Macmillan English Grammar in Context Advanced

Michael Vince acmillan nglish rammar In Context Advanced with key lxaluo:)ul JEWWEJ 4S!16u UEII!WJE Macmillan Education Between Towns Road, Oxford OX4...

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Michael Vince

acmillan nglish rammar In Context

Advanced with key

lxaluo:) ul JEWWEJ 4S!16u UEII!WJE

Macmillan Education Between Towns Road, Oxford OX4 3PP A division of Macmillan Publishers Limited Companies and representatives throughout the world ISBN 978-1-40S0-70S2-2 (with key edition) ISBN 978-1-4050-7147-5 (without key edition) Text © Michael Vince 2008 Design and illustration © Macmillan Publishers Limited 2008 First published 2008 Ali rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publishers. Designed by Giles Davies Illustrated by Fred Blunt; Chris Ede; Andy Hammond; Joanna Kerr; Darren Lingard; Julian Mosedale; Sarah Nayler Cover design by Katie Stephens Cover photographs by Alamy/Bailey-Cooper Photography, Image Source, Photodisc, Stockbyte I would like to thank Carl Robinson, Amanda Holmbrook and Sarah Curtis for their support and help during this project. Special thanks are due to my editor Clare Shaw. I would also like to thank the many teachers whose classes I have visited, and who have commented on versions of this book. The authors and publishers are grateful for permission to reprint the following copyright material: The BBCfor an extract from 'Bond film stage "will be rebuilt'" published on www.news.bbc.co.uk 31 July 2006, copyright © www. bbc.co.uk 2006. Guardian News & Media Ud for an extract from 'The appliance of Science' by Mike Hulme published in The Guardian 14 March 2007, copyright © Guardian 2007. BritainUSA.com for an extract from 'Which cheeses are produced in Britain?' published on www.britainusa.com. The Scotsmans Publication Limited for an extract from 'Blocked drains shut gallery' by Joanna Vallely published in The Scotsman February 2006. Telegraph Media Group Limited for an extract from 'Cure for blindness within five years' by Roger Highfield published in The Telegraph 6 June 2007, copyright © The Telegraph 2007. These materials may contain links for third party websites. We have no control over, and are not responsible for, the contents of such third party websites. Please use care when accessing them. Although we have tried to trace and contact copyright holders before publication, in some cases this has not been possible. If contacted we will be pleased to rectify any errors or omissions at the earliest opportunity. The authors and publishers would like to thank the following for permission to reproduce their photographic material: Alamy/ Robert Stainforth p 77, Andrew Fox p 131, Bailey-Cooper Photography p 140; Ancient Art & Architecture Collection/ p 145; Anthony Blake Picture Library/ p 36; Art Directors & Trip/ David Clegg p 33, Helene Rogers p 141t, Mark Maclaren p 201; Bananastock/ pp 28ct, 28cb, 28b, 123,209; Brand X/ pp 23,53,99, 153; Cartoon Stock/ p 26; ComStock/ p 32; Corbis/ Eberhard Streichan/ zefa p 31, Richard Cummins p 55, Bettmann p 87, John Springe Collection p 117, W. Perry Conway p 168, The Gallery Collection p 219; Digital Stock/ Corbis p 102; Digital Vision/ p 81; Eyewire/ p 28t; Gett y Images/ Holly Harris p 15, Hulton Archive pp 18,108, 149, Petrified Collection p 851, AFP 141b, Kazumi Nagaswawa p 157, Altrendo image s p 207, Frank Whitney p 211; Haddon Davies/ p 107; Image 100/ p 109; Image Source/ pp 160, 210, 213,214; Jupiter/ Michel Fainsilber/ Photononstop p 63, Mary Evans Picture Library/ pp 113, 161; Photodisc/ P 59, 67, 187, 191, 212; Rex Features / pp 85r, 98; Science Picture Library/ NASAp 165, Ed Young p 186, Still Pictures/ William Campbell p 38; Stockbyte/ pp 9, 22, 95, 135; Superstock/ pp 45, 85c, 103. Printed and bound in Thailand 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Introduction This bo ok is designed to revise and consolidate grammar points at the level of Council of Europe Framework (CEF)CI and CZ. It assumes that the basic points have been covered. These can be practised in Macmillan English Grammar In Context Essential and Macmillan English Grammar In Context Intermediate. The practice material includes a wide range of topics to reflect both everyday language use and the kinds of subjects leamers might be studying in schools or colleges. Many leamers are likely to use English to leam another subject during their education and the choice of text tries to reflect this factoSome texts contain information which leamers should find interesting or challenging. The intention in general is that language should have a familiar context and that leamers should have something to use language for. Within each unit, exercises range in difficulty. This allows leamers to build up their confidence with the simpler, more familiar tasks before moving onto the more challenging one s later in the unit. The longer, topic-based texts include highlighted words whose definitions can be found on the accompanying CD-ROM. This is a good opportunity for leamers to widen their vocabulary and see grammar used in realistic contexts. The Review section at the back of the book offers more activities for students who have finished the other exercises. It is aIso for students who feel that they haven't fully grasped the grammar point and need some further practice. In addition, it can be used as a means of testing or revising previous study, either in class or at home. The CD-ROM

This includes two further exercises for each unit in this book, and a test section. Plus, where you see highlighted words like this, you will find the definitions in the glossary section. Just follow the link from the homepage. To the student English Grammar In Context has been written to make grammar more interesting than other books on the market. We hope you find it enjoyable as well as useful. If you are studying at home, the units can be covered in any order but the exercises within each unit have been graded. If you find some exercises difficult, read the presentation page again. The extension activities and Review offer the opportunity of further practice. Macmillan

To the teacher

Unlike many other grammar books, Macmillan English Grammar In Context puts grammar into context. The aim is to encourage students to see grammar used mor e realistically and in more interesting ways. The topics covered in the exercises can be used as a starting point for a lesson, as a subject for discussion, and as a means of helping to build students' vocabulary in useful areas. There is opportunity for individual study, group work and homework, plus testing, in the different sections of the book.

34 30 tense contrasts time 60 68 72 78 88 92 24 would nouns 104 114 100 40 20 46 64 82 96 10 16 50 56 6 Page conditional modals (3): other and if-sentences uses certainty artieles (1) (2) (1) passlve questions unreal numtime ber past (2): and possibility, tense quantity (2)uses of have present past hearsay indirect report and verbs simple, perfect reporting (1): speech get50, obligation, something present continuous recommendation, done,(2) other(1) ability get110 Unit future Topie pronouns, it, there

Unit

Topie

Page

25

adjeetives ...

