_f_l_

b) where and how people buy things

g __d s

c) things people buy for their own use

I

a) introduction of a product to the market

s h-re 2

""'

nch

I _ f_ c y c l _

b) length of time people continue to buy a product

r

c) set of products made by a company

_ n g_

f r c st

a) how much a company wants to sell in a period

f- g - r - s

b) how much a company thinks it will sell in a period

t_rg_t

c) numbers showing how much a company has sold in a period

advertising c _ m p _ _ g n b- d g- t _g_ncy

a) a business which advises companies on advertising and makes ads b) an amount of money available for advertising during a particular period c) a programme of advertising activities over a period, with particular aims

� )» CD2.15 Mark the stress on the word partnerships in Exercise A. listen and check your answers. EXAMPLE:

D

'market re'search

Choose a well-known brand for each of these categories. •

car/motorbike Mercede>



food/drink



mobile phone I camera



magazine/newspaper



clothing/perfume



computer I electronic goods

For each brand, think about these questions. 1

What is the product range of the brand? TJ-, e raf)9e if)clude> car>, val)) af)d truck>.

2

Which market segment is it aimed at in your cou ntry?

3

What is a typical consumer profile for the brand? Include the following: • •

See the DVD-ROM {or the i-Giossary.



W

I!J IJ

age • gender • job/profession • income level other products the consumer might buy



interests/hobbies

Work in pairs. Choose one of the brands you looked at i n Exercise C. Discuss what sort of advertising campaign you could have for it in your country. How else could you try to increase the sales figures of the brand? Exchange your ideas with another pair.

75 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 8 .... MARKETING

Marketing pharmaceuticals

l3

ll

-4)» co2.16 Richard Turner is the European Marketing Manager for a pharmaceutical company. Listen to the first part of the interview and answer these questions. 1

What is very important when you market to doctors?

2

How much time do marketing people usually have with doctors?

3

What are 'rational' advantages?

4

What are 'emotional' advantages?

-4>» C02.17 Richard talks about 'the regulatory environment'. This is where the authorities have official powers to control the production and safety of drugs. Listen to the second part and complete this aud io-script extract. 1 think the biggest .1 for us is the regulatory environment. The laws that we need to follow are quite . 2 - and quite rightly so. We in the pharmaceutical industry have the same interests as the doctor. We want to help . . _J lead better lives. . . . . . . . . . . .

Richard Turner

. . . . . . . . . .

.

.

..

. . . . . .

We have to present the data in a . . � and balanced way, not to overstate the advantages of our . �. Because we're trying to develop . . .6 which are consistent across many different countries across Europe ... it's often a challenge ... . . . . . . . . . .

.

II

Watch the interview on the DVD-ROM.

m IJI

Adidas and the Chinese market

EJ ll

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . . .

-4») co2.18 Listen to the third part and say if these statements are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false ones. 1

The key to good marketing is being able to speak directly to patients.

2

Marketing people are gaining from all the benefits of the Internet and new communication methods.

3

Companies are starting to look at using technology such as the iPad when presenting data to doctors.

-4�� CD2.19 Listen to the final part and put these stages in the correct order. a) Peak sales

c) Present data to the doctor

b) Clinical trials

d) Scientist comes up with an idea

What can you say about the different product Lifecydes of these things? •



pharmaceutical drugs • computer software • cars • English-language textbooks Rubik's cubes • skateboards • football shirts of a famous team

Discuss these questions in pairs. 1

Who do you think is the biggest manufacturer of sports goods in a) Europe, and b) China?

2

What do you know about Nike, Adidas and Li Ning?

Before you read, match these questions (1-6} to the answers (a-f). 1

Why is Adidas expanding in China?

a) 550

2

How many stores does Adidas have in China at the time of writing?

b) It is planning to focus on low prices.

3

Who is Christophe Bezu?

4

How did Li Ning get its name?

5

What is Li Ning hoping to do?

e) It comes from the President of the Beijing Olympics Committee.

6

Who is the market leader for sports goods in China?

f) Because it wants to become the market leader in China.

76 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

c) Adidas d) He is the Chief Executive of Adidas.

UNIT 8 .... MARKETING

D

Read the article below and correct all the answers (a-f) i n Exercise B.

FT

Adidas targets the Chinese interior

by Patti Waldmeir

s

Adidas. Europe's biggest sports-goods maker. w i l l open 2,500 stores and expand its sales network to I ,400 Chinese cities, in an effort to regain

market share lost to fore ign and domestic competitors i n one o f the world's most rapidly growing retail markets. The German company is one o f 1 0 many consu mer-goods multination­

15

als that have rece n t l y decided to shirt their foc us from near-saturated cities l i ke Shanghai and Beijing to target smaller cities and less wealthy c o n s u m e r s . where t h e y b e l i e v e

20

growth potential i s higher for for­ eign brands. Acliclas plans to reach far into the Chinese interior to open the new stores. Initial ly, this w i l l be i n urban

by 20 1 5 ,'' said Christophe Bezu, Adi­ das Managing Director for Greater

30

35

4( !

25

45

50

"'We will be in much smaller cities

m

The product mix i n smaller cities will be chosen so that the entry price for consumers would be 1 5 per cent less than in Adidas's existing shops i n larger cities. h e added. The company would be targeting consumers with an average disposable income o f Rmb5 ,000 ($753) a month. Herbert H a i ner, Adiclas C h i e f Executive. predicted that the strategy would allow the German group to regain the number-two market position

55

first signs i n the retail field that Chi­ nese products can rebrand themselves

60

65

as not just cheap but desirable. Li Ning has strong sales and distribution networks i n the lower-tier cities that Adidas hopes to penetrate. M r H a i ner d i s missed Adidas's recent problems i n China as tempo­ rary, related to overstocking in the run-up to the Olympics. Mr Hainer predicted double-digit sales growth in China over the next five years.

that it recently lost to Li Ning, the

areas with as few as 500 ,000 people and then, by 20 1 5 , in c i t ies w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of j u s t over 50.000, company officials said i n Shanghai on Tuesday.

China. At present, the company has 5 ,600 stores in 550 cities.

Li N i ng 's move u p to second position could prove a key moment . Retail analysts see it as one of the

Chinese sportswear manufactu rer. Li Ning, named after the Olympic g y m n a s t who l i t t h e fl a m e at the opening ceremony of the 2008 B e i j i n g O l y m p i c s , rece n t l y announced plans to take i t s brand upmarket to compete more d i rectly with foreign brands like Adidas and the market leader. Nike.

Match these words and phrases (1-7) to their definitions (a-g). 1

market position

a) the combination of products that a company has to offer

2

upmarket

b) a market filled so completely that no more products can be added

3

product mix

c) expensive compared to other products of the same type

4

penetrate

5

disposable income

d) alter a product or service to change the way that people think about it

6

rebrand

7

saturated

e) start selling goods or services in a new market f ) money that is available to spend after paying for essentials like taxes, food and housing g) the ranking of a company or brand against its competitors in terms of its sales

II

Complete these sentences with some of the words/phrases from Exercise D. 1

The Beatles were able to . . . . . . . . . . . . the U S market.

2

During the economic crisis, people had less . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

Smaller banks are struggling to compete in an already . . . . . . . . . . . . market.

4

We are trying to lose our cheap image and move . . . . . . . . . . . . with more expensive products.

5 Coca-Cola decided to . . . . . . . . . . . . Diet Fanta in the UK, to fit in with the rest of Europe. 77 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNITS

��

MARKETING •



��

B

In questions which we can answer with either yes or no, we put an auxiliary verb before the subject. 'Do you trust this market-research survey?' 'No, the sample size wasn't large enough. ' 'Is the market going to crash again?' 'No, not in the near future.' 'Have you finished the marketing report?' 'Yes, I printed it out earlier. ' To ask for more information, we use question words like what, why, where, when and how. We put the question word before the auxiliary verb. When do you want the sales figures? How should we promote it? How many are we expecting to sell? C) Grammar reference page 148

Correct the grammatical mistakes i n these sentences.

WJ.. a t does- 'ma rket pos-itio11 1 mea11?

1

What means market position?

2

How much it cost?

3

Why you don't sell it on eBay?

4

When the cars must be recalled?

5

Did you went to the farmers' market last week?

6

Is coming your boss tomorrow?

The letter below is part of an authentic consumer survey on wines. 1

Write the words in the questions in the correct order. EXAMPLE:

2

1

WJ.,icJ.. 9rovp do yov belo119 to?

Answer the questions.

Dear Mr Paz-Andrade We are conducting a consumer survey on international wines. We place great value on your personal opinion and, therefore, request your support. QUESTION

ANSWER

1

group I you I do I belong I to I which I ?

self-employed D employed D retired D

2

you I old I how I are I ?

under 30 years D 30-50 years D over 50 years D

3

which I do I you I prefer I wines I ?

white D red D rose D

4

how I do I you I drink I often I wine I ?

seldom D occasionally D once a week D often D

5

do I you I spend I usually I how I much I of I wine I on I a I bottle I ?

up to €6 D €6-€8.50 D

6 7

8 9 10

do I have I yo u I a I cellar I at I personal I wine I home I ? many I bottles I of /wine I how I you I have I bought I during I the I last I year I ? you I know I do I w ine-growing I areas I which I ? when selecting wine, I you I do I the various g ro wing areas I take into account I ? taste I which I you I prefer I do I ?

D

78

I!J

m

ore than €8.50 D

no D yes: small D yes: large D fewer than 36 bottles D more than 36 bottles D Chianti D Nahe D South Australia 0 Rioja 0 Burgundy D Bordeaux D Rheinhessen D yes D no D occasionally 0 white wine: dry D medium dryO sweet D red wine D

Work in pairs. Ask each other the questions. Work in groups. Think of a product and prepare a similar consumer survey for it. Then form new groups. Use your consumer surveys to find out about each others' buying habits. Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 8 H MARKETING

Telephoni ng: exchanging information

m

I] II

..)» C02.20 Listen to four people giving some numbers, phone n umbers and addresses. Tick the correct ones. 1

a) 30,456

b) 13,456

2

a) 0033 2399 0324

b) 0033 3299 0342

3

a) [email protected]

b) [email protected]

4

a) 128/16 Rattanatibarth Road

b) 128/60 Rattanatibeth Road

Write down some numbers and addresses you know. Dictate them to a partner. Check that your partner has written the numbers correctly. Work in pairs. Say the international spelling alphabet. Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whisky, X-ray, Yankee, Zulu

..J� co2.21 Check each other's pronunciation. Then listen to the record ing.

llJ

II

IJ

Choose an e-mail address and d ictate it to your partner. Spell each word when you dictate, then check your partner's answer.

..J» co2.22 Listen to the first part of a phone conversation between a sales d irector, Martin, and his manager, Fiona. Answer these questions. 1

Did they meet their sales targets?

2

How has their market share changed?

3

What were their total sales?

4

How much did they spend on shampoo advertising?

..J» C02.23 Now listen to the second part and note down this information. 1

customer's name

4

e-mail address

2

nationality

5

meeting day and date

3

telephone number

m

..J» co2.22, 2.23 Listen to the whole conversation again. Tick the phrases i n the Useful language box below that Martin uses to check information, ask for information and finish the conversation.

m

Role-play a telephone call between the Marketing Director and the European Sales Manager of a coffee-machine manufacturing company. They are talking about a focus group for the company's new range of coffee machines. Student A: Turn to page 140.

Student B: Turn to page 139.

U S E F U L LANGUAGE

CHECKING INFORMATION Sorry, did you say ...? Sorry, I didn't catch that. Could you repeat that, please? Let me read that back to you.

ASKING FOR IN FORMATION Could you give me a few details? What about the new range? Did she say when she'd like to meet?

FINISHING A CONVERSATION OK, I think I've got all that. Thanks very much. That was very helpful. I should go now. Let's speak again soon. Right, I think that's everything.

79 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

CJJ i ncotcz l n tarnational Wincote International is an outdoor-products company based in Colorado, US. Eighteen months ago, it launched a range of jackets and boots for men and women. The company believed that the market for these products was not saturated. The clothes were aimed at mountaineers, hikers, snowboarders and anyone participating in extreme sports or outdoor activities. The brand name of the range was XWS (Extreme Winter Sports).

Following the product launch, the boots sold well, but the jacket fell below its sales target. Few people seemed to know that there was a new jacket on sale made from a new all-weather material. This was very disappointing, as the jacket was considered to have great sales potential. The management decided therefore to relaunch the product and change their approach to marketing it.

Read the information below about the jacket and how it was marketed. Study the charts opposite. Why do you think sales have been so poor? Product The two-layer jacket is for men and women. It is a versatile, all-weather garment. It is offered in two sizes: medium and large. Colours: black for men; black and red for women. The outer shell of the jacket is made from a special new material. As a result, it is lightweight, hard-wearing, very warm and weatherproof. The lining is removable, making the jacket suitable for all seasons. The jacket has a removable hood, 1 4 pockets, and a wide zipper down the centre. ·

· · ·

·

·

Price Men's and women's jacket: $ 1 1 0 Promotion Full-page advertisements in magazines for people with outdoor and sports interests Half-page advertisements in newspapers; posters and point·of·sale advertisements Product demonstrations at exhibitions Slogan: 'A jacket for all seasons' •



·

·

Place The jacket was sold in outdoor-product stores (e.g. camping-equipment shops), sports-goods outlets and upmarket department stores.

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Chart 1 Co m pariso n of the price of the Wincote XWS

Chart 2 Market share of outdoor j a cket b ra n ds

with fou r ot h e r top - sel l i n g outdoor jackets

Wincote XWS

2% $380

400 350

Wincote XWS

300

Tundra Matterhorn

Tundra

250

Matterhorn

200

51%

150

Intrepid

Intrepid

100

Others

50 0

..� CD2.24-2.28 The Marketing

Summary of a consultant's report on the Wincote XWS

Department did some research with focus groups to get opi n io n s about the jac ke t The group pa r ti c i p an ts ages ra n ge d from 16 to 6o. Listen to their comments and m a ke no tes

The market for outdoor jackets is highly competitive. Because of its unique q ua lities,

.

'

.

the Wincote XWS jacket could achieve its sales target with a new marketing approach.

It needs to be relaunched as a s tylish jacket for younger people in the 1 6-30 age group, and appeal to people living and working in cities as well as to outdoor enthusiasts. It should be prom oted as a 'must-have' item of clothing for younger people. Changes must be made to the product and its marketing. The jacket should be relaunched as soon as possible.

1

2

3

Work in groups. Each group is a team in the marketing department. Hold a meeting to discuss what you should do to improve sales of the Wincote XWS. Use the questions in the box on the right as a guide.

Questions

Present your ideas to the other teams in the marketing department. As a whole department, hold a meeting and decide what the company must do to improve the sales of the Win cote XWS.

Product: How should the product be changed? Think about colour, sizes, changes to its design, specifications, etc.

Price: Is the price correct? If not, what should it be? Should there be a different price for the men's and women's jackets?

Promotion: Was it promoted the correct way? Is the Wincote targeted at the right segment of the market? Does it need a new slogan? If so, what? What kind of advertising

xws

campaign should be used to relaunch the product?

Place: Is it being sold in the right places?

Watch the Case study commentary on the DVD-ROM.

Writing As

Marketing Director, write an e-mail to the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) ofWincote International, summarising the changes that you will make to the product and its marketing when the jacket is relaunched.

To:

CEO

From:

Marketing Director

At a meeting on . . . , we discussed the changes we want to make when relaunching the Wincote XWS. They are as follows: Product: . . . Price: . . . Promotion: . . . Place: . . . Writing file page 1 2 6

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STARTING U P

��

1!1 II

What do you think about when you plan these things? 1

a holiday

2

a special family occasion, for example a wedding

3

an ordinary working day /week

4

your career

Which of the following do you use to plan your day or week? Which do you prefer? Why? •

desk or pocket diary • electronic organiser • writing on your hand • memory asking someone (e.g. your PA) to remind you • watt chart • smartphone • computer program (e.g. Google calender, iCal) • notes stuck on board, desk, fridge, etc.



Discuss these statements. 1

Making lists of things to do is a waste of time.

2

You should plan your retirement from an early age.

3

If you make a plan, you should stick to it.

4 There are some things you can't plan for.

82 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 9 � � PLANNING

Match the verbs in the box to the nouns below (1-5). Each word partnership describes a way to plan effectively. Use a dictionary to help you if necessary.

I collect

consider

do

estiFMte

forecast

1 g.�t!��t�. costs

[I

2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sales

3

.... .... .

4

..

5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . options

...

. . research .

. . . . . . . information ..

..

..

.

Match the verbs in Box A to the nouns i n Box B. Make as many word partnerships as you can. EXAMPLE:

Write/implemet'lt a plat)

A

I arrange

implement

keep to

meet

prepare

rearrange

write

B

II

I a budget

a deadline

a meeting

a plan

a report

a schedule

A managing director talks about the planning of a new sales office in the United States. Complete this text with nouns from Exercises A and B. One noun is used twice. Recently, we decided to open a new sales office in New York. First, I arranged a Y:Ige:f:i '1 9 1 with the finance department to discuss the project. We prepared a . . . . . . . . . . _2 with details of the various costs involved. Then we collected . . . . . . ? about possible locations for the new office. We considered two . . . . . . . . . . . .� - one in Greenwich Village and the other near Central Park. After doing some more . . . . .s. I wrote a . . . . . . . . . .6 for the Board of Directors. .'

.

.

.

.

.

. . . .

.

.

..

.

.

.

.

Unfortunately, we made a mistake when we estimated the . . . . . . . 7, as the exchange rate changed, so we didn't keep within our .. . . . . . . . .8 • We overspent by almost 20 per cent. We had to rearrange the . . . . . . .9 for moving into the building because the office wasn't redecorated in time. The Board of Directors was unhappy because we didn't meet the . . . . . . . . . .10 for opening the office by December 1 5 . It finally opened in January. However, we forecast . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 of at least $1 ,000,000 in the first year. .

.

..

.

liJ

II See the DVD-ROM for the i-Giossary.

.

.

.

.

.

.

..

.

�>» CD2.29 Listen and check your answers to Exercise C. Choose one of these events and tell your partner how you will plan it. Try to use some of the vocabulary from Exercises A-C above. 1 A team-building weekend for your department I sports club 2

An event to mark your company's! organisation's 100th anniversary

3

A party to celebrate the return of a close friend after two years abroad

4

The opening of a new store

83 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 9

...

PLAN NING

How i m portant is planning?

fJ

..>» CD2.30 Jan Sanders is a business consultant and the author of Unplan your business. I n the first part of the i nterview, he answers the question 'How far ahead should businesses plan?'. Listen and complete these notes. •

Depends on



Three-year contracts should have a plan for



lan Sanders

I]

1•

. . . . . . . . . . . .

Three years is a long time for entering the market in the field of

3

. . . . . . . . . . . .

2•

. . . . . . . . . . . .

businesses and new businesses 4•

. . . . . . . . . . . .



ian likes the idea of a



Problem with business planning: it can sometimes be business

5

. . . . . . . .. . . .

plan, because it's very

6.

. . . . . . . . . . . .

7.

. . . . . . . . . . . .

_.>» CD2.31 Listen to the second part and complete this audio script. . 1 and 2 enough to take into account changing markets and changing situations. Any plan that is too ? or too set in � becomes very unwieldy, because it can't accommodate economic changes, market changes, . s changes.

I think the best business plans are ones that are

...

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

II Watch the interview on the DVO-ROM.

m

IJ To plan or not to plan

I]

.......

Which word in Exercise B refers to the ability to change easily, and which two words or phrases refer to the opposite?

..>» CD2.32 Listen to the final part and answer these questions. 1 What is it important for entrepreneurs to do? 2

ian talks about an entrepreneur he met recently. What business had the entrepreneur set up?

3

Why did the entrepreneur eventually succeed?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of writing a business plan? Which of these would you normally find in a business plan? 1 business aims

3

management team

5

staff holidays

2

4

financial forecast

6

assessment of the competition

opening hours

Read the article on the opposite page and complete this chart. job/position

name

company

type of company

location

Dan Scarfe David Hieatt Rajeeb Dey Paul Maron-Smith

II

Read the article again and answer these questions about the four people in Exercise B. 1

How many people did not write a business plan for their present companies?

2

Who thinks that setting fixed aims involves too much time and is not valuable?

3

Who says that some plans don't work because we don't know what will work?

4

Who thinks that planning often leads to doing nothing?

5

Who provided the finance for the companies themselves?

6

Which of the four is not against business plans?

84

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UNIT 9 .... PLANNING

When there ' s no Plan A by Jonathan Moules

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Dan Scarfe, C h i e f Executive of Windsor-based software develop­ ment company Dot Net Solutions, says that he has never written a business plan for the company he founded in 2004. Now, it is one of Microsoft's five key partners in the UK and a leading player in the hot new area of cloud computing - and to Scarfe, that is proof that setting fixed objectives is a complete waste of time. "Writing software, or starting a new business, is incredibly difficult to p l a n for," he s a y s . "You're effectively trying to second-guess exactly what you may want down the line, based on marketing conditions and v a ry i n g customer demand." Whilst short-term business budgeting and strategy i s v i t a l , long-term business plans are less so." Twitter, Facebook and cloud computing were not even concepts a number of years ago, Scarfe notes, so there would be no way he could have planned for them. D a v i d 1-I ie a t t , co-founder of Howies, the ethical-clothing manufacturer based in Cardigan, claims that a business plan is real l y just a guess. "There are some brilliant business plans written, but they fail because the customer wants to do business differently," he says. "The awful truth is we don't know what will work." l-Ie claims that the secret is to be flexible - although this often takes a lot of courage. For example, i n 200 I . H i eatt phoned up a l l of Howies' retailers and said he was going to i ntroduce organic cotton. The initial effect of this spur-of-the-moment act was disastrous. "We lost all our wholesale accounts overnight because they said nobody

liJ

so

55

(i(J

65

would pay £27 for a T-shirt ,'' he recalls. Hieatt and his colleagues managed to rescue the situation by launching a catalogue to sell products. It proved to be a turning point for Howies. ''Losing all your shop accounts in one day is not great for business, but it's probably the best thing we d i d ,'' Hieatt concludes. Now, the company s e l l s 80 per cent of i t s products through this medium. Others argue that business planning is often a reason for i na c t i o n . Rajeeb Dey launched Enternships, a student internship matching service. "I never wrote a business plan for Enternships, I just started it," he says - although he admits that it is easier for I n ternet -based businesses to do this.

70

75

so

X5

Perhaps unsurprisingly, Dey and Scarfe have e n t i rely se l f-financed their businesses. Venture capitalists and private i nvestors do not usually approve of t h i s c a s u a l a t t i tude to planning. To Paul Maron-Smith, Managing Director of Gresham Private Equity, a business plan is rather like a car's dashboard. guiding the entrepreneur along the road to success. But even he admits that problems c a n arise w h e n b u s i ness p l a n s become t o o f i x e d . "The a i m o f a b u s i ness p l a n i s t o g i ve the stakeholders a good idea of where the business is heading." he says. ·'Sure, there arc going to be some forecasts in there that are not going to be accurate, but they are a best guess at the time."

Discuss these questions. 1

In which sectors is it difficult to plan?

2

How far ahead should you plan?

3

How often should you review plans?

4

What reasons are given for and against having business plans?

5

What is your opinion of business plans? How useful do you think they are? 85 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 9 .... PLANNING •

LANGUAGE REVIEW

Talking about future plans •



We can use verbs like plan, hope, expect, would like and want to talk about future plans. Coca-Co/a is hoping to more than double its number of bottling plants in China over the coming decade and would like to triple the size of its sales to China's middle class. We often use going to to talk about more definite plans. We're going to open a new dealership this summer. We can also use the present continuous to talk about definite plans and arrangements. I'm meeting the accountants on Tuesday.

C) Grammar reference page 149

IJI

The CEO of a large supermarket chain is talking to her managers about the group's future plans in relation to the World Cup. Underline the plans that she mentions. 'Well, as you all know, we are hoping that the World Cup spirit will get more customers through our doors. We are planning a wide range of activities to capitalise on our football links and are expecting to sell more televisions, food and drink. We are also going to sell official merchandise before and during the tournament. We would like to get some big­ name endorsements and want to sell stickers and trading cards. Then we are going to launch a digital site to promote our association with football legends. We are hoping to be the supermarket of choice for our country's football fans.'

[I D

liJ

Match the verbs (1-3) to their meanings (a-c) . 1

hope

a) believe something will happen

2

expect

b) decide in detail what you are going to do

3

plan

c) wish something would happen

A salesperson is talking about the end-of-year bonus. Complete this conversation with the verbs from Exercise B in the correct form. I'm . . . . . . . . . . . .1 to get a bonus at the end of the year, but I haven't met all my sales targets, so I'm a little worried. My colleague Jan has met all her targets and she is . . . . . . . . . . . .2 to get a good bonus. She is already . . . . . . . . . . . ? to go on an expensive holiday abroad and has got lots of travel brochures.

Tell each other about your plans and expectations for 1-6 below. EXAMPLE:

A:

WJ... at are yov 90it19 to do after tJ... i> leHof'l?

B:

11m J... o pit19/plat1f1if19 to . . . WJ... at abovt y ov?

A:

OJ...1 f,., J... o pit19 to . . .

1

after this lesson

2

tomorrow

3

this weekend

4

on your next holiday

5

in your career

6 when you retire

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UNIT 9 �� PLANNING

Meetings: interrupting and clarifying

IJ

�>» CD2.33 Listen to a meeting i n which members of a plann i ng group d iscuss relocating their head office. I n which order are these points mentioned? a) the cost of moving b) when to move c) the advantage of using a specialised firm

d) whether to use their own transport department e) how to communicate with staff f) which transport company to use

llJ

D III D D D D

Look at these extracts from the planning meeting i n Exercise A. Decide whether each expression in italics is a) interrupting, or b) clarifying. 1

B: I think July would be the best time. It's very quiet then, isn't it?

A: You mean, we don't do too much business then? 2

C: Could I just say something?

3

C: In my opinion, we should do it department by department. B: How do you mean exactly?

4

B: We've contacted two companies, National Transport and Fox Removals.

A: Sorry, could I just comment on that, Mark? 5

B: You know, there's another possibility. We could get our own people to do the moving.

A: What? You think our transport department could do the job?

B

Role-play this situation. A group of international V I Ps is going to visit your company/organisation for three days. You need to plan the programme for the visit. Discuss these questions with other managers i n the department. 1

Where will the VIPs go, and what will they see? (e.g. inside the company/organisation, local sights, etc.)

2

Who do they need to meet?

3

Where will they stay?

4

How will they move around? (e.g. transport)

5 What sort of farewell event/dinner will you have on the final evening? a) Will you have food? What? (e.g. snacks? a meal?) b) Will there be a speech? Who will make it? c) Who will attend? (e.g. special guests?)

d) Will there be any entertainment? 6

What sort of gifts will you give the visitors?

7

What else do you need to plan? (e.g. the itinerary - will they have any free time?)

U S E F U L LANGUAGE

INTERRUPTING

DEALING WITH INTERRUPTIONS

CLARIFYING

Could I say something?

If you'll just let me finish ...

How do you mean exactly?

Could I just comment on that?

Just a moment, please.

What exactly do you mean by ...?

Hold on a minute.

I'd like to finish if I may.

Are you saying ... ?

Sorry to interrupt, but ...

So what you're saying is that ...

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UNIT 9

��

PLANNING

Consider these questions and note your answers. 1

What are the aims of the new magazine?

2

Who is the target consumer?

3

What will be the magazine's name? number of pages? cover price?

4

How often will it appear? (once a week? twice a month? once a month?)

5

What will be the proportion of content to advertising? 80%/20%? more? less?

6

Will it have any special design features?

,.>)) CD2.34 Now listen to two senior managers, who will choose the best plan for the new magazine. Note down the key points they discuss. The marketing department is considering these promotions for the first issue of the magazine. In your groups, discuss the promotions and decide which is the best one for the first issue. Suggest other ways of promoting the new magazine. •

Include a free 20-page supplement with four healthy diets.



Sell the first issue at half price.



Add a mini magazine with diet and fitness plans.



Offer a 25% discount for an order of six issues.



Give a full refund if a customer orders 30 issues but is not happy at the end of that period.



Send a selection of body lotions and eau de cologne if a customer orders 30 issues.

Work in your groups. You are all members of the EPMC planning team. 1

Agree on a plan for the first issue. Use the key questions below to help you.

2

Present your plans for the first issue and for the new magazine as a whole to the other groups.

3

Choose the best plan for the new magazine. Take a vote if necessary.

Key questions •

What sections and topics will the first issue include?



What special features will it have?



What will the front page of the first issue look like?



How will the magazine be promoted?



What will be on the website? Will the website be free?

Watch the Case study commentary on the DVD-ROM.

Writing As the Editor of the new health-and-fitness magazine, write a letter to a famous person asking them for an interview. At the start of the letter, introduce yourself and give brief details of the new magazine and its aims. Dear . . .

I am writing to you as Editor of EPMC's exciting new health-and-fitness magazine.

=:J

Writing file page 128

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3 International conference 0

Discuss these questions. 1

Do you enjoy using the phone? Why? I Why not?

2

What is a conference call? How is it different from a regular phone call?

3

Have you ever been involved in a conference call? How successful was it?

G

What do you think the biggest problems are?

0

,.)» CD2.35-2.40 Listen to six short extracts from conference calls. What do you think is the problem i n each situation?

G

,.)» C02.35-2.40 Listen again and match the extracts (1-6) to these types of problem (a-f).



b) c) d) e) f)

e

D background noise D speaking too fast D unknown speaker D leaving the main topic D interrupting I stopping a speaker talking D

..)» (02.41 Listen to the first part of a talk by an expert on international conference calls. 1

2

0



Which of the problems in Exercise C are mentioned?

,.)» C02.42 Listen to the second part of the talk and complete these tips for participants. q____

1

Make sure you are in a

2

Avoid e

3

Prepare for the call in a

_ _ _ _ _

and d

_ _ _ _

.

Conference-call meetin9> take lon9er than face-to-face meetin9> - not too many a9enda item>



Do a roll call at the start Get people to introduce themselves - helps to build relationship>

Si9nal the move from introduction to actual talk · Be9in with : 'We 1re ready to 90. Jlve heard



from John1 ICaija and Marina. Have I miHed anyone ?1 ·

If a lot of people I bi9 meetin9 1 tell those not speakin9 to 90 on m ute1 to reduce noise End with summin9 up + reminder of action points

· Set date and time of next meetin9 1

The times of conference calls are important.

2

An agenda is not important for conference calls.

3

Conference calls tend to be slower than face-to-face meetings.

_ _ _ _ ___

_ _ _ _ _ _

4 When speaking, stay on t

_ _ _ _ .

5

Signal or label what you s

6

Try not to i

__ _ _ _ _ _ _

7 Wait to be invited to c

p

Pay attention to time zone> for i nternational calls - very early or very late not popular with all!

· Need to open and close call + importa nt for the call leader to be9i11 on time and welcome participa nt>

·

According to the expert, what is the biggest I most common problem?

Make �ure everyone knoW> When call will be - send e-mail remi nder and number) or paHWords

· Like meetin9>1 make sure you have a9enda and 9oals1 so everyone is clear about purpose •

a) getting cut off

Read these notes made by another participant on the final part of the talk and decide whether the sentences below are true (T) or false (F).

Call leaders-

4 What do you think are the differences/ similarities between conference calls and face-to-face meetings? 5

_ _

.

.

calls

4 The call leader should introduce everyone at the start. 5

.

_ _ _ _ _ _

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A summary of the main points by the call leader is important.

WORKING ACROSS CULTURES .... I NTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE CALLS

You are managers i n a multinational company which needs to reduce costs and is looking at ways to do this. 1 Work in groups of four. Look at the agenda below. Turn to the correct page and study your role card. Prepare for the conference call. Student A: Turn to page Student B: Turn to page

Student C: Turn to page 137. Student D: Turn to page 139.

134. 132.

Hold the call and discuss the points. Decide what to do.

2 Following your call, in pairs write some tips on how to participate effectively in international conference calls. Do: Dofl't:

Be careful of: Compare your tips with another pair.

Agenda 1

Introduction of regular conference calls

2 Timing of calls 3 Train ing courses 4 AOB

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U N IT

c �eMisiam 7 New business VOCABULARY

Complete the sentences below with the words in the box. balance domestic exchange foreign government inflation interest labour tax unemployment 1

China's gross . . . . . . . . . . . . product is about $5 trillion.

2

The . . . . . . . . . . . . rate has decreased because people have gone back to work as the economy recovers.

3

Companies are worried about paying pensions as the . . . . . . . . . . . . force grows older.

4 The government has offered . . . . . . . . . . . . incentives to new companies in hopes of boosting the economy. 5 Businesspeople say that . . . . . . . . . . . . bureaucracy makes starting a new business difficult. 6 It's common for companies to spend money overseas, but some people think that too

much . . . . . . . . . . . . investment in their country is a bad idea. 7 Exports have increased recently, which makes the . . . . . . . . . . . . of trade much healthier. 8 Borrowers are enjoying the low . . . . . . . . . . . . rate, but savers hope it increases soon.

9 Travellers from Britain to the Eurozone are enjoying a good . . . . . . . . . . . . rate this year. 10

TIME CLAUSES

The . . . . . . . . . . . . rate has dropped to 1%, thanks to the government's monetary policy.

Choose the best word or phrase to complete each sentence. 1

As soon as I Until the contract was signed, everyone cheered.