. .. 118

26

adj eetives wit h infi n itive or -ing

27

adverbs ......

28

making eomparisons

29

plaee and movement,

30

time words

142

31

verb and preposition

146

32

prepositions

33

verbs folIowed

34

relative and non-finite

35

adve rb i aI (I auses

36

adverbia I partieiple

37

Ph rasa I ve rbs (1) .. .

38

phrasal verbs (2)

39

ph rasa I verbs (3) ..

40

organizing

text (1)

184

41

orga nizi ng text (2)

.. 188

42

organizing

43

inversion and fronting..

198

44

emphasis

204

124

. 128 . prepositional

phrases

with adjeetives and nouns .

136

.

150

by -ing or infinitive

154

(Iauses

158

.

162

c1auses ..

166 17 O

.

174

.. 178

text (3)

.....

Review... . Word list... .

132

192

. .

208 220

Grammar index

224

Answer key

225

present simple, present continuous (1) basic uses of present simple and present continuous •

Use present simple for facts, or things that always happen. Water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit and O degrees Ce/sius. Sea water contains on average 2.7% sa/t by weight.



Use present simple for routines and habits. The birds return to the is/and every spring. Fidd/er crabs tum red when they became angry



Use present continuous for actions happening at the moment Sorry, /'m busy at the moment. I'm doing my homework.



Present continuous is also used for actions happening rather than exactly at the same time. I'm reading a real/y interesting book.

of speaking,

generally

and not finished.

around the time of speaking,

state and action verbs Some verbs have meanings which refer to states or conditions, and others have meanings which refer to actions. State verbs are either only used in simple form, or have a different meaning when used in continuous form.

state verbs normally in present simple •

be/ong, consist ot, contain, cost, depend on, deserve, matter; ooes this belong to you? Fresh fruit contains a range of vitamins.



believe, imagine, know, prefer; realize, understand, Some people stil! believe that the Earth is f/at.



seem

own, possess, resemble

mean

This seems to be what we're looking for. •

cast is sometimes used in continuous to describe a process that is still going on. We're having a house bui/t, and it's costing a fortune!



realize, regret, understand These are normally used with state meanings in present simple, but can be used in continuous show a changing situation, usually with an adverbia I which shows that change is happening. Some people don 't realize how dangerous cars can be. Peop/e are slowly realizing the cost of g/oba/ warming. Do you understand this point? We're understanding more and more about the universe.

to

verbs with state and action meanings state

action

• do What do you do? (= what's your job) •

be, have This house is over 100 years o/d. Do you have a car?



o

What are you doing? (= explain your actions)

imagine, suppose, think, expect Isuppose this is Jim. I imagine you feel the same. What do you think? (= have an opinion) I don

't expect

him to understand

He is being very sil/y! I'm having a great time here.

You're supposing he is gui/ty (= make an assumption) Ghosts' No, you're imagining things' What are you thinking? I'm thinking of changing jobs. (= considering) Are you expecting someone?



hope, wonder t hope you haven't been waiting tong.

We're hoping

to continue the tatks next week. (less definite)



enjoy, Jike, Jove Normally state verbs, but often used in continuous for actions going on at the moment t enjoy / Jove going for long walks Are you enjoying the party? I'm Joving every minute of my new job!



appear Your visa appears to be out of da te.



Jook

Tom is appearing

in Hamlet at the Grand Theatre.

With the state meaning of 'seem', look can be used in present simple only. This book Jooks interesting. In descriptions Jim Jooks iiI. •







of appearance,

Jook can be used in both simple and continuous. Helen is looking well.

see, hear t see / hear you've had your hair cut. t didn't hear any noises.

Jane is seeing Harry. (= spending time with) You're hearing things! (= imagining)

feeJ, see, smell, taste The room smells awful!

/'m smelling

the f/owers! (an active choice)

ache, feeJ, hurt Verbs that describe how the body feels can use either simple or continuous change in meaning. My foot hurts. My foot is hurting. t feeJ sick. l'm feeling sick weigh, measure This bag weighs more than 25 kilos.

/'m weighing

forms wit h little

the parcel before t post it.

I'm smelling the cheese. It smeJls offto me.

-•... -Vl

:J

O

:J C

+-'

C O

U +-'

C
Vl

Note that what is said here about present simple and present continuous continuous use in other tenses.

is generally

true for simple and


a..
a..

E Vl

+-'

C
Vl
a..

o

1

Underline the correct form.

a Some kinds of fish contain / are containing high levels of dangerous metaIs. b Scientists nowadays slowly begin to understand / are slowly beginning to understand more about how the brain works. c What do you think / are you thinking of Kate/s new hairstyle? It/s unusual, isn/t it? d Loud music can be really annoying. Some people don't realize / aren't realizing what a nuisance it can be. e You can't really have seen a UFO! You imagine / are imagining things! f Technicians report that they have / are having difficulty installing the new computer system. 9 No wine for me! I take / I'm taking antibiotics for an ear infection. h In career terms, having a good degree appears / is appearing to make little difference. The National Theatre considers / is considering putting on a new production of Uncle Vanya. Does this wallet belong / 1s this wallet belonging to you?

2

Underline the present simple / continuous verb errors in the text. Write a correction at the end of the line where necessary.

15 iipfyee

fd

Waywic.k

7Al

CVZq

15fh Oc.fobey

{yiday,

i

H eveyyoV\e,

1

pyoblerllS

have

o~ seV\d;V\q leffey. l'rIl

qeff;V\q

e-rIlails

as

rIluC.ho~ leffeys

usual, l'rIl ac.fually S;ffiV\q

you'lI

irllaq;V\;V\q

fo

be Suypy;sed

qef

l'rIl puffiV\q fhe

a leffey-wyifey.

af fhe fop,

c.oV\V\ec.f;oV\ heye, So

a V\ew phoV\e

fhis

as l've

yefuyV\

fo feli you fhe fyufh

bec.ause

fo wyife

dowV\

b

a

c

V\evey beeV\

addyess

1'rIl

allf\A~g\lil'\q

iV\sfead

d

iV\ biq

beqiv'IV\;V\q

fo

~eel

e

qu;fe 10V\elyheye. Well, people

peyhaps ~Oy

rIle fo falk fo.

1doV\'f

well, buf

lV\

~YOrllc.olleqe,

fhe bus.

lof ot sfudeV\fs

A

aV\d

lafey.

aV\d

1also fhiV\k o~

sOrllewheye.

lafey.

SOYyy OV\e

l'rIl

heye

seerlliV\q

o~ fhe

rIloviV\q

fhe

rIlail

~YOrllrIle

)uSf

iqV\Oye eveyyfhiV\q

qiYls

V\eayey

dowV\sfa;ys So l'rIl

1

sooV\! lV\ ~ac.f, l've

fo

said

fo fhe sfudeV\f qof

l've

fo

fyyiV\q

YOOrlliV\ fo

quife

9 h

a house

wheV\

~iV\d a c.heap

j

1

k

c.aV\ ~iV\d

kV\oc.ksaf fhe

has a

I;~e

a 10V\q f;rIle OV\

speV\d

c.olleqe

paYfy,

e)(pec.f;V\q

c.oV\sidey

...

a

f

pleV\fy o~

"1"heye aye

ioV\, sOrlleoV\e

phoV\e liV\e has beeV\ ~i)(ed, veyy

iV\

c.yc.le, So l'rIl

- aV\ ;V\feyyupf

AV\d

1seffle

~ac.f

kV\owaV\yoV\e yef.

yeally

a 10V\q way

b;ke,

o

l'rIl V\of rIleaV\iV\q fhaf e)(ac.fly.

feayiV\q

dooy.

Y110ye

aV\d

l'rIl

iV\vifed.

you'lI

qef

aV\ e-

up fhis leffey,

I m

n So

o

3

Complete

the text with

the present

simple

ar present

continuous

form

of the verb in brackets.

European traffic accident rates fail to meet targets Although the number of deaths caused in traffic accidents in the EU a (go down)is.cJ()iVLqcJ()~Vl b (still tryl

"'HHHHHH

but experts d (believe) HHHHH

per year by 2010. Traffic safety c (improve)H

achieving the 2010 goal will prove difficult. Recent statistics e (show) 41,600

...., experts

to find ways of reducing the number throughout the EU to around 25,000 fatalities that

that in 2005 in the EU

people were killed in road accidents. Although progress has been made, most experts

f (agree)H g (means) ..

that this figure will have fallen to only around 32,000

by 2010, which

HHHHHHH that the EU target will be missed by about 7,000. On the other hand, as the amount

of traffic h (increase)'HHHHHHH

i (Iook)

it is possible to argue that the situation is not really as bad as it

. However one j (interpret) H

k (remain)

the statistics,

it

true that as time goes on, it I (become)

reduce the figures, especially since accident-reduction

harder and harder to

schemes m (cost)

a lot of money. Many

countries have tried and failed to reduce the number of accidents, and in the EU as a whole, only Sweden n (pursue) ..

. ... the goal of zero accidents. Accident reduction is more difficult for newer EU members

who o (currently face)

very rapid growth in traffic and p (have)

difficulty

in building new roads and in introducing safety measures at a fast enough rate. To complicate matters, most new members q (have)

very liUle experience in dealing with the demands of heavy traffic. Experts

r (suggest) s (behave) ..

that any safety programme must also set about changing the way drivers . . 'HHH

. Despite what people often

t (say)

it u (seem)

to be the younger generation that v (cause) this research, many countries

w

(introduce)

'H'H

most accidents. In line with

H.H ..H.tougher driving tests, and x (concentrate)

on the main causes of accidents: speed, reckless overtaking, alcohol, and over-confidence.

••......•.

•.... ••......•

In ::J

O ::J

C +-'

C O

u +-'

C (]) In (])

l.-

Q.

~

(])

Q.

EXTENSION.ACTIVITY A

Write

enjoy B

four

sentences

hope

Use a dictionary

regret

about

E

using these verbs:

think (of +ing)

and write

verbs, using present

yourself

an example

for each of these

simple.

belong consist of contain cost depend on deserve matter own possess resemble

In +-'

C (]) In (]) l0-

n.

o

present simple, present continuous (2) more uses of present simple Present simple is also used • in informal spoken instructions, with you. You open this part af the camera here. Then you take out the battery

Formai written instructions such as recipes use the imperative form. Take 300g af flaur. Add three eggs.



in newspaper headlines to describe events. There are other conventions for writing headlines, such as leaving out articies, using active verbs, and preferring short words.

Three die in pIane crash.



MPs say no to green Iaws.

for performative verbs accept, apologize, dare, deny, understand, see (with a meaning of 'understand') etc. These are verbs which, when used in present simple, describe an action as the word is spoken. I agree with yau. l understand.

I accept yaur affer. Isee.

Thank you, I accept your offer.



for verbs reporting news: gather, hear, see, tell, say, understand. I hear you've got a new job. People tell me she's difficult to wark with. We understand that the house is naw for sale. (See Unit 19, reporting verbs)



in here comes, there goes, here lies. These expressions include inversion of verb and subject. Here comes trauble! There goes a brave man! Here Iies John Smith. (written on atomb)

colloquial narrative and commentary Although narrative generally usespast tenses, there are usesof present simple and present continuous in everyday speech. •

In jokes, present simple can be used instead of past simple for narrative events, and present continuous instead of past continuous. A man go es to see his psychiatrist. He says he is having problems because he imagines he's curtains. The psychiatrist tells him to pull himself together.



In sports commentaries, present simple is often used to describe events happening as the commentator speaks. And naw Rooney crosses the half-way line and passes to Giggs.

G

a pair

Present continuous is also used in commentaries for continuous and changing events. And the twa Italians are moving

up in the outside lane

of



Plot summaries in films and books are generally in present simple. Tom and Oaisy are an old couple who live a duli life in a suburb of Birmingham when their granddaughter Karen comes to stay

But everything changes

summary of meaning in the continuous •

verbs that describe activities which continue for some time, eg play, rain, read, wark, write etc It's raining.

The chi/dren are playing

upstairs.

Note that the activity may not be going on at the exact moment of speaking. Harry Potter and the Gob/et of Fire. (I haven't finished it yet, but I'm not reading at this moment)

rm reading



verbs that describe a changing situation, eg change, get + adjective, grow, increase etc It's getting

dark.

Computers are changing

al! the time.

repeated actions with continuallyetc In everyday speech we can use present continuous with an adverb such as continua/ly, farever, always to criticize actians that we feel are irritating or annoying, or which we wish to exaggerate. The adverb is usually stressed in speech. constant/y,

You are continually interrupting! He's forever getting into trouble! Is that my jacket? Give it back, yau're always wearing my c1athes!

••....•..

simple or continuous?