2

Can you please come to my office when I after the meeting?

3

Larissa said she'd phone as soon as I while she arrives in London.

4 Martin checked the projector carefully when I before he started his presentation, then began right on time.

5 Olga can't sign the contract until I while she gets Andre's approval. 6 Pierre learned to speak some Japanese as soon as I while he was working in Tokyo. 7

Until I After the delivery is confirmed, we won't release the payment.

8 We have to improve the sales forecasts before I after we can approve the project.

9 We went out when I after the meeting to celebrate the merger we'd agreed. 10

When I While I first started out as a manager, I made a lot of mistakes.

11

Yusuf got to know Peter when I as soon as they worked together for three years in Saudi Arabia.

12

Zeynep was able to write the report until I while he was waiting for his plane.

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U N IT C .... REVISION WRITING

You have recently become the European distributor for ChuTools, a new Chinese power-tool man ufacturer. You want H&G, a big DIY chain, to sell Ch uTools. Write an e-mail (80-100 words) to Alan Sykes, Purchaser at H&G, introducing ChuTools and asking for a meeting to discuss a deal. You have worked with Alan before and you know him well. ChuTools •

Based in Shenzen



Produces a range of DIY power tools - drills, saws a n d garden tools



M i d-range price



Very high quality for price - have received excellent reviews in trade press



Company wants to support retailers with marketing and promotion, including prizes a n d special offers

8 Marl
QUESTIO{(�

,

· .

Cross out the word in each group that does not form a word partnership with the word in bold. 1

advertising share I campaign I budget I agency

2

consumer behaviour I profile I launch I goods

3

market goods I research I share I segment

4

product launch I lifecycle I range I segment

5

sales forecast I range I figures I target

A Put these words in the correct order to make questions. 1

market I the I research I Is I complete I ?

2

it I do I want I to I When I you I do I ?

3 at I to I website I Do I the I you I new I have I look I time I ? 4

survey I Did I read I you I the I ?

5

figures I the I Have I sales I seen I you I ?

6

model I How I we I should I describe I new I the I ?

B Match each question from Exercise A (1-6) to one of these answers (a-f). a) Yes, I did. The results were interesting.

b) Yes, it is. We finished last week. c) No, I haven't. Is there any good news? d) Next Monday. e) I don't know, but let's not say it's new and improved. f) Yes, I do. I really want to see it.

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UNIT C

....

REVISION ,

S K I L LS

Complete the phone conversation below with the phrases in the box. Could you give me Did they say when I didn't catch Sorry, did you say Thanks very much What about

I should

I'll e-mail you to

A: How did your meeting with H&G go? B: Really well. They've placed an order totalling £50,000 over the next year. A:

" " " " " "

1

£15,000?

B: No, £50,000! A: That's great! , , . . . . . , . . . .2 a few details? B: Sure. Basically, they want to buy up everything in the old range. A:

_ ,

.. .

_ , _ ,

. . ? the new range?

B: After they sell the old range through, they'll start buying the new one. A: Which part numbers? B: They really like AC5959 and AC4536. A: Sorry, . . . " . " . " .'' that. B: I said, they really like AC5959 and AC4536. A: . . . . . . . . . . . s they'd like the first delivery? B: Next week! . . . . . . . . . . . .6 confirm. A: . " " . . . . . . .7 for the great news. B: My pleasure. " . . . . . . . . . .8 go now. Let's speak again soon.

9 Planning VOCABULARY

Complete the e-mail below with the verbs in the box i n the correct tense. arrange consider do estimate forecast implement keep meet prepare write

To:

[email protected]

From:

[email protected]

cc: Subject:

[email protected] Project update

Hi Tomas, Here's a brief project update. We've . . . . . . . . . . . l a meeting with the design team for next Monday. Before that meeting, Leanna is going to . " " " . " 2 a schedule to show how we can . . . . . . . . . . . .3 the December 1 delivery deadline. We've already spent about €15,000, so I'm sure we aren't going to . . . . . . . . . . . .• within the budget. After the Monday meeting, we can . _ , . . . . . . . . .5 the options for Plan B, because obviously Plan A has already failed. If we . . . . . . . . . . . .6 more research, we may be able to . . . " . . . . . . .7 higher sales and increase the budget. Also, when we . . . . . . . . . . . .8 costs last year, we were expecting to manufacture here in Europe; however, we've found a factory in China that can do it cheaper, so we'll save some money there. _ ,

After the meeting next week, I'll . . . . . . . . . . . .9 a formal report which will explain how we can . . . . . . . . . w Plan B . _,

All the best, Jamal

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U N IT C ,.,. REVISION SKI LLS

Match the halves of these expressions. 1 If you'll just

a) comment on that?

2 Just a

b) to finish if I may.

3 I'd like

c) let me finish ...

4 Could I say

d) saying is that ...

5

Could I just

f) moment, please.

6 Hold on 7

e) do you mean by ... ? .

g) saymg ....7

Sorry to

8 How do you

h) mean exactly?

9 What exactly

i) interrupt, but ...

10 Are you

j)

1 1 So what you're

k) something?

a minute.

Cultures 3: International conference calls Put the words in order to make tips for international conference calls. 1 time I on I Be I for I call I the I . 2 are I sure I in I place I Make I quiet I you I a I . 3 possible I If I , I call I use I the I a I for I headset I .

4 when I Use I you I the I are I 'mute' I not I button I speaking I . 5

conference call I Avoid I eating, drinking or I chewing gum I while I a I on I .

6 to I the I 'mute' button I use I If I you I to I really need I have a drink, I remember I . 7

advance I in I Prepare I the I for I call I . I you I what I Plan I to I need I say I may I

.

8 may I you I need I hand I Have I to I any I documents I close I .

9 call leader I carefully I Listen I and I to be I by I invited to comment I the I wait I . 10 speak I you I When speaking, I each time I it I are I can be helpful I to I say I you I who I . 1 1 stay I topic I When I on I speak, I you I . 12 long/ Make I speeches I short I rather I contributions I than I . 13 not I Try I interrupt I to I speaking I when I people I are I they I .

14 as typing will I be I for I noisy I the other participants I Avoid I taking notes I on a computer I , I .

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STARTI NG �

IJ

1!1

What qualities and skills should a good manager have? Choose the six most i mportant from the list. Discuss your ideas with a partner. To be a good manager you need to:

1

be an expert.

7

make suggestions.

2

like people.

8

judge people's abilities.

3

focus on tasks, not people.

9

plan ahead.

4 enjoy working with others.

10

be good with n umbers.

5

give orders.

1 1 make good presentations.

6

listen to others.

12

be older than your staff.

If you are managing people from different cultures, what other personal qualities and skills do you need? EXAMPLES:

per)OI)ai qualities-: flexibility s-kills-: 9ood at lal)9ua9eS"

II

Talk about the good or bad qualities of managers/bosses you have had.

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UNIT 10

Verbs and prepositions

f3

[J

II

H

MANAGING PEOPLE

'Verb + preposition' combinations are often useful for describing skills and personal qualities. Match the verbs (1-7) to the prepositions and phrases (a-g). A good manager should:

1

respond

a) in their employees' abilities.

2

listen

b) to a deputy as often as possible.

3

deal

c) to employees' concerns promptly.

4

believe

d) with colleagues clearly.

5

delegate

e) with problems quickly.

6 communicate

f) in regular training courses for employees.

7 invest

g) to all suggestions from staff.

Which do you think are the three most im portant qualities i n Exercise A? Some verbs combine with more than one preposition. He reports to the Marketing Director. (to someone) The Sales Manager reported on last month's sales figures. (on something)

Say whether these combine with someone, something or both. 1

someone

a) report to

4

b) agree on

b) report on 2

a) apologise for

5

b) apologise to 3

a) agree with

a) argue about

b) argue with

a) talk to b) talk about

I:'J

Complete these sentences with suitable prepositions from Exercise C. 1

I agreed . . . �it.J:. . . her that we need to change our marketing strategy.

2

I talk . . . . . . . . . . . . my boss every Monday at our regular meeting.

3

We argued . . . . . . . . . . . . next year's budget for over an hour.

4

He apologised . . . . . . . . . . . . losing his temper.

5

We talked . . . . . . . . . . . . our financial problems for a long time.

6

The Finance Director argued . . . . . . . . . . . . our Managing Director over profit sharing.

.

7 I apologised . . . . . . . . . . . . Paula for giving her the wrong figures. 8

IJ See the DVD-ROM for the i-Giossary.



W

II

Can we agree . . . . . . . . . . . . the date of our next meeting?

Write three questions using some of the 'verb + preposition' combinations from Exercises A and C. Then work in pairs and ask each other the questions. EXAMPLE:

WJ,o do yov commvnicate �r-�itJ, every day?

join u p with another pair. Compare your answers to Exercise B above and Starting u p Exercise A. What is your ideal manager like? Are they male or female?

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UNIT 10 .... MANAGING PEOPLE

Managing people

El

,.>P C02.43 Laurie Mullins is the author of Management and organisational behaviour. listen to the first part of the interview and answer these questions. 1

Who was the first manager that impressed Laurie?

2

How do you spell his name?

3

What was his job?

4 What three things did he emphasise?

m

..>» (02.44 Listen to the second part and complete these notes. Anita Roddick •

• •

laurie Mullins

founded The Body Shop in . . . . . . . . . . . .1 displayed a genuine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 towards staff strong belief in: - environmental and . . . . . . . . . .3 issues - feminist principles - practical . . . . . . . . . . . .• to Third World countries .

• •

.

not possible to provide . . . . . . . . . . . .5 and social support without making was in business to make a . . . . . . . . . . .6

a

profit

.

Richard Branson

• • •

II Watch the interview an the DVD-ROM.

founded the . . . . . . . . . . .7 brand in . . . . . . . . . .8 over . . . . . . . . . . ? companies famous for combining a true . . . . . . . . . . .1 0 spirit with a genuine . . . . . . . . . . . .11 for people .

.

,.>» CD2.45 Listen to the final part and complete this summary. All three managers had or have a genuine belief in effective . . . . . . . .1 ; involvement and . . . . . . . . . . . _2 for their staff; . . . . . . . . . . . ? so that staff can see them, . . . . . . . . . . . .4 them; and they were able to have immediate . . . . . . . . . . . .5 with them. .

All either did or do engender a genuine . . . . . .

.

. .

. . . .6 from members of their staff. All three had or have a genuine belief in creating a climate of mutual consideration, . . . . . . . . . . .7 and . . . . . . . . . .8 with their staff. .

.

.

.

liJ

Management and motivation

..

.

El

I!J

FT 5

.

I n pairs, tell each other which manager you would like to work for. Why? What would you do if you were a director of your company or school and had the power to change anything? Douglas McGregor, a US psychologist, argued that managers hold one of two theories about the people they have to deal with. Read this extract about the two theories and say which you prefer, and why.

Theory X is based on a fairly negative view of human nature. II says that people are essentially lazy and uncomfortable with the idea of having too much responsibility for anything. They only turn up to work for the pay. Employees have 10 be managed i n a strict way, otherwise nothing w i l l get done.

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10

15

Theory Y. on the other hand. suggests people may be capable of something more positive - that they will seck out responsi­ b i l ity and try to get better at their jobs. from which they can get signi ficant per­ sonal satisfac t i o n . Theory Y managers have h i gh expect at ions of their people. They are also much more likely to develop a truly motivated workforce.

UNIT 10

II

.. ..

MANAGING PEOPLE

Read the article below. Say which theory is probably supported by the management of Ruby's company, and which by the management of Geraldine's company.

FT Share the power

by Stefan Stern

What does employee engagement look like i n practice? John Smythe, from the Engage for Change Consul­ s

10

15

20

2s

t a n c y , offers t w o s i t u a t i o n s t o i llustrate i t . Imagine t w o d i fferent employees, c a l l e d Ruby and Gera l d i n e , who work for d ifferent businesses. I n the first s i t u a t i o n , Ruby is i n v i ted to attend a morn i n g meeting t i t l ed "Help our recovery". "The i n v i tation states that all parts of the company h a v e performed badly, and that its parent company is unable to provide more cash for investment. It says that fast action must be t a k e n to s t a b i I ise t h e situation," M r Smythe explains. "But i t also says there are no secret plans for extreme action. It says: 'We want to c o m m u n i cate openly. We also want you and yolll· colleagues to take ownership with management to solve the crisis, recognising that unpleasant options w i l l have to be on the table."' Ruby i s both concerned and flat­ tered. She arrives at the meeting fee l i ng l i ke a player rather than a spectator.

liJ

30

35

40

45

so

55

A two-month timetable is laid out in which she and her col leagues are invited to use their knowledge to find achievable cost s a v i n g s w i t h o u t damaging key business areas. In this process, Mr Smythe says. there are t h ree good q u e s t i o n s employees can be asked. What would they do i f they: had a free hand in their day job? •

were a director of the company? had to propose important changes? In this way. employees can fee l part of the decisions that are necessary. •



They don't become dcmotivated. The alternative scenario. w h i c h concerns Geraldine. is less appealing. She i s also i n v ited to a meeting described as a '"cascade briefing". R u mours have been s p re a d i n g , d i rectors arc hard t o find, and there has been hardly any communication from the company. "At the 'cascade · , her fears are confirmed when, i n a PowerPoint presentation, the full extent of the t e r r i b l e s t a t e of t h e b u s i n e s s i s revealed for t h e first t i me," M r Smythe says. "Detailed manage-

ril

ment p l a n s for restruc t u r i n g and efficiencies are revealed. The focus is all on red uction, with no hint of new b u s i ness opport u n i t i e s . Geraldine fee l s less I ike a spectator and more l i k e a v i c t i m . To varying degrees,

65 her c o l l eagues leave the meeting

70

i n shock." "When have you felt most engaged and most valued and in a successful project or period at work?" he asks.

"Absolutely none o f u s i s going t o report t h a t i t was more l i k e Geraldine's experience."

Read the article again and say if these statements are true (T), false (F) or the article doesn't say (DS). 1

Ruby and Geraldine were both invited to a meeting.

2

Ruby felt part of the decision-making process.

3

Ruby and Geraldine both left their meetings in shock.

4 The companies that Ruby and Geraldine work for are both having problems. 5

Geraldine enjoyed her meeting more than Ruby.

6

Communication was better in Geraldine's company than Ruby's.

7

After the meeting, Ruby was invited to a staff party.

8 Geraldine's company focused on reduction. 9

D

Geraldine is looking for another job.

I n pairs, tell each other about: 1

when you have felt most engaged and most valued at work, or in a sports team, or in your daily life;

2

the best way to communicate bad news;

3

any other theories of managing people that you know. 99 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 10

....

MANAGING PEOPLE There are a number of ways to report what people say.

Reported speech

1

When we report things that have just been said, we often use the same tense as the speaker. 'I want to see Pierre. ' 'Pierre, Susan has just phoned and says she wants to see you. '

2

When we report things said in the past, we usually make these changes. The verb goes back one tense (for example from present simple to past simple). • Nouns and pronouns may change. 'My new sales team is difficult to manage. ' He said (that) his new sales team was difficult to manage. •

3 We often use say and tell to report speech. 'The newjob is challenging.' She said (that) the new job was challenging. We use tell with an object. 'The newjob is challenging. ' She told her boss (that) the new job was challenging.

c:l Grammar reference page 1 5 0

a

ll

Complete these sentences with the correct form of say or te_ll. 1

He . ? � i � . that I was late.

2

He . . . . . . . . . . . . me that I was late.

3

She . . . . . . . . . . . . him to work harder.

4

She . . . . . . . . . . . . they would never agree.

5

Nobody . . . . . . . . . . . . me that she was the CEO.

6

She . . . . . . . . . . . . that she worked for Toyota.

. .

. .

Rewrite these sentences in reported speech, changing the tenses. Begin He/She/They said. 1 Hamza: 'I'm not enjoying my job very much.' 2

Adela: ' I want to listen to my staff more.'

3

Susan and Sharon: 'We need to invest in the development of staff.'

4 Pierre: 'I'm feeling under pressure at work.'

II

5

Justin: 'The company has been performing badly.'

6

Eleanor: 'I'm going to look for a new job.'

�>» CD2.46 The H R Director couldn't attend this morning's meeting. Listen to the meeting and take notes on what was said and who said it. Then write a short e-mail to the HR Director. EXAMPLE:

Socialising and entertaining

a

Anna s-aid the level of abs-enteeis-m had 9one up over the month. She >aid t.Ne needed to monitor s-ickneH levels- more clos-ely.

Socialising is an im portant part of good management. When socialising for business in your country, how im portant are the following? 1 being on time 2

the way people dress

3 what people are interested in, e.g. fashion, football, etc. 4

how you address people (first names or family names?)

5

giving gifts

6

shaking hands I kissing I hugging I bowing

100

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UNIT 10

Ill II

....

MANAGING PEOPLE

�>l) CD2.47 Paul is on a business trip to Syria. Mohammed is a Syrian business contact. Listen to their conversation, then answer these questions. 1

2

What does Mohammed invite Paul to do?

Does Paul accept?

Complete this extract from the conversation i n Exercise B. Paul:

Mmm,

. . . . . . . . . . . .

the hotel,

1

to invite me, Mohammed, but I think I'd prefer to stay in

. . . . . . . . . . . .

2•

I'm really tired at the moment. It was a long flight, and

I feel a little jet-lagged. I need an early night. Mohammed:

m

OK, Paul, I

. . . . . . . . . . .

J.

Perhaps we could meet Abdullah at the weekend.

�>» CD2.48 Paul is being entertained by Abdullah and Mohammed. Listen to their conversation. Below are the answers to three questions. What were the questions? 1

Well, we like the same things as Western people.

2

I generally watch television with my wife.

3

I like to go out to restaurants.

IJ

�>l) CD2.49 Listen to another part of the conversation between Paul and Abdullah. Why has Paul come to Damascus? How can Abdullah help him?

0

�>)) CD2.49 Listen again. I n which order do you hear these sentences? a) I do know someone who might help you. b) Would you like me to give him a call first? c) Can you recommend anyone? d) Hold on a minute, I've got his business card. e) I'm looking for a company to supply carpets for my store. f) He specialises in traditional designs.

m

D D D D II] D

Role-play this situation. You meet a business contact in a foreign country. Find out this information. a) how they spend their weekends

c) what they do in the evenings

b) where they go for their holidays

d) what kind of hobbies and sports they like

Also, you want to find an agent for your firm's products. Ask him/her if they can help.

MAKING EXCUSES

MAKING CONVERSATION

N ETWORKING

I'm afraid I already have plans to ...

I'm looking for ...

I'd like to take it easy if you don't mind.

What do you like to do in your spare time?

It's very kind of you, but another time perhaps.

How do you spend your evenings/ weekends?

Do you have any contacts in ... ?

What's your favourite hobby/pastime?

SAYING GOODBYE / THANKING Thanks very much for your hospitality. I really enjoyed the meal. Thanks for showing me round the city. I'll be in touch soon. Goodbye. All the best.

Where are you going for your holiday this year? Can you tell me about any interesting places to visit? What/How about you?

Can you recommend anyone? I could make some enquiries for you. I might be able to help. Can I mention your name? Would you like me to give them a call first? Let me give you their business card.

What do you usually do after work? 101 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

ASHLEY COOPER ..c-.

Search Agency -

Ten s i o n s w i t h i n the team a re d a m a g i n g

-

o p e rati o n s at a property c o m p a n y

Background The Ashley Cooper Search Agency (ACSA) specialises i n finding top-class properties for wealthy clients from all over the world. lt charges clients a fee based on the value of the property. Its London office finds properties in the UK, France and Germany for its clients. The agency has a database, which needs building up, and many contacts with upmarket estate agencies in the three countries. The London branch has six relationship consultants who are multilingual. It is their job to find suitable properties, meet clients, arrange viewings and complete the purchase on their behalf. They only search for properties which are worth more than €1 million.

What advantages do you think clients gain by using ACSA to find a property?

Briefing the new manager of the ' 1'\don office

� CD2.50 Because of poor health, the present manager, jim Driscoll, is leaving at the end of the month. He will be replaced by Diana Bishop. Listen to the conversation between them. Jim is briefing Diana about two of the consultants, Adriana and Ahmed.

Make notes about the two consultants.

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UNIT 10

....

MANAGING PEOPlE

Summary of recent appraisal interviews with relationship consultants Read the summary notes on the other four consultants that jim Driscoll has provided for Diana Bishop. Study the sales chart below and think about the payment system. Working individually, identify the problems Diana may have to deal with when she becomes manager of the team. Make a note of your main points.

Kla us

Daria •



Good sales performance,



a difficult market.

the second biggest proportion of

Excellent reports/paperwork.

the total sales revenue.

meetings. Popular with her colleagues. Thinks we treat her unfairly because she's female. Says we always allocate the best clients





last three years, but still brings in

well in

to male consultants. Is not happy with the present

• •

• •



Not very i nnovative or creative.

Excellent sales performance.

increasing sales.

Outstanding presentation skills. Not very popular with



Very good at encouraging team

property database.

• Very critical •

the biggest proportion of the • •

total sales revenue. Does not like change or new technology. Has not contributed at all to building up the property

and outspoken in

database - one of the

meetings. Is not happy with the payment

spirit and cooperation.

system - thinks she should get

Is happy with the present

a much bigger bonus.

payment system.

payment system.

Sales have fallen in the last three years, but still brings in

best negotiator in the team.

social skills.

Best contributor to building up the



Is very good at closing deals -

colleagues - too direct, lacks

Does not have many ideas for





Peter

Jackie

Sales have fallen sharply in the

especially in Germany -

• Always contributes





• • •

Consultants' sales as a percentage of total sales revenue (three-year period)

company's key objectives. Has missed several monthly meetings. Reason: 'too busy'. Submits poor sales reports they lack detail. Is very happy with the present payment system.

consultant (years of service)

last year

previous year

three years ago

Peter (12)

28

34

40

Adriana (1)

8

-

-

Klaus (9)

22

30

38

Daria (6)

14

11

10

Jackie (5)

17

15

12

Ahmed (2)

11

10

-

You are a director of ACSA. You have been asked to give Diana Bishop some informal advice about how to improve the performance of the relationship consultants so that they work more effectively as a team and are more motivated. 1

2

Working in small groups, discuss these q uestions. •

What are the main problems that Diana will have to deal



What solutions do you propose?



Should the payment system be changed?

with

when manag i ng the team?

if so, how?

It is very likely that Diana may soon be asked by head office to make one consultant redundant, in order to cut costs. If this happens, which consultant do you think she should ask to leave? What changes might Diana have to make as a result of her decision?

Watch the Case study commentary on the DVD-ROM.

Writing As a director of ACSA, write the recommendation section of a report on the staff problems and your proposed solutions. The report is for the CEO of ACSA.

c:l Writing file page 129 103

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STARTING U P

1 2

How good are you at managing conflict? Answer the questions i n this quiz. Then turn to page 135 to find out your score. Compare with a partner.

You are in a meeting. People cannot agree with each other. Do you: a) do nothing? b) intervene and propose something new? c) take sides with those you like?

3

You see two strangers. One begins to h i t the other. Do you: a) pretend to be an off-duty police officer and ask them what is going on?

5

You are in the check-in queue at a n airport. Somebody pushes in. Do you: a) ask them to go to the back of the queue?

d) suggest a 10-minute break?

b) call the police?

b) say nothing?

c) shout at them to stop?

c) complain loudly to everyone about

Your two closest friends have an

d) walk away quickly?

people jumping queues?

d) report them to a n airport official?

argument and stop speaking to each other. Do you: a) behave as though nothing has happened? b) bring them together to discuss the problem? c) take the side of one and stop speaking to the other?

4

Your neighbours are playing very loud music late at n i g ht. Do you: a) ask them to turn it down? b) do nothing? c) call the police? d) play your own music as loudly as possi ble?

d) talk to each one separately

6

A

colleague criticises your work.

Do you: a) consider carefully what they say? b) ignore them? c) get angry and criticise them? d) smile, but wait for an opportunity to take revenge?

about the situation?

104

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UNIT 1 1 .... CONFLICT

IEJ

Com plete the 'noun' and 'adjective' columns of this chart with the correct word forms. Use a dictionary to help you if necessary. noun

adjective

opposite adjective

1

'patience

'patient

.

2

calmness

.

3

weakness

....... . . ..

4

flexibility

· · · · · · · · · · · ·

5

emotion

. ...... . .

.

6

consistency

.. . .. ... ....

. . . .......

7

sympathy

......... ..

· · · · · · · · · · · ·

8

. ...... . ...

formal

informal

9

enthusiasm

............

· · · · · · · · · · · ·

. . . . .. . . .

creative

.. . .. . . . .. ..

10

I] II

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.. .. ... ..

.

.

.

...........

nervous strong .... .. . . . .

.

.

........... .

.

�)» CD2.51 Mark the stress on the noun and adjective forms in Exercise A. The first one has been done for you. Practise the pronunciation with a partner. Then listen and check your answers. Opposite adjectives are formed in one of three ways: a) using a prefix such as un-, in- or im-: formal -+ informal b) using a different word: weak -+ strong c) using a paraphrase: friendly -+ not (very) friendly (= unfriendly)

Complete the right-hand column of the chart in Exercise A with the opposites of the adjectives.

liJ

IJI See the DVD-ROM

for the i-Glossary.

4 W

0

Complete these sentences with one of the adjectives from Exercise A or its opposite. 1

He gets very angry if people are late for negotiations. He is very . . � �.P.C?.t��'."'.t. . .

2

She always has ideas and easily finds solutions to problems. She is a very . . . . . . . . . . . . person.

3

He never shows anger, enthusiasm or disappointment during a negotiation. H e is totally . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

He always agrees with everything his negotiating partner suggests. He is . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

I told him I was feeling really bad, and all he asked was 'Will you be able to meet the deadline?' How can anyone be so . . . . . . . . . . . . ?

6

He likes people to feel comfortable and relaxed during a negotiation. He's a very . . . . . . . . . . . . person.

7

He let the other side have everything they wanted in the negotiation. He was very

8

She is very . . . . . . . . . . . . . She keeps changing her mind all the time, which makes her very difficult to negotiate with.

Look again at the adjectives and their opposites. Choose what you think are the best and worst qualities for a negotiator. Then compare your ideas with a partner and try to reach an agreement. Following your discussion i n Exercise E, which of the qualities do you think you and your partner possess I don't possess? Discuss your ideas. 105 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT ll .... CONFLICT

Resolving disputes

a

[J Eileen Carroll

..>» C02.52 Listen to the first part of an interview with Eileen Carroll, from the Centre for Effective Dispute Resolution, and answer these questions. 1

When was the centre founded?

2

Where is it located?

3

What does it do?

4

How many mediators has it been involved in training?

,.>» C02.53 Listen to the second part, where Eileen talks about the commonest causes of conflict at work, and complete this extract from the audio script. The key problem is inappropriate . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 or no . . . . . . . . . . . . 2• So I would say, avoidance, so that managers are not . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 with their employees as effectively as they might. There's a lot of European legislation now around the areas of sex discrimination and . . . . . . . . . . . . '· work practices, and this does lead to a lot of controversy in the . . . . . . . . . . . � .

1 think other areas are: clash of personalities, . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 , different belief systems, and interestingly, I think a lot of . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 feel that their workloads can be very oppressive.

II

Watch the interview on the DVD-ROM.

liJ READI N G

Conflict management

a

[J

II I:J

,.>» C02.54 Listen to the final part and complete these notes on how to resolve

business disputes. 1

Have an early . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

Recognise there is a . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

Have a good . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Get key decision-makers to allow enough . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

Have a good . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

Make sure difficult issues are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

Bring together parts of different groups to improve levels of . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Work on problem-solving to find a . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

I n pairs, talk about an example of conflict you have had and how you resolved it. How many of the methods in Exercise C did you use? When does joking or teasing become bullying? I n pairs, think of as many sources of conflict at work as you can. EXAMPLES:

poor time-keep il)91 il)terruptil)9 people

if) meetil)9>

Read the article on the opposite page quickly and see how many of your answers to Exercise B are mentioned. Read the article again and answer these questions. 1

What should managers do when teasing starts to become h urtful?

2

Why should managers note examples of inappropriate behaviour or language?

3

Why should managers get involved as soon as conflict develops?

4

What happens if managers ignore conflict and poor behaviour?

5

What are the advantages of return-to-work interviews?

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UNIT 1 1

....

CONFLICT

I nterven i n g q u ickly i n cases of confl ict Managers should be sensitive to when teasing starts to become hurtfu l . They

s

10

15

should be prepared to step in and have a quiet word with the team members involved. The manager should i n form those involved that, w h i l e plenty o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s encouraged, i t 's important that there is respect for other people and that certain standards o f behaviour are expected at work. The manager should have noted examples of the types of behaviour or l anguage that have been used that are inappro­ priate at work, so that those involved will understand what is unacceptable. It's much easier to have this conver­ sation as soon as a manager starts to

20

have concerns about behaviour or early signs o f conflict - to prevent habits from being formed and to ensure

25

that the manager is taken seriously. ft's much more difficult to be respected if a manager appears to accept certain b e h a v i o u r by l e t t i n g a s i t u a t i o n continue for weeks o r months. Dealing with conflict directly

Taking action to manage confl i c t c a n appear quite worrying to some managers, but i t ' s an essential part 30 of t h e i r role and respons i b i l it i e s . I f managers ignore unacceptable behaviour, problems w i l l get worse until the discipli nary process has to be used or a formal complaint is made, by 35 which time it w i l l be much harder to achieve a successful resolution. Some potential sources of conflict

40

at work are obvious, such as: • too much personal use of the Internet or e-mai I; . poor attendance and time-keeping; .

45

.

any form of bullying behaviour; any form of discrimination



(e.g. sexism); unacceptable language;

.

theft; drink or drug problems .

.

so

However, freq uently it is the less obvious behaviour that over time. i f not confronted, will lead t o workplace disputes. Examples of less obvious types of dispute include: taking credit for other people's

10



55

60



work or ideas; interrupting people in meetings; not inviting team members to social



evenings or events; not covering for people when they







• 65





arc sick; not taking messages for people; using someone else's contacts without perm ission; no t including peo p l e in group e-mails; ignoring people or being impolite; poor personal hygiene.

75

so

Managers should not ignore prob­ lems that are developing i n their teams. I t 's vital that l i n e managers have regular, i n formal , one-to-one conversations with the people they manage, so that these kinds of issues can be d i scussed natura l l y where possible. However, managers must also be prepared to begin i n formal discussions if they think a problem i s starting to develop. Conflict at work can lead to absences, so return-to-work interviews are a l so a good opportu n i t y for managers to ask questions about any conflict issues that might be worrying employees.

with permission of the publisher. the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, London, www.cipd.co.uk

D II

Find words in the article that mean the opposite of these words. 1 appropriate

2 acceptable

3 polite

4 formal

Discuss these questions. 1

Have you ever been involved in any of the examples of conflict listed in the article? How did/would you feel?

2

What behaviour at work do/would you find inappropriate or unacceptable?

3

How would you deal with these problems?

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UNIT 11

....

CONFLICT •

Conditionals





First conditional if+ present simple, will + infinitive without to This describes a possible situation and its probable result. If he bullies anyone again, he'll lose his job. If sales increase, we'll make more profit. Second conditional if+ past simple, would + infinitive without to This describes an unlikely situation and its probable result. If he made more eye contact, he'd be a better negotiator. Conditionals and negotiating Conditionals are often used when negotiating. We use conditionals for offers. If you sign the contract today, we'll give you a 10% discount. (firm offer) /{you ordered 100 cases, we'dgive you a larger discount. (less firm offer)

C) Grammar reference page 151

IJ

1!1

Correct the grammatical mistakes i n these sentences. 1

If you pay in dollars, we would deliver next week.

2

If I would have his number, I would phone him.

3

If the goods will arrive tomorrow, I'll collect them.

4

If the cars would be more reliable, more people would buy them.

Combine phrases from Columns A and B to make conditional sentences. More than one answer is possible in each case. 1 EXAMPLE: If you place an order today We 11 offer a lar9e difcount 1 A

II

B

1

offer more flexible payment conditions

a) offer a large discount

2

pay all the promotion costs

b) give you 90 days' credit

3

place an order today

c) make you an exclusive agent

4

pay in dollars

d) give you a signing-on bonus

5

place firm orders in advance

e) despatch immediately

6

provide good technical support

f) accept the deal

7

offer us a unit price of $22

g) reduce the price by 20%

8

sign the contract now

h) increase the order

�>)) CD2.55 Listen to two people negotiating. Look at the audio script on page 164 and underline the sentences in which the speaker makes an offer, but is not sure it will be accepted. Now circle the sentences in which the speaker makes a firm offer.

liJ

Discuss these questions in pairs. What would you do if: 1

your boss asked you to move abroad?

2

you saw a colleague bullying another colleague?

3

you saw a colleague stealing something?

4

your boss took credit for your ideas?

5

you saw two colleagues having an argument?

108 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

I Would afk fo r a raife.

UNIT 1 1 SKILLS

H

CONFLICT

Which of these are good ways of dealing with conflict in a negotiation?

Negotiating: dealing with conflict

1 Avoiding eye contact. 2 Smiling a lot. 3

Sitting back and appearing relaxed.

4 Stopping the discussion and coming back to it later. 5

Saying nothing for a long time.

6 Saying 'I see what you mean'. 7

Finding out why the other side is unhappy.

8 Focusing on the issues, not on personalities. 9 Saying something humorous. 10 Speaking calmly and slowly.

1!1

�>l) CD2.56 Rachel, an American executive, works i n a sales office in Geneva, Switzerland. She is negotiating a salary increase with Scott, a director of the company. 1

What do these figures refer to? a) $60,000 b) $120,000

2

List the arguments that: a) Rachel uses to get an increased salary; b) Scott uses to avoid paying her the salary she asks for.

3

II

What solution do they finally agree on?

�>» CD2.56 Listen again and complete these extracts. 1

I think I'm at the moment.

2

I've done really well in the last two years. I've exceeded my

3

Put yourself in our shoes. We're facing a difficult . . . . . . . . . . . . situation, you know that.

0 000 000 000 00

a lot more than that to the company. My work's greatly undervalued

4 OK, I understand what you're

I!J

D

00 0 00 0 00 000 0



0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

I can see your point of

by almost 40% .. .

0 00 000 00 0 00 0



5

Let me suggest a How about if we give you a n increase to, say, $80,000 now and promise to review your salary in six months' time?

6

I'm pleased to hear it. I think we've

000 0000 0 0 0 00



00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00

everything.

Identify the key phrases in the extracts in Exercise C and write them under the a ppropriate heading i n the Useful language box below. Work in pairs. Role-play this situation. A marketing executive meets the General Manager to discuss an overseas posting. The marketing executive has not been chosen for the position and is very unhappy. Student A: Turn to page 133.

Student

8:

Turn to page 139.

U S E F U L LANGUAGE

EXPRESSING YOUR POINT OF VIEW I've got an excellent sales record. I've always met my sales targets. I believe I should be paid more.

CAlMING DOWN Well, I know/see what you mean. Why don't we come back to that later? Let's have a break and come back with some fresh ideas.

CREATING SOlUTIONS I'd like to make a suggestion. What if ... Let's look at this another way. Another possibility is ...

ClOSING A N EGOTIATION Let's see what we've got. Can I go over what we've agreed? Let's go over the main points again. We've got a deal. Fine. I Right. I That's it, then. 109

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HERMAN & CORRIE TEAS

o4>» CD2.57 Listen to a business report on Radio Europe. The presenter is talking to Joan Knight, an expert on the tea industry. Joan describes Herman & Corrie Teas as a 'green company' and talks about its values and ethical principles. How might Herman & Corrie Teas benefit from the sale?

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UNIT 1 1

Subject:

f

ucc

offer

We'll be deciding whether to recommend UCC's offer at our Board of Directors' meeting next Tuesday. I intend to invite our two major shareholders to attend, as well as a staff representative and a senior manager from within the company.

I want to hear all the arguments for and against the offer before we make a decision. I haven't made up my mind yet, nor have my colleagues on the Board. We accept that profits have not been impressive in the last three years. We also know that we have a limited range of suppliers and products, which has attracted criticism in the financial press. Finally, it's true that we've had problems recently attracting top-class executives to fill management positions. I hope we will have a good discussion, which will enable us to make the right decision.

You are members of the management meeting. Work in groups of five. Choose a role and prepare for the meeting. Student A (Chief Executive): Student B (Shareholder A): Student C (Shareholder B): Student D (Staff Representative): Student E (Senior Manager):

Turn to page 136. Turn to page 137. Turn to page 140. Turn to page 1 3 5 . Turn to page 138.

Hold the meeting. The Chief Executive leads the discussion. G ive your opinion about whether or not the Board should recommend accepting UCC's offer. Present your arguments strongly and try to persuade the others to accept your point of view. Decide whether or not to recommend the offer to all shareholders. Take a vote if necessary.

Dear Shareholders, The multinational drinks group Universal Cola Corporation has made an offer to purchase the company. Our reasons for accepting I not accepting t he i r offer are as follows:

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,..

CONFLICT

BM C Mini (1959-2000)

Citroen OS (1 9 5 5-1975)

Porsche 9 1 1 (1963-present)

Toyota Prius (1997-present)

STARTIN�

IJ

�� II

Fiat 500 (1957-1975, 2007-present)

Volkswagen Beetle (1938-2003)

Describe some of your favourite products. Why do you like them? What do they say about you? Which of these products could you not do without? What product would you most like to own? Why? Which product would make your life easier? Do you agree or d isagree with these statements? Give reasons for your answers. 1

It is better to pay a bit more for products which are made in your own country.

2

'Organic', 'energy-saving' or 'green' products are overpriced and often not as good as the alternatives.

3

Companies spend far too much on launching and promoting new products.

4

Multinationals which manufacture in developing countries help the world economy.

5

Modern technology-based products do not improve people's lives.

112

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UNIT 1 2

VO CABI)_t;

Describing products

13

PRODUCTS

Check that you know the meaning of the adjectives below. Think of a product that matches each word. Compare your ideas with a partner. How many were the same? •



[J

....

attractive • comfortable • economical healthy • popular • practical • pure





efficient reliable





expensive safe



fashionable

Complete this chart with adjectives with the opposite meanings to those in Exercise A. un­

in-

im-

vnattractive

D

m D

D

See the DVD-ROM for the i-Giossary.

0

Complete the sentences below with the words from the box.

I best

hard

hlgft

high

high

long

well

1

I B M manufactures h.i.9.h:tech computer products.

2

Timberland makes a range of

3

Hermes produces

4

Coca-Cola and Pepsico both developed

5

Duracell sells . . .

6

Levi jeans are a

7

Ferrari make . . . . . . . . . . . .-performance sports cars.

.

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

-wearing footwear.

. .-quality fashion accessories. ._

. . . . . . .

.

-selling soft drinks.

. . . .

-lasting alkaline batteries.

. . . . . . . .

-made clothing product.

. . . . . . . . . . . .

Use the adjectives in Exercise C to describe other companies and products. EXAMPLE:

Ne>tle make> many of tJ.. e \IJorld'> be>t->elling food prod vet>.

Look at this list of products. Which of the adjectives from Exercises A, B and C (including opposites) could you use to describe them? •

bottled water



a four-wheel-drive car



an MP3 player



a perfume



soap



a fast-food product



a pair of jeans



a laptop computer

Match the verbs (1-8) to their meanings (a-h). Then put the verbs into a logical order to show the lifecycle of one of the products from Exercise E. 1

launch

a) to stop making

2

test

b) to build or make

3

promote

c) to introduce to the market

4

manufacture

d) to change in order to improve

5

modify

e) to try something in order to see how it works

6

discontinue

f) to make a plan or drawing

7

design

g) to increase sales by advertising, etc.

8

distribute

h) to supply to shops, companies, customers

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UNIT 12

.,. PRODUCTS

LISTE N I N G

Favourite products

EJ

'4� CD2.58-2.61 Four people were asked the question 'What is the best thing you have ever bought?'. Listen and, for each speaker, note what the product is, and why they think it was a great buy.

1!1

'4l» CD2.62 James Wallman is Editor of LS:N, a lifestyle news network which follows trends and innovations in the retail and technology sectors. Listen to the first part of the interview and complete his notes for answering the question 'What makes a product great?'.

James Wallman

1

It should be easy to . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

It should solve a . . . . . . . . . . . . or fulfill a . . . . . . . . . . . . (example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) .

3

It should be . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . and make your life . . . . . . . . . . . . and make things . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

'4>l) CD2.63 James was asked which product of recent years has been the most exciting. Listen to the second part and correct the three mistakes i n this summary of what he says. It's the Testa Roadster. This is the new gas vehicle which goes from 0 to 60 mph in 3 4 seconds. I drove one from Paris to Cannes, and it was very exciting. The response from the accelerator is instant.

m

'4>1) CD2.64 Listen to the third part and answer these questions. 1

What product does James expect to see in the near future?

2

What does he sometimes not like about driving?

3

Where does he not like driving?

4 Which companies are mentioned? 5

IJ

What is the comparison with the 747 plane?

'4>1) CD2.65

Listen to the final part and complete this information about James Wallman. his favourite product the colour of this product his job what he is writing uses Skype to talk to friends in which places?

a Watch the interview on the DVD-ROM.

'4>1) (02.65

Listen to the final part again and complete these extracts.

It connects me to . . . . . . . . . .\ because obviously I have . . . . . . . . . . . .2 at home. When 1 go to a . . . . . . . . . . . ? I have Wi·Fi, I take it with me when I go on . . . . . . . . . . '· and I go to places that have Wi-Fi. .

.

. .

So for me, my . . . . . . . . . . .5 and its connection to the . . . . . . . . . . . .6 and its connection to . . . . . . . . . . . .7 around the world, makes it invaluable and makes my life more . . . . . . . . . . . .8 and more . . . . . . . . . . 9. .

.

.

Discuss these questions.

launching new products

1

Which countries are strong in the consumer electronics industry?

2

Which companies do you know in that industry?

3

What is the best electronic product you have bought, and why?

4 What Casio products do you know?

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.

U N IT 12

I]

H

PRODUCTS

Read through the article below quickly to find this information. 1

three examples of problems for the Japanese consumer-electronics industry

2

four examples of Casio's products

3

two examples of major players in professional photography

4

two of Mr Kashio's favourite expressions

5

three examples of rivals to Japan's electronics industry

FT A path to salvation through innovation by Robin Harding

Kazuo Kashio has led Casio, the

Japanese cons umer-electronics

30 that his long years of se l l ing make him a keen judge of whether a new

company that h e founded w i t h his

product w i l l succeed. H e perks up

three brothers, for 20 years.

considerably when given the chance

Whatever problem is put to him, whether it is the yen's strength, the economy's weakness or the col lapse

10

to praise h i s gadgets, s u c h as

35 radio-controlled watches that pick up a broadcast signal to set the time, and

in Japanese mobile-phone sales, the

the toughened G-Shock brand, which

energetic executive has a single

redefined watch design.

answer: launch new products. "For us as a manufacturer, whether

40

conditions are good or bad is a l l

digital cameras, which can take

decided b y our products, a n d our

up to 60 shots a second a fter the

strategy is to make sure as many of

photographer presses the bulton.

15 them as possible are new," he says.

Casio plans to replace 50 per cent

of its products in the second h a l f

With such a camera, Mr Kashio

45 says, a photographer can catch the precise moment at which a batter

of the year. 20

hits a baseball and judge instantly

attempt t o maintain sales b y taking a

so

- such as the electronic calculator that stmted it all in 1 957 - from scratch.

possible, given that rivals are not

and Nikon. Two o f M r Kashio's favourite

but also cutting prices, M r Kashio

phrases sum up the family's approach

55 to research and development. One is

to resist "preconceived ideas" o f

This confidence i n his products is

what a device should do and how it

typical of M r Kashio. He often says

should do it; the other is "from zero





M r Kashio argues that Japan's

is d o m i nated by Canon

only racing to launch new products



to one", to describe how Casio creates something that d i d not exist

The product has taken Casio into w h ich

unique enough to do it.

60

the professional photography market,

Challenged as to whether that is

argues that Casio's products arc

-

whether a runner was safe or out.

That strategy a m o u n ts to a n larger share of a shrinking market.

25

A source of pride at the moment is Casio's family of high-speed "burst"

electronics industry can stay ahead or

65 its rivals in Taiwan, China and South Korea if it keeps innovating.

His hopes for the future are those of a fam i l y company: to maintain Casio's stability and to keep the new

10 products coming.

... t.I... ·� .C _ _ _ ..._ ___

··-

B

I!J

Read the article again. Then decide whether (according to the text) these statements are true (T), false (F) or not mentioned (NM). 1

The Casio Tower is located in the Shinjuku district o f Tokyo.

2

Mr Kashio's answer to the problems he faces is to launch new products.

3

Casio's rivals are focusing mainly on cutting prices.

4

Mr Kashio is confident about the company's financial position, as it has

5

Mr Kashio says he is good at deciding whether a new product will succeed, because he has a lot of experience of selling.

6

Mr Kashio is proud of Casio's high-speed 'burst' digital cameras.

7

Casio dominates the professional photography market.

8

Mr Kashio's main hope is that Casio will make more and more profits.

no

debt.

Work in groups of three or four. You have a very large budget to launch a product of your choice i n your country. How would you launch the product? 115 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

UNIT 12

PRODUCTS •

Passives

I







We make passive verb forms with the verb be + past participle. The Cosio G-Shock GW-5000 is made in Japan. We often choose a passive structure when we are not interested in, or it is not necessary to know, who performs an action. This lens is often used in skateboarding photo shoots. I f we want to mention who performs an action, we can use by. The professional photography market is dominated by Canon and Nikon. We can use the passive to describe a process, system or procedure. Finally, all Cosio products are tested before shipping. Grammar reference page 152

a

Use this chart to make passive sentences. Then make similar sentences about products from your own country. EXAMPLE:

Diamond> are mined in South Africa.

Diamonds

Leather goods

I]

make

Rice

refine

Coal

grow

Mobile phones

mine

Watches

Finland

Coffee

Oil

Kuwait

Japan

the United States

manufacture

Semiconductors Electronic goods

Poland

produce

Microchips

Switzerland

Malaysia Spain

Brazil

South Africa

Zambia

China

Change these active sentences into the passive so that they sound more natural. 1

Somebody opened the Channel Tunnel in 1994.

The Channel Tunnel ltJa> opened in 1'J'fll.

D

2

They have chosen the new design.

3

Thousands of people see this website every day.

4

The employers asked the staff for their opinions.

5

A mechanic is repairing my car at the moment.

6

Somebody has found the missing file.

7

Somebody made this watch in Switzerland.

This article describes how a glass-making company produces some of its products. Complete it with passive forms of the verbs in brackets. Our first glass products . . . ! (launch) 30 years ago, and for the last 20 years, our production 2 (controO by computers. Some of the operations . . . ? (perform) by robots. This keeps our prices competitive, because unit costs • (reduce), as we gain from economies of scale. In the last five years, some of our products 5 (manufacture) in China. . . . .

. .

. .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. .

.

. . .

..

. . .. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

We produce a special type of glass, which 6 (design) to have a fire-polished finish and to be distortion-free. At the start of the process, the raw materials such as sand, soda, ash and limestone . . 7 (weigh). Then they . . .8 (blend) and . . . . ? (feed) continuously into a melting furnace. Recycled glass . . . . 10 (also feed) into the furnace in order to reduce waste. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

.

116 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

. . . . . . .

.

.

. .

.

. .

.

.

. .

.

.

. .

. .

UNIT 12

PRODUCTS

��

12

The raw materials . . . . . . . . . . .1 1 (melt) inside the furnace. The molten glass . . . . . . . (cooO and then it . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 (test) for stress. Customer orders . . . . . . . . .1'' (feed) into the computer, and sizes . . . . . . 1 5 (modify) to suit the needs of the customers. Finally, the glass . . . . 16 (cut) , the panes of glass . . . . . . 1 7 (load) into lorries and then they 18 (distribute). .

.

.

.

.

. . . .

.

.

.

. .

. .

.

.

.

.

.

. .

. .

.

. . .

.

.

. . . • . . . . • . . .

O u r new self-cleaning glass . . . . 19 (promote) recently by some of the biggest names in the building industry at the recent Wonderful Homes exhibition. .

SKIL�g

Presenting a product

. .

. .

. .

B

�l)) CD2.66 Listen to a sales manager presenting a product to some buyers. Which of these adjectives does she use?

I]

�l» CD2.66 Listen again to the presentation. How does the sales manager describe the product? Com plete these words and phrases with between one and three words in each gap.

attractive elegant energy-saving fashionable flexible high-quality popular practical reliable robust sturdy stylish user-friendly versatile well-designed

1 It has several special . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 As you can see, it's stylish, . . . . . . . . . . . . and elegant. 3 It's made of . . . . . . . . . . . . and is very sturdy. 4 It weighs approximately 12 kilos, but it's very strong and . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

5 What about its main . . . . . . . . . . . . ? 6 Well, it's very . . . . . . . . . . . . in terms of power and exceptionally quiet .. . 7 Now, a word or two about its . . . . . . . . . . . . for the user. 8 And because the machine's so . . . . . . . . . . . . , it can make cubes of different sizes. 9 It's fairly . . . . . . . . . . . . compared with other models. The . . . . . . . . . . . . is around €320. 10

II

It comes with a full five-year . . . . . . . . . . . . on parts and labour.

Work in small groups. 1

Think of an innovative new product you would like to launch. (You can use the product you discussed in Reading Exercise D.) Prepare a short presentation about the product. Consider its main features and benefits for the user. Use the headings in the Useful language box below to help you structure your talk.

2

Form new groups and present your products to each other. Answer any questions that you are asked about them.

U S E F U L LANGUAGE INTRODUCING THE PRODUCT

STATING THE PRODUCT'S USES

REFERRING TO BEN EFITS

This is our new product.

It's ideal for travelling.

It saves people time/money.

I'm going to tell you about our new product.

It's designed to be used with any type of material.

It's easy to use.

DESCRIBING THE PRODUCT

Let me tell you about its special features. It's made of leather /wood/ steel/ aluminium. It weighs approximately 16 kilos. Its dimensions in centimetres/metres are: ...... high ...... wide ...... deep. It comes in a wide range of colours.

It's for people who like giving parties.

It makes the user look good/ professional.

It's perfect for making different sizes of ice cubes.

INVITING QUESTIONS

LISTING SELLING POINTS

Would anyone like to ask a question?

What about its main selling points?

Any questions?

Does anyone have any questions?

It has several special features. It has a unique design. It's economical/ quiet/ energy-saving. It's great value for money. 117 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

The Ge orge Mar s hall�� .. . .. . . �: Aw ar d s . . ....

.

.

. -

George Marshall Award Nominations We invite you to nominate your product for this year's Best New Product Awards. For entry forms, write to . . .

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-

--

___... ---

Company A

Company B

MUSIC KEYBOARD WITH

PASSWORD MEMORY FILE

LIGHTED KEYS •



Keys light up when you play tunes.



· A simple teaching system is provided. · You learn which note goes with which key. •



The keyboard plays 200 songs.

· An LCD display guides you with the fingering you need for each song.



Keep up to 100 different logins or key codes safely. Use any combination of letters, symbols or figures that you wish. Passwords are limited to 20 characters.

· You press buttons to put in passwords. · You can view your passwords on the screen.

· Two speakers are built into the keyboard. · You learn to play the keyboard quickly and easily. •

Generates and protects your passwords.



LCD

It will generate passwords for you if you wish.

· Price: US$70

Price: US$280

Company D

BUSIN ESS-CARD SCANNER · You put a small device on your keys. · You keep the credit-card-sized transmitter in your pocket or purse.

· The scanner is small and portable. •

It enables you to scan business cards into your computer.

· When you need to find your keys. you press a button on the transmitter.

· It solves the problem of lost or difficult-to-find business cards.

· The transmitter sends a signal to the device on the keys.

· When you receive a business card, you simply feed it into the small scanner.

· Your keys make an audible noise. •

The keys also give out a flashing light.

· The key finder can locate lost keys up to 60 metres away. · Price: US$ 1 9.99

· The scanner stores it directly on your computer. · The images on the card can be changed into text. · The scanner saves you time, because you don't spend hours looking for cards. •

Price: US$95

Company E

WATCH ALARM FOR CHILDREN -



Has a range up to two kilometres.



Helps you to keep an eye on your child.

· Warns you if your child is in danger. •

It has two buttons and an alarm. When the child presses the buttons, the watch gives out a flashing light and also makes a loud noise.





The noise continues for three hours and cannot be turned off, unless the code is known. The watch has an attractive design for young children aged 5-10.

· Young children can operate it easily. They only need to press two buttons. •

Price: US$45

Work in small groups. Choose one of the companies above and prepare a presentation of its product. (Or, if you prefer, think of another product which the company is about to launch.) Invent any information you wish . 2

Form new groups and present your products. Try to persuade your audience that your product is the most innovative and creative. When you are not presenting, play the role of a member of the Selection Committee and ask questions about the products.

3

After all the presentations, discuss which product is the most exciting

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4 0

0

Preparing to do business internationally G)

Discuss these q uestions. 1

Which countries share a border with your country or are your near neighbours?

2

How is their culture different to yours?

3

Thinking about the rest of the world, which cultures do you think are most different to your own? In what ways?

Do this culture questionnaire. Compare your answers with a partner.

a) age/status b) body language c) entertaining d) humour e) showing emotion f) socialising g) time 1

Everything went very, very slowly, and a lot of people arrived late. There was a lot of tea drinking and chatting, but nothing seemed to happen. I wanted to make some decisions.

2

I tried to make a joke at the start of my presentation, to break the ice and make people feel relaxed, but nobody laughed. Everybody was so serious. Nobody asked any q uestions either. But we got the contract!

3

I'm not sure I was taken very seriously, as I'm quite young. It was a bit strange. There were four people at the meeting with us, but only one person - the oldest one- spoke. He asked me when the boss was arriving, even though I told them I was there to make the deal.

4

At the presentation, I couldn't really tell them about the products properly, as they kept interrupting all the time. There was a lot of shouting. Nobody seemed very serious. It was all much too noisy for me.

I N YOUR CULTURE ... 1 What time is the most important meal of the day? a) 1 2 :00-14:00 b) 1 8 :00-20:00 c) 20:00-22:00 d) another time 2 How do you greet business contacts or colleagues when meeting?

3

4

5

6

7

8

a) with a handshake b) with a kiss/hug c) with a bow d) another way Which of the following do you or would you use in business situations? a) first names b) surnames c) titles and first names d) titles and surnames You have a business meeting at 2.30 p.m. What time do you arrive? a) a little before - say 2.20 b) exactly on time c) some time later- say 2.45 In a meeting, do you expect: a) everyone to try and speak? b) everyone to listen while each person speaks in turn? c) only some people to speak? When you are making important business decisions, what is it most important to consider? a) what we did before b) what we are doing now c) what we are going to do in the future How should decisions be made? a) by the boss alone b) by everyone together c) by the boss, but after asking for opinions If you do a job well, who should be rewarded? a) only you b) all the people in your team c) the whole company

G

5 There was a lot of nodding when we were making our offer and we seemed to have a deal. But then suddenly we didn't. It was all very unusual to me. I thought nodding meant 'yes, we agree'.

6

At the drinks reception, I tried to keep the conversation going, but they didn't seem interested. They just looked bored. Maybe they were shy. It was a bit awkward, really - just too quiet for me. In my country, we like a lively conversation. Perhaps they just didn't like me!

7

We had a very stressful meal. After I finished each course, more and more food arrived. I didn't want to be rude, but the more I ate, the more they brought. Some of my colleagues couldn't eat some of the more 'unusual' dishes.

After you have completed the questionnaire, discuss these questions with your partner. 1

Do you think other people from your culture would answer in the same way?

2 Which aspects of your culture are important for business visitors to know about?

Look at the comments below (1-7) made by people doing business in other cultures. Match them to the aspects of culture in the box (a-g).

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WORKING ACROSS CULTURES

G 0

••

PREPARING TO DO BUSIN ESS INTERNATIONALLY

Discuss these questions. 1

Do any of the situations in Exercise D seem familiar to you?

2

Which situation would make you feel the most/least comfortable?

Work in pairs I small groups. 1 Each person should prepare a short talk giving some advice for foreign businesspeople coming to your country. The title of the talk is:

You are going to listen to a talk given by a cross-cultural expert. Food is one example of a visible aspect of culture. What other examples can you think of?

0

�>» CD2.68 Listen to the first part of the talk and check your ideas. What other examples are given?

0

�>» CD2.69 Listen to the second part and answer these questions. 1

What does the speaker say about the following, and how they affect doing business in other cultures? a) the structure of society b) building relationships c) decision-making d) time e) status

2

What general advice does she give for doing business in other cultures?

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'Aspects of my culture that a business visitor might find unusual or difficult.'

Decide where the visitors are coming from and what will be useful for them to know. Look back at some of the earlier sections, and try and include some different aspects of culture. Think about attitudes, habits and behaviour. 2

Listen to your partners' talk(s) and ask three questions.

3 Write some dos and don'ts for business visitors to your partners' country.

10 Managing people VOCABULAR�

Complete this text with in, to, with, about and for. I work i n a small compa ny, so I report d irectly

. . . . . . . . . . . .

business. I respect her a lot. I think she deals .

. . . . . .

.

1

the owner of the

2

her e m ployees firmly

. . . .

but fairly. When we need to talk . . . . . . . . . . . ? a work issue, s he's available, a n d she really listens . . . . . . . . . . . .'' u s . S h e really believes

. . .

.

. . . . .

.

. .

5

h e r e m ployees

and has invested a lot . . . . . . . . . . .6 our p rofessional development. That makes .

us feel loyal to h e r. But it doesn't mean we always agree . . . . . . .7 her. We . .

recently argued

. . .

.

. .

. . . . . . .8 the best way to supply a custom er's o rd e r. B u t .

.

even w h e n w e were arguing, s h e co m m u nicated . . . . . . .

.

..

.

9

.

u s clearly about

why h e r way was the best - and she was right, i n the end. B u t w h e n she does make a mistake, she apologises . . .

REPORTED SP��

SKILLS

. .

. . . .

. .10 it and we move on. .

Choose the best word(s) to complete each sentence. 1

'I want to start the meeting at 10 o'clock.' She says she wants I she's wanted to start at 10 o'clock.

2

'Our new offices are fantastic.' He said that their new offices have been I were fantastic.

3

'The back·up software is working very well.' She said the back·up software wi/1 be I was working very well.

4

'My new job has been a lot of fun.' She told her boss that her new job had been I was a lot of fun.

5

'The company's shares have been performing badly.' The newspaper said that the company's shares had been I were performing badly.

6

'We need to invest in a new intranet server.' She said we needed I we'd need to invest in a new intranet server.

Match each sentence (1-8) to an appropriate response (a-h). 1

Would you like to join us for dinner?

2

What do you like to do in your spare time?

3

Where are you going for your holiday this year?

4 Can you tell me about any interesting places to visit? 5

Can you recommend a good technical writer?

6

Can I mention your name?

7

Thanks very much for your hospitality.

8

Goodbye. All the best.

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a) Do you know Henry Haynes? H e's very good. b) I play tennis a lot. c) I'll be in touch soon. d) It's very kind of you, but another time perhaps. e) It was my pleasure. f) You should try Croatia. It's fantastic. g) I'm going to Paris. h) Sure. Tell him I met you at the Motor Trade Show.

UNIT 0 H REVISION

11 Conflict VOCA B U LARY

Choose the best word in each case to complete the text. Gaining confidence

I calm I nervous 1 learned to be calmness I

When I first started this job a year ago, I felt very calmness giving presentations. I n the past six months, I have calm

I

2

nervous

while presenting, even i n front o f large groups. My

m a i n worry a year ago was that a u d i e nces would t h i n k I was credibility I credible

I not credible 3 because of m y inexperience and

also that audience

m e m bers might turn my presentation into a n argument. I really a p p reciate the patience

I patient I impatient '• of my

manager, who helped me to

u n d e rstand first of all that most aud iences are sympathy

I sympathetic I

unsympathetic 5, and also that giving a very serious, formality I formal I 6 informa/ presentation scares most people. It isn't a sign of weakness I weak

I strong 7,

it's just a natural response to a challenging situation. As a

result of the t ra i n i n g I've received, t h e positive feedback on my presentations has been consistency I consistent I inconsistent 8.

CONDITIONALS

SKI LLS

Complete each of these sentences with the correct form of the verbs i n brackets. 1

If you

2

If you sorted out the reliability problem, we

3

If you

4

I f you paid today, we

5

If he

6

If you sign the contract today, we

7

If you

8

If you give me a better price, I

. . . . . . . . . .

. (offer) us more flexible terms, we'll consider placing a bigger order. .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

(start) ordering again.

(deliver) on time, we'll pay on time. . . . . . . . . . . . .

(give) you an extra discount.

(speak) more slowly, he'd be easier to understand.

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

(start) work tomorrow.

(order) 2,000 or more, we'd give you a discount. . . . . . . . . . . . .

(place) the order today.

Complete the conversation below with the phrases i n the box. I believe I know I'd like I've always met Let's have let's look Why don't

A: 8:

1

I should be paid more.

2

we come back to that later?

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

A: We need to talk about it now

. . . .

8:

Well,

A: And 8:

. . . . . . . . . . .

s

. . . . . . . . . . . .

Yes, but

-'•.

. . . . .

.

. .

I've got

? an excellent sales record.

but .. .

my sales targets. 6

. . . . . . . . . . . .

at this another way. The fact is, the business is in trouble.

A: What do you mean 'in trouble'? 8:

Cashflow. I'd like to pay you more, Tom, but the money isn't there. We've got serious financial problems. 7 to make a suggestion. Why don't you tell me exactly what's going on? I had no idea the business was in trouble!

A:

. . . . . . . . . . . .

8:

. . . . . .

.

. . . .

.8 a break and come back. I'll tell you everything.

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UNIT D ... REVISION

VOCABUtARY

Complete the sentences below with the words in the box. Use the negative form where necessary. best-selling economical fashionable hard-wearing high-performance high-tech long-lasting uncomfortable unreliable unsafe 1 The challenge is to design . . . . . . . . . . . . spectacle frames - ones that make the wearer feel 'dressed up' - that won't seem old-fashioned next season. 2 If a car model is . . . . . . . . . . . . and often needs repair, it will get bad reviews and people will stop buying it. 3

Shoes made for construction workers are tested extensively to make sure they're . . . . . . . . . . . . and will protect workers' feet from injury on site.

4 Owners complained that the driver's seat was . . . . . . . . . . . . , so we've modified it. The new seat can be adjusted to suit the driver. 5 The new . . . . . . . . . . . . motorcycle was launched at a motorsport trade event in Qatar. It's currently one of the fastest bikes consumers can buy. 6 We've solved the manufacturing problem, but we can't find an . . . . . . . . . . . . way to

distribute the product, because it's so large and heavy. 7 Users of . . . . . . . . . . . . products like smart phones and tablets expect them to be well made and attractive. 8

Our . . . . . . . . . . . . product is so popular that we no longer need to promote it. Word-ofmouth advertising means that sales increase every month. Of course, we're very pleased.

9 When we found out the product was . . . . . . . . . . . . after someone was hurt, we discontinued it immediately. 10 One of the most popular features of our new MP3 player is its . . . . . . . . . . . . battery, which can go up to 50 hours between recharges.

PASS !YES

Complete each gap in this text with the appropriate passive form of the verb in brackets. The first pair of Doc Martens shoes . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (make) in Germany in the late 1940s, and in the early 1950s, the first Doc Martens shoe factory . . . . . . . . . . . .2 (open) in Munich. The shoes were so successful in Germany that in 1959, Doc Martens . . . . . . . . . . . ? (market) '' internationally for the first time. Almost right away, the patent rights . . . . . . . . . . . . (buy) by a British shoe manufacturer, and on 1 April, 1960, the now-famous Doc Martens boot with AirWair soles . . . . . . . . . . . .5 (launch). Practical and hard-wearing, the shoes . . . . . . . . . . . .6 (wear) mainly by factory workers and postmen at first, but by the late 1960s and early 1970s, Doc Martens became a fashion accessory for teenagers - and adults - all over the world. In 2003, when sales were declining, Doc Martens' manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . .7 (move) from the U K to China and Thailand. However, in 2007, some production returned to the UK. Today, more than 50 years after the launch of the AirWair sole, Doc Martens shoes and boots . . . . . . . . . . . .8 (love) around the world.

Think of a product you use and like. Imagine that you work for a shop that could sell that product. Write an e-mail (lOG-120 words) to your manager, San jay Singh, describing the product and suggesting that it would be a good item to sell i n your shop. Describe the: •

material



approximate dimensions



weight



colours.

State the product's uses, selling points and benefits. 124

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UNIT D �� REVISION

Cultures 4: Preparing to do business internationally A Match the sentence halves. 1

The most important thing when doing business with other cultures is to be more aware of

2

What is normal for you may seem strange to

3

Be sensitive, to try and notice

4

You can't hope to cover everything, but with a little bit of research, a n open mind and

5

Attitudes to time are also important,

6

Status may be linked to age or connections rather than simply

7 You may try to use humour to make people feel relaxed, 8

a) things and be flexible in your approach. b) not only in relation to things like deadlines, but how long- or short-term the thinking is. c) people a rrive slowly and are often late. There may be a lot of tea drinking and chatting. d) talent or ability. e) but sometimes it doesn't work. f) your own culture. g) people from other cultures. h) an awareness of your own culture, you can go far.

You may want to make decisions, but in some places,

B Complete the sentences below with the words and phrases in the box. body language emotion meals out personal space relationships risk-taking socialising . can be very stressful, especially if you're served 'unusual' foods.

1

.. ....

2

You may find that people show more . . . . . . . . . . . . than you expect, for example interrupting and shouting. There may be a lot of noise.

3

. .

. . .

. . . . . . . . can be very different. You may try to keep the conversation going, but the people you're talking to may not seem interested.

.

.

.

.

4 The idea o f ' . . . . . . . . . . . .' includes how close people stand, and can also include gestures with the hands and touching. 5 6

. . . . . . . . . . . .' refers to nodding or shaking of the head, gestures with hands and facial expressions.

'

Building . . . . . . . . . . . . and developing trust over a period of time are much more important in certain cultures than getting instant results.

7 . . . . . . . . . may be seen in a different way in another culture, so it may take longer than you expect to make decisions. .

.

.

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E-mails E-mails can have a formal business style or a very informal style, similar to spoken English.