N -V1

In same cases,the choice between simple and continuous is part of the attitude of the writer or speaker, especially in explanations and descriptions af situations. Professar Thorne explains that some patients eat tOGmuch because they grow up in fami/ies with poor eating habits. Professor Thorne explains that some patients are eating tOGmuch because they are growing up in families with poor eating habits.

The first example (present simple) describes something that is generally true, the second (present continuous) describes something more temporary or something not always the case.

::::i

O ::::i

C +-'

C

O

U +-'

C OJ V'l OJ lo...

Q. OJ"

Q.

E V'l

+-'

C OJ V'l OJ lo...

Q.

G

These exercises include material from Unit One.

1

Underline the correct verb form. Tick the sentence if both forms are possible. a b e d e

,/

I can't walk any more. My knee is really hurting / really hurts. This cheese is smelling / smells tenible! Thanks for your e-mail. I'm hoping / [hope to get back to you very soon. 'What are you doing / do you do?' 'I'm a musician.' We're having our house completely redecorated. [t's costing / [t costs a lot.

f In this country, more than a million people are Living / live in poverty. g Can you stop the car? I'm (eeling / [ (eel a bit sick. h 'What's the answer?' 'Wait a moment, I'm thinking / [think.' I think we/re beginning / we begin to understand this problem. Nice to see you again! You/re Looking / You look rea11ygreat!

2

Put the verb in brackets into present simple ar present continuous. a Somebody (knock) ..... J$kVl()c:ki~q b First you (cook) brown.

..at the door. Can you see who it is? the onions in alittle oil until they are golden

e Carlos (forever lose) calm down.

his temper with people! He must learn to

d

d Here (com e) e 'Where's Jack? ' 'He (read) ..

the busi You/d better hurry! the paper in the kitchen.'

f Whenever I put up my hand, Hany (kick) me under the desko g I'm sony, but I (not understand) you. h Maria (leave) .......dd now, so could you get her coat? cold. Come and eat your dinner. It (get) ... I (he ar) .... you did rea11ywe11in your exams. We11done! d

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

ddd

3

Complete each sentence with the present simple ar present continuous form of the verb in brackets. a (you do)Ac~tj()lAJ()iVlq computer. b This product (contain)

anything at the moment? I need some help with the

e Nobody (visit) Forum. d Sarah (begin) offered.

dd

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

e Martin (see) together for the past month.

no added chemicaIs of any kind. Rome without going to see the ruins of the Roman to regret not taking the job in France she was Tina at the moment. They've been going out

f I'm sony, but I (not know) .. g lIs Helen ready yet?' 'She (take) .. ready soon.' h The larger of the two rooms (measure)

G

What (happen) here.

...ddddd

where George is at the moment. .....her time, but she says she'l1 be d. ...d

8 m by 4 m.

in the street now? I can't seen anything from

There's nobody else to do the job, so I (suppose)

1'11have to do it.

4

Complete the two texts with the present simple or present continuous form of the verb in brackets. If both forms are possible, write both.

Doctors express concern over heavy school bags Every year thousands of children a (go)

to the doctor because of back

pain, and in fact, this kind of problem b (rapidly become) most common childhood complaints. And what exactly c (cause)

one of the this

outbreak of bad: strain and muscle fatigue? It d (seem) that even quite young children e (take) more and mor e to school- not just books, but also clothes and games players - and their backpaeks f (simply weigh) too much. 'Some kids g (carry) more than 25% of their bodyweight in a bag that has a nice cartoon character on the bag, but which h (actually give) them serious backache, ' reported Dr Elaine Sachs, a GP in North London. 'Most parents i (simply not realize) what j (happen) to their children.'

Investigators Accident

to report on train crash

investigators

k (still examine)

which left the rails and overturned

I (not

the wreckage of the high-speed train

in northwest

bel ieve)

England last week. According

to I'eportsl they

the accident m (involve)

error. 'We n (expectl

to publish a inquiry

spokesman announced yesterday. 'Engineers

driver into this accident quite soon/ a

o (work)

round the clock to replace to restore a normai service within two weeks. We

the tracki and we p (hope)

that people r (depend)

q (realize)

accidenL However; we

on [he

how much everyone has been shocked by mis

railwaYI and we s (understand)

t (check)

thousands of sections of track all over the

country to make sure that nothing like this can ever

again.1

N

••.....•.•

.•.....• V'l :::::l

O

5 Rewrite the sentence sa that it contains a word from the list and has same meaning. l7elettg

contain

cost

look

matter

see seem

smell

a Is this car yoms, sir? ...PQ~$lhi$<::,~rb~IQV\.qlQtjQ4;$ir? b This perfume has a nice smell. c I think there's a mistake.

think

weigh

:::::l

C +-'

C O

u +-'

C (]) V'l

(])

d Idonit understand what you mean. e What's yom opinion? f

At birth a baby elephant is about 90 kg in weight.

g Is the price important? h What's the price of this model? This bo ok could be interesting. What's in the box?

l...

Q..

~

(]) Q..

E V'l

+-'

C (]) V'l

(]) l...

Q..

G

6

Write a new sentence a Apparently,

with the same meaning

containing

a form of the word in capitals. SAY

Harry is a very good car d player.

....Jh~tj ..S?{tj.H?{r:rtj...is ..?{y~rtj ..qoQd ..c?{rd ..pl?{tje,.r,... b This maths problem

is incomprehensible

c I have the same opinion d 'Where's

Somebody

AGREE

as you.

WORK

Anna?' 'At work in the garden.'

e Stop shouting,

f

UNDERSTAND

to me!

COME

the teacherJs in the corridor.

KNOCK

is at the door.

g According

to some people, UFO s have landed

h It's hotter

all the time in here.

Skiing is my favourite

BELIEVE

on Earth.

GET LOVE

sport.

ALWAYS

Peter keeps losing his homework!

7

Complete

the text with the present

simple or present

File Edit

V"""

Bock

Fotword

~.;a;.,~:,;:~,g~ ..

Bookmarlu=Tool~~'/~Su"", ;4;' ~.~;.

~'tJ0g

k~E:'=f:*=4:.

::.:.::z:.:-

form of the verb in brackets.

:::::~~~~~~~~!~~~~~~~~~::!!~~ J,,: 0:

ll:~l_oIórljl~~~'

~

continuous

::::;::::~a;~~, .

'::;"

-

.-:,.-.:.-

~,

2

#1.

il!lll!llCl.

Q=~ j

I-

: """';,.'c==

Q,

I

I.]

Go!