To: From: Subject: This semi-formal style is similar to a standard business letter, but less formal and usually shorter. The ending is Best wishes rather than Yours sincerely. This style is best used when you are sending an e-mail to somebody who is outside your company, or whom you do not know very well. The focus is on giving or asking for information quickly.

[email protected] a l i so n .mcd e [email protected] ro.com Cooperation agreement

Dear Tony, To celebrate the signing of the agreement between our two companies, we would like to invite you to participate in our annual sales meeting, which is taking place this year in Honolulu, June

Please feel free to bring another person with you as our guest if you would like to join us. I hope this will b e possible. Please let us know. Best wishes Alison Alison McDermott Product Manager Has Bro Equipment nc. Box

28

Chicago Phone:

IL 60644

001 3 1 2 555 4 1 76

e-mail: [email protected]

The informal style is most suitable for e-mails within your company and for people whom you know well. The greeting is often Hi, Hello or even How are you? Cheers is a common ending, or sometimes the ending is omitted. Sometimes the writer won't use capital letters. The style is much closer to spoken than to written English.

To: Subject:

[email protected] Goodbye party!

Hi Tony It's my last day in the office on Friday, and I ' m giving a small

Sometimes people use abbreviations if they want to save time: CU = see you

goodbye party,

1 6.30 i n room 1 22. Hope you can come.

cu

Jenny

thx = thanks RUOK?

=

7-10.

are you OK?

126

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WRITING FILE

Proposals

The introduction gives useful background information for the proposal.

The objectives say what you want to achieve.

1.' I

I ntrod uction Lyddisa Cosmetics is a successful brand in the European market. The company is now ready to move into other international markets.

I: II

�--�---4 Objectives To enable the company to become an international brand, we propose an investment of €4 million over the next two years.

This section gives details about the plan and the reasons why the actions are necessary.

1---+-e

Options and benefits The Board of Directors has agreed the following investment plan. •





Information about how much money is needed, and how it will be spent.

Market research needs to be carried out in Asia and the USA to identify the best country to move into. Research and development is necessary because we are developing a new range of cosmetics for the international market. An international marketing campaign is needed to increase awareness of our brand. At the moment, the company is not known outside Europe.

Cost Market research Research and development Marketing campaign

This shows the dates when key stages are expected to start/finish.

€350,000 €1 ,400,000 €2,250,000

Schedule Market research: This will start immediately and be completed by

April 1 4th. Research and development: The new product range begins development in May (to be completed by October). Marketing campaign: Online campaign begins in December. An advertising campaign in magazines begins in January and continues until March.

This explains how progress is reported or checked.

Summary •



There is no set layout for proposals. It is a good idea to use headings to organise the information in a clear and logical order.

A presentation to the board of directors on April 1 9th to discuss target markets.

I

I,

Heads of department for market research, R&D and marketing to have monthly progress meetings during the project and present regular reports to the board of directors.

A proposal should answer some of these questions: •

What needs to be done?



Why did you choose the options you selected?



How much will it cost?



When will you start/finish?



Who checks progress?)

127 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

WRITING FILE

Letters

Salutation

Mr Heinrich von Trotta Schneemans AG Hapsburger Platz 1 80333 M u nich

When you know the name of the recipient: Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms/Miss von Trotta Note: I n AmE, Mr., Mrs. and Ms. include a full stop/period, e.g. Mr. von Trotta.

!

European Business Associates 26 Rue de G l ion 1 820 Montreux Vaud Canton

When you don't know the name of the recipient: Dear Sir or Madam (BrE) Dear Sir or Madam: (A mE)

I

3 May 201-

Dear M r von Trotta Re: Invitation to speak at next conference

Main point

On behalf of European Business Associates, we would l i ke to invite you to be a keynote speaker at o u r 'Responsible Technologies for the G lobal Economy' conference p l a n ned for 1 9-21 October next year.

It is a good idea to put the main point at the beginning of the letter. People read the first paragraph carefully, but not always everything else.

European Busi ness Associates is E u rope's leading business­ oriented media production compa ny. We broadcast business programmes for television and radio throughout the European Union, including Business [email protected] every morning from 07.00 on CNM.

Use the pronoun we when writing for your company. This is more formal than /.

We would be very pleased if you would present for us at the conference. As E u rope's leading m a nufacturer of environmentally friendly high-tech equipment, we believe you could help many other companies move in the same direction.

Endings (BrE) When you know the name of the recipient: Yours sincerely

We hope this invitation is of interest and look forward to hearing from you.

When you don't know the name of the recipient: Yours faithfully

Endings (ArnE) Yours truly, Sincerely, Sign the letter with both your first and second names. Then print your name and position under the signature. -

Common abbreviations Re:

regarding

pp

(on behalf of) when you sign the letter for another person

Enc(s). documents are enclosed with the letter cc:

copies (The names of the people who receive a copy of the letter)

128 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

:

WRITING FILE

Reports

A report should be well organised, with information in a logical order. There is no set layout for a report. It will depend on:

The format used here is suitable for formal reports:

a) the type of report



b) the company style.





• •



title executive summary introduction findings conclusion recommendation(s)

Busi ness Software p i c

Product report The executive summary is a summary of the main points and conclusion of the report. It gives the reader a quick overview of the total situation.

The introduction shows the points that will be looked at.

1---- Executive summary

We have been contacted by Lenz AG, a German manufacturer of mobile phones, and asked about the possibility of a cooperation agreement. We would adapt our business software for use in their products. Tests show that their product is a very good one and popular with our target market. f---- Introduction

This report will look at:

The findings are the facts discovered.

1----



the hardware manufacturer and their equipment



software that could be used on their mobile phones



the advantages of working together



recommendations for action.

Findings

Lenz has been developing cheap, small-scale electronic devices for 35 years. In the last five years, they have focused on more expensive mobile phones for businesspeople. These have been very successful. One in four mobile phones for the business market is a Lenz.

The conclusion i s what you think about the facts and how you interpret them. Recommendations are practical suggestions to deal with the situation and ideas for making sure future activities run more easily.

2

Our new 'Executive Organiser' software has a lot of attractive features for the travelling businessperson (e.g. address book, e-mailware, voice recorder, street-finder function, etc.).

3

Market research shows that there is a big interest in our products being used on machines apart from computers.

f---- Conclusion

The two companies have products which fit well together. Recommendation

We should have a meeting with representatives from Lenz as soon as possible to discuss a joint venture between our companies, with the aim of putting our software onto their mobile phones. Tracy Cruickshank Research and Development Director 1 9 October 201 -

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WRITING FILE

I nvestment plans

There is no set layout for an investment plan, but the information should be well organised. The various sections should have a clear heading and be in a logical order.

Tressel Investment Plan 1

Rationale In recent years. Tressel has become one of Europe's leading brands o f sportswear. It is now o n its way t o becoming a global brand. However. in the last two years, sales have declined. causing a sharp decrease in the profits. This has been caused mainly by three factors: fierce competition in the industry bringing prices down; a fall in demand; production problems.

The rationale gives background information relevant to the reasons for the plan.

2 Objectives To remedy the problems outlined above and make Tressel a more competitive business internationally, an investment of €2.5 million was proposed .

3 Options and benefits

The objectives are the goals which your investment will enable you to achieve.

The Board of Directors has agreed the fol low i ng investment plan. •

Firstly, we need to invest in market research. This should give us a better understanding of our target customers· changing needs and desires, which can then guide product development.

This section gives details of the areas you have chosen to invest in and of the benefits they are likely to provide.



Product research and development is the second area that we need to develop, as we have relied heavily on the success of our traditional products. While these will probably continue to account for more than

50% of our turnover in the next two or three years, we will

not stay

ahead of the competition if we do not vary our range. •

Breakdown of the total amount of money invested.

Finally, setting up online sales should widen our customer base, increase sales, and make us more competitive.

t--..

4 Cost Investment in market research Investment in research and development Setting up online sa l es

The timeline shows the period of time during which you expect the various stages of the plan to be reached.

€900,000 € 1 ,300,000 €300,000

Timeline Market research: to be completed in three months' time, i.e. by the end of June.

This section gives information about the mechanism you have put in place to assess the progress made.

R&D: ongoing process to be speeded up from July. Online sales: website up and running by September. --.

6 Evaluation The heads

of the departments concerned

will hand in a monthly progress

report. The Board will then meet to assess the progress made i n all three areas.

130

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WRITING FILE

Notices

Drucker and Drucker SOLICITORS

Notices are used to inform people about changes of plan or to give instructions or warnings.

I'

STAFF N OTICE On Thursday 29 J u ly, there w i l l be a staff a n d

Notices need a clear heading.

}-- r- New York branch of the compa ny.

m a nagement meeting t o d iscuss o p e n i n g a

r-

Notices are used to inform people about changes of plan or to give instructions or warnings.

We look forward to hearing your s u ggestions as

t---

joanna Grey Office Manager 2 6 july 2 0 1 -

Sales leaflets must be clear, simple and easy to understand.

[:

II

to how to ask for volu nteers for relocation.

The name and position of the person who wrote the notice and the date must be included.

Sales leaflets

II

·

·-

��-· - -�

I

. � � �

· ·� �

Sullivan:Js Summer Sun Savers Book your Greek summer holiday before the end of April and save up to

20% on normal prices!

For full information about our range of exclusive Provide some way for the public to contact you.

r---+.... h o lidays, call 0 1 807 476 666 for our FREE brochure.

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131

1

Careers, Skills, Exercise F, page 1 1

Student A Role play 1 1 You work at Lochlin pic. You receive a call for your colleague, Jamie Vincent. Jamie is not in the office at the moment. Take the caller's details and say that Jamie will call them back. 2

2

You are Jamie Vincent. Telephone the person who called about the job advertisement. Offer to send a n application form. The closing date for applications is in two weeks' time.

Career Ladder pic

Some time later, Alex Frantzen calls you back. You want to know more about the course and when the next one starts. Also ask about when you need to register for the course.

NEW FOR THIS YEAR: •



The training specialists

3

Role play 2 1 You want to attend the computer training course which you saw in the advertisement below. Call and ask for Alex Frantzen.



Language training courses IT training courses

Sales training courses

Need to improve your skills to get the right job? Call Alex Frantzen on

0845 32124 3886

Selling, Skills, Exercise A, page 27

Group A: Negotiating tips •









Be friendly. Have clear aims. Tell the other side what you want. Listen carefully.

Pay attention to the other side's body language. Don't change your plan during the meeting. • Never be the first to make an offer. Ask three of your own questions. •

Worki ng across cultures 3, Task, page 91 Student B You are a senior manager based in Europe. You should: • listen carefully to the call leader - he/she will invite you to speak; • try not to interrupt others when they are speaking. • • •



4

You r opinion is that more conference calls are a good idea. They will save a lot of money. You like talking and have a lot to say. You think the technology is very good and getting better all the time. Webcams mean a call is like a real meeting. The company needs to invest in the latest technology. You r suggestion is to have international calls at different times each week, because of different time zones. Your idea is to save money by not offering any extra training courses.

G reat ideas, Skills, Exercise E, page 41

Student C Participant You have the following opinions concerning The Hipster: Selling price: $25 approximately Target consumer: Professional people aged 20-40 Discount of 20% for orders over 100 Special offer for first purchase: Advertising/promotion: Advertisements in upmarket magazines and TV commercials

5

Stress, Vocabulary, Exercise 0, page 45

Advertising executive Firefighter Sales assistant

7.3 6.3 5 .7

Diplomat Hairdresser Architect

4.8 4.3 4.0

132 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

Banker

3.7

ACTIVITY Fl LE

2

Compan ies, Skills, Exercise G, page 19

M I FG Data Head office

Milan, Italy; founded in 1978

Turnover (last year)

€286 million (increase of 10.4% compared with previous year)

Products

Makes and sells clothing, designer shoes, handbags, giftware Target consumer: 20-35-year·olds

Number of stores

28 in Italy, 35 internationally

Workforce

1,800 employees

Reasons for success

Strong brand image; competitive prices; excellent TV advertisements; endorsement by a famous, young Italian model

Mission

To create an exciting lifestyle for its customers

Advertising and promotion

Focuses on TV advertising and on full-page advertisements in fashion magazines

3

Selling, Case study, Task, page 29

Group A You are directors of Megaluxe. These are the points you need to negotiate, together with your negotiating position on each one. Negotiating point

You r position

Length of contract

Three years, then re-negotiate

Suite/rooms

You can offer: Type of room Platinum Suite Gold Standard

Number 1 20

Nights per year 30 100

15 Executive Standard 80 * not enough rooms in Latin America Services

You can offer: Platinum Suite Gold Standard Executive Standard

Location All countries Europe, Asia, but not Latin America* All countries

Breakfast, free bar and all facilities and services, except lunch and evening meals Breakfast + no payment for spa, pool, meeting rooms, business centre, sports facilities Breakfast + no payment for pool, meeting rooms, business centre. All other meals and services require extra payments.

Rates

You can offer these discounts on advertised prices: 10% Platinum Suite 8% Gold Standard 6% Executive Standard

Advertising

You want EPJS to include information about your hotels in all its advertising. You will pay 20% of the advertising costs.

11

Conflict, Skills, Exercise E , page 109

Student A You are the marketing executive. When you joined the company, your boss promised that you would be sent on an overseas posting after one year. He also told you that you would get an excellent bonus and a luxury car for business and personal use. You are very unhappy indeed for these reasons: • You were not selected for a recent posting to Argentina (a colleague from the Spanish subsidiary was chosen instead). • You have been given a middle-of-the range car. • Your bonus was 50% less than you expected. Persuade your boss that you've been unfairly treated. Try to negotiate a better deal with him/her.

133 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

ACTIVITY Fl LE 3

Selling, Skills, Exercise 0, page 27

Student B You are Chen. You want: 1 to buy an additional five deluxe four-seater cars. Negotiate on the price. Try to get a 10% discount on the order; 2 four colours for the two-seater cars: black, white, red and blue; 3 after-sales service: visits every three months from a Pulse mechanic; a training course for a local car-repair firm.

4

Great ideas, Skills, Exercise E, page 41

Student A Chairperson You will lead the meeting. Ask for the participants' opinions, encourage discussion and help them reach agreement. You must decide these points concerning the marketing of The Hipster. 2

1 its selling price 2 its target consumer 3 special offers for first purchase 4 advertising

Companies, Language review, Exercise C, page 18

Student A You are the interviewer for the Sales Manager job on page 18. Ask the interviewee questions based on these prompts: • What I do? • Where I live? 6



What I currently I work on? Describe I typical day • Second interview I next week I what I do I next Tuesday afternoon? Ask three of your own questions. •

Entertaining, Skills, Exercise F, page 57

Student A You are at a conference. You recognise someone you met at a conference two years ago. Introduce yourself and make small talk. Use this information to prepare for the conversation. • You met Student B two years ago at a conference on Customer Care in Frankfurt. • You own a small firm which sells office technology. • It's your first day at the conference - you arrived late last night.



You haven't seen the city yet. You are staying at the Metro pol Hotel in the city centre (a good choice: lovely views; the restaurant and the facilities are also excellent). • You are leaving in three days' time. • You think the conference will be very interesting. Add one other piece of information which you think is important. •

Working across cultures 2, Exercise A, page 60 1 F (Morocco is in North Africa, but has a border with Algeria, not Egypt.) 2 T 3 F (It is common to use French as the language of international business. Moroccans also use Arabic, English and Spanish to do business.)

4 T 5 F (Businesses often close on Friday.) 6 T

7 T T 9 T 10 T 8

Working across cultures 3, Task, page 91 Student A You are the conference-call leader. You should: •







open the call and welcome each person by name; manage the agenda and decide when to move to the next point; invite each person to speak in turn and give their ideas and suggestions on each agenda item (make sure they give their names); sum up at the end and close the call.

You know the company is keen to save money, but it also wants to improve communication within the organisation.

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ACTIVITY FILE

7

New business, Sl
Student A Ask and answer questions to complete the information in these charts. J EXAMPLE: A: WJ-.at > tJ-. e population of Tokyo?

B: TJ-.iriy->ix point >eVen million 0 R TJ-.irty->ix million) >eVen hundred tJ-.ou>and.

Biggest cities (population in millions)

% of households with Internet (2008)

1 Tokyo, Japan

. . . .

2

Delhi, India

22.1

3

Sao Paulo, Brazil

. . . .

4 Mumbai, India

. .

. .

. .

Oldest populations (% aged over 60)

1

South Korea

94.3

1

Japan

.

2

Iceland

87.7

2

Italy

3

Netherlands

. . . .

3

Germany

.

. .

20.0

4 Sweden 5

Norway

. . .

6

Denmark

81.9

5

Mexico City, Mexico

19.5

6

New York, US

. .

.

. . . .

. . . . . . .

.

. . .

Cars per 1,000 people 1

Iceland

.

26.7

2

Luxembourg

664

· · · · · · ·

3

New Zealand

656

4 Sweden

25.0

4

Italy

. . .

5

Finland

24.7

5

Brunei

608

6

Bulgaria

. . . . . . .

6

Malta

.

. . .

.

. .

. . .

.

.

. .

. . .

. . . . . .

All figures taken from The Economist: Pocket world in figures, 2011 edition (Profile 2010)

1 1 Conflict, Starting up, page 104 Add up your score.

Give yourself these marks. 1 2

a) 2 a) 2

b) 3 b) 3

c) 1 c) 1

d) 4 d) 4

3

a) 3

b) 4

c) 2

d) 1

4 a) 4

b) 2

c) 3

d) 1

a) 4

b) 2

c) 1

d) 3

b) 3

c) 1

d) 2

5 6

a) 4

6-11 You need to improve your conflict­ management skills. 12-17 You are quite good at conflict management in certain situations. 18-22 You are good at conflict management in most situations. 23-24 You are excellent at conflict management. You should be working for the Un ited Nations.

Worl
11

4 Andrew did not ask Karim why his company's approach would not work in Morocco. With better information, he might have changed the company's sales strategy. 5 Andrew will probably need more time to achieve his company's aims in Morocco. Decision-making and contact-building may take more time in Morocco compared to some other countries. Also, informal agreements are just as common as written contracts. 6 Andrew's business card should have had Arabic, French and Spanish translations on the back.

Conflict, Case study, Task, page 1 1 1

Student D Staff Representative You strongly believe that the Board of Directors should not recommend acceptance of the offer. These are some of your reasons: • There will be job losses. Big companies always get rid of staff when they buy another company. • UCC will probably close down at least one of the company's packaging plants to reduce costs. • The present Chief Executive will have no power if UCC buys the company. The CE is popular with all the staff. • The company will lose its family atmosphere. I n addition, UCC will probably force all staff to learn English. Add any other arguments you can think of. 135 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

ACTIVITY FILE 11

Conflict, Case study, Task, page 1 1 1

Student A Chief Executive (Herman & Corrie Teas) Ask everyone for their opinion and encourage an open, lively discussion. Take a vote at the end of the meeting. You are undecided whether to accept the offer or not. You are worried about your future role in the company. Would the new owners keep you as Chief Executive? If they do keep you, would you have any real responsibility and decision-making power? Listen to all the arguments, then vote for or against at the end of the meeting. 1

Careers, Skills, Exercise F, page 11

Student B Role play 1 1 You want to apply for the job in the advertisement below. Call lochlin pic and ask for Jamie Vincent. 2

Some time later, Jamie Vincent calls you back. Ask about how you can apply for the job. You also want to know when the closing date for applications is.

Role play 2 1 You work for Career Ladder pic. You receive a call for your colleague, Alex Frantzen. Alex is not available at the moment. Take the caller's details and say Alex will call them back. 2

lochlin pic Sales representatives Exciting new career opportunities for the right people. Hove you got the qualities we need?

You are Alex Frantzen. Telephone the person who called about the training courses. Offer to send an information pack. The next course begins at the start of next month (the 2nd ) . Participants need to register at the latest one week before the start of the course.

Call Jamie Vincent on

020 7946 402 1

I

3

for more information.

Selling, Reading, Exercise B, page 24

The top answer was honesty. 2

Companies, language review, Exercise C, page 18

Student B You are an interviewee for the Sales Manager job on page 18. Answer the interviewer's questions based on these prompts: • Sales Manager I small mobile-phone company • At moment I live I Paris 3



Currently I design sales manual I new staff Arrive office eight I usually check e-mails first I brief sales staff I deal with difficult customers • Next Tuesday afternoon I work I but take time off Make up the answers to any other questions.



Selling, Skills, Exercise A, page 27

Group B: Negotiating tips • •

• •

4

Be strong and try to win. Prepare carefully before you negotiate. Ask a lot of questions. Have a lot of options.

• • •

Summarise often the points you agree on. Change your strategy during the negotiation if necessary. Never show any emotion.

Great ideas, Skills, Exercise E, page 41

Student D Participant You have the following opinions concerning The Hipster: Selling price: $ 1 5 approximately Target consumer: All age groups from 20 years old upwards 5% discount for orders over 50 Special offer for first purchase: Advertising and promotion: Advertisements in national and regional newpaperslmagazines

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Selling, Reading, Exercise c. page 24

3

How to master the art of selling Selling i s a n area of business that many people dislike,

whether it's telemarketing or face-to-face selling. lt takes

2

6

think that you

quite a bit of skill to become an effective salesperson,

the first time that you

but through developing a particular mindset and following

speak to a prospect.

some important advice, you can begin to master it.

Many telemarketers

One of the most important attributes to have when selling

know

is confidence - you must sound and appear confident.

rarely

Remember that many of the most confident people aren't

generate sales, but

inwardly confident, yet they can show confidence on the

instead

outside.

leads. A lead may be

this

and

attempt focus

anything

to on

from

fully understand what they are selling. Make sure that you

obtaining permission

know your product, business and industry inside out.

to e-mail over some

Research suggests that you have less than 30 seconds to

more information to

interact with someone before they form an opinion of you.

organising a meeting in person.

For face-to-face selling, having a professional appearance

7

Never call a prospect or attend a sales meeting without

is vital. For selling over the phone, the first 1 5 seconds

knowing how far you'll negotiate. You should know your

are vital, so make sure you know what you intend to say.

starting point, the point which you won't drop below and

Getting words mixed up or sounding hesitant will result in

a mid-way point which you'll aim for. 8

a bad first impression 5

'

have to make a sale

3 There's nothing worse than a salesperson who doesn't

4

Don t

Finally, seasoned sellers talk of adopting a 'sales

Rejection will happen, but don't take it personally. Too many

mindset'. Don't approach selling with dread, as an area

people focus on this rejection and often end up making

where rejections are commonplace. Selling should be a

contact with fewer prospects than they otherwise would.

challenge. You should enjoy closing deals, making sales,

You will receive setbacks, but the more people you call, the

and each rejection should be looked on as a result -

more leads or sales you'll make. It's a numbers game - hit

you're one step closer to meeting your next customer.

the high numbers, and success will almost always follow.

Working across cultures 3, Task, page 91

adapted from www.marketingminefield.co.uk

Student C You are a senior manager based in Australia. You should: • listen carefully to the call leader- he/she will invite you to speak; • try not to interrupt others when they are speaking. • • •



11

Your opinion is that more conference calls are a bad idea. The technology often does not work well, and this wastes time. You often find it difficult to be on time. You have to leave early on Fridays and you don't work on Mondays. Your suggestion is to perhaps have the calls at different times, but you are not sure. Your view is that some extra training could be a good idea, a lt ho u gh you know it can be expensive.

Conflict, Case study, Task, page 1 1 1

Student B Shareholder A You strongly believe that the Board of Directors should recommend acceptance of the offer. These are some of your reasons: • UCC will provide money to finance new products and entry into new markets, such as China, Russia and the Middle East. • Herman & Corrie Teas will benefit from UCC's advanced production techniques and efficient sales teams. • UCC will encourage innovation, which Herman & C o r ri e Teas needs in order to become more competitive. • UCC has offered to pay a very good price for your shares. You will make a big profit by selling them. Add any other arguments you can think of. 137 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

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Selling, Case study, Task, page 29

3

Group B You are directors of EPJS. These are the points you need to negotiate, together with your negotiating position on each one. N egotiating point

Your position

Length of contract

One year, then re-negotiate if successful, e.g. We'd like a one-year contract. After that, a longer period if we're happy.

Suite/rooms

You want to reserve for your clients: Number Type of room 1 Platinum Suite Gold Standard 10 Executive Standard 20

Services

Rates

Advertising

3

Nights per year 20 50 100

location All countries All countries All countries

You want: Platinum Suite Gold Standard Executive Standard

All meals + hotel facilities/services Breakfast + all hotel facilities Breakfast + pool, spa, business centre

For each rate, you want: Platinum Suite Gold Standard Executive Standard

20% discount on the advertised rate 10% discount on the advertised rate 5% discount on the advertised rate

You will include information about Mega luxe hotels in all your advertising. Mega luxe must pay 40% of the total advertising budget.

Selling, Skills, Exercise D, page 27

Student A You are Martin. You want to: 1 sell Chen some deluxe four-seater models of your cars. Price: €20,000; discount of 5% for first order 2

offer only two colours for your two-seater cars: white and black. Extra colours will raise the price by 5%.

3

send a Pulse mechanic to China every six months to service the cars. You can train local mechanics at a cost of€200 per hour.

11

Conflict, Case study, Task, page 111

Student E Senior Manager You strongly believe that the Board of Directors should recommend acceptance of the offer. These are some of your reasons: • There will be more opportunities for promotion if UCC buys the company. • Herman & Corrie Teas needs a lot more investment to grow and enter new markets, such as China and Russia. These have great sales potential. • The company needs to be more innovative to compete with rival firms. • The company needs new management, new ideas, more energy and to be more risk-taking. Add any other arguments you can think of. 4

Great ideas, Skills, Exercise E, page 41

Student B Participant You have the following opinions concerning The Hipster: Selling price: $10 approximately Target consumer: Young people aged 15-25 Special offer for first purchase: Discount of 10% for orders over 20 Advertisements in magazines aimed at young people Advertising/promotion:

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ACTIVITY FilE 8

Marketing, Skills, Exercise H , page 79

Student B You are the European Sales Manager. You want to do the following when you call the Marketing Director. 1 Tell the Marketing Director when and where the focus group takes place. Details are as follows: Commercial lnstitute Location: 20 Koninginnelaan 2482 BN Amsterdam Date/Time: Thursday, 2 5 August at 10.00 a.m. 2 Note down the names of two people whom the Marketing Director wishes to invite to the focus group. 3 Answer his or her questions about last month's sales results in France. Details are as follows: Total sales: €5.6 million Sales were 9% higher than the same period last year. 6

Entertai ning, Skills, Exercise F, page 57

Student B You are at a conference. You recognise someone you met at a conference two years ago. Introduce yourself and make small talk. Use this information to prepare for the conversation. • You met Student A two years ago at a conference on Customer Care in Frankfurt. • You are the Sales Manager for a mobile-phone company. • You have been at the conference for three days. • You have visited the city (beautiful old castle,

interesting museum, excellent restaurants, but very expensive). • You are staying at a small hotel outside the city (a bad choice: room is small and noisy, and too far from the centre of the city). • You are leaving tomorrow. • The conference is boring- the speakers talk too much and use too many PowerPoint slides. Add one other piece of information which you think is important.

11 Conflict, Skills, Exercise E, page 109 Student B You are the General Manager. You r company is going through a difficult financial period. You have been told to keep costs as low as possible. You know that the executive is very unhappy for these reasons: • They were not chosen for an overseas posting in Argentina. • They have to use a middle-of-the-range car. • They received an end-of-the-year bonus which was below their expectations. Persuade the executive that they have been treated fairly. These are your reasons for the decisions: The executive was not fluent enough in Spanish for the overseas posting. • They need more training in teamwork skills before being posted overseas. • Only senior executives are given top-of the-range cars for work and private use. • All members of staff received small bonuses because of the financial situation. •

Working across cultures 3, Task, page 91 Student D You are a senior manager based in Latin America. You should: • listen carefully to the call leader- he/she will invite you to speak; try not to interrupt others when they are speaking. •









Your view is that you are not sure more conference calls are a good idea. Your experience of conference calls is mixed (some good/some bad). Your opinion is that the technology is difficult to use. You prefer e-mail or face-to-face meetings. Your idea is that calls should be at the same time of day each week or month, so people do not forget. You prefer the morning. Your suggestion is to have a number of training courses for all staff before increasing the number of conference calls.

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New business, Skills, Exercise D, page 71

7

Student B Ask and answer questions to complete the information in these charts.

WJ-,at 15 tJ-,e population of Delhi? A: Twenty-two point one million O R Twenty-two million1 one hundred tJ-,ou5and.

EXAMPLE: 8:

% of households with Internet (2008)

Biggest cities (population in millions)

Oldest populations (% aged over 60)

Cars per 1,000 people

1 Japan 2 Italy

1 Iceland

. . . . . .

1 Tokyo, Japan

36.7

1

2 Delhi, India

. . . . . . .

2 Iceland

.

3 Sao Paulo, Brazil

20.3

3 Netherlands

86.1

3 Germany

26.0

4

Mumbai, India

.

5

Mexico City, Mexico

6 New York, US

South Korea

· · · · · · ·

.....

.

30.5

. 2

669

Luxembourg

. .. .

3 New Zealand

. . .

84.4

4 Sweden

... ... 4

Italy

609

. . . . . . .

5

Norway

84.0

5

Finland

..... . 5

Brunei

. . . . . .

19.4

6 Denmark

... ..

6

Bulgaria

24.5

. .

.

.

6 Malta

Marl
You are the Marketing Director. You want to do the following when the European Sales Manager calls you.

2

11

. .

Sweden

. .

Student A 1

. .

.. .. 4

All figures taken from The Economist: Pocket world in figures, 2011 edition (Profile 2010)

8

. . .

Note down when and where the focus group meeting will take place. Suggest that these people attend the meeting: • Elisavet Efstathiou Tel: (812) 275 6381 E-mail: [email protected] She is a marketing consultant based in Athens, Greece.



Katja Buchholtz Tel: (361) 339 4032 She is Head Buyer for a department store in Munich, Germany. 3 Ask the European Sales Manager about last month's sales results in France. Did they increase or decrease?

Conflict, Case study, Task, page 111

Student C Shareholder B You strongly believe that the Board of Directors should not recommend acceptance of the offer. These are some of your reasons: • Herman & Corrie Teas will lose its identity and principles if UCC buys it. UCC will only be interested in making money. • UCC will change the management. This will not please the staff, who like the family atmosphere in the company. • Many customers will no longer buy Herman & Corrie's products when they find out that a large multinational now owns and manages the company. • A small, privately owned tea company, FTC, contacted you recently. They would like to merge with your company. They have the same values and principles as Herman & Corrie Teas. Add any other arguments you can think of.

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559

.

D

Modals 1 : ability, requests and offers

Form

+

1/You/He/She/ lt/We/They can go.

-

1/You/He/She/lt/We/They can't (= cannot) go.

?

Can 1/you/he/she/it/we/they/go?

Uses 1 We use can and could to: •

make requests.

Can I make a phone call? Could you tell me the time, please? (a little more formal) •

give or refuse permission. You can use my mobile phone. You can't go in there. It's private.





make an offer.

Can I help you? I can take you to the station if you like. describe ability. Paola can speak Chinese. When he was younger, he could (= was able to) run a marathon in under three hours.



say that something is possible or impossible. You can make a lot ofmoney ifyou work hard. I can't get through to them. Their phone's always engaged.

2 We also use could to refer to future possibilities. I think we could increase our market share in the long term. 3 We use would to: •

make requests.

Would you open the door for me, please? •

make offers.



describe imaginary situations.

Would you like a glass of water? I would buy a Ferrari if I had enough money.

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GRAMMAR REFERENCE

IJ

Present simple and present continuous

Present simple Form +

1 /You/We/They work. He/She/It works.

-

1 /You/We/They don't (= do not) work. He/She/It doesn't (= does not) work.

?

Do 1/you/we/they work? Does he/she/it work?

Uses 1 We use the present simple to: •

give factual information about permanent activities. Valentino makes luxury chocolates.



describe a state that doesn't change. He looks like his father. Nothing succeeds like success.



talk about routine activities, repeated actions or habits. This use of the present simple is associated with adverbs of frequency. We usually have our weekly sales meeting on Mondays. I often travel abroad on business. We sometimes get complaints, but not many.

2 There are verbs that we normally use only in simple tenses, not in continuous tenses. For example believe, belong, depend, know, like, love, mean, own, remember, understand, want, etc. These verbs describe states, not actions. It depends on the exchange rate (NOT *It is depending ...) The premises don't belong to them. (NOT *The premises aren't belonging ...) What do they want? (NOT * What are they wanting ...)

Present continuous Form +

I am working. He/She/It is working. You/We/They are working.

-

I

am not working.

He/She/It isn't (= is not) working. You/We/They aren't (= are not) working.

?

Am I working? Is he/she/it working? Are you/we/they working?

Uses We use the present continuous to: •

describe activities in progress at the moment of speaking.

She's talking to him on the phone right now. •



describe temporary situations. The delegation is staying at the Hilton until Friday. refer to future arrangements.

He's starting a new job next week. •

describe changing situations.

We're developing a new marketing strategy. 142 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

II

Modals 2: must, need to, have to, should

1 We often use must, need to and has/have to to say that something is compulsory o r necessary. We must be patient when our goals are for the long term. Companies have to advertise to let consumers know they exist. I need to have the figures before next Monday's meeting.

2 We use had to to refer to a past obligation. When / lived in Tokyo, I had to learn Japanese. 3 We use should and shouldn't to give advice or to suggest the right course of action. A CV should be printed on good·quality notepaper. It shouldn't be more than two pages long. Should often follows the verbs suggest and think. I suggest/think we should aim at the top end of the market.

4 We use should to say that something is likely in the future. Interest rates should come down soon - that's what the economists are predicting.

5 We use don't have to and don't need to if something is not necessary. You don't have to queue up when you buy online. Ifyou buy now, you don't need to pay anything until next year. 6 We use mustn't I must not when things are forbidden or against the law.

Drivers must not park their vehicles by a traffic light. Compare the uses of mustn't and don't have to in this sentence. In many companies, employees mustn't wear jeans, but they don't have to dress formally.

7 We use must to say we are sure of something because of what we know. He must be very rich - he drives a Ferrari.

8 Have to is more common in questions than must. Do we have to make a decision now?

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GRAMMAR REFERENCE

II

Past simple and past continuous

Past simple Form +

1/You/He/She/lt/We/They worked.

-

1/You/He/She/lt/We/They didn't (= did not) work.

?

Did 1/you/he/she/it/we/they work?

Uses 1 We use the past simple to refer to states and actions which finished in the past. He left for Australia yesterday. When I was young, I wanted to be a pilot.

2 The action can be short, long or repeated. They took a taxi to get here. The flight lasted 10 hours. I took the same train every day. 3

Remember that some verbs are normally used in simple tenses only (see Section 2, page 140). They owned five shops in Madrid alone. (NOT *They were owning ...) We didn't know the market forecast. (NOT *We weren't knowing ) Did our guests like the food? (NOT *Were our guests liking ...) ...

Past continuous Form +

1/He/She/lt was working. You/We/They were working.

-

1/He/She/lt wasn't (= was not) working. You/We/They weren't (= were not) working.

?

Was 1/he/she/it working? Were you/we/they working?

Uses We use the past continuous to: •

talk about actions that were not yet finished and continued over a period of time. At that time, we were still trying to solve our recruitment problem. Sometimes this period of time includes another event which is completed.



She had an accident while she was driving to work. I was talking to him on the phone when I heard an explosion. refer to situations that were changing over time in the past. During the 1 980s, many of the older industries were closing down. At that time, we were coming out of recession and things were improving.

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GRAMMAR REFERENCE

II

Past simple and present perfect

Present perfect

Form +

1/You/We/They have worked. He/She/It has worked.

-

1/You/He/She/lt/We/They haven't (= have not) worked.

?

Have 1/you/we/they worked? Has he/she/it worked?

Uses 1 We use the present perfect to: •





talk about actions that continue from the past to the present. We have been in this business for over 50 years. (= We are still in business.) talk about past events that have an impact in the present. Recently, profits have fallen sharply because ofstrong competition. Genova has had to cut costs by reorganising the workforce. talk about life experiences. He's worked in a number of different firms. I've been to London on many occasions. She's never had to lead a team before. (= in her life up to now) Because the time reference includes the present, we use time expressions that refer to both present and past.

So far, we have captured 30% ofthe market. This week, I've written three long reports. Over the last few days, I have had too much work to do.

Present perfect versus past simple 1 We use the past simple for completed actions that happened in the past. Andrew Mason set up Groupon in 2008.

2 Because the time reference is past, we use time expressions that refer to finished past time. Last year, we increased turnover by 15%. Five years ago, we didn't have an overseas subsidiary. She joined the company three months ago. 3 The decision to use the past simple or present perfect depends on how we see the event. I f we see it as related to the present, we use the present perfect. If we see it as completed and in the past, we use the past simple.

I've known Bill for many years. (= We are still in touch.) I knew Bill when I was at college. (= We don't keep in touch.)

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GRAMMAR REFERENCE

�� 1

M ultiword verbs A multiword verb is a combination of a verb and one or two particles (e.g. at, away, down, in, on, up).

2 Types of multiword verbs •

without an object

The photocopier has broken down. Something has come up. (= happened) •

with an object - separable The direct object can come after the verb or before the particle.

Could you turn on the coffee machine? I Could you turn the coffee machine on? •

with an object- inseparable

The director cannot do without his secretary. (NOT *The director cannot do his secretary without.) 3

In many cases, the multiword verb is more informal than its synonym.

How did you find out? (= discover the information) We set offearly. (= departed)

4 Many multiword verbs are idiomatic; in other words, their meaning is difficult to i n terpret. However, it can help if you understand the meanings of the particles. For example: •

away (creating distance) I'm going away next week. Don't run away. I need to talk to you.



on (continuing) Carry on the good work! The meeting went on until seven o'clock.



over (considering) I need time to think it over. Come and see me, and we'll talk it over.



up (completing) Some urgent matters need clearing up. Drink up. We've got to go.

(For further information, consult the Longman Dictionary ofPhrasal Verbs.)

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GRAMMAR REFERENCE

IJ

Time clauses

1 We use time clauses to provide information about actions and events in the past, present and future. Do you remember when you hod your first interview? (past time) When your customers are unhappy, they'll usually tell at least 20 otherpeople. (true all the time) When I find the missing documents, I'll bring them to you. (future time)

2 We use a present tense, not will, to refer to future time in a time clause. Until inflation is under control, planning will be difficult. (NOT *will be under control) Once we finish the project, we'll have more time. (NOT *will finish the project) Can you look at this before you leave? (NOT *will /eave) The share price will rise as soon as we announce the merger. I'll see you when the meeting finishes. 3

Note that: •

a present perfect in a time clause refers to a future situation. I'll get back to you as soon as we hove decided what to do. She'll write to you after/when she's spoken to her boss. We won't know the results until we've received all the sales reports.



while means 'during the time that' or 'at the same time as'. / like to listen to music while I'm working. I was working late at the office while she was out socialising. While I was in Italy, I went to see Alessandro.

for/since/during 1 We use both for and during with periods of time, but the is usually used after during. I haven't seen her for a month. (NOT *during a month) What are you planning to do during the vacation? He fell asleep during the meeting.

2 We use since with points in time. The company has expanded fast since it was founded. Since Martin joined the company two years ago, profits have risen dramatically.

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GRAMMAR REFERENCE

IJ

Questions

Yes/No questions

I n questions that can be answered with either yes or no, we put an auxiliary verb before the subject.

Are you coming? Can you drive a truck? Do you know his name? Did you arrive on time? Have you heard the news? Will you have time?

Yes, I am. I No, I'm not. Yes, I can. I No, I can't. Yes, I do. I No, I don't. Yes, I did. I No, I didn't. Yes, I have. I No, I haven't. Yes, I will. I No, I won't.

Open questions 1 We use question words such as what, who, where, when, why and how to ask for more information. The question word comes before the auxiliary verb. To ask about:

We use:

a thing

What is the brand name? Which door is it?

a person

Who is the ChiefExecutive?

a place

Where do you come from?

a reason

Why are you putting up your prices?

a moment in time

What time did the meeting start? When did the goods arrive?

a period of time

How long did you stay in Beijing?

the number of times

How many times have you been to China?

quantity (with plural nouns)

How many cases did you order?

quantity (with uncountable nouns)

How much money do you have on you?

the way you do something

How do you manage to read so quickly?

2 We use what if there are many possible answers and which if there are fewer possible answers. What is their policy? Which of these cases is yours? 3

If who or what is the subject of the sentence, the word order is the same as in a statement.

Who looks after the travel arrangements? What happens when things go wrong? 4 If who, what o r which asks about the object, we put the auxiliary before the subject. Who shall / get in touch with? What number did you ring? Which restaurant have you chosen? 5 The question word how can be followed by an adjective or adverb. How big is the warehouse? How good is your Spanish? How well do you speak Spanish? How far is the hotel from here? How often do you travel abroad?

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GRAMMAR REFERENCE

IJ Talking about future plans

1 We use the present continuous for future arrangements. What are you doing next weekend? We 're visiting our suppliers next week.

2 We also use going to for arrangements, plans and intentions. What are you going to do next weekend? We re going to visit our suppliers next week. I'm going to talk to you today about my company. '

3 But we do NOT use the present continuous to make predictions for the future. Compare: The transport strike is going to cause a real problem. (= This is anticipated for the future.) The transport strike is causing a real problem. (= The strike has started and the effects are present.)

4 Some verbs, like anticipate, expect, look forward to, hope and plan, automatically refer to the future. These verbs can be used in either the simple or continuous form. / look forward to seeing you soon. I am looking forward to seeing you soon. We hope to do better next year. We are hoping to do better next year. We plan to attract more foreign investment. We are planning to attract more foreign investment.

Other future forms 1

Will is very often used for predictions. The forecast says that tomorrow will be warm and sunny. I don't think they will complain. She won't like what you've written about her.

2 We use the contracted form 'II to make spontaneous offers. I'll help you write the report ifyou like. (= I'll help you now, o r when you want me to help you.)

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II!]

Reported speech

We use reporting verbs like say, tell and ask to report what other people say.

1

Reporting words just said In this case, the situation is still present. The boss says she wants to see you immediately.

2 Reporting words said in the past •



Words that are said in one place at one particular time may be reported in another place at another time. Because of the change in time, there may be a change of tense or modal auxiliary. A different pronoun is used to suit the context.

Actual words

Reported words

'We are not going to panic.'

He said they were not going to panic.

'I left my briefcase at work.'

She said she (had) left her briefcase at work.

'I've already spoken to her.'

He said he had already spoken to her.

'We won't know before Friday.'

She said they wouldn't know before Friday.

'I

can't give you a lower price.'

He said he couldn't give me a lower price.

Would, could and should do not change. 'I would tell you if I could.'

She said she would tell me if she could.

'You should be more careful.'

He said I should be more careful.

3 Say versus tell •



We do not usually use a person object (me, us, etc.) after say. She said she would come later. (NOT *She said me ...) But after tell, we indicate who receives the information. She told me she would come later. (NOT *She told she would ...)



We can use that directly after say, but not directly after tell. He said that he understood the reason. (NOT *He told that .. .)



Tell also means 'to inform' or 'to instruct'. He told me he was interested in my proposal. She told me to hurry up.

4 Reporting questions We use ask (with or without an object) to report questions. Note the word order in the reported question: (1) question word (2) subject (3) verb.

Reported words

Actual words •



in open questions (When /Why /How /What /etc.): 'When do you want to take your vacation?'

He asked (him) when he wanted to take his vacation.

'How long is the conference?'

He asked (her) how long the conference was.

in yes /no questions: 'Do you want to take your vacation in July or August?'

He asked (him) if /whether he wanted to take his vacation in july or August.

'Will you be able to attend the conference?'

He asked (her) if/whether she would be able to attend the conference.

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GRAMMAR REFERENCE

m Conditionals First conditional

(if+ present simple, will + infinitive without to) In these two examples, the speaker feels that there is a real possibility that they will increase their order and that their visitors will be late.

If we increase our order, they'll give us a higher discount. If our visitors are late, we won't be able to take them to the theatre.

Second conditional (if+ past simple, would + infinitive without to) 1 When the situation is less likely to happen or be accepted, we use the second conditional. If we had more money to spend, we would be interested. (but we don't)

2 Sometimes the condition is logically impossible to fulfil. If he was the Queen of England, he' d sell Buckingham Palace.

Points to remember 1 The position of the if clause and the main clause can be changed. I would lend him some money if he needed it. Ifhe needed it, I would lend him some money.

2 We cannot use will or would in the if clause. *If I will go to Japan, I'll probably go to a tea ceremony.

knew

*If I weuldkAew the answer, I would tell you. 3

It is possible to use If I were rather than If I was, especially when giving advice.

If I were the Minister of Finance, I'd reduce taxation. If I were you, I'd buy those shares now. 4 Instead of would, we can use might o r could, depending on the meaning. If he relaxed more, he might enjoy this new challenge. If he wanted to, he could become CEO.

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GRAMMAR REFERENCE

m

Passives

Form

+

It's done. It's being done. It was done. It has been done. It will be done.

-

It's not done. It's not being done. It wasn't done. It hasn't been done. It won't be done.

?

Is it done? Is it being done? Was it done? Has it been done? Will it be done?

Passives can also be formed with modal verbs.

Can it be done? It can't be done. It should be done. It

would be done.

It might be done.

Uses 1 We choose a passive structure when we focus on the action itself rather than who performs the action. Tea is grown in Sri Lanka. Our quality procedures are strictly monitored. The new machine has been installed.

2 We can use by to mention who performs an action. All her clothes are designed by Armani. The first computer was invented by Alan Turing. G-Shock is a brand of watch which is manufactured by Cosio. 3 We often use the passive to describe a process, system or procedure, as in the extract below.

Naming a new product Before a product is launched, focus groups are set up and a name is chosen. Potential consumers are asked to give their impressions, and these are matched against the desired brand image. Once the name has been decided, it must be registered so that it cannot be used by other manufacturers.

4 We often use the passive in impersonal constructions beginning with it. These constructions are frequently found in reports and the minutes of meetings. It was agreed that the budget should be increased. It was decided to implement the new policy immediately. (or It was decided that the new policy should be implemented immediately.) It was felt that an early decision had to be made.

152 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

U N IT 1 CAR E E R S COl TRACK 1 PERSON 1

Well, for a long time, I think I was very ambitious - you know, wanting to get to the top and to earn as much money as possible. But then I decided that other things are more important. I recently decided to take a career break, so I'm travelling for a year and doing some unpaid work. I want to sec something of the world and look at my options. Everyone at work says it's not a very good career move, but it's what I want to do. All my friends think I'm mad, but I think I have time. I'm only in my thirties, after all.

COl TRACK S A: Good morning, VTS. Which department, please? B: I'd like to speak to Corina Molenaar in Human Resources, please. A: TI1ank you. Hold on. I'll put you through. C: Hello. Human Resources. B: Hello. Is that Corina Molenaar? C: Speaking. B: Yes, I'm phoning about your advert in Careers Now. Could you send me an application form, please?

C:

Certainly. Can I take some details? Could you give me your name and address, please?

COl TRACK 2 PERSON 2

B: Yes, sure, it's Sophie Boitcaud, which is B-0-I-T-E-A-U-D.

It's been very difficult, l think- to get a start without much experience,

COl TRACK 9 A: Hello. Could I speak to Giovanna, please? B: I'm afraid she's not here at the moment. Can I take a message? A: Yes, please. This is Johan from lntcc. Could you tell her I won't be

you know. It's the chicken-and-egg situation - you can't get a job without experience, and you can't get experience without a job. TI1e career opportunities everybody talks about are not really happening for me. Maybe the problem is that I don't really have a career path in mind. I'm

And my address is ...

able to make the training course on Saturday? She can call me back

still not really sure what I want to do in the long term. I've done different things, but they don't seem to lead anywhere. I don't really know where l"m going. Studying at university made a lot of sense at the time, but now I'm not so sure. l don't feel very prepared for my working life.

COl TRACK 3 PERSON 3 Well, I suppose 1 always had a career plan, and for me it seems to have been successful. I first worked for the company part time when I was a student, part of a work placement, which 1 organised myself. I always wanted to

work in this area and only really for one company. TI1ey offered me a full­ time job, and then I worked my way up the career ladder from trader to

associate to manager to director. I'm now a partner. Maybe it's a bit unusual these days to only work for one company, but for me it's ali i wanted. It's only been 1 7 years, but I'm going to take early retirement next year and buy a boat.

COl TRACK 4 (I = INTERVIEWER, M F = MELISSA FOUX) 1:

Can you tell us about your job?

MF: l.'m currently the Finance Director of CSC Media Limited, Chart Show Channels Group, which is the largest independent television business in the UK. We have a mixture of 16 channels - some arc music, some are children's and some are movie channels.

1:

What was your previous job?

MF: I was previously the Finance Director of a chocolate-pudding business, so very different from television. But, um, tl1e good thing about being in the finance world is tl1at it's relatively easy to move from sector to sector. TI1e basic skills that you need are, are similar in each case.

COl TRACK 10 (K = KARL, M = MAn) M: Hello, Matt speaking. K: Hi, Matt. Karl here. M: Oh, hello, Karl. How arc you? K: Fine, thanks. Listen, just a quick word. M: Yeah, go ahead. K: Do you think you could let me have the other number for Workplace M: K: M: K: M:

Solutions? I can't get through to them. TI1eir phone's always engaged.

Er, I've got it here. It's 020 9756 4237.

Sorry, I didn't catch the last part. Did you say 4227? No, it's 4237. OK. Thanks. Bye. No problem. Bye.

COl TRACK 11 OR = J UANA RAMOS) EXTRACT 1 JR: TI1e children will be no problem. I'll probably send them to an international school in Sao Paulo. My husband's a writer, so he can work anywhere. I've got a career plan; l want to get to the top. I think I can do that and be a good mother as well. You have to be well organised, of course, and be a bit selfish at times.

COl TRACK 12 OR = JUANA RAMOS) EXTRACT 2 JR: How can we increase sales in the three markets? Well, I'll be checking reps targets, and if they meet them, they'll get good bonuses. The

How did you get into finance as a career?

MF: When I was a student, although l was studying chemistry, I thought I would like to do something, er, di!Terent afterwards, and I actually

did a summer internship with one of the big accountancy firms, urn,

managers will also have to meet their targets. lf they don't, they should start looking for a new job. TI1e main aim of a sales manager is to make money for the company, isn't it?

which was, which was an excellent way to get an understanding of

COl TRACK 13 (CF = CHANTAL LEFEVRE)

through that experience that I got my first job.

CF: My son is only five, but he'll come with me if l get the job. His father

what the job would be like. I started ofT as an auditor, and it was, it was

EXTRACT 1

won't be at all pleased, but he can't do anything about it. I could leave

COl TRACK 6 (I = INTERVIEWER, MF = MELISSA FOUX) 1:

B : OK. TI1ank you. Bye.

the performance of the managers and sales reps carefully. I'll set the

COl TRACK 5 (I = INTERVIEWER, MF = MELISSA FOUX) 1:

if there's a problem. I'm on 0 1 9 1 498 005 I .

my son with his grandparents, but I don't want to do that. I'm sure he'll

Have you had any good advice during your career?

MF: Um, yes, I've had lots of advice during my working career. I think the thing that stands out is, really, not to overcomplicate things. Um,

be all right in a Brazilian school. Children adapt very quickly to new places. It won't be a problem for me or him.

especially in the finance world, people can get bogged down in a lot

COl TRACK 14 (CF = CHANTAL LEFEVRE)

of detail, and it's important to try and maintain clarity and always be

EXTRACT 2

able to see above all the numbers that you're given and all the data, and

CF: What's the best way to improve the performance of the sales teams?

what is really the key point and the key decision you have to make.

COl TRACK 7 (MF = MELISSA FOUX) MF: What I found, in coming across people who've applied for positions in the companies I've worked, um, in, is ... the key difference is, people who've done a lot of research on the companies that they've applied

Well, I'll work closely with the sales managers, try to get a good relationship with them. And I'll look at the commissions we give the sales reps. Are they high enough to motivate them? I'll check the reps' progress regularly. Also, I'll make suggestions about improving the customer database, that's very important.

to. People have taken the time to, not just read company accounts, but, you know, research on what the company is moving into, and arc able to really ask those interesting questions at interview. It makes all the

difference. So 1 say, research is the key.

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AUDIO SCRIPTS COl TRACK 15 OS = JEFF SANDERSON) EXTRACT 1 JS: What kind of person am I ? \.Yell, people often say I'm a loner because I've never married. But I think I'm fairly sociable. I'm definitely a

bit of an intellectual. 1 have many interests - literature, music, um,

world cinema, travelling abroad and getting to k now other cultures. Perhaps that's why I've never married or had children.

COl TRACK 16 QS = JEFF SANDERSON) EXTRACT 2 JS: 1 have the experience and skills to improve our performance in these markets. I'd send the sales teams on team-building courses and have

regular meetings with the three sales managers. lhe job would be a big challenge for me at the end of my career with our company. Of course, I've studied the cultures of the three countries, so

I should have no

problems working with the sales teams.

U N IT 2 COM PAN I E S COl TRACK 17 I am pleased to say the parent company has continued its excellent

performance. We arc changing, growing and doing well at a diflicull

I think the other thing which I find very satisfying is creating a team ethic and watching the people grow, and watching people develop and work towards the goals that you set as a business, and work as a team and get enjoyment out of that, and develop as people and as businesspeople within the organisation.

I: And least? SB: I think least is probably the relentlessness of the role as a chief

executive. You're never actually offduty, and a business like ours, which is a food-manufacturing company, it's running 364 days a

year, so there's always something to be responsible for and something

that's happening within your organisation. So 1 thjnk that can be quite tiring. And also, the other thing that sometimes can be wearing, is it is

quite a lonely life. You know, )'OU have to make decisions, sometimes

you can't talk to other people about them, and they have to be your decisions.

COl TRACK 21 (I = INTERVIEWER, SB = SUSAN BARRATT) I: What lessons have you learned from the companies )'Ou'vc worked for? SB: I've learned a lot oflcssons from the companies I've worked for. I think the key thing is that you have to make sure your people in the organisation are engaged with the organisation and have a clear

time for the industry. Turnover was €57.2 million, an increase of IS%

understanding of what that organisation is trying to achieve. If you can

on last year, and net profit rose by 5% to €6.4 million.

get that clarity of direction and enthusiasm from the people within the

We arc a highly competitive business. We have increased our market share to 20%. Consequently, our share price has risen and is now at an all-time high ofC9.6. Increased production and strong demand have had a positive ell'ect on

organisation, then that will help move the business forward in itself.

COl TRACK 22 (RP = ROBERT PULLIN) RP: Good morning, everyone. 1l1anks for coming to my presentation.

our cashflow, so we arc able to fi11ancc a number of new projects. 'vVc have

My name's Robert Pullin, I'm the Director of Human Resources at

successfully moved to our new head office in central London. We are now

You can then decide ifyou'd like to work for us in the future. First,

planning to start full production at the recently opened Spanish subsidiary in October. Finally, thanks once again to our loyal and dedicated workforce. Our employees will always be our most valuable asset.

I'll give you some basic information about DCV Fashions. After that, I'll explain why we've been so successful in the fashion industry. Next, I'll tell you about our mission statement. 1l1is describes what we're all about, why we're in business. And finally, I'll explain how we

COl TRACK 18 (I = INTERVIEWER, SB = SUSAN BARRATT) I: Can you tell us about your company? SB: Nature's Way Foods is a food-manufacturing company based on the south coast of England. We put chilled product, the majority of which is lettuce and fruit, into various types of packaging for the major retailers and various food-service companies in the UK. Examples of retailers would be Tesco\ J'v!orrison's and Waitrose, and in terms of food-service companies, our biggest customer is McDonald's, which I'm sure most of you will be familiar with.

communicate with people through our advertising and promotion.

COl TRACK 23 (RP = ROBERT PULLIN) RP: OK, some basic facts. We were founded in Florence in I 990. 1l1at's where we're currently based. Since then, we've expanded at a very fast rate and established our brand worldwide. We make and sell clothing and fashion accessories for the 18 to 30 age group. Please take a look at the chart. It shows our financial performance over a five-year period. As you can see, last year, our turnover was over 300 million curos and our net profit approx imately 28 million.

CD1 TRACK 19 (I = INTERVIEWER, SB = SUSAN BARRATT)

1: What arc the reasons for the company's success? 58: lherc are various reasons for the company's success. I think one of

What's the key to our success? Well, I'd say there are three reasons we've grown so rapidly. We have a very talented team of young designers. Our distribution system is first class. And we're very creative

the major ones is the markets in which we operate. lhere are some,

when advertising and promoting our products.

what we call 'big marketing themes; which arc: health, convenience,

Moving on now to our mission. It's to be a dynamic company,

sustainability and indulgence. We think the products we produce in

constantly changing but always leading fasruon. Fun, youth, action,

both leaf and fruit fit a lot of those themes. So a majority of the UK

energy - this is what our brand is all about.

population have a desire to eat healthy products. 1l1ey tend to be

Finally, a word about our advertising and promotion. DCV advertises

what we call 'time-poor', i.e. they haven't got much time in their lives

on all the Italian TV networks, as well as those in other major

for creating great food, so they want to be able to buy a convenient

European markets. It sponsors fashion shows, and its products arc

product of good, healthy food.

endorsed by many celebrities in the world of music and sport.

1l1cre was also a theme for sustainability, so people want to feel like

Well, I hope you'll be interested to learn more about our company.

they are contributing towards a sustainable world, and a lot of our

Thanks very much for listening to my presentation. Are there any

product has a fairly low level of what we call food miles and therefore is fairly sustainable. Some of our products also have a fairly indulgent feel, so the UK

population, cr, has a habit of wanting to be indulgent at certain times. So they might diet on a Monday to Friday, but when it gets to Friday

questions?

COl TRACK 24 (PC = PAOLO CONTI, OM = DONNA MARTIN, BK = BILL KINGSLEY) PC: It's true our results haven't been good, our pre-tax profits have fallen once again. It's all very worrying. Well, we know one of the reasons:

night, they will have several pieces of cake and maybe a few drinks.

our two main competitors have been cutting their prices, so our prices

I think the other reason for our success is the way we run our business.

are beginning to look rather high. TI1ey've also been increasing their

We arc a high-volume business, so we're producing hundreds of

advertising spend lo get a bigger market share. But it doesn't explain

millions of units, so we need to be very efficient in the way we produce

everything, does it? How do you see things, Donna?

them. So we've invested heavily as a business in systems and processes,

to make sure we are very efficient in the manner in which we produce the products for our customers.

OM:l t's not a crisis, Paolo, but we do need to make changes as fast as possible. 1l1e way I see it, we don't offer a very wide range of flavours; that's not helping us, and our packaging isn't very exciting. It gives the wrong impression. It could be the reason why our classic product isn't

COl TRACK 20 (I = INTERVIEWER, SB = SUSAN BARRATT) 1:

DCV Fashions. My purpose today is to talk to you about our company.

When running a company, what have you enjoyed most and least?

SB: I think most is achieving what you set out to achieve. So when you're running a company, one of your key objectives, or key roles, is to set the strategy for the company, and then make sure the building blocks arc in place to achieve that strategy. And that l find very satisfying - to set a clear goal for the business and then watch the business, and help

selling as well as it used to. OK, so what do we need? More products and more outlets. We must reach more than the big supermarkets and our own icc-cream stores. Also, it'd be a good idea to upgrade our equipment and storage facilities . . . maybe our ncct of trucks as well - they're terribly out of date.

the business go and achieve that goal.

154 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

AUDIO SCRI PTS PC: Mmm, plenty to think about there, Donna. How about you, Bill? BK: Well, I'd say innovation is the key. Y.ie need more new products, exciting new products people will want to buy. Don't forget, people are

CDl TRACK 31 (I = INTERVIEWER, SL = SUE LEESON) 1:

health conscious these days. So how about bringing out some fat-free . navours, I 00% f1t free, made from natural ingredients, no additives?

consumers. So if a customer wants to buy a sk in care product at

Another thing, Paolo, we need to be more green, to do more for the

item, she can now go down to our website, she can browse through

I 0 o'clock at night, and perhaps on air we're showing a gardening

environment. You know, recycle our containers, take the fat out of our

the range of products online that suit her at that moment in time, she

waste products, then give the pure water to local communities - that

can see an image of the product, she can see the product description,

sort of thing. Maybe donate money to charities, like a heart or cancer

she can see what other customers think about the product through

foundation. 1l1at'd improve our image for sure.

our ratings and review service, and as well she can sec the video demonstration. So it opens up our range of I 5,000 products to the

U N IT 3 S E L L I N G

customer at any time, day or night.

COl TRACK 25 EXTRACT 1

! like shopping for things I'm interested in buying, like clothes, but I really

hate going to the supermarket.

CDl TRACK 32 (M = MARTIN, C = CHEN) M: So your plan is to provide electric cars in your town centre. People will rent them to do their shopping, go about their business and so on.

I just find it really boring, walking round

and round looking for things. Supermarkets don't seem very well organised for customers. They have fruit and vegetables near the entrance, but then

Right?

C: Yes, pollution is a big problem here. We're trying all sorts of ideas to

reduce it. We're interested in starting with l O electric cars. I fit works,

heavy things arc further away and they move things around, which makes it

we'll increase the number later on. I see from your price list that a

dinicult. OJi·en the stall" don't know where things are and can't help you!

COl TRACK 26 EXTRACT 2 I love the Internet for shopping. l buy lots of things on it. It's just so easy

standard two-seater car will cost about tJ 2,000. Is that correct?

M: Yes, the price includes transport and insurance costs. If you order I 0 vehicles, you'll be paying us about E: I 00,000, minus the 2% discount we ofl"er a new customer. But if you increased your order, we could ofTer a much higher discount.

and convenient. Most retailers now work online. You can compare prices

and products so easily. I also like the auction sites like eBay - you can get

some real bargains. Some people say it's risky to shop this way, things can

go wrong, but I've never had a problem. A lot of my friends like shopping

C: OK, how much would that be? M: Well, for an order of20 or more vehicles, the discount would be 5%. C: I sec. Let me think about it. What about delivery? We'd like to start the

malls, but I really hate them. 1l1ey're always so crowded, and they make

customers waiting for delivery. We could possibly deliver by late

COl TRACK 27 EXTRACT 3

August, all being well.

I enjoy the experience of shopping - you k now, being a customer, being made to feel special. I prefer specialist shops where service is more personal, where people remember you, know your name and can help

I also like trying to get discounts when I'm shopping, actually doing a

deal with the assistants. I really enjoy shopping for shoes. I don't think it's something you can do on the Internet, although l know people do.

COl TRACK 28 (I = INTERVIEWER, SL = SUE LEESON) 1:

programme in June if possible.

M: Mmm. To be honest, that's a bit early for us. We've got a lot of

me feel tired.

you.

C: Mmm, that might be OK, if you can guarantee delivery by then. M: I 'd have to discuss it with our production department. I'll get back to you on that.

C: Good. How about the warranty? We'd like a long period. M: I t s for two years - that's what we normally oflcr. C: Only two years? You know, if you could oA"er us a longer warranty, we'd '

be delighted. How about five years?

M: Mmm, that's much longer than normaL It could be all right, as long as

What docs QVC do?

you pay more for the longer period. I don't know. ! ' I I check with my

SL: QVC is a global multichannel retailer. We sell products across a wide variety of categories, from food through to fashion, through to accessories, through to beauty, to gardening and DIY. And we sell to consumers in Germany, Japan, USA, UK and Italy, and we sell both

colleagues, I can't give you a decision right away.

C: OK. What about payment? Do you oAer credit terms? M: I'm afraid not. It's company policy for a new customer. We need payment by bank transfer on receipt of the goods. Oh, and we ask for a

through our - the television and online.

CDl TRACK 29 (I = INTERVIEWER, SL = SUE LEESON) I: What's the secret of a really good sales presentation? SL: Firstly, having a product that you can easily demonstrate and a product that has a good story behind it. Secondly, that the person who's actually giving the sales presentation can engage with their audience in a credible fashion, can tell the story very clearly and can demonstrate the features and benefits of each product in a very clear and easy-to­

1:

understand way. Can you give us a n example o fh o w you develop a sales pitch?

SL: First of all, it's all in the preparation, so it's all about knowing the product inside and out, what the product can do, what it can't do, when it is suitable, when the product isn't suitable, and then be able to demonstrate the product to its best advantage in a very clear and precise fashion, but also in an engaging way. What was QVC's most successful product sale, and why?

SL: We have many successful product areas. One of our strongest is beauty. Beauty works so well on TV for two reasons. First of all, each beauty brand has a fantastic story behind it, and we can really bring life to the brand and to the product presentation through telling that story in a very engaging way.

A down payment as well, I see . . . Right. Well, I think we've covered some of the main points. How about some lunch now? After lunch, I'd like to discuss after-sales service, it's important for us that you give us reliable sales support . . .

COl TRACK 33 (DE = DIRECTOR EP)S, DM = DIRECTOR MEGALUXE) DE: I suggest the first item should be the length of the agreement. We need to agree how many years we want it to be for, and after that let's talk about the number of rooms you want, and what types of rooms you'd like to reserve for your customers. OK? DM:Yes, that makes sense to me. First the length ofthe contract, and then the number and type of rooms. After that, 1 suppose services come

next. That item could take some time to discuss.

DE: Yes, I think it'll take the most time. So, services will be the third item about advertising' DM :No, I think that should come later. We need to talk about the rates next and especially any discounts you can oner on your listed prices.

DE: OK, rates can come before advertising. We'll probably have quite a long discussion about discounts, so I'll make time for that. And then finally, we can talk about advertising costs.

I hope that won't take too

long. How's that?

skincare product, like a moisturiser, we can show how to apply it, how

And secondly, each product is very easy to demonstrate. So if it's a

DM :That's fine. I'm happy with the agenda. I think it covers all the main

much to apply in order to give the best efrects. Finally, we add another

DE: Good. Sec you next week, then. Goodbye.

layer to our sales presentation in that we may invite the expert behind

1:

down payment of20% of the value of the order.

C:

on the agenda, and I'll allow quite a bit of time for that. Next, how

COl TRACK 30 (I = INTERVIEWER, SL = SUE LEESON) 1:

How has online shopping altered the way you sell?

SL: It's given us a fantastic opportunity to sell in a difl"crcnt way to our

that product to tell the story.

points we need to talk about. DM: Bye.

Arc some types of product easier to sell than others?

SL: Yes, and in fact some products are very difficult to sell on our business model. So take fragrance, for example. Clearly the main, cr, piece you want to communicate with a fragrance is how it smells, and that can be very challenging to do through a television environment.