I cm"

iJ f

Big Brother's watching YOu! A

burglar a (try)lrie,.s

to break into a big house in the country. He b (walk)

...very quietly across the garden when he c (hear) 'Big Brother d (watch)........ f (not see)

.

Suddenly he h (hear)

you!' He e (turn) ....

anythi ng. So he g (creep) . ....

.

.

a voice:

.. around, but he .. nearer to the house.

the voice again and he

hanging from a tree. A parrot j (sit)

.

i (see)

a cage

in the cage. The burglar k (ask)

...the parrot, 'Did you say that stuff about Big Brother?' The parrot I (answer)

'Yes I did.' 'Is that your name then?' The parrot m (say) ...'No, my name's Montmorency.'

The burglar n (Iaugh) ...

'What kind of stupid idiot would name his parrot Montmorency?' o (reply)

The parrot

'The same stupid idiot who named his Rottweiler 'Big Brother'

- that's the guard dog that p (stand)..........

right behind you!'

r vI

CD

.~

loodod ...

11Im

8

Complete the text with the present simple or present continuous form of the verb in brackets. Where both are possible, write both.

Students now taking longer to finish studies stu d ents nowa d ays a (sp en d) 1n t h e USA some umverslty ..

reJ tlre.. sne..V1.diV1.Q

more an d"more tlme m

university before graduating. 1n American universities, many students b (pay) own fees, and this c (mean)

more time working and less studying. Alan Chester is

a 25-year-old journalism student from Ohio who d (take) undergraduate

their six years to complete his

degree. 1n order to pay tuition fees and other expenses he e (work)

four days a week in the university kitchen, while in the university holidays he f (do) full-time job. '1 g (find)

a

it difficult at the moment to study and pay my bills at the 'But 1 i (try)

same time,' he h (admit) j (manage)

my best and 1

to keep the wolf fram the door.' A1an's parents

k (understand)

his decision to take longer to graduate. 'They

I (know)

what 1 m (go)

n (help)

thraugh, and they

me as much as they can. 11'5hard, but 1 o (learn) to 100k after myself, and 1 p (experience)

stuff that might be usefu1 one day when 1'm a journalist.' He q (point out) that som e students r (take)

more time

to graduate because they s (not really know) .. they

t (want)HH

. what

to study. 'New courses of stud

u (develop)

.

all the time, new subjects

v (appear)

on the curriculum. Some students

w (spend)

time experimenting with different

courses before choosing their major. So i1's not all about money. universities y (go)

1 x (think)

thraugh a period of change like everything else, and students have to adapt to this changing situation.'

N

•.........

VI

~ O ~ C

+'

C O

u

+' C

(J)

VI (J) lQ.

A

Use these verbs in present simple or present continuous to make more interview questions like these below: do own believe in have like weigh. Use the questions to interview a partner.

(J)"

Q.

E VI

Wv"tll do /jOl-! lv"iV1.k 0+

... ? (name a film book etc)

Wv"tll tlre.. /jOl-! re..tldiV1.q tll

lv"e.. i1A.oi1A.e..V1.l?

+' C

(J)

VI (J)

B

Look these words up in a dictionary and find example sentences which use the present simple form: gather, hear, see, tell, understand

lQ.

G

past time past simple basic use Use past simple • for finished events in the past which have a definite time. In 7969 the first men landed on the Moon.



in narrative. The door opened and two boys came into the room.



for past habits and routines, usually with a time expression. Few people in Victoria n times took a bath every day.

Many common verbs have irregular past forms which have to be learnt. Always check in a dictionary if you are not sure of the past form.

other uses of past simple •

Past simple can also be used for very recent events, without a time expression. What happened



to you?

Sameone hit me!

Pastsimple is also used in conditional sentences and with it's time (see Units 12, 13, 14). It's time we left

past continuous

basic use

Use past continuous • to describe a continuing unfinished action in the past. Ilooked out of the windo w and saw that it was raining. Whenever I visited him, he was working



in his garden.

for a continuing unfinished action interrupted by a sudden past action. While we were getting ready to go out, the rain suddenly stopped. While I was getting ready for bed, the doorbell rang.



for activities as background description. Helen looked down into the busy street. Crowds of people were pushing and cars were hooting.



along the pavements,

for two continuing events happening at the same time. While lim was painting

the outside of the house, Sarah was decorating

the bedrooms.

other uses of past continuous Past continuous can also be used • to emphasize that an action was still continuing. They started producing the car in 1946 and were still producing



it thirty years later.

to describe a changing situation (see Unit 2). ft was becoming more and more difficult to find wark. Her performances were getting better and better.



with forever, continually, we wish to exaggerate.

always etc (see Unit 2) to criticize actions we feel are annoying, or which

At school, he was always getting into trouble. She was forever falling in love with the wrong kind of man.

We do not generally use past continuous to describe habitual actions in the past. That summer we tlotere going swimming nearly every day That summ er we went swimming nearly every day

o

past perfect simple and continuous •

are used to refer to events in the past which happened before other events in the past, usually when there is no time expression to make this elear. Past perfect simple refers to finished events and past perfect continuous to unfinished, recently completed or continuing events. By the time we got to the cinema, the film had started. He 'd been working hard ali morning, and he felt really tired.

In both examples, the past perfect happens before the past simple. •

are common after verbs such as realize, remember, know, understand

etc.

When I got on the bus, I realized I had left my wallet at home.



are common in reported speech (see Unit 17).



are not used to emphasize that an event happened a long time ago.

Compare the use of past simple and past continuous wit h past perfect tenses. While we were watching a film, the fire alarm went off. (past events) I remembered the events of the day before. A t 7 7.00 while we had been watching gon e off (past seen from the past)

a film, the fire alarm had

Only use past perfect tenses when absolutely necessaryto show that one event in the past happened efore another event in the past. Often the meaning is clear without using past perfect. When we escribe a series of short actions, we usually use past simple.

usedto do •

Use used to to describe habits and states in the past, especially when we make contrasts with the present. Any time reference tends to be general. The pronunciation is /ju:st tu:/ I used to play chess quite often, but I haven't played for ages In those days people used to wash ali their clothes by hand. I used to like tennis, but I don 't play much naw



Used to refers only to the past. There are no other tense forms in modern English, though they can be found in older literary texts.

• The question is normally Oid you use to? Did you use

to

play hide-and-seek when you were a chiid?

• The negative is normally didn't use to. In those days, people didn't



to

tra vel abroad 50 much.

Pastsimple is also used to describe past habits, with other details added to make a contrast between past and present. When I was younger



use

I played chess quite often, but I haven't played for ages.