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AUDIO SCRIPTS WORKI N G ACROSS CULTURES 1

U N IT 4 G R EAT I D EAS

CD1 TRACK34

CD1 TRACK 37

Many of you will travel t o foreign countries o n business or go to

Great ideas are generated in different ways. Sometimes an idea may simply

international conferences and sales fairs. Some of you may end up

be when a company takes advantage of an opportunity to extend its

living and working in a foreign country. For all of you, cultural and

product range, to offer more choice to existing customers. Or a great idea

social awareness will be important if you want to become effective

could allow a company to enter a market which was closed to it before.

communicators when you're abroad. Today, I'm going to look at saying

Companies which are prepared to spend a lot on R&D may make a

'no' politely.

breakthrough by having an original idea for a product which others later

Whenever you say 'yes' to a request, you arc doing so at a cost. That cost

copy, for example Sony and the Walkman.

is usually your time. Sometimes you just have to say 'no: I remember two

On the other hand, some products arc developed in response to customer

embarrassing occasions when I had to say 'no'. One was in Finland, when

research. They come from customer ideas. 'TI1ese products arc made to

a business friend invited me to a sauna. I just felt uncomfortable. The

meet a need, to satisfy consumer demand. Or the product does something

other was in Hungary, a country where it's sometimes OK to share private

similar to another product, but faster, so it saves time. Some people will

details. Someone asked me something rather personal. Again, I felt a bit

buy new products because the product raises their status - gives them a

uncomfortable.

new, more upmarket image.

In the first part of my talk, I'm going to look at five tips for saying 'no' politely. Firstly, pay attention. Listen carefully and make sure you don't say 'no' before the other person has even finished making their request. Listen to the request with an open mind. Secondly, offer alternatives. You may even be able to recommend someone else who is more suitable. Thirdly, show sympathy if someone asks you to do something that you can't do. Show that you genuinely wanted to help.

CD1 TRACK38 Other people will buy any 'green' product whicl1 reduces waste or protects the environment, even if it is more expensive. If an idea is really good and the product fills a gap in the market, it may even win an award for innovation.

COl TRACK 39 (I 1:

=

INTERVIEWER KP ,

=

KATE PITIS)

In your opinion, what were the best business ideas of the last

I S years?

KP: I've thought about this for quite a long time and, in my opinion, it's a service and two products. 'TI1e first is eBay, and this works for me

Next, be as clear as possible to avoid misunderstandings. Don't say 'maybe'

because it provides individuals and small businesses with a channel to

when you really mean 'no:

market that didn't exist before. It started in the dot-com boom and has

And finally, avoid long reasons and excuses. Sometimes the less you say,

been extremely successful, with a turnover in 2009 of $2.4 billion. It's

the better.

not a new idea though - running an auction is almost as old as society.

The times I have had to say 'no' the most is when customers have wanted

It's based on a model of traditional auctions. It's just transferred the

huge discounts. As long as you can say 'no' politely with a smile, followed

model and the thinking to a different environment.

by a genuine 'I'm sorry', then you should be fine.

My second is the product, and it's a USB stick for computers, or

CD1 TRACK 35

plug-and·play devices. 'TI1is enabled data and pictures to be easily

In the second part ofmy talk, I'll look at saying 'no' in different countries.

transportable and satisfied a demand for easy portability from

Japanese people hate saying 'no: 'TI1cy don't even like using negative

computer to computer. 'TI1e amount of data that can be transported

endings to verbs and they don't like any confrontation. So it's important

now is enormous; and it had the huge benefit of meaning that you

to look at their non-verbal communication. 'TI1ey believe in harmony.

didn't have to take your portable computer with you everywhere. So it

They think that turning down someonc's request causes embarrassment

satisfied a basic customer need. 'TI1e technology itself also enabled a lot

and loss of face to the other person. Many negotiators have come away

of other devices.

from meetings in Japan thinking they have got agreement when in fact

'TI1e final one is the digital camera. I'm not sure it's - ifit's strictly an

they haven't.

invention of the last

Indonesians can also communicate indirectly. They don't like to cause anyone embarrassment by giving a negative answer, so the listener has to

into many other de\'ices as a free gift, like mobile phones or PCs. And

work out what they really mean. In fact, Bahasa Indonesian has 12 ways of

again, it satisfied a customer demand to share pictures and images

saying 'no' and also other ways of saying 'yes' when the real meaning is 'no: The Chinese will often avoid saying 'no: They have an eJ.'Pression which means 'we'll do some research and discuss it later; which is a polite way of saying 'no'. Silence in China can also imply that there are problems. Silence

in the Arab world is quite common, however, and does not necessarily

IS years, or if it's just become a mass-market

item, but it's revolutionised photography and it's now incorporated

quickly and easily.

COl TRACK 40 (I = INTERVIEWER, KP = KATE PITIS) 1:

Do companies spend enough time on research and development?

KP: I think this depends very much on the industry. There are some product-based companies, like pharmaceuticals and high-tech

mean 'no: The Arab world docs not find silence difficult.

companies, that spend an enormous amount of time and money on

However, saying 'no' in the wrong situations can have bad consequences.

An American business friend of mine once refused a cup of coffee from a

research and development. Nearly 25 per cent of the cost of sale, for

been a problem. But this was seen as rather rude by the Saudi host and the

research and development.

example, at Ericsson, the Finnish mobile-phone company, are on

Saudi businessman at the start of a meeting. In An1erica, that wouldn't have

I strongly believe that most companies can benefit from using

meeting was unsuccessful. My friend should have accepted the coffee and just had a small cup. I'll now move on to . . .

information and relationships within their own company to actually

CDl TRAC K 3 6 1 A: Would you like to go out for a meal later? B: Thanks for the invitation, but I'm not feeling so well. Maybe some other

So that might mean looking at what you already do, and looking at

2

to look at what everybody else sees, and sec something dificrcnt. where you can do it slightly differently to increase your product range, or extending your products into new markets. 'TI1is can save

time.

time and money.

CDl TRACK 41 (L

C: D: 3 E: F: 4 G: H: 5

Would you like some more food?

1:

Can you check that tl1c fire-exit notices are all in the right place, please?

J:

develop new products and services. My definition of innovation is

L:

Nothing more for me, thanks. It was delicious.

LINCOLN, M

=

MEl, C

=

CHENG W ,

=

WAN)

date of the launch for our new product, DM 2000. After that, we've got to decide the recommended retail price for the phone and talk about

Shall we meet up next Tuesday?

our marketing plans, OK? Mei, what's your opinion? Should we launch

I'm sorry. I'd love to, but I have other plans that evening.

in June or September? M: Personally, I'm in favour ofJune. Let's get into the market early and

Please stay a little bit longer.

surprise our competitors. It could give us a big advantage. It might

I've had a wonderful time and I wish 1 could, but I really have to go.

I'm afraid you've come to the wrong person. You'll have to ask Ingrid in Health and Safety.

=

OK everyone, let's begin, shall we? Our main purpose is to decide the

even force them to bring out their new phones earlier. I mean, before

l:

they're really ready to do so. 'TI1anks, Mei. What do the rest ofyou think? Cheng, how do you feel aboutthis?

C: Well, um, I'm not sure aboutJune, really. Mm, I think it's too earlyin fact, far too early. We need more time to plan our marketing. You know, a lot of people, potential buyers, will be away on holiday in June. It's not the best time to have a launch. vVe need to start with a real bang.

156 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

AUDIO SCRIPTS L:

Mm, thanks, Cheng. Wan, what's your view? l believe you'd prefer a

JC: One of the things that we do is be able to help companies identify

later date for the launch. Is that correct?

which areas of the bui- of the company are experiencing stress, and then we can work with those people to help build their resilience to

W: Yeah, June's too early. I think September's the best time. We can promote the smartphone strongly then, with a multimedia campaign.

stress. Now what that means is actually helping people to respond

The last three months of the year have always been the peak period for

differently to stressful situations, so that they actually feel calmer when they're put in situations that they previously found stressful.

selling new electronic products. That's when we need to put the phone

l:

on the market. Mm, I agree. I think there arc good reasons for choosing September. What about the recommended retail price for the phone? Any thoughts on that?

COl TRACK 44 (I = INTERVIEWER, JC = JESSICA COLLING) 1:

feel at work. Um, the problem with that is that what one person finds

M: Hold on a minute. l thought we were talking about the launch date, L:

really motivating and it excites them to be able to do their job well,

not the price.

somebody else might find really, really stressful.

OK, Mei, maybe we are moving a little too fast. Let's get back to the

What do we see is that actually a high level of continued pressure can

point. I get the feeling that most of us seem to prefer September, is that

actually sometimes spill over into feelings of stress. So, although you

correct?

might be quite, um . . . you're doing quite well at managing stress for

C/W: Yeah.

a long period of time, actually if it continues without any break, then

M: Mmm, maybe. l:

OK, we're agreed. The launch is in September. Now, what about price? Wan, I asked you to bring us ideas about this.

W: l know we've set a price, but we should think again. I think it should l:

be about 900 Hong Kong dollars.

actually people sometimes tip over into feeling very stressed.

COl TRACK 45 (I = INTERVIEWER, JC = JESSICA COLLING) 1:

everybody has a different sense of what works for them. However,

Ah. And your reasons?

companies can really help by being flexible in how they expect staff to work. For example, if somebody doesn't like travelling in rush hour,

lt retails at just over 1,000 Hong Kong dollars. If we sell at 900, we'll be

you know, perhaps they could come in a little bit early and leave a little

undercutting them by 10 per cent. So, we'll have a big price advantage

bit early. And other examples might be, just making sure that people

at the start of our launch.

don't feel that they have to stay late, just because their boss is working

Good. We need to be sharp on pricing. Now, what sales outlets do you think we should target, Wan?

W: No problem there. We could start with the specialist mobile-phone stores and big department stores. After that, we could look at other distribution channels. You know, stations, airports - that sort of thing.

late.

COl TRACK 46 (I = INTERVIEWER, JC = JESSICA COLLING) I: Do you find that men and women deal with stress differently? JC: What we do sec is that women tend to experience higher levels of stress, or at least report higher levels of stress. We're not sure exactly

L: Right. Sounds 0 K to me. Everyone happy with Wan's suggestions? M/C/W: Yeah. I Fine. I Great.

why this is. It could quite possibly be because women tend to have more responsibility in the home as well, so actually managing the

COl TRACK 42 (OS = OILIP SINGH, JF = JANE FERGUSON) OS: You know,Jane, l'm really looking forward to choosing the winner of

home, looking after children. So they have many more sources of pressure in their life and therefore are more likely to feel stressed

this competition. It seems to be creating enormous interest all over the

because of that.

world.

1l1e other possibility is that women are perhaps more open about their

JF: Yes, a lot of people have asked for application forms. What arc you

feelings and therefore feel more comfortable in reporting, you know,

looking for? I mean, how will you judge the projects?

OS: There are three things that are really important. They'll help me to make up my mind. The winner will have to come up with a great idea for an attraction. It'll have to be something different, a bit unusual,

feeling under pressure and . . . or feeling stressed.

COl TRACK 47 (B = BRIDGET, 0 = OANIELLE, K = KEVIN) B: OK, let's talk about the staffs health and fitness. Last year, days lost increased by over IS per cent because ofsickness and absenteeism.

but linked in some way to the culture of the community or country.

·n1at can't go on. We've got to do something about it. Any suggestions,

It could be anything, as long as it's exciting: a museum, an art gallery, a theme park or a research-study centre. The possibilities are endless. I want people to use their imagination, that's the idea of the

Danielle?

0: Well, I think we should carry out a survey, find out why staff are so stressed and unhealthy. 1l1at'd help. At least we'd k now what the

competition.

jf: l see. What else will be important? OS: Well, the new attraction must provide an enjoyable experience for visitors. 1l1ey should really enjoy the visit and talk about it with their friends afterwards.

problems arc. I have another idea. Why don't we encourage staffto keep fit? How about paying for their subscription to a gym if they go, say, twice or more a week?

B: Mmm, that's an interesting idea. But it could be a bit costly. What

jf: Can you give an example?

about staff who have a very heavy workload? What should we do to

OS: Well, l was very impressed with the Kennedy Museum in Boston. There was a replica of the Oval Office when John F. Kennedy was

help them?

1(: Um, we could hire more stafffor them, give them an assistant. You

know, some of them even work at the weekend. How about banning

president. There arc a lot of interesting exhibits, including the rocking

stan· from working at weekends - that'd solve the problem. TI1ey'd have

chair he used to sit in.

JF: Sounds fascinating. I'll visit it ifl ever get to that part of the world. OS: One other thing that's important, Jane. I want the new attraction

more time to relax then, wouldn't they?

B:

1l1ey get really stressed when they get st·uck in traffic jams. And

contribute financially to other facilities that the community needs. It

mothers with young children find it difficult to get to work on time.

shouldn't have to receive local government funds once it's been set up. The winner will have to come up with lots of ideas on how it can make money. l want it to be a commercial proposition.

What do we do about them, Kevin? I<:

Why don't we introduce flexitime for parents with young children?

I think we should offer it to our admin stan· and maybe to some stafl'in

U N IT 5 STRESS

other departments. Also, perhaps some stan· could work from home.

B: Mmm, yes . . . interesting ideas.

COl TRACK 43 (I = INTERVIEWER, JC = JESSICA COLLING)

0:

What are the usual causes of stress at work?

JC: 1here are lots of things that can make people feel under pressure at work - for e--xample, having too much to do, not feeling in control, and also not having good relationships with the people that they work with. All of these things can build up, and when pressure gets too

1:

I suppose we could do that. It's something to consider. You k now,

there's been a lot of complaints lately from staff who drive to work.

to make money. It must be self-financing. If it makes money, it can

1:

How can companies help their staffto achieve a work-life balance?

JC: \.York-life balance is an interesting question, um, because again,

W: Well, simply, our main competitor brought out a smartphone recently.

L:

How much stress at work can be considered normal?

JC: It's difll cult to say really what's a normal level of stress for somebody to

much, it spills over into feelings of stress. How docs your company help businesses to deal with stress?

I've got a good suggestion, Kevin.

K: Mm-hm. Go ahead. 0:

Well, it might be a good idea to set up a counselling service, with a professional counsellor. StaA· could go there and talk about their problems. Oh yes, and another idea I've just thought of, why not let

staff change duties and roles from time to time? To give them a bit of variety in their work.

B: Mm, I think this needs further thought. Let's meet tomorrow, same time, and try to come up with a plan to improve the stafl''s health and fitness.

157 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

AUDIO SCRIPTS COl TRACK 48 (B = B RIDGET, 0 = OANIELLE, K = KEVIN)

0:

I think we should definitely pay staff's subscriptions to the sports centre. lf they were litter, they wouldn't be sick so often and take days off work. And they'd work harder if they were healthier.

B: Mm, I don't know, Danielle. It would be popular, but it could be expensive. What do you think, Kevin?

Cl: Well, it all looks very good, doesn't it? C2: Yes, it docs.

E:

So, are you ready to order?

C: 1:.:

Yes, is there anything you recommend? Well, the fish is very good today.

Well, as a starter, I'd like the soup, and then to follow, I'll have the

K: I think I agree with you, Bridget. It'd cost a lot, and attendance would be diflicult to monitor. I mean, we couldn't check each week to see if the stall"were attending the sports centre. \.Ve'rc not Big Brother, checking up on staA" all the time.

0: Yes, but we could get over that problem somehow. The sports centre has great facilities - a big pool, a squash dub, hairdressing salon ...

B: Yeah, you're right. Its facilities are fantastic. Also, it has some rest rooms, with ergonomic furniture where people can just relax and chat to each other. It's very relaxing there. Our staff would get to know each other better.

0: Exactly. It would really help staff to be more healthy, um, improve communications and save the company money- i n the long run,

anyway.

salmon with ...

C.

l11ank you very much. That was very good.

E: And would you like to see the dessert menu? C: Er, no, I don't think so. Just some coffee, I think ... and the bill, please. E: Yes, certainly. Very good, sir. • � ol. ...

Cl: Well, that was really good. l'll lcave a good tip. C2: Yes, we should. It's excellent here. We must come again. COl TRACK 51 (I = INTERVIEWER, CB = CHRIS BRUTON) h

Can you tell us about your company?

CB: My company is the Cavendish Consultancy. It is a corporate entertainment and corporate event company, based in West London. lt

K: I can't agree with you there, Danielle. I'm not sure it's a good idea.

operates in all sports, show business and performing arts, mainly in the

Surely, it's not our responsibility to encourage staff to go to a sports

United Kingdom, but we also tender for overseas events, which gives

club? l11ey should go there because they want to be fit and in good

us the opportunity to spread our knowledge and skills and expertise

health. It's their responsibility, not ours. We don't want to run their lives for them.

0: Mm, I don't know, I still think it's a good idea. It's well worth trying. If it becomes too expensive or it isn't getting results, we can stop paying

around the world.

I: What are the most popular events for corporate entertainment? CB: l11e most popular events remain the major sports and the major events in those sports. Within sports it does vary. For example, those sports

their subscriptions - it's as simple as that.

where the rules are fairly simple and straightforward are more popular.

COl TRACK 49 OP = jESSICA PARKER, SM = SHEILA MURRAY)

llms cricket, which is a personal, um, like of mine, is not actually

SM:Hello, Sheila Murray speaking.

one of the most popular, because the rules arc fairly complicated.

Horse racing is very successful, football - soccer as it's called in many

)P: Hi, it's Jessica. How arc you, Sheila?

countries around the world, butfootball in England - is very popubr.

SM: Fine, thanks. You?

JP: I've got a big problem here, I don't know what to do. It's about James.

Motor racing works well and then, moving onto the entertainment

SM:Oh? What's happening?

side, theatre, pop concerts, musicals - particularly, for a number of

years, Plw11tom of tire Opera has been very popular in New York and

)P: Well, you know, he's been very stressed lately. His wife wants to leave him, and he's been working day and night on this contract. It's really

in London and in many other cities around the world where it has

important for all of us.

showed.

SM:OK.

)P: Well, he got really drunk last Saturday with our clients. ! didn't like the way he talked - very loudly, you know, always interrupting them. Making jokes that weren't funny, and stupid comments. The clients weren't at all impressed.

COl TRACK 52 (I = INTERVIEWER, CB = CHRIS BRUTON) I. Is corporate entertainment changing as the economy changes? C Cavendish has been in business 30 years, so we've seen two if not three ·

recessions. In fact, we were founded in 1 9 8 1 , which was a recession in the UK, and it does change and it's also changed enormously over

SM:Mm-hm?

)P: Then he didn't turn up for the meeting on Monday, and now he's just djsappeared. It's two days now. No one seems to know where he is.

Our clients aren't happy at all. I don't think they want to complete the deal now. I just don't know what to do.

SM: Can't you take James's place at the meeting? l11e contract's almost ready to sign, isn't it?

)P: Well, there arc still a few points ... but how can I take over? It would look really bad, wouldn't it? I'm just a junior account executive. James has been the main guy all along. I think he's had a breakdown, Sheila. He just can't cope any more. SM:OK,Jessica. I'll talk to some of my colleagues and get back to you. We'll sort this out for you.

those 30 years. l11e quality of the product that we de,•elop, deliver now is vastly superior, much, much better than the product we delivered in 198I. l11c, the recent downturn and particularly because the downturn has all"ccted the financial sector, and the financial sector was a very big entertainer, has changed quite significantly - not so much the product but people have reduced budgets. And when they reduce budgets, they have act-, perhaps surprisingly, not gone for a cheaper product, but just taken fewer people to the expensive product. So the top­ of-the-range hospitality is holding up better than the less expensive alternatives.

COl TRACK 53 (I = INTERVIEWER, CB = CHRIS BRUTON) What do you think makes a corporate e'•ent successful?

JP: l11anks, Sheila, I'd appreciate that. Bye.

B: First, you have to identify your aim, your purpose in entertaining

U N IT 6 ENTERTA I N I NG

people at this particular event. l11at's absolutely key. If you don't know

COl TRACK 50 (E = EMPLOYEE, C = CUSTOMER) E: Hello, Flanagans. How can I help you?

Um, then, ha\•ing identified why you're doing it, it's all the planning

C:

why you're doing it, probably don't do it.

All yes, hello. I'd like to book a table for tomorrow njght for six people, please.

people remember. So it's contingency planning. It's having ... back-ups.

E� Yes, madam, and what sort of time?

C:

!fit rains, have some umbrellas there.

About eight?

E: Let me see ... cr, yes, that's fine ... and what's the name, please? C: It's Branson. E: That's line, Ms Branson ... so a table for six at eight o'clock. We'll see you tomorrow evening. l11ank you.

who will meet all the guests. It's not the overall event organiscr. I can't meet C\•cry guest of every . . . at every Cavendish event. It's the quality

And the last thing I would say is, always follow up afterwards. And I

minutes. Would you like to have a drink at the bar first, and I can bring Yes, why not? I Yes, that sounds good.

of food and drink. And then, bear in mind that it is the staff on the day

day is absolutely key.

E: Good evening. Do you have a reservation? C: Oh, hello, yes. It should be under the name of Branson. E: A11 yes, here we arc - a table for six. Your table will be just a couple of you some menus as well?

The catering is absolutely vitaL People now expect a very high standard

and the training and the briefing of the staff that you employ on the

C. 1l1ank you very much. Goodbye. E: Goodbye.

C:

and all the little things. You can have the very best sporting event, the very best pop concert, but if the little things go wrong, that's what

think that gives the opportunity to cement the relationship. Did you enjoy the day, and what else would you like to go to and those sorts of things.

COl TRACK 54 (CB = CHRIS BRUTON) CB: The most extravagant event I ever heard ofwas in July 1998, when the British Grand Prix, the motor race at Silverstone, was on the same day as the FIFA Soccer World Cup Final in Paris. And it was then

158 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

AUDIO SCRIPTS possible to get a helicopter from central London to Silverstone. Now

K:

Yeah. "ll1ere'll be

a

gala dinner on the Sunday evening. lhey should

Silverstone is about 60 miles, I 00 kilometres, north-west of London,

enjoy that. It'll be an opportunity for everyone to relax, do some

so you helicoptered to the ground, you watched Michael Schumacher

networking and meet colleagues from all over the world.

win the race, you helicoptered back to London Heathrow, the big airport just to the west of London. And then you flew in an aeroplane that

W O R K I N G ACROSS C U LTU R E S 2

was then the best aeroplane in the world, Concorde, to Paris. It didn't

COl TRACK 61 (KM = KARIM MANSOUR, AM = ANDREW MORGAN) KM: I am pleased you like our food, Mr Morgan. M)• son Ahmed will

go supersonic, that is above the speed of sound, urn, but you did go to Paris in Concorde and flew back that night. So, in less than 24 hours, you had seen a Formula One motor race and the World Cup Final.

now bring us some cakes and pastries. Which would you like to try?

AM: I'm sorry, I just can't eat anything more. KM:Oh, surcl)' you could try just one?

CD1 TRACK 55 (L = LIZ, J = JANE) 1 L: Hello, J"m Liz. CONVERSATIO N

AM: No, really, that's enough for me. I'm just not used to eating such big

J:

KM:Oh, I see. What a pity! You know, we're famous for our pastries.

L:

j:

L:

J:

L:

meals. Er . . . actually, I'm on a diet at the moment.

Oh, hello again, Liz. How arc you? It's jane - we met in Paris last year. Oh yes, l didn't recognise you! Your hair's a bit different. I'm fine, and

what about you?

household goods, and they're located in busy main streets.

And how's business?

AM:Ah, actually, l didn't know that. My colleague Hussein gave me your

It's going really well, especially in Italy.

number and told me to contact you. l was very busy just before I left

Great.

England, so l didn't have much time to prepare for this visit.

KM:I see, I see. Yes, Hussein c-mailed me to say you would be visiting us,

CONVERSATIO N 2 A: Ah,Jamcs, have you met Sam Clarke?

We worked together in Turkey. Oh, yes . . . Mike. He's in China now.

(:

Yes, l will.

6:

so l expected to hear from you. Tell me, what's your main purpose in

No. Hello, Sam. Good to meet you. 1 think we both k now Mike Upton.

C:

Really? l didn't know that. Give him my regards next time you see him.

using department stores . . . But l could give you some contacts if

6: Yes, of course. Hcllo,Jiirgen. Good to sec you again. How are things? Fine thanks, Julia. It's great to see you again.

CD1 TRACK 58 0 = JOHN, L = LISA) 4 J: Hi, J"mjohn. L: Hello,john. Pleased to meet you. I'm Lisa, from the Amsterdam office. j: Oh, Amsterdam. I've never been, but l hear it's a great city, very lively. L: Yes, it is. It's great. You should come. The conference is going to be there next year.

British Consulate tomorrow, they're going to give me some names of

people to visit. l have to leave next Wednesday, so l don't have much time. I want to arrange as many visits as possible. lt would be nice to

take home some informal agreements with one or two companies, then later sign the written contracts. We want to have distribution agreements with some local businesspeople by the end of the year.

KM:Thc end of the year? ln only three months? Look, maybe I can help someone who could help you, !'II give them your card and ask them to get in touch.

CONVERSATION 5

A: Carla, I'd like you to meet one of our best customers, Linda Eriksson from SRT in Sweden.

B: Hello, Linda. Great to meet you at last. I've heard a lot about you. C: Not all bad, l hope! Not at all. It's great to be able to put a face to a name.

AM: Yes, good idea. lt could be very useful. Er, here are some of my cards, thanks very much. KM:Mmm, they're very well designed. Everything's in English, I see . . .

AM:Yes. Most businesspeople speak English these days, don't they? Well, thanks very much, Mr Mansour. I've had a very ... enjoyable meeting.

Absolutely!

COl TRACK 60 (A = AHMED, K = KATE) A: It's not going to be easy to please everyone, Kate. What are the most important things, do you think?

I
here before your next visit. 11JC more you know, the easier it is to do

business here . . . Have a safe journey home.

K: Actually, I've made a list of things we'll need. Shall ! go through it with you?

A: Yeah, go ahead. K: Right, well, we're looking for a hotel that's good value for money. It's a priority for us, because we've got to keep costs down. The conference centre must have a really big room for, say, I 00 people, because there will be some presentations that everyone must attend. And we'll need at least four meeting rooms. We're going to have quite a few workshops and training sessions, as we usually do.

A: Yes, and the meeting rooms will need to be quite big, Kate, with enough room for, say, 25 participants - even more if it's a popular session. Yeah. Good point. We have to think carefully about the location for the conference. If possible, it shouldn't be too far away from an airport. Most people will be arriving by air. We don't want them to have problems finding the hotel, like they did last year. A shuttle service from the airport to the hotel would be a plus, don't you think?

A: Yeah, but not all hotels oiler that facility. K: True. One other thing, it's important that the centre has good leisure facilities. We want stan-to enjoy themselves as well as take part in work sessions. Don't forget, they're free on Friday and they could also have some free time early on Monday as well.

A: Right. We certainly don't want them to go away complaining they didn't enjoy themselves or have enough time to buy presents for friends and relatives.

household products.

you. Why don't you leave me some of your business cards? 1f1 meet

Oh, I'd love to. I'll look forward to it.

COl TRACK 59

K:

you like - people l know who have shops here, ones that sell a lot of AM:Thanks very much . . . but perhaps next time. I'm going to see the

CONVERSATION

C:

facility here. We've used this approach in other new markets, and it's

KM:J see. I'm not sure if that approach will work well here in Morocco,

A: Julia, do you know Jlirgen?

8:

large department stores. Eventually, I suppose, we'll set up a sales worked well for us. It's a good formula.

COl TRACK 57

J:

coming here?

AM:Well, we want to sell our products in Morocco - we're not doing that at the moment. And we plan to start by distributing our goods through

CONVERSATION 3

C:

KM:Well, as you know, my company has stores in all the major cities here. I'm sure you've heard about our business. Most of the stores sell

I'm very well, thanks.

CD1 TRACK 56

6:

AM: Really? l didn't know that.

COl TRACK 62 EXTRACT 1 l made a big mistake when I negotiated with a Korean team. l11ere

were four people in their team, and I talked mostly to a younger man who spoke excellent English. l thought he was the team leader. 1 didn't Sa)' much to the oldest man in the group. He sat silently for some time, because his English wasn't very good. But later in the meeting, the old man took control of the discussion with the help of an interpreter. He was the Chief Executive of the company and made all the big decisions. ! learned a lot about Korean business culture from that meeting.

CDl TRACK 63

EXTRACT 2

As soon as I got to Korea, everyone said to me, 'Print plenty of business cards and make sure they're translated into Korean.' They

were right. Koreans want to know who they're dealing with and what your title is. Status is very important, and a business card tells them if you're of equal status to them. When you present your card, you should hold it in both hands. And when you receive a business card, accept it with both hands and read it carefully. lt shows respect.

CDl TRACK 64 EXTRACT 3

I was assistant to the Marketing Director. 1 had some ideas for

improving the layout of our stores in Seoul. So l wrote my ideas on a

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AUDIO SCRIPTS sheet of paper and sent it to ali the stafr in the department. Everyone commented on my ideas and approved them. l then talked to the Marketing Director, and he announced that there would be a project

C02 TRACK 5 (BS = BIRGIT SCHEIDER) BS: I remember when I first thought about quitting my job and you

advised me to gain some experience before I started a new business. l need to earn some profit as soon as possible, as I don't have much

to change the layout of the stores. You sec, decisions come from the

spare cash. Or do I have to accept that I won't have much money while

top in Korean companies, but everyone needs to have their say. They

I'm starting up my new business? Do I need to have some savings

call it 'consensus' - everyone agreeing to a proposal.

while l get my new business offthe ground? I'm just not sure how I'll

CD1 TRACK 65

survive until my company starts earning money. Please advise me as

EXTRACT 4

soon as you can.

! learned one thing pretty quickly about Korean business culture. There's often a lot of red tape. You'll need a lot of official documents before you can go ahead with a project. You may spend months trying to get permissions from ministries and government officials. But a bit of networking often helps. 1l1e right contacts arc so important in that culture. You need to be patient.

U N IT 7 N EW B U S I N ESS

CD2 TRAC K 6 1 a) 362 b) 1,841 c ) 36,503 d ) 684,321 c ) 4,537,295 2 a) 3.5 b) 2.89 c) 9.875 3 a) 3/• b) 1/s c) 6/7 d) 'h c) 1/J 4 a) LS% b) SO% c) 97% d) 1 00% 5 a) £80 b) SS,SOO c) € 150,000 d) €20,000 CD2 TRACK 7

C02 TRACK 1 The economy is stable following the problems of the past two years.

EXTRACT 1

And here is the business news. This month inflation is up by 1.2 per

By following a tight monetary policy, the government has reduced the

cent. 1l1e unemployment rate is now five per cent, giving an overall

inflation rate to two per cent. For borrowers, after going up dramatically, the interest rate is now down to eight per cent. 1l1e last sLx months have seen a slight improvement in the exchange rate against the dollar. For the country as a whole, the GOP has grown by point one five per cent. Exports

figure of !,258,000.

CD2 TRACK 8 EXTRACT 2

Laser pic, the supermarket giant, reports that profits rose 12 per cent

arc increasing, and the balance of trade is starting to look much healthier.

to just over $1.8 billion, with sales increasing a healthy IS per cent.

In terms ofjobs, the unemployment rate continues to be a problem, as it is still 16 per cent. In order to stimulate the economy and attract foreign investment from abroad, the government is offering new tax incentives, as well as making a renewed effort to reduce government bureaucracy and

CD2 TRACK 9 EXTRACT 3

General Engineering said it would reduce its workforce by one-third

red tape. Finally, a large skilled labour force means there could be attractive investment opportunities over the next five years.

C02 TRACK 10 EXTRACT 4

C02 TRACK 2 (I = INTERVIEWER, AD = ABDIRASHID DUALE) 1:

over the next five years, resulting in the loss of 5,000 jobs.

Can you tell us about your business?

The Central Bank has reduced interest rates by 0.5 per cent. Turning

AD: Our company name is Dahabshiil. We are a global money-transfer company. We transfer money to nearly 144 countries. We help

to the world economy, this will grow by 2.8 per cent next year.

students. We help business organisations. We help international

U N IT 8 MAR KETING

organisations like World Bank and United Nations. We help migrant

CD2 TRACK 1 1

workers who are in Europe or other parts of the world who want to

CONSUMER 1

I read about the launch and I really wanted it, but when I tried to buy

send money back home to their family.

it, l just couldn't get it anywhere. My friend heard that it was in one

C02 TRACK 3 (I = INTERVIEWER, AD = ABDIRASHID DUALE) 1:

shop and he queued up for ages, but they'd run out by lunchtime.

What do all successful new businesses have in common?

AD: All successful business, I believe, my opinion, they have to have a plan, they have to have a vision ofwhere they're going, how they're going to

C02 TRACK 12 CONSUMER 2

reach that vision. They have to motivate their staff, they have to keep

The company held a party on a river boat to launch their new

their customer loyal. They have to maintain their relationship with

campaign. It was absolutely fantastic. We also got a free sample and a

their customer because, at the end of the day, the customer is the one

T-shirt with the logo on as a gift at the end.

who pays your salary, who pays your income. So you have to make sure that the customers are happy with your services. You have to maintain that relationship. So Dahabshiil, when the customers come to us and

C02 TRACK 13 CONSUMER 3

These new boots were really expensive, but definitely worth it. I think

they send money globally, we have to think about their requirements

the fact that they cost so much is what really makes them difl'erent

and we have to make sure they're happy. So it . . . and of course, you also have to maintain your costs. You know, if your income and your costs, there's a big difference, then you know, you have to manage that. Of course, you prefer to get more income

from the rival brands.

CD2 TRACK 14 CONSUMER 4

I've had this wallet for over 20 years, and it still looks good. The leather

than your expenditure. Otherwise, if your expenditure is more than

is very high quality and very strong, but still soft. The colour is as good

your income, your business will ge- be bankrupt. You will have a

now as when it was new.

problem. So you have to always think about how to make more profit, less cost.

CD2 TRACK 15 'market re'search

'sales 'forecast

'market 'segment

'sales 'figures

'market 'share

'sales 'target

con'sumer be'haviour

'advertising cam'paign

really important to make sure you understand the marketplace and

con'sumer 'profile

'advertising 'budget

who your customers are going to be. And how you differentiate

con'sumer 'goods

'advertising 'agency

yourself, or make yourself different, from any of your competitors in

'product 'launch

that marketplace.

'product 'lifecycle

C02 TRACK 4 (I = INTERVIEWER, SB = SUSAN BARRATT) 1:

What advice would you give to anyone starting their own business?

SB: I hope they've got lots of energy. I think it is difficult and quite hard work, and needs a significant level of commitment. I think it's really,

People will only go to you and buy your product or your service if

'product 'range

they feel it is added value, over and above what they can get elsewhere,

C02 TRACK 16 (I = INTERVIEWER, RT = RICHARD TURNER)

or something they can't get elsewhere. So, for me, understanding the

1:

market and the customer is absolutely critical, er, to, to the success of a

RT: The core of all marketing to doctors is the need to spend quality

Which marketing methods work best when promoting your products?

business.

time face to face with them. These are very busy people who have a

The other key thing is that you've got sufficient cash. Um, things will

busy da)' treating their patients, and we often find that we only have

generally not go quite to plan, and it's really important that you've

maybe five or I 0 minutes 1vithin that busy day to sit down with them

got access to enough cash to get the business going, to ensure you get

and take them through both the clinical, 'rational' advantages of our

some positive cashflow through the business.

products - why we think they should use this product compared to the ones they've been using in the past - as well as the more traditional, 'emotional' advantages of the product. And by 'emotional advantages; I

160 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

AUDIO SCRIPTS might mean how it would help their patients, help them understand the benefits for their patients, and how i t will make them have easier lives. And so we're still very much focused on how we can best present quite . complicated data in a short period of time, face to f1ce to the doctor.

C02 TRACK 17 (I = INTERVIEWER, RT = RICHARD TURNER) 1:

What problems can you f.1ce when marketing pharmaceuticals?

F: F:

for Uniform, N for November, G for Golf . . . then) forJuliet, 0 for

Oscar, 0 for Oscar, then C for Charlie, H for Hotel, A for Alpha, N for

November. She's Korean, actually. She's Chief Buyer for BHDS. Let me

in the pharmaceutical industry have the same interests as the doctor.

give you her telephone number: 82 20735 8879. Her e-mail address is

We want to help patients lead better lives. We have to present the

y.joochan I @lbhds.com . . . 0 K? Why not give her a ring or send her

data in a fair and balanced way, not, not to overstate the advantages of consistent across many different countries across Europe, and because work out exactly what we can say and the best way of saying it.

C02 TRACK 18 (I = INTERVIEWER, RT = RICHARD TURNER) 1:

Has the way )'OU market your products changed much over the last

few years?

RT: Unfortunately, urn, because of the regulatory laws that we need to follow, we're not able to promote directly to patients. We can only talk to the doctor, because the doctor makes the decision about the medicine. So, although we'd love to use all the benefits and opportunities that the Internet and the new communication methods ofl'er, we're not able to usc them as much as we'd like to do.

an e-mail? She's expecting to hear from you.

M: I'll do that. But first, let me read that back to you. lt's Youngjoo Chan from 13HDS. Telephone number 82 2 0735 8875.

F: No, 82 20735 8879. M: OK, I think I've got all that. Just one more thing. Did she say when she'd like to meet?

F: Yes, she said next Thursday or Friday - that's the 17th or I 8th. M: What about Friday the 18th? I'll give her a call and confirm by e-mail. Right, I think that's everything.

F: Fine. I'll get that report to you by the end of the week. M: Right. Bye for now. C02 TRACK 24 (A = ASHLEY) EXTRACT 1 A: It's a great jacket for cold weather. I wear it to college every day during

Having said that, we are beginning ... I think many companies are

the winter. But it's not good for the summer, you get too hot in it.

beginning to look at the opportunities that new technologies such as

And it's got too many pockets. It was really cheap - ! liked that!

the i Pad may offer to present the data when we're face to face with the doctor, because it's a clearer and more involving way of presenting the data to the doctor than the traditional paper.

C02 TRACK 19 (I = INTERVIEWER, RT = RICHARD TURNER) I: What is a typical lifecycle for your products? RT: '1 he lifecycle for a pharmaceutical product is often very long. It can

C02 TRACK 25 (S = SCOTI) EXTRACT 2 S: I'm sorry I bought it. I'm not very big, so it doesn't fit me very well.

It certainly is warm and keeps me dry during the winter months, but I was really looking for something a bit more fashionable, in a bright

colour - you know, bright blue or yellow. My jacket's black, it's a bit dull.

take anything up to 20 years from the scientist first coming up with the idea to it finally being widely used by physicians to help patients' lives. The first I 0 years of that life can be spent wholly on the clinical trials, to prove that it's safe and has enect and helps the patients. And then the next 1 0 years spending a lot of time and en'ort presenting this data

C02 TRACK 26 (K = KAREN) EXTRACT3

K: I 'm quite pleased with it. It's very warm, perfect for canoeing and snowboarding. But the zipper is awful. I always take a long time to zip

to doctors, so they, they can begin to understand which patients, and

up. And the hood is dinicult to fold up after you usc it. It's quite big, so

in which situations, the drug can help them. And just as we're getting to those peak sales, we find the patent on the drug will go. Um, so there's a long, a long period from the first idea to finally getting it out there in doctors' and patients' hands.

C02 TRACK 20 1 Yes, it's 1 3,456. 2 . . . and the number is double oh, double three, two, three, double nine, oh, three, two, four 3

. . . so the e-mail address is V dot altin at saws Ian dot com.

4

. . . and her address is 1 2 8 slash 60 Rattanatibeth Road

it's difficult to pack in a bag or suitcase.

C02 TRACK 27 (N = NAOMI) EXTRACT 4

N: I saw an ad in a magazine and ! liked the lookofit. But it took me a

long time to find out where I could buy it. I'd almost given up, then my

husband spotted i t in a camping store. It's very warm in winter, but I get too hot when I take the lining out and wear it in the summer.

C02 TRACK 28 (H = HENRY) EXTRACT 5 H:

C02 TRACK 21

my order because of the delay.

Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango,

me dry in rainy weather.

UNIT

9

PLAN N I N G

CD2 TRACK 29

Fine, thanks.

M: I haven't received your sales report yet for the quarter. Any problems? F: Oh, no. Sorry, Martin. I've been really busy lately. But I can tell you,

Recently, we decided to open a new sales office in New York. First, I arranged a meeting with the finance department to discuss the project. We prepared a budget with details of the various costs involved. ll1en we collected information about possible locations for the new office.

we've had excellent results.

M: Good. F: Yeah. We've met our sales targets and increased our market share by

We considered hvo options - one in Greenwich Village and the other near Central Park. After doing some more research, I wrote a report for the Board of Directors.

two per cent. Our total sales were over £ 1 . 2 million.

M: Over 1.2 million. Great! '"'ell done! W'hat about the new range of

Unfortunately, we made a mistake when we estimated the costs, as the

shampoos?

exchange rate changed, so we didn't keep within our budget. We overspent

Well, we had a very successful product launch. We spent 250,000 on

by almost 20 per cent. We had to rearrange the schedule for moving into

advertising it and . . .

the building because the onice was not redecorated in time. ll1c Board of

No, 250,000. We advertised it in the national press, took out space in

the office by December the

M: Sorry, did you 53)' 2 1 5,000?

f1

I had to phone the supplier three times

before it finally arrived. I love the jacket. It's warm, practical and keeps

Uniform, Victor, Whisk)', X-ray, Yankee, Zulu

C02 TRACK 22 (F = FIONA, M = MARTIN) F: Hello. M: Hello, Fiona. This is Martin. How are things going?

F:

I spotted an advert for the jacket in our local newspaper. I filled in the

order form, then waited over a month for delivery. I almost cancelled

Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet,

f:

It's Mrs Youngjoo Chan.

M: Sorry, I didn't catch that. F: Youngjoo Chan. I'll spell that for you. Y for Yankee, 0 for Oscar, U

laws that we need to follow arc quite stric t - and quite rightly so. We

the laws arc difl'erent across these countries, it's often a challenge to

London next week. She'd like to have a meeting with you.

M: Fine. Could you give me a few details? What's her name?

RT: I think the biggest challenge for us is the regulatory environment. The

our products. Because we're trying to develop campaigns which arc

Yes, there is one thing. One of my biggest customers will be visiting

Directors was unhappy because we didn't meet the deadline for opening

I 5th. It finally opened in January. However, we

trade magazines and did a number of presentations to our distributors.

forecast sales of at least $ 1 ,000,000 in the first year.

It was money well spent. We've had a lot of orders already and good

C02 TRACK 30 (I = INTERVIEWER, IS = IAN SANDERS)

comments from customers.

1:

M: I'm really pleased to hear that. C02 TRACK 23 (F = FIONA, M MARTIN) M: Anything else to report? =

How far ahead should businesses plan?

IS: I think that depends on the size of the business. Ifyou're a business that has a commitment from a client for three years, you have a three­ year contract, it makes sense to have a three-year plan, because you can

161 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

AUDIO SCRIPTS

project forward those revenues, you know that relationship will be in place, and you can make some assumptions about what you need to do as a business in order to deliver the requirements of that contract. But 1 think for a lot of other businesses, three years is a long time. For a lot of smaller businesses, new businesses entering the market, um, especially in tcclmology for instance, when who knows what trends arc going to come into play next month - new software, new platforms - you really can't have a three-year plan. For me personally, I like the idea of a three-month plan, because it feels very manageable. I'm not guessing. And I think that is the problem with business planning; it can sometimes be 'business guessing: C02 TRACK 31 (I = INTERVIEWER, IS = IAN SANDERS) 1: What are the best business plans you k now? IS: I think the best business plans are ones that arc simple and flexible enough to take into account changing markets and changing situations. Any plan that is too fixed or too set in stone becomes very unwieldy, because it can't accommodate economic changes, market changes, technology changes. C02 TRACK 32 (I = INTERVIEWER, IS = IAN SANDERS) 1: Can you think of a business plan that failed? IS: Yes. I think there are thousands of business plans that have failed, because you're not always going to get it right. Entrepreneurs and business owners cannot predict the futme, and I don't think that's a bad thing that the business plans fail. I think it's important that we as entrepreneurs learn lessons, and ifsomething's not right, we can adapt it. So I think, um, failure is not a bad thing. I mean, I can think of a business, an entrepreneur I met recently, who had set up a very successful international web-based business, where entrepreneurs and start-ups can create business cards very cost-cA'cctively. Now, when he was planning that business, he planned a previous version of it, and the previous version failed. And it was his lessons that he learned in that failure that led him to create Version 2, if you like, which has been enormously successful. A11d I said to him, 'Well, could you ever have anticipated or planned for what is the success now?' And he said, 'Well, no, because I was focused very much on something else. I learned my lessons. It didn't work. And now we've created something else.' So great! He is a success because he failed, you know, that's ... and that's fine. CD2 TRACK33 A: We need to decide exactly when we're going to move. Any suggestions? B: Er, I thinkJuly would be the best time. It's very quiet then, isn't it? A: You mean, we don't do too much business then. B: Exactly. Our sales are always down that month, and quite a few staff

C: B: C: B: C:

B:

A: B: A:

B: A: B: A:

B:

arc away on holiday. We could move all the office equipment at the weekend. Do everything at once. That's the best way ... Could I just say something? Go ahead. I think we should take longer to move. A weekend's too short. ln my opinion, we should do it department by department. How do you mean exactly? Well, each week a different department can move. ·n1at way, there would always be people here who could handle customer enquiries, phone calls and so on. Hmm, I see what you mean. Maybe it would be better to phase the move over several weeks. Of course, we'll have to keep our staff informed at every stage of the move. We can do that mainly by e-mail. Now, moving on to the question of transport. We've contacted two companies, National Transport and Fox Removals. Sorr)', could I just comment on that, Mark? Certainly. I don't think it would be a good idea to usc National. I've heard one or two things about them - I don't think they're very reliable. But Fox would be fine. They've got an excellent reputation in the trade. OK, perhaps it would be better to use Fox, then. You know, there's another possibility. We could get our own people to do the moving. What? You think our transport department could do the job? Why not? "fl1ey're not too busy in July. I don't think that's a good idea. This is a really big job. We need a specialised firm for that, like Fox. 1l1cy've got the experience and will do a good job, even if it docs cost us a bit more. Also, Fox oflers a free consultation service. Mmm, you're probably right. I'll call Fox and discuss the relocation with them. I'll see if I can persuade them to lower their price a little.

C02 TRACK 34 A: You know, I think the magazine could do really well if we plan it

B:

A:

B:

A: B:

A:

B:

A:

carefully. 1l1ere's a really big market for it, and I feel it's the right time to launch. 1l1e main thing will be to make it different from the other magazines out there. Yes, it's got to have some unique features, but 1 'm sure we'll come up with some. OK, what about target consumers? l'd say we should be aiming at men and women in the 20 to 40 age range. Right? That makes sense to me. l think the magazine will also need to have clear sections. I've looked at a lot of health-and-fitness publications in the last few weeks. Some are an absolute mess, you've no idea where to look for the topics you're interested in. Yes, we must have well-organised content and really interesting features. Maybe a regular feature on a celebrity - a film star or top athlete talking about health and fitness? Yeah, that'd be very popular. But pretty expensive ... It would really increase sales. People love reading about the lives of celebrities. Another thing, you k.J10w, once we get some readers, we need to keep their loyalty, so they go on buying the magazine. We must find ways of doing that. Of course. 'Jl1e website can help us to stay closely in touch with readers and keep them buying the magazine. Do you think the online content should be free of charge? Mmm, I suppose we could ofler some free content. Then make readers pay a subscription for premium content - extra materials like DVD workout programmes - that sort of thing. OK, let's sec what the teams th.ink about that. 1l1ey'll have plenty of good ideas for the magazine and website.

WORKING ACROSS C U LTURES 3 CD2TRACK35 CALL l A: It's the first time we have heard about this, and my view is

that we should find out more about what the markets think, becauscB: No, I think this is­ A: -and then it wiiiB: -because of the way thatCD2TRACK36 CALL 2

It's the right time to think about the new marketing strategy for all the new ranges across all the markets, except for the Latin American region, where I think we should ... CD2TRACK37 CALL3 A: Well, I don't think it will work here, but I like the idea in general ... B: Sorry, I don't k.J10w who said that ... where are you? A: Yes, sorry, this is Carlos in Australia. CD2TRACK3B CALL 4

Yes, about the marketing strategy ... well, this reminds me of the time when I was playing golfwith Mr Takagi, and he told me about the best way to hit the ball. 1l1ere's an old Japanese proverb, which is a very good way of remembering the ... CD2TRACK39 CALL 5

Yes ... hello ... is there anybody there? I'm a bit late, sorry. How docs this microphone work again? Let's see ... If I do this, then maybe ... CD2TRACK40 CALL 6 A: Martin, what do you think? B: Well, my suggestion is to look at the finance again to try and save ... CD2TRACK41

Hello, everyone. Right, in this afternoon's session of the cultural training course, and before you go to your breakout groups, I'd like to talk a bit about international conference calls. 1l1ese arc becoming more and more common and cheaper, now that the Web is being used for phone calls. Firstly, I'd like to look at the most common problems, and then move on to a few tips and pieces of advice. I suppose many things are common sense. However, it can all take some getting used to. 1l1e first thing to say is about technology. This is probably the most common problem I hear about. ll1ere arc a lot of difl'crent systems and, as with all technology, it sometimes goes wrong. Systems can crash and people get cut off- so be prepared for that, as it can be very frustrating. Also, there are times when there are people taking part in a

162 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

AUDIO SCRIPTS conference call who are not f.1miliarwith the technolog)' and who don't

know how the equipment works. ll1is is a training issue.

The other thing is, background noise can be a big problem, especially if a mobile or cell phone is used, as these tend to pick up a lot ofbackground noise. Finally, there may be problems with people not being sensitive and speaking very fast, maybe because of nerves, or just because they behave difl'Crently on the phone.

CD2TRACK42

... and now I'd like to look at a few solutions to the problems, and offer

C02 TRACK 46 (C = CHAIR, A = ANNA, K = KURT, UR = UNION REPRESENTATIVE, B = BARBARA) C: OK, Anna, would you like to begin? A: Well , the level of absenteeism has gone up over the month. We need to monitor sickness levels more closely.

C: Mm. What do you think, Kurt? K: Motivation is the biggest issue. Stall' feel that no one listens to them. C: I see the union representative is here. Would you like to add anything? UR: ·n,e unions want more days' holiday per year. This will lead to lower sickness levels.

some tips for both participants and call leaders.

It may seem obvious, but when you are part of a conference call, make sure you arc in a quiet place and not likely to be interrupted or disturbed. This

C: How about you, Barbara? B: Mm. Well, our stall" have more days' holiday than any of our competitors. Tl1ere is no excuse for the present level of absenteeism.

follows on from what I said earlier. Actually, the 'mute' button is important to use when you are not speaking, so that you can reduce background noise. Personally, I use a headset for this type of call. Also try and avoid eating, drinking or chewing gum while on a conference call, as this can be noisy for others. If you really need to have a drink, remember to use the mute button .

C02 TRACK 47 (M = MOHAMMED, P = PAUL} M: What would you like to do this evening, Paul? P: I don't know, I haven't planned anything. M: Well, why don't you join me for dinner? I'm meeting a friend of mine tonight, Abdullah. He's got many business interests here. He could

Moving on to participants, a f'Cw quick pieces of advice.

help you a lot while you're here. He's got a lot of contacts with carpet

Prepare for the call in advance. ll!ink about and plan what you may need to say, and perhaps any questions you may have. Have any documents you may need close to hand, so that you don't need to look for them during the

manufacturers.

P:

call. Being on time is also important.

moment. It was a long flight and ! feel a little jet-lagged. l need an early

When speaking, ifit's not clear from the technology being used, it can be helpful to say who you arc each time you speak. For example: 'This is Mike. ! didn't catch the name of the marketing firm. Could you say it again, please?' As in face-to-face meetings, when you speak, stay on topic. Short contributions will be more memorable, and a conference call is not real!)•

Mmm, it's very kind of you to invite me, Mohammed, but I think I'd prefer to stay in the hotel ifyou don't mind. I'm really tired at the night.

M: OK, Paul, I quite understand. Perhaps we could meet Abdullah at the weekend?

P:

I'd be delighted to. I want to make as many business contacts as possible while I'm here.

say. For example, 'This is Mike, and my idea is .. .'

C02 TRACK 48 (P = PAUL, A = ABDULLAH, M = MOHAMMED) P: I don't know too much about Syria, Abdullah. What do people like

Listen carefully and wait to be invited to comment by the call leader. Avoid

A: Well, we like the same things as Western people. We like to meet our

the place for long speeches. Another good tip is to signal or label what you

·n,c other thing to say is, try not to interrupt people when they arc spcalting.

doing here in their spare time? friends in cafes and chat about business, sports - that sort of thing.

taking notes on a computer, as typing will be noisy for the other participants.

And we like watching football in the evening on television. Women

A pen and paper, although old fashioned, is still e!Tective!

U N IT 10 MANAG I N G PEOPLE � =-

enjoy talking to their friends and, of course, going shopping. Everyone likes that! What about you, Paul, what do you usually do after work?

------

---

CD2 TRACK43 (I = INTERVIEWER, LM = LAURIE MULLINS) 1:

Which management styles have influenced or impressed you?

How do you spend your evenings?

P:

mention three managers, with a broadly similar style. I believe these three managers are pioneers in the cllcctive management of people.

club. How about you, Mohammed? What's your favourite pastime?

M: I like to go out to restaurants and meet my friends in coffee houses.

We oten f go to a hammam, I love that. It's so relaxing after you've been

Firstly, Lord Sieff, S-1-E-F-F, who for many years was Chairman of Marks and Spencer, Britain's foremost retail store. Lord Sielf placed emphasis on quality control, profit and stafl· welfare. An enduring

working all day. Would you like to visit one?

P:

business organisation, particularly in the retail sector, and good human

CD2 TRACK 44 (lM = LAURIE MULLINS) LM: Tl1c two other managers I have selected both share a similar

C02 TRACK 49 (P = PAUL, A = ABDULLAH) A: So, what was your main purpose in coming to Damascus? P: I'm looking for a company to supply carpets for my store. Tl1e carpets you make here are excellent quality and they're very popular in the UK. So far, l haven't had much luck. Can you recommend anyone,

philosophy and managerial style. Second, Dame Anita Roddick, from

1976, founder of The Body Shop, which specialises in beauty and

cosmetic features. Anita Roddick displayed a genuine caring attitude towards staff, but is perhaps best known in Britain because she had a strong belief in environmental and social issues, feminist principles

Abdullah?

A: I could make some enquiries for you if you like. P: Ah, that's very kind ofyou. A: Actually, I do know someone who might help you. It's a family business in the north of the city, run by Sharif Hamad. He specialises

and practical aid to Tl1ird-World countries.

in traditional designs. I believe his prices arc very reasonable. Hold on

A very interesting aspect of Anita Roddick's management style was she firmly believed that it's not possible to provide environmental and social support without making profit. Secondly, she was quite honest in saying that she was in business to make profit, including some profits for herself, as well as the substantial sums she gave to Tl1ird­ World countries.

·n1ird is Sir Richard Branson, founder since 1970 of the Virgin brand of

over 360 companies. Sir Richard Branson is well known for combining a

a minute, I've got his business care!. Here you are.

P: Thanks very much. I'll give him a call tomorrow. Can I mention your name?

A: Please do. I've k nown him for years. Would you like me to give him a call first, to introduce you?

P: A:

1:

What do those three managers have in common? communication; involvement and availability for their stafl"; visibility so that stafJcan see them, approach them; and they were able to have immediate contact with them. All either did or do engender a genuine commitment from members of their stall: All three had or have a genuine belief in creating a climate of mutual consideration, respect and trust with their stair.

Now, let me recommend something else. Tomorrow evening, you everyone visits it when they're in Damascus. I'll take you there by car.

P:

LMr All three managers have or had a genuine belief in efl"ective

Thanks. That would be very helpful. J'd really appreciate it. must visit our famous mosque. It was built a long time ago, and

true entrepreneurial spirit with a genuine concern for people.

C02 TRACK 45 (I = INTERVIEWER, LM = LAURIE MULLINS)

Mmm, it sounds very interesting, but I don't think I have enough time. Tl1anks for the offer, though. Maybe on my next visit we could do that.

feature of Lord Sieff's belief was that the efl"ective management of the relations at work arc two aspects of the same thing.

I generally watch TV with my wife. We often cat out at a restaurant, we enjoy that. And at the weekend, we play squash or tennis at a local

LM: I have been impressed by many difl"crcnt managers, but I would like to

You're very kind. Tl1anks very much. I'd love lo sec it. Goodb)'C. All the best.

C02 TRACK 50 UD = JIM DRISCOLL, DB = DIANA BISHOP) JD: Let me give you a bit of information about the two newest members of the team.

DB: OK, I'll make a few notes. )0: Well, Adriana is the youngest member. She's been with us just over a year. She's an economics graduate, with a good head for figures. So far, she's doing pretty well. She met her sales target last year, she's come up with some good ideas for improving our website and she's added

163 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

AUDIO SCRIPTS several clients to our database. She seems to know how to get new business for the company, so she's definitely got potential.

DB: Good. )D: But she does have weaknesses. She lacks social skills. She doesn't

C02 TRACK 55 A: If! reduced the price b y seven per cent, would you give m e a firm order?

B: Mm, I don't know ... Only seven per cent? I was hoping for a little

more. Ifwe increased our order, would you give us a bigger discount?

get on very well with the other members of the team. And she's not comfortable when meeting clients for the first time. She never seems to be at case with them. One other thing, her presentations to clients are not yet up to the standard we normally expect.

A: OK, how about this . . . If you increase )'Our order to 1,000 units, we'll give you a 10 per cent discount. That's fair, isn't it?

B: A thousand units ... mm ... OK, 1,000 units, 10 per cent discount.

DB: Mmm, it sounds as ifshe's still got a lot to learn. )D: Yes. Also, she doesn't like our payment system at all. She thinks it's very unfair.

DB: OK. \IV hat about A11mcd? jD: Well, he's been with us just over two years - we hired him to improve

Agreed.

A: B: A: B:

our contacts with Arab clients. He's made a good start, his sales record's fine, and at the moment, he's searching for properties for several wealthy clients.

DB: Excellent. jO: Yes, but there arc some problems with him. He doesn't spend much time in the olfice, he's always out socialising with clients, so we don't see much of him. Well, not as much as we'd like. He doesn't come to

Some consultants say he's actually un-cooperative.

DB: Mm, that's not good for team spirit. How does he feel about the

currently earning about $60,000. company. My work's greatly undervalued at the moment. So I'm here to ask for a raise.

S: Right. What figure do you have in mind? R: $ 1 20,000. I know it's double my present salary, but I'm worth it. I've done really well in the last two years. I've exceeded my targets by almost 40 per cent, and none of the sales stall" has done better than

C02 TRACK 51 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

'calmness

'calm

weakness

'weak

flexi'bility

'flexible

e'motion

e'motional

con'sistency

con'sistcnt

'sympathy

sympa'thctic

for'mality

'formal

en'thusiasm

enthusi'astic

crea't-ivity

crc'ativc

getting such good results. It's not fair, is it? I should be getting the same salary as her.

S:

situat,ion, you know that. We've all got to cut costs. There's no way the directors would approve such a huge increase in salary for you. Well, not at the moment, anyway.

R: ! understand what you're saying, but the fact is, I'm being underpaid for the results I'm getting. I'm not happy about it. Not happy at all. Other sales staffare being treated much better than me . . . You know, there are other companies I could work for, don't forget that.

S:

founded, um, 20 years ago. Um, its base is in London, and, um, its

R: I'm just trying to tell you how 1 feel, that's all. S: OK, ! understand what you're saying. ! can see your point of view. Look, we do value your work, I can assure you. But times arc very

main outputs are to, um, teach business and make business more aware of more effective ways of dealing with conflict. And our two primary

dillicult at the moment. There's no way the directors would agree to

areas of business arc first, skills: so we've been involved in training up

pay you over $ 1 00,000 right away . . . Let me suggest a compromise.

to 40,000 mediators around the world. Um, and we're also involved in

How about if we give you an increase to, say, $80,000 now, and

providing services. So we have mediators who mediate, um, round the

promise to review your salary in six months' time?

UK and round the world in business conflicts.

R: $80,000 immediately and then a review . . . Hmm, I was hoping for a bit more . . . OK, ifyou guarantee I'll get a review later on, l guess I'd

C02 TRACK 53 (I = INTERVIEWER, EC = EILEEN CARROLL) What arc the commonest causes of conflict at work?

EC: We actually surveyed this last year, and the findings are interesting. The key problem is inappropriate communication or no communication. So l would say, avoidance; so that managers are not dealing with

their employees as ellectively as they might. There's a lot ofEuropean

S: R:

practices, and this docs lead to a lot of controversy in the workplace.

l think other areas, um, arc: clash of personalities, culture, different

l promise you we'll do that. I'm Chairman of the Review Committee

and I'll make sure your salary is discussed. OK, I suppose that's acceptable.

writing to you to confirm the increase.

C02 TRACK 57 (P = PRESENTER, JK = jOAN KNIGHT) P: Good morning, Joan. What can you tell us about Herman & Corrie Teas?

belief systems, and interestingly, urn, I think a lot of employees feel

j K: Well, they're well established, a very well-run company. They usually

that their workloads can be very oppressive.

make a profit, but some analysts think they could be doing a lot better.

C02 TRACK 54 (I = INTERVIEWER, EC = EILEEN CARROLL) How do you help to resolve business disputes?

EC: It's about trying to have an early dialogue and to recognise there is a

P: Uh-huh. What about their values, their principles? jK: OK, they're what we'd call a 'green' company. Very green. For example, they won't buy tea from suppliers if chemicals have been used to grow

problem, and then it's about having a good process, and that involves

the tea. And of course, they're against the use of any pesticides in the

getting key decision-makers to, um, allow enough time. So typically, um, we would say they need to allow at least half a day, but in a bigger business problem, at least a day. And it's having a good agenda, and it's making sure that the difficult issues arc talked about in the right kind of format with a mediator, both privately and in a group as well, and then private debriefs of the dillcrcnt protagonists in the conflict, and then bringing together parts of those groups to actually improve the levels of communication and to work on really constructive problem­ solving, and a real focus on finding the solution.

be happ)' with that.

S: Right, I'm pleased to hear it. I think we've covered everything. I'll be

legislation now around the areas of sex discrimination and unfair work

1:

I'm not sure I like the tone ofwhat you're saying, Rachel. TI1reats won't get you a:-�ywhere.

Can you tell us about your organisation?

EC: Our organisation, the Centre for Ellective Dispute Resolution, was

1:

Look, Rachel, I'm not going to discuss the salaries of the other staff with you. Put yourselfin our shoes. We're facing a difficult economic

C02 TRACK 52 (I = INTERVIEWER, EC = EILEEN CARROLL) 1:

that.

S: True, but a I 00 per cent increase? It's not going to happen. R: Look, I know for a fact that Sophie Legrand got a raise recently, and her salary's over S I 00,000. She's doing the same work as me and not

U N I T 1 1 CON FLICT patient

Ninety days? Mm, er, we might find that a little difficult.

R: Yes, that's why I'm here. I think I'm worth a lot more than that to the

JD: He's very happy with it. He can't understand why some of the

'patience

TI1at's fine. I think we've covered most things except terms ofpayment.

C02 TRACK 56 (S = SCOTT, R = RACHEL) S: OK, Rachel, so you want to talk about your salary. I see you're

payment system? consultants complain about it.

Vle can probably get them to you within a week. How about that? Ifyou give us 90 days' credit, we'll sign the order today.

A:

many meetings, and he's made no contribution really to building up our database. He's not really a team player at all - very independent.

Good. What about spare parts? Can you supply them pretty quickly?

growing process.

P:

Right.

I K: Another thing, they were one of the first tea companies to get a certificate as a fair-trade producer.

P: Mm, impressive. jK: Yeah, they have very high standards indeed. 1hcy always invest part of their profits in the areas and communities which supply their tea, and they promote production methods that benefit local agriculture and the tea producers. You know, they even try to recycle the boxes used for packaging. So you sec, they really care about the environment.

164 Scanned for Agus Suwanto

AUDIO SCRIPTS P: Yeah, there's no doubt about that. One other thing you could mention, Joan. lllC company's got very loyal stafl� I believe. People say it's

C02 TRACK 63 OW = JAMES WALLMAN) JW: It's the Tesla Roadster. It's the new electric vehicle, which goes from

their biggest asset. 1l1ey have a policy of keeping workers, even when

nought to 60 miles per hour in 3.4 seconds. I drove one in France in,

economic conditions are really bad. 1l1ey'd rather lose money than lay

from, from Nice to Cannes, about a month ago, and I've never driven a

ofl' workers.

car as exciting as this.

JK: Yes, they really look after their workers, that's true. P: Do you think the management will recommend accepting UCC's

Driving it is like a cross between driving a Scalextric car, a bumper car that you used to have at the old fun fairs - and probably still do have at funfairs - and a rocket ship. ·n,e response that you have from the

oflcr?

accelerator is instant. So it's not like with a turbo lag, it's not driving a

JK: Mm, I don't know, to be honest. But they'll be holding a meeting soon, and I suppose they'll make up their minds then. ! understand the

petrol-driven car, where there's some gap between when you push the

company's staff are strongly against the offer, so the meeting will be

pedal and it goes, it's absolutely instant. And as you release your foot

pretty lively.

from the accelerator, the car slows down in the same way a Scalextric

PS: OK, well - when we know, we'll invite you back to comment on the decision, Joan.

car does, when you pull on the trigger. So the Tesla is very exciting.

CD2 TRACK 64 (I = INTERVIEWER, JW = JAMES WALLMAN) 1:

U N IT 12 PROD UCTS

moment that will give us new and exciting products. Possibly one of

CD2 TRACK 58 1

the most exciting is the driverless car, not because I don't like driving,

SPEAKER

but sometimes driving can be very boring, driving in cities is a pain as

I'm 20 years old and I've wanted a Ford Mustang since I was IO. I now

opposed to driving in the countryside. Driverless cars will be \vith us

have an eye-catching 1998 black Mustang coupe with leather scats.

certainly by 2020. General Motors plan to have a driverless car on the

This car is fast and furious and is everything I have always dreamed

road by 2 0 1 8 . Google has put money into this, Audi is putting money

of. It has been virtually maintenance-free. I give my friends a ride

into this. We're in a position at the moment where cars are shifting

in it with the top clown, and they think it's awesome. Overall, it's

from completely driver-controlled to some control by the car itself, by

comfortable, reliable, gives great performance, has great interior

the computer within the car. And what we'll see over the next years is

and exterior design and is fun to drive.

the shift so that, just as with a 747 aeroplane, you can either drive it

C02 TRACK 59 2

yourself or hand it over to the machine to drive.