Be used to something has no connection with be used to, and means be accustomed To in this case is a preposition, 50 it is folIowed by a noun or -ing. I can't eat any more. I'm not used to such big meals. 5he can't climb ali those steps' She's not used to taking 50 much exercise!

to something.

would •

can be used to describe a person's habitual activity. It cannot be used with state verbs. Every summer

we

would stay in a smali village in the mountains.

It is not possible to say , "·"·,,Jrlli/,,,> •

to",,;.

hut l rlAA't Al"l/ FAI/rh AA"''''

Would is more common in more literary texts, reminiscences etc (1)

past tenses used as polite forms •

Pastsimple and past continuous are often used when the speaker is being more polite or lessdirect. The time reference is to present time. Oid you want to see me about anything? I was wondering what you wanted.

E +' +' \Il l'O

Q.

G

1

Complete the sentence using the verb in brackets and would or used to. If both are possible, write both. ..hunting in the forest. ..in to the garden at nighL

a Every day the young prince (go) .. wpuldqpLt,(Se..,dloqo b Wild animals (sometimes come) ... c I (enjoy) .. d Brian (speak) ..

..computer games, but I've grown tired of them. ..Italian quite well, but he's forgotten it all.

e Every day Anna (wake up). bakery. f My mother (often play) g I (own)

..at 4.00 am and go to wark at the .

h Tony (believe) When I was a student I (usually go) Helen (live) ..

2

the piano and sing after dinner. ..a racing bike but I sold it and bought a scooter. ........................................................ that one day he would be famous. ..to bed about 1.00 am. ..in an old boat on the canal.

Complete the two texts about World War 1 with the correct form of the verb in brackets. Use past simple, past continuous, past perfect simple or past perfect continuous. Only use a past perfect form if it is necessary to make the meaning elear.

The condition oj Britain in

1917

The government also a (need)VL~~4~4

to ensure that Britain was fed. Under the Defence of the

Realm Act it was able to take over land and turn it over to food production. In February 1917 it b (set up)

the Women's Land Army to recruit women as farm workers. By then,

however, the food supply in Britain c (became).. d (sink)

desperate. German U-boats

one in every four British merchant ships and Britain had only six we eks' supply

of wheat left. As food supplies e (run).. g (hardly rise)..

.

.

short, so prices f (rise)

.

. Wages

during the war because people were mostly prepared to sacrifice better

pay to support the war effort, but prices were nowalmost double what they h (be) 1914. Poorer people could not even afford basic supplies such as bread. Shops

early each afternoon as they j (run our)

G

.

of goods to sel!.

i (ciose)

..lU .

:..~~

German reactions to the Treaty oj Versailles 1919 The overall reaction of Germans was horror and outrage. They certainly k (not believe)

I (start)

the war. They m (not even think)...

d

the war. In 1919 many Germans O (not really understand) situation p (be)

......dd

d........

they

they n (lose) ... how bad Germany's military

"d.

. at the end of the war in 1918. They believed that the German government d'

q (simply agree)

.

to a ceasefire, and that therefore Germany should have been at the Paris

'd"

Peace Conference to negotiate peace. They were angry that their government was not represented at the talks and that the Allies r (force) .

...

'd

••••••••••••••••••

them to accept a harsh treaty without any choice ar even a

comment. At first, the new government s (refuse)

t (look) ..

.

'ddd'

to sign the treaty and at one point it

as though war might break out again. However, Ebert, the new German leader, was

in an impossible position. Reluctantly, he agreed to accept the terms of the treaty and it was signed on 28 June 1919.

3

Underline the correct form. Only use the past perfect form when other forms are not possible.

a When Dora went / had gone to pay for the petroi she was putting / had put in her car, she realized / was realizing that she lost / had lost her credit card. b While I was waiting / had waited for my meal to arri,-e, I sm\' / was seeing that the twa men ,,-ho had foUO\\-ed me into the restaurant were staring / had been stming at me tram a nearby table. c When I heard / was hearing the noise at the window, I knew / 'Jad knowl1 that sameone tried / Will tr)'ing to break into the house. d Maria didn1t remember / wasnIt remembering anything about the accident, except that she didn1t drive / had not been driving too fast and in fact had almost stopped / was almost stopping before she reached the crossroads. e By the time the fire engines an-ived / was arriving at the cottage, Tom and his neighbours already put out / had already put out the fire and were canying / had been canying fumiture out of the blackened building. f

'What did you do / were you doing in the High Street at that time of night, and why did you run away / had you run away when the officer told / was telling you to stop?' asked the lawyer. g While Sally painted / was painting the ceiling, she fell oft / was falling oft the ladder but luckily she didn1t break / wasnIt breaking any bones. h Our taxi to the airport didn1t tum up / wasnt tuming up on time, and sa by the time we got / were getting to the che ck-in desk, the flight already closed / had already closed.

Marlowe walked slowly into the room. He didn1t forget / hadn1t forgotten his last visit to the house, when Miss LaPorte had fired / was fi/ing twa shots at him, sa he had taken / was taking no chances this time. Alice could see that the tall boy had / was having difficulty making himself understood, but she decided / was deciding not to help him. After aU, nabody had helped / was helping her during her first days in this country!

(])

E A

Choose anovel or story, and select one or two pages. Make a list of the past tenses used on these pages. Are these the only tenses possible, or are others also acceptable?

+-' +-'

In eu

B

Translate some of the sentences in Exercise 2 into your language. Does your language have a similar set of tenses, or is it different?

Q.

G

present perfect present perfect simple Use present perfect simple • to refer to events connected to the present, without a definite past time, often with jus t. Someone has sto/en my bike'



I've just had an idea.

to refer to indefinite events that happened at an unknown time in the past. This time is often recent, and is often used in news items when the information is 'current'. Archaeologists have discovered an Anglo-Saxon palace in London. Police have recaptured twa escaped prisoners.

The time can also be ali time up to the present. No-one has (ever) proved

that aliens exist



to refer to indefinite events with a result in the present. My car has broken down. (That's why I want a lift from you)



to describe what has been dane ar how many things completed in a period of time. The building has been comp/eted on time. United have scored three goals, and there's still half an hour leh



to describe a living person's experiences, what he ar she has dane in life sa far. She has painted



to describe a state that lasts up to the. present, with state verbs. I've worked



same of the best portraits of recent years.

in this department for the past six months.

to refer to a repeated action in a period of time up to the present. I've cooked dinner every night for ten years!



with same time expressions. I've worked here since 2002. This is the first time I've eaten squid! We've a/ready seen this film.