SPEAKER

1l1e best thing I've ever bought is a trampoline for my son and daughter. 1l1ey've had hours and hours of fun playing on it with their friends . . . and it's been really good for parties. It's weather-proof and durable - it really has lasted a long time, over 12 years. I've even used it myself- it's a great form of exercise. It wasn't cheap, but we were happy to pay for safety and wanted a high-quality trampoline. Ours has a strong rigid frame and high-quality springs, so we get a really deep bounce. If you want to buy one, make sure it fits the space in your garden. And for safety, remember that all trampolines arc designed for one jumper at a time.

C02 TRACK 65 (I = INTERVIEWER, JW = JAMES WALLMAN) 1:

What's your f.wourite product, and why?

JW: My favourite product is my Mac computer. It's a black Mac, so it looks good. And the reason I like it is because I'm a journalist, it's the thing that I usc to write my work on. I'm writing a novel, it's the thing I use to write my novel on. It connects me to e-mail, because obviously I have Wi-Fi at home. When I go to a cafe, I have Wi-Fi, I take it with me when I go on holiday and I go to places that have Wi-Fi. I can Skypc video and talk to friends in New York. I can Sk')'pe video and talk to friends in Australia. I'm in constant contact with my parents through the machine, and it has the wealth of the Internet, the information

C02 TRACK 60

that is there and all the people that that can connect me to.

SPEAKER 3

Well, I work from home and used to spend a lot of time propping myself up in bed with a laptop. But I recently bought this fantastic chair that copies the shape of your body when it's stretched out. It's made from an aluminum and plastic frame and has lots of pillows that support every part of the body. 1l1e computer monitor is cleverly suspended in front of me, to prevent neck strain. 1l1c keyboard and mouse arc designed to be placed on the user's lap. I really can relax whilst using the Internet and I haven't had any neck problems since I started using it. Also, the curved frame provides support for my back. It's also eye-catching and quite popular with my design-conscious friends!

So for me, my computer and its connection to the Internet, and its connection to people around the world, makes it invaluable and makes my life more connected and more fun.

C02 TRACK 66 I'm going tell you about our new product, a fast ice-cube maker for use in the kitchen. It was designed by Paolo Rossi and launched last month. We're promoting it at the moment on TV shopping channels and using a lot of point-of­ sale advertising. We're distributing it to upmarket department stores and specialist kitchenware shops. Now, about the product. It comes in three colours: white, black and silver. It has several special features. As you can see, it's stylish, well designed and

CD2 TRACK 61 SPEA�ER 4

elegant, as you would expect from a Paolo Rossi product. We think it'll be

I'm an experienced backpacker and I've been to four continents, up mountains, through deserts and jungles, and slept in smart hotels and on train station benches. Obviously everyone needs a good rucksack when travelling. But to answer your question: a large Arab scarf. That was the best thing I ever bought. It's a sarong, a scarf, a turban, a beach towel, a bath towel . . . Tie the corners together and you've got a bag. Hang it from a window for IS minutes and it's dry. All backpackers should get one.

extremely popular with people who like giving parties. It's made of stainless steel and is very sturdy. It's a bit larger and heavier than some other icc-making machines. It weighs approximately 1 2 kilos, but it's very strong and reliable. It was tested for months before we put it on the market and it never broke down. You can check its dimensions in the handout I'll be giving you. What about its main selling points? Well,

it's very economical in terms of power and exceptionally quiet when you're using it to make icc. Also, it's easy to use. You just put water in and press a

button. Nothing could be simpler. What about its performance? Well, that's one of the icc maker's outstanding features. It produces faster and bigger

C02 TRACK 62 (I = INTERVIEWER, JW = JAMES WALLMAN) 1:

What product do you expect to see in the ncar future?

JW: 1l1erc's a number of innovations that I think are happening at the

quantities of icc than any other model. It can produce I S ice cubes in eight

What makes a product great?

)W: ll1c three or four things I would look for in a product, and what makes a great product, is that it's . . . firstly, that it's caS)' to usc. 1l1at you don't need to think about what you need to do, you don't have to spend time reading a manual, that it's intuitive and simple and obvious how you should usc that. 1l1c other thing is, at its heart, a product should

minutes, two kilos of icc in an hour or 18 kilos in 24 hours. Incredible! Now, a word or two about its benefits for the user. Firstly, it'll save party givers a lot of time making ice cubes. And because the machine's so

versatile, it can make cubes of din·crent sizes. It's fairly expensive compared with other models. The retail price is around 320 euros, but it's great value

solve a problem or fulfill a need. So, for example, the, um, the electric

for money because it comes with a full five-year guarantee on parts and

cars that arc coming out today, they solve an essential problem in the

labour. We think the icc maker is a real winner. From now on, when people

world, which is that we arc running out of oil, and at the same time

give parties, there won't be any embarrassing moments when they run out

there is a problem with global warming, caused by burning fossil fuels.

of ice and have to wait hours for a few more cubes. 1hose days are over. It

So that's a great example, an electric car is something that solves a

simply won't happen if they have our icc maker in their kitchen.

problem. And the third point is simply that it should be functional,

1l1anks very much, everyone. Are there any questions?

that it should be helpful, that it should make your life easier and make things better in some way.

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AUDIO SCRIPTS C02 TRACK 67 (CN = CHIKA NAKAMURA, HD = HUGH DAVIS} CN: OK, Hugh, I think we're ready now to put everything in writing on the website. Shall ! summarise what we've agreed?

HD: Sure. Go ahead. CN: OK, first point. We're loolting for products that show originality and creativity. Ifthey're really unique, so much the better.

HD: Absolutely. Our awards are meant to encourage innovation. It's the most important point, so it's got to come first in the list of criteria.

CN: OK. Next, 1 think this point is important, too: we're loolting for things

that improve consumers' lifestyle, that give them a better quality oflife

or a wider choice of a product, maybe.

HD: Yes, we want products that really benefit consumers in some way. CN: OK, and I think we also agreed the winning products will need to be, um, environmentally friendly. Is that right?

HD: Well, all we actually said was that they shouldn't be bad for the environment, not harmful to it in some way.

CN: Right. We had three other points for the list. Um, the winning companies will have to explain to us their plans for marketing their products, tell us how they'll advertise and promote them. And they get bonus points if they have creative plans - if their marketing is a bit different in some way. Now, let's sec, what else . . .

HO: vVe want the products t o make plenty o f money for the company. ·n1ey've got to be profitable. So the question we'll be asking them is, will it make money, or is it just a fad - here today, gone tomorrow?

CN: Exactly. And the last point: is the product advanced in terms of technology?

HD: ! think we can put that another way, Chika. 'fl1c question is, has the company used technology in a new way, in an interesting or exciting way? That's what we're loolting for.

WORKI N G ACROSS C U LTU R E S 4 C02 TRACK 68 (S = SPEAKER, A = AUDIENCE MEMBER) S: Today, we're going to be tallting about culture - what it is, and how knowledge of it can help when doing business internationally. l've divided my talk into two parts. Firstly, I'd like to talk about the visible aspects of culture - the things we can see - and secondly the invisible aspects - the parts we can't see. OK, so firstly the visible aspects. Earlier I asked you to think about this. What did you come up with?

Al: The weather!

5:

Yes, you laugh, but it does have an effect on culture and behaviour. Anything else?

A2: We came up with food, written language, the way people drive and, er, the style of buildings. S:

Yes, very good. The point is that these are easy to see and may be different to what you are used to. Ln business terms, this will also include the way people greet each other, and how close they stand when tallting - what we call 'personal space: This may also extend to the use of gestures with the hands or f.1ce - in other words, body language. 111ere may also be diff'erenccs behveen the roles of men and women.

CD2TRACK69 Moving on, I'd now like to take a quick look at the other aspects of culture which we cannot see - the invisible parts. These are things such as beliefs and attitudes, which are important because they help us to understand how people in other cultures think and operate. This will depend on the whole structme of society - how important things like the individual, the family, the team or group is. Building relationships and developing trust over a period of time are much more important in certain cultures than getting instant results. Risk-talting may be seen in a different way, so it may take longer to make decisions. Attitudes to time are also important, not only in relation to things like deadlines, but how long- or short-term the thinking is. Business deals could take a very long time. One further point is about the status of a person. Remember, status may be linked to age or connections rather than simply talent or ability. Overall, it's clear to me that when people talk about cultural problems, they are usually in these areas. They're not language problems. They are to do with misunderstandings of behaviour caused by attitudes and values which arc different and may be difficult to understand. To sum up, the most important thing when doing business with other cultures is to be more aware ofyour own culture. What is normal for you may seem strange to people from other cultures. As well as think ing about your own culture, the final tips 1 can give are to be sensitive, to try and

notice things and be flexible in your approach. You can't hope to cover

everything, but with a little bit of research, an open mind and an awareness of your own culture, you can go far. Thank you and good luck!

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adjective (adj.) Headwords for adjectives followed by information in square brackets, e.g. [only before a noun] and [not before a noun}, show any restrictions on where they can be used. noun (n.) The codes [C) and [U] show whether a noun, or a particular sense of a noun, is countable (an agenda, two agendas) o r uncountable (awareness, branding) . Note that some nouns in the examples are used as part of a noun phrase. verb (v.) The forms of irregular verbs are given after the headword. The codes [I] (intransitive) and [T] (transitive) show whether a verb, or a particular sense of a verb, has or does not have an object. Phrasal verbs (phr. v.) are shown after the verb they are related to where applicable.

accident n. [C) If something happens by accident, no one planned it or expected it to happen. Most of the best ideas are discovered by accident. achieve v. to succeed in doing or getting something you want The jacket could achieve its sales target with a new marketing approach. advertising n. [U] th e business of advertising things on television, in newspapers, etc. I'll explain how we can communicate with people through our advertising and promotion. advice n. [U] when you suggest what someone should do What advice would you give to someone starting their own business in your country? agency n. [C) a business that arranges services for people An advertising agency is a business which advises companies on advertising and makes ads. agree v. to have the same opinion as someone else I agreed with her that we need to change our marketing strategy.

appear v. to become widely available or known about How often will the magazine appear? argument n. [C] 1 If you have an argument with someone, you shout or say angry things to them because you do not agree with them. What would you do if you saw two colleagues having an argument? 2 the reasons that you give to show that something is right or wrong I want to hear all the arguments for and against the offer before we make a decision. arrange v. to make plans so that something can happen I arranged a meeting with the fin ance department to discuss the project. attendance n. [U] when you go to a meeting, school, church, etc. She was warned about her poor attendance and time· keeping. attractive adj. If something is attractive, people want to see it, go to it or have it. There could be attractive investment opportunities over the next five years. available adj. I f something is available, you can buy it, use it or have it. The collar is available in many different styles and fabrics. balance n. [C] singular when you give the right amount of attention to two different things, rather than giving too much attention to one of them What is a good work-life balance for you? behave v. to do or say things in a particular way Behave as though nothing has happened. behaviour n. [U]Your behaviour is the way that you act or do things. Certain standards of behaviour are expected at work.

aim n. [C) something that you want to do o r get What are the aims of the new magazine?

behind prep., adv. responsible for something that has happened Thomas Geissler is the German businessman behind the machines.

ambitious adj. determined to be successful or powerful Luke is ambitious and does not want to be a sales assistant all his life.

best-selling adj. bought by many people Nestle makes many of the world's best-selling food products.

appeal n. [C]the quality of something that makes you like it or want it Create an event with universal appeal to a potentially highly diverse audience.

bill n. [C] a list of things that you have bought o r that someone has done for you, showing how much you have to pay for them Ask for the bill.

appeal v. If something appeals to you, you like it. It needs to appeal to people living and working in cities, as well as to outdoor enthusiasts.

body language n. [U] changes in your body position and movements that show what you are feeling or thinking Pay attention to the other side's body language. 167

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GLOSSARY bonus n. {C) money that is added to someone's usual pay We are willing to reward staff with attractive performance-based bonuses. boost v. to increase the value or amount of something The badge boosts sales ofthe product. brand n. [C) a product that a particular company makes Its brand is well known in japan and in the United States. break n. {C) I f you take a break, you stop what you are doing for a short time in order to rest o r eat. Some people take a career break to do something adventurous. budget n. {C) an amount of money that is available, or a careful plan of how to spend an amount of money If you had an unlimited budget, what would be included in your dream corporate-hospitality package? bully v. to frighten o r threaten to hurt someone who is smaller or weaker than you What would you do ifyou saw a colleague bullying another colleague? bureaucracy n. {U] an official system that annoys and confuses people because it has too many rules The government is making a renewed effort to reduce bureaucracy. call n. {C) a telephone conversation Would you like me to give him a call first? campaign n. {C} a number of things that people do in order to get a particular result, especially people in business or government Tell your partner about a marketing campaign that impressed you. career n. {C) a job or profession that you do for a long time, especially one in which you can move to a higher position Do you have a career plan? Where do you want to be in 10 years' time?

commission n. [C) money that a person or organisation is paid when they sell something The average sales executive expects to earn between £25-35k, including bonuses and commission, in their first year of work. communication n. [U} when people talk to each other o r give each other information using letters, telephones, etc. Communication was better in Geraldine's company than Ruby's. company n. {C) an organisation that makes o r sells things Would you prefer to work for several different companies? competition n. [C) a situation in which people or organisations compete with each other There is very strong competition in the US advertising industry. competitive adj. determined to be more successful than other people We are a highly competitive business. confidence n. [U] belief in your ability to do things well This confidence in his products is typical ofMr Kashio. confident adj. sure that you can do something well You must sound and appear confident. conflict n. [C) a disagreement or fighting How good are you at managing conflict? consider v. to think about something carefully, especially before deciding what to do The business owner has additional pressures to consider. consumer n. [C) someone who buys things o r uses a service that a company provides Dina Conti manufactures and distributes ice cream to consumers in the state of California. contact n. [C) someone whose name or e-mail address is stored on your phone, computer, etc. Do you have any contacts in ... ?

carry out phr. v. to do something that has been planned and organised, or that someone has told you to do I think we should carry out a survey.

contract n. [C) a formal written agreement between two people, companies, etc. We'll sign the contract now.

cashflow n. {U] the movement of money coming into a business as income and going out as wages, materials, etc. Increased production and strong demand have had a positive effect on our cashflow.

cover v. to include something Good, I think we've covered everything.

catch v. to not hear o r understand what someone says Sorry, I didn't catch that. CEO n. {C} Chief Executive Officer: the person with the most authority in a large company It has set up a special committee to look for a new CEO. client n. {C) someone who pays a person or organisation for a service or advice The job involves dealing with clients and their needs. comment v. to give your opinion about someone or something Could I just comment on that?

credit n. [U] a system in which you receive things and pay for them later We'll give you 90 days ' credit. customer n. [C} someone who buys things from a shop o r company The customer database does not produce reliable results. deadline n. [C) a date or time by which you must finish something What deadlines do you have to meet in your daily life? deal v. If you deal with a problem, you do something to make sure the problem no longer exists. How would you deal with these problems?

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GlOSSARY delegate v. to give part of your power or work to someone in a lower position than you Delegate to a deputy as often as possible.

facilities n. [C) (plural) rooms, equipment or services that are available in a place The sports centre has great facilities.

deliver v. to take something such as a letter or a package to a place We could possibly deliver by late August.

fall n. [C) singular when a n amount or level becomes less or lower A recent fall in profits has disappointed the management.

demand n. [U} If there is a demand for something, people want to buy it. These products are made to satisfy consumer demand. design v. to be made for a particular type of person or a particular purpose It's designed to be used with any type of material.

favou r n. [C) be in favour of to support a plan or idea Personally, I'm in favour ofjune. feature n. [C) an important or interesting part of something Will the magazine have any special design features?

discount n. [C) a lower price than usual We must not offer any further discounts.

feel v. to have an opinion about something, based on your feelings How do you feel about this?

discrimination n. [Uj unfair treatment of someone because of the group they belong to There's a Jot of European legislation now around the areas of sex discrimination.

figure n. [C) a n u m ber that shows an amount According to new figures, checks on Facebook and Twitter are now as important in the job-selection process as a CV or interview.

dish n. [C) food cooked or prepared in a particular way It's a vegetarian dish.

finance n. [Uj activities connected with the spending or saving of large amounts of money What is the key difference between people who work in finance and those who work in research?

distribute v. to give something to each person or organisation It produces 1 5 flavours, which it distributes mainly to supermarkets and company-owned stores. dominate v. to be the most important or most noticeable person or thing The professional photography market is dominated by Canon and Nikon. download n. [C) something that you download from the Internet, for example software, a computer game or a song It isn't available as a download. electronics n. [U] the process of making electronic equipment, such as computers or televisions, or the study of this problems for the japanese consumer electronics industry employer n. [C}Your employer is a person or company that pays you to work for them. Employer-employee relations at John Lewis are completely different. exchange rate n. [C) the value of the money of one country when you change it for the money of another country The last six months have seen a slight improvement in the exchange rate. expand v. to become bigger Dina Conti has expanded rapidly in recent years. expect v. to think that something will happen We are expecting to sell more televisions, food and drink. face v. If you face a bad situation or problem, you have to accept it or deal with it. It is facing strong competition from other charter airlines.

finance v. to provide money for something The winner(s) will receive $20 million to finance and develop their project. finish v. to come to the end of doing or making something Ifyou'll just Jet me finish ... flexible adj. able to change or be changed easily The secret is to be flexible - although this often takes a Jot of courage. flexitime n. [U] a system in which people work a particular number of hours, but can change the times at which they start and finish The company is changing to flexitime. focus v. to give all or most of your attention to a particular thing To be a good manager you need to focus on tasks, not people. forecast n. [C) a description of what is likely to happen A sales forecast is how much a company thinks it will sell in a period. fortune n. [C) a lot of money In banking, you can make a fortune with the big bonuses and retire at 35. found v. to start a n organisation Anita Roddick founded The Body Shop. GOP n. [C) singular Gross Domestic Product: the total value of all goods and services produced in a country, in one year, except for income received from abroad The GOP has grown by 0.15%. get v. to bring someone or something Can I get you a drink?

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GLOSSARY go over phr. v. repeat something i n order to explain it o r in order to make sure it is correct Let's go over the main points again. grow v. to get bigger in size or amount We are changing, growing and doing well at a difficult time for the industry. growth n. [U]when something gets bigger o r develops Now its growth is slowing down. high-performance adj. cars, computers, etc. that are able to go faster, do more work, etc. than normal ones Ferrari make high-performance sports cars. high-tech adj. High-tech equipment is very modern and uses the most advanced electronic parts. IBM manufactures high-tech computer products. hold v. to have a meeting, party, election, etc. We normally hold our sales conference in Mumbai.

inflation n. [U] a continuing increase in prices The government has reduced the inflation rate to 2%. influence v. to change how someone or something develops, behaves o r thinks Which of the four Ps influenced your decision to buy? innovative adj. An innovative idea or way of doing something is new, different and better than those that existed before. A competition is held each year to find the most innovative new consumer products. interest rate n. [C) the percentage amount cha rged by a bank, etc. when you borrow money, or paid to you by a bank when you keep money in an account there As soon as interest rates rise, the economy will slow down. interrupt v. to say something at the same time as someone else is speaking Sorry to interrupt, but ...

hold on phr.v. to tell someone to wait or stop doing something Hold on a minute.

inventor n. [C) someone who thinks of or makes something completely new The inventor plans to build a global network.

hope v. to want something to happen Coca-Cola is hoping to more than double its number of bottling plants in China.

investment n. {C, U]when you put money i n a bank or buy something in order to get more money back later Gold is a safe investment at a time offinancial instability.

hospitality n. [U] when you behave in a friendly way towards visitors and make them feel welcome What corporate-hospitality event would you like to be invited to?

invite v. to ask someone to go somewhere, or to do something with you Ruby and Geraldine were both invited to a meeting.

human resources n. [U] in a company, the department that deals with employing, training and helping people In 2010, Mukherjee, the Head of Human Resources, recruited 70, 000 people. ignore v. to know that someone or something is there, but to deliberately not do anything to show that you know If managers ignore unacceptable behaviour, problems will get worse. image n. [C) singular the way that someone o r something seems to the public How does entertaining affect a company's image?

involved adj. If you are involved in an activity or event, you take part in it. Why should managers get involved as soon as conflict develops? issue n. {C) an important subject o r problem that people discuss Focus on the issues, not on personalities. key adj. very important and necessary Here are some key facts about our company. kind n. [C) a type of person or thing It's a kind ofseafood.

impatient adj. Someone who is impatient becomes angry because they have to wait. He gets very angry if people are late - he is very impatient.

kind adj. Someone who is kind cares about other people and treats them well. It's very kind of you, but another time perhaps.

impression n. [C) the feeling you have about something or someone because of the way they seem You want to make a good impression on them.

labour force n. [C) singular all the people who work for a company or in a country The Netherlands took action to get the unemployed back into the labour force.

improve v. to make something better Decide what the company must do to improve the sales of the Wincote XWS.

launch v. to make a new product available The collar will be launched in new fashion collections.

in advance adv. before a particular time or event starts You need to make your reservation 180 days in advance. income n. {C) money that you receive, for example from your job The company would be targeting consumers with average disposable income of Rmbs,ooo a month.

link n. {C) a relationship or connection between different situations, events or people There appears to be a link between stress levels and GOP. look after phr. v. to do things to make sure that someone or something is safe and well Who's going to look after our guests tonight?

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GLOSSARY manufacture v. to make large quantities of goods, using machines Multinationals which manufacture in developing countries help the world economy.

multinational n. [C) a large company that has offices, factories, etc. in many different countries Employees in large multinationals have excellent career opportunities if they are willing to travel.

manufacturer n. [C) a company that makes large quantities of goods, using machines Boeing is a well-known aircraft manufacturer.

multinational adj. A multinational company has factories, offices and business activities in many different countries. GFDC is a multinational company based in Dubai.

manufacturing n. [U] the process or business of producing goods in factories Would you like to work in manufacturing?

need n. [C] something that is necessary These products are made to meet a need.

market v. to try to persuade people to buy something by advertising it If you want to market a product successfully, you need to get the marketing mix right. marketing n. [U] the job of deciding how to advertise and sell a product There are three candidates for the position ofSales and Marketing Director. meet v. If something meets someone's standards or needs, it is good enough. I've always met my sales targets. meeting n. [C) an organised event where people discuss something. You organise, arrange or call a meeting. Then you have or hold it somewhere. You cancel a meeting if you decide not to have it Managers should attend all meetings.

negotiate v. to discuss something in order to reach an agreement They are currently negotiating an important contract with an agency. occasion n. [C] an important event or ceremony We're getting together next week for a special family occasion. offer n. [C) when you say that you will do something for someone or give them something if they want it Never be the first to make an offer. offer v. to say that you will do something for someone if they want you to It's very kind of you to offer. opening n. [C) when the public can start using a new place We attended the opening of a new store.

memorable adj. very good and likely to be remembered Make sure the event is memorable.

opportunity n. [C] If you have an opportunity to do something, you get a chance to do it. He never failed to take advantage of an opportunity.

message n. [C) a piece of information that you send or give to another person Can I leave a message, please?

order n. [C] something that a customer asks a company to make or send them Place an order today.

mind v. You say this to politely ask if you can do something. Do you mind if I take one of these maps?

organic adj. Organic food is grown or produced without using artificial chemicals. Organic products are overpriced and often not as good as the alternatives.

mission n. [C) the purpose or the most important aim of an organisation I'll tell you about our mission statement. This describes what we're all about, why we're in business. mix n. [C) singular al l the different people or things that are in a place The product mix in smaller cities will be chosen so that the entry price for consumers would be 1 5 per cent less than in Adidas's existing shops in larger cities. model n. [C) one type of car or machine that a company makes The company sells four models of bicycle. monitor v. to watch or measure something carefully for a period of time to see how it changes She said we needed to monitor sickness levels more closely. move on phr.v. to start talking about a new subject in a discussion Let's move on now.

outlet n. [C] a shop, company o r organisation through which products are sold Which sales outlets does Wan want to target? participant n. [C] someone who is involved in an activity with other people Participants arrive on Thursday evening. participate v. to do an activity with other people They feel they have no control over their work and they don't participate in decisions. percentage n. [C] an amount that is part of a larger amount, expressed as part of a total which is 100 What percentage of your income do you spend on transport? perform v. If something o r someone performs well, they work well. If they perform badly, they work badly. The company has been performing badly. perform v. to do a job or a piece of work Some ofthe operations are performed by robots.

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GLOSSARY place n. {C] a particular area or town, or a particular building, shop, restaurant, etc. The conference will take place in July.

quit v. to leave a place or job permanently I thought about quitting my job.

pollution n. {U] harmful chemicals and waste, and the damage they cause to the environment Pollution is a big problem here. potential n. {U] natural qualities which could make someone very successful in the future The jacket was considered to have great sales potential. prefer v. to like one thing or person more than another Read the two theories and say which you prefer. prepare v. to make something ready, so that it can be used We prepared a budget with details ofthe various costs involved. presentation n. {C] an event at which someone explains an idea to a group of people After all the presentations, discuss which product is the most exciting and innovative. pressure n. [C] when something makes you feel anxious or unhappy, for example because you have too much to do Do you like working under pressure? pretend v. to behave in a particular way in order to make people believe something is true, although it is not They are often sick or pretend they are sick and take days off work. privatise v. If a government privatises an organisation that it owns, it sells it. Many companies in the UK have been privatised. product n. {C] something that is made and sold by a company A rep's job is selling products or services. profile n. [C] a short description that gives important details about a person, a group of people or a place What is a typical consumer profile for the brand?

range v. to be between two limits Prices range from US$1,000 upwards. range n. {C] a number of different things that are a ll the same type of thing The product range includes cars, vans and trucks. reasonable adj. a reasonable amount or number is not too much or too big That's very reasonable, don't you think? receipt n. when someone receives something We need payment on receipt of the goods. recommend v. to tell someone that something is good or enjoyable Can you recommend anyone? redundant adj. to stop employing someone because there is not enough work for them any more It is very likely that Diano Bishop may soon be asked by head office to make one consultant redundant, in order to cut costs. refund n. {C] money that is given back to you in a shop, restaurant, etc., for example because you are not satisfied with what you bought In order to get a full refund, customers must send back goods in the original packaging. relaunch n. {C] a new effort to sell a product that is already on sale The management decided to relaunch the product and change their approach to marketing it. remind v. to make someone remember something that they must do Ask someone (e.g. your PA) to remind you. report v. to tell people about something that has happened It was reported that he turned down a $2 billion offer from Yahoo.

profit n. {C] If you make a profit when you sell something, you get more money for it than you spent on it. The money a company makes after taking away its costs and tax is its net profit.

report n. {C] something that gives facts about a situation or event I wrote a report for the board of directors.

profit margin n. [C] the difference between the cost of producing something a n d the price at which you sell it Our profit margin is low.

respond v. to answer A good manager should respond to employees' concerns promptly.

profitable adj. producing a profit Which idea do you think will be the most profitable?

response n. {C] a reply or reaction to something On the other hand, some products are developed in response to customer research.

qualification n. {C] an official examination that you have passed, which shows what level of education you have reached or what training you have had Study for extra qualifications in your free time. quality n. {C] something that a person or thing has as part of their character o r nature, especially something good Talk about the good or bad qualities of managers/bosses you have had.

result v. to happen because of something It results in an increase in sales and profit. retirement n. {U] the time when or after you stop working at the end of your working life You should plan your retirement from an early age. return v. to give o r send something back to someone We will return your money if you are not happy.

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GLOSSARY rise n. [C) an increase The boss has just given her a pay rise.

slight adj. small and not very important The last six months have seen a slight improvement.

rival n. [C) a person or group that you compete with Rivals are not only racing to launch new products but also cutting prices.

source n. [C) the place that something comes from Some potential sources of conflict at work are obvious.

running v. managing or controlling a business, organisation, etc. The job involves being in charge of people and running the organisation. salary n. [C) the pay you receive from the organisation you work for It's the percentage of their salary that each John Lewis employee takes home as that year's bonus. sales n. [U} the total number of products that are sold during a particular period of time Overall, sales revenue was 35 % below target. salesperson n. [C) someone whose job is to sell things for a company It questioned sales professionals on what they considered to be the most important qualities for a salesperson. say n. [C) singular If you have a say in something, you can give your opinion about it and help decide it. Its employees - or partners - have a say in how it is run. segment n. [C) one of the parts that something is divided into Which market segment is the product aimed at in your country? sell v. to be bought by people The boots sold well. serve v. If you serve food or drink, you give it to people. It's served with rice. set up phr.v. to start a company o r organisation The 29-year-o/d decided to set up an Internet business. share n. [C) a part of something which each person in a group has received Among UK supermarkets, Tesco has the highest market share. sharply adv. suddenly and by a large amount Sales have fallen sharply in the last three years. shrink v. to become smaller In Ireland, the economy is shrinking, and business owners are worried about how they will keep their business alive. side n. [C) one person, group or team in a fight, sport or negotiation He let the other side have everything they wanted in the negotiation. sight n. [C) places that are interesting to see, and which many people visit I'd love to see some of the sights. skill n. [C) an ability to do something well, especially because you have practised it What qualities and skills should a good manager have?

specialise v. to study only one subject or do only one activity He specialises in traditional designs. spend v. to use time doing something What types of company spend a lot of time on research and development? stable adj. not likely to move o r change The economy is stable following the problems of the past two years. staff n. [U} the people who work for an organisation More and more staff are taking medicine because they feel highly stressed at work. strategy n. [C) a set of plans to achieve something Our strategy is to make sure as many of our products as possible are new. stressful adj. making you worried and unable to relax Which of the situations is the most stressful for you? summarise v. to give only the main information about something without all the details OK, let's summarise. superior n. [C) someone who has a higher position than you at work Use charm with your superiors. supply v. to provide people with something that they need Cisco Systems is an American company which supplies Internet equipment. suppose v. to think that something is probably true I suppose we could do that. survey n. [C) a set of questions that you ask a lot of people in order to find out about their opinions The survey was carried out for Pareto Law, a recruitment and training company. target v. to try to sell a product o r give information about something to a particular group of people Many consumer-goods multinationals have recently decided to target smaller cities and less wealthy consumers. target n. [C) an amount or level that you are trying to achieve Did they meet their sales targets? test v. to use something to find out whether it works All Cosio products are tested before shipping. tip n. [C) an additional amount of money that you give to someone who has done a job for you as a way of thanking them Leave a tip.

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GLOSSARY top adj. best or most successful The top five companies receive a badge from the Foundation. trend n. [C) the way that a situation is changing or developing What are the trends in your country?

turn n. [C) the time when you can or should do something, used when different people do something at different times At a formal meeting, each person should speak in turn.

turn down phr.v. to say 'no' when someone offers you something As we had another engagement, we had to turn down their invitation.

turnover n. [C) the amount of business done during a particular period The amount ofmoney a company receives from sales in a particular period is called its turnover.

unemployment n. [U}when people do not have jobs, or the number of people who d o not have jobs The unemployment rate is 8.25%.

value for money used to say that something is worth what you pay for it or not what you pay for it It's great value for money.

venue n. [C) a place where a public event takes place The marketing team sent out a questionnaire to find out what type of venue the participants preferred. voice mail n. [U} a system that records telephone calls so that you can listen to them later I'm sorry, there's no answer. I can transfer you to his;her voice mail.

waste of time not worth the time that you use because there is little or no result Making lists of things to do is a waste of time.

wholesaler n. [C) a person or company that buys things in large quantities and sells them to shops Suppliers often sell large quantities ofgoods to wholesalers.

Wifi n. [U} a way of connecting computers and other electronic equipment to a computer network using radio signals instead of wires I go to places that have Wi-Fi.

workaholic n. [C) someone who spends all their time working Why do people become workaholics?

working adj. relating to work It was an ordinary working day. workload n. [C) the amount of work that a person has to do My workload keeps increasing. worth be interesting or useful to do I think it's a good idea. It's well worth trying.

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Pearson Education Limited

4 from 'Perfect for a Boris bike ... "invisible" cycling collar with a

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built-in airbag', This is London, 2 1 /10/2010 (Prigg, M.), copyright

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Extract in Unit 1 from 'Facebook profile could "damage job

Alexander Raths 8 1 , Ben Jeayes 71, Claudia Veja 19, Goodluz

prospects'", The Telegraph, 29/01/2010 (Bloxham, A.), copyright

103tl, Joe Klune 29t, Sport Graphic 86, Vorm in Beeld 1 1 2cl, Yuri

© Telegraph Media Group Limited 2010; extract in Unit 2 adapted

Arcurs 79;

from 'Is John Lewis the best company in Britain to work for?', The

51cl, Image Source 109, Moodboard 3 1 ;

SuperStock: Axiom Photographic 50, Blend Images 30, Topfoto: 40.

Guardian, 16/03/2010 (Henley, ).), copyrigh t © Guardian News

& Media Ltd 2010; extract in Unit 4 adapted from 'Google leaps

All other images © Pearson Education

(Gou rlay, C.), copyright © Nl Syndication, 2010; extract in Unit

Project managed by: Chris Hartley

language barrier with translator phone', The Times, 07/02/2010

Scanned for Agus Suwanto

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