Note that most time expressions can be used with various tenses. I've lived here for ten years. (present perfect simple: I'm stil! here) llived there for three years. (past simple: I'm not there naw)

present perfect simple ar past simple •

Use present perfect simple for unfinished time and past simple for finished time. She has painted some of the best portraits of recent years. She painted some of the best portraits of recent years.

In the first sentence the action has happened in a period up to the present, and may well continue. In the second sentence the action is finished. The artist may be dead. The events are in a period of time not connected to the present. •



Useto show speaker attitude. Speakers may decide whether they see an event as connected to the present (present perfect simple) ar not (past simple). This may be a matter of time or place. Tense use is here a matter of choice, rather than of grammatical 'right' or 'wrong'. I've /eft my books at home. (The speaker feels the event is recent, ar is still near home.) I/eft my books at home (The speaker feels the event is distant in time and place.) Usewith different time expressions. I haven't

been to the cinema for ages I a long time

Present perfect refers to an action over a period of time and for describes how long the period iso /t's ages / a long time since I went to the cinema. It's ages describes a period of time since an event and past simple describes when that event

happened.

G

present perfect continuous Use present perfect continuous • for recent continuing activities, continuing up to the present. I've be en waiting here for half an hour! I haven't been taking a lot of exercise lately

out a lot lately (.I've

been working

«(( f).:.r

(

.

(~'"'E'''''' ,~;'2P;::·.'· "'1'" '. ," ~ '?'L'lt~ l

'~~~

...

- C~ '-/'",-"t~0.

••.•..

~.li!C

~.$.

d~ ~ n •

\.. '

..\ ..

~\~

• to explain a present situation. I've been washing

the dog - that's why my c10thes are wet.

• to emphasize the length of a continuing activity. I've been working



on my project ali morning.

for a repeated activity, to emphasize the repetition of the activity. me every day since the party

He's been phoning



wit h how long questians. How fong have you been having

these disturbing dreams7 (this is a continuing process, and isn't finished)



with mean, think, consider. I've been thinking of changing my job. I've been meaning to get in touch with Helen.



with time words lately, recently, alI (day), every (morning), for, since. What have you been doing fatefy / recentfy7 I've been working on these accounts alf day / since 9.00 / for hours.

present perfect continuous or present perfect simple • With state verbs such as live, wark, there is little contrast. How long have you fived here? How long have you been living

here?

• Verbs such as sit, stay, wait prefer the continuous form. • With event verbs, present perfect simple emphasizes completion. I've written my letters. (finished) I've been writing letters. (describes my activity during a recent period)

+' u (J)

'+l....

(J)

a.

+' C

(J) Vl (J)

l....

a.

fa

1

Complete alan

the sentence

with the present

perfect simple ar past simple form of the verb in brackets.

McEwan is a British writer who, accarding

to many critics, (write)hg$tJri±±~vt

same of the best novels of recent years. b Barn in 1948, he (spend)

much of his childhood

abroad as his father was

an army officer. c He (study)

English literature

and creative writing

at the universities

of

Sussex and East Anglia. d He (write)

a number

of successful

e His novel The Child zn Tzme (win) f

His later novels, including successful.

g Amsterdam h Atonement

Amsterdam,

Atonement

and Saturday, (be)

and Saturday (also win)

very

literary prizes. a controversial writer.

Same writers (accuse)

him of stealing details in Atonement

During this controversy,

the American

the acknowledgement authar

Thomas Pynchon

made to Lucilla Andrews

(write)

defence of McEwan in a British newspaper.

Underline

the correct form.

The nature of inteLLigence For many years scientists a tried / have been trying to define the nature of human intelligence. However, they b were / have been unable to agree on whether there is one kind of intelligence, or several kinds. In the early 20th century, psychologist Charles Spearman c earne up / has eorne up with the concept of 'g' or 'general intelligence'. He d gave / had given subjects a variety of different tests and e Jound / has Jound that the people who f perforrned / have perforrned well in the tests g used / have used one part of the brain, which he h ealled / has ealled 'g', for all the tests. More recently, research i Jound / has Jound that this idea may well be true, as one part of the brain (the lateral prefrontal cortex) shows increased blood flow during testing. However, some scientists believe that intelligence is a matter of how much people j learned / have learned rather than some ability they are bom with. They believe that environment also matters.

fa

from the wark

Lucilla Andrews.

k However, he (point out) in an authar's note in the book.

2

Novel Award in 1987.

the Booker Prize far Fiction in 1998.

(receive)

authar,

of shart staries and novels.

the Whitbread

However, McEwan (always be) of another

collections

,~

L1 ~

a

3

Rewrite the sentence 50 that it means the same as the first sentence. Use present perfect simple or continuous.

I Vt?lVe.-

a I came here at 3.00 and now it's 5.00. b I haven't seen this film before.

be.-e.-vtVte.-re.-+or

This is Mark

c Mark is asleep. d I began work here in 1999.

to bed. since 1999.

e Anna isn't here yet. f We don't know each otheI.

Anna

g There isn't any food left.

Someone

h We started waiting in this queue half an hour ago! H's a long time since I was last here.

We

4

yet. before. a11the food. for half an houI.

We

a long time. seven years.

We

This is our seventh wedding anniversary.

two hours. film.

Complete the text using the present perfect simple, present perfect continuous or past simple form of the verb in brackets.

The ageing population The number of men and women in the US aged 60 or over still in work a

(rise)

Vtesbe.-e.-l'I.cisil'l.q

for more than a decade. Economists b (give) a number of reasons for this trend. First,

since 1985 the US economy c (expand) so there d (be)

an increased

demand for labour. At the same time, the cost of some services, such as health care, e (increase) so workers need .. to earn more money in later life. In addition, changes in social security benefits and rules f (have) a considerable effect on labour patterns. First, in 1977 and 1983 changes to the Social Security Act g (raise) the full-benefit age from 65 to 67 and h (introduce) other chan ges that make delaying retirement more attractive. Then, in 1986 the Age Discrimination Act i (end) compulsory retirement for all workers, allowing them to work later in life. Changes to pension laws j (also encourage)

workers to stay in employment longer, as this gives them

more chance of a larger pension when they retire.

o"e,~.Ry

-../

1.:1,

A

Choose one of these topics and say what has happened, what has been happening or what has happened. These can be fictional if you prefer.

u (J)

+-'

'+-

lo-

news of family and friends

climate change

the political situation in your country

(J)

n. +-'

B

Use your knowledge of the news to make lists of:

C (J)

things that have happened recently things that happened

things that have been happening

Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

VI

(J) l0-

n.

fa

future time will and won't Use will and won't •

for factual predictions. /nf/ation will increase by 1 % over the next twe/ve months. /nflation will almost certainly increase by 1 % over the next twelve months. Other qualifying adverbials include definitely, probably, no doubt



for habits of which the speaker disapproves. He will keep opening the window Jack is sa lazy He'lI spend the whole day Iying in bed reading the papers.



for an assumption taken from the facts. 'The phone's ringing. '



for an immediate decision. 'Anything to drink, sir?'



'That'lI be Sue. I'm expecting her to phone.'

'1'11just have a glass of water; please.'

Will is used to express many other meanings connected with the future (see Unit 15). 1'/1carry that for you. Offer Refusal They won't give me my bali backl

In speech, contractions are frequently used, so 1'11,you'll, he'll etc are the usual spoken forms.

shall and shan't •

Shall and shan't are forms of will used in first person singular and piurai in formai and deliberate speech, and in many modal uses(see Unit 16). We shall inform you, upon admission, of the rules of the Ubrary Tli give you my work on Friday' 'I shalllook forward to receiving iti'

be goin9 to Use be going to • for personal plans and intentions. I'm going to stay in this evening and watch an old film What are you going to do naw? don 't knowi

I



when the cause of a possible event is present. Look at the colaur of the skyl It's going to snowo



for decisions about the future. I've decided what I'm going to do. I'm going to phone the police.

will ar going to? •

In many cases, will as prediction can be replaced by going to, especially in everyday speech. This is not true for other meanings of will. Inflation will increase by 1 % over the next twelve months. As Isee it, inflation is going to increase by 1 % over the next twelve months.



Normally going to cannot be replaced by will without changing the meaning.



Was going to describes events which were supposed to happen, but did not. I was going to come over and see you, but left it too late.

I

be to, be about to, be on the point of, be due to

c



Be to is used to describe arrangements with future reference. The conference is to take place in July



The past arrangement form is was / were to have done. There was to have been a second match but it was cancelled.



Be (just) about to describes what is going to happen very soon. I can't talk naw I'm just about to go out.

• The past form describes an event in the past which was going to happen soon. I was about

to

go to bed when the phone rang.



Be on the point of has a more formai meaning than about to. David is on the point of leaving the company



Be due to do, be due describe what is expected to happen. The train is due

to

arrive at any moment.

The train is due.

present simple and continuous •

Present continuous can be used for a fixed arrangement (one already definitely made). We're having a party on Saturday 00 you want to come? Using going to in this example gives the same information. We're going to have a party on Saturday 00 you want to come?



Present simple can be used for a fixed future event. There is no personal choice here. Next year Christmas is on a Tuesday

uture time c1auses • After time expressions as soon as, after, before, by the time, immediately, etc we use present simple although there is a future reference. As soon as we make a decision, we'lllet you know •

until, when

Present perfect is also used instead of present simple to show completion. As soon as I've finished



the moment,

this letter, 1'/1help you.

Going to is also possible instead of will to show a future plan. As soon as I've saved up enough money, I'm going to buy a car.

uture continuous se future continuous for • an event or a state at a future point. This time next week, they'lI

be Iying on the beach in the Seychellesl

• events that have already been arranged for a future date. The Rolling Stones will be perlorming

in Moscow in June.

• very formai requests. Will you be wanting

anything else, sir?

future perfect simple and continuous •

Usefor time looked back on from a future point. By the time the exam begins, 1'11have forgotten everything! By the end of the month 1'11have been working at this company for ten years!

These examples look into the future to 'when the exam begins' and 'the end of the month', and then back from there. At that future point, the speaker can say 'I have forgotten' or 'I have been working'. •

Useto express an assumption. You'lI have heard the news about Anna, Isuppose?

hope, expect, think, believe, doubt whether • These verbs introduce and show our attitude to future actions. • With think, expect, believe we show negative meaning by using don't think / expect / believe. I don't think you'lIlike •

this.

I don

't believe

1'11be late.

Hope can be foliowed by will or a present tense. The other verbs are folIowed by will. I hope you have / will have a good time. I expect you'lI want same tea. I doubt whether they'lI be here before six.

OJ

E +-' OJ lo-

:J :J

+-'

'+-

fa

1

Underline the best verb form. a 'Have you decided yet?'

IYes, I'ZZhave / I have

the roast beef, please.'

b Q: How will I have known / will I know that I have won a prize? A: You are receiving / will receive an email giving full details. c Quick get out of the car! !t's going to burs t / It's bursting into flames at any minute! d Don't com e round before midday, because I'ZZbe deaning / I dean the house until then. e Sony I can't come on Thursday evening. I'm going to work / I'm working late on an important project. f The cost of construction is almost certainly 11sing/ will almost certainly rise before the end of the year as wage increases begin to take effect. g The conference is going to begin / begins next Friday morning at 9.00. h Here's the money you asked for - €1000. What will you / are you going to do with it? Why don't you give Helen this che ap perfume instead of the expensive one! She won 't have known / won 't know the difference! I just want to remind everyone that we'ZZbe holding / we hold a Latin-American evening at the town hall this Friday.

2

Choose ali possible forms, A, B or C, to complete the sentence. a 'The fish is very fresh. And the beef is very go od too.' II thinkAJ"f:3 the fish.' b 'There's someone knocking at the door! Who can it be at this time of night?'

itiQ

..Helen. She said she might come round to watch the midnight movie on TV.' c 'I've just received some new sales figures'd them very much, I'm afraid.' d Over the next six months, the companYddd.dd... ten new supermarkets in France. e with this kind of problem before, I expect, so I'llleave you to get on with it. f According to sources close to the prime minister's office, the foreign minister .. g Well, that's all for today you next week at the same time, if that's all right. 1'vejust received some new h Next year..dd som e time travelling, and then look for a teaching job. sa/es figures ... The problem we have with Jack is that he insist on opening all the windows in the cold weather. j There's not much bread, I'm afraid. I hope eat it all before the others anive! k At this rate, by the time we get to the party, most people .. I The riot police are running into the square. There troublel Cis It's I'll will You'ZZhave due see due Bis B will You to B be about I'ZZhave That'ZZ be won be dealt be like You're not going like C I'm about to have is topoint behave is You're about is due liking resign to a A Ayou I'm won't to Cis I'll you're are opening spend on Bto not you the Bto will will You point going aren seeing are have beto 't'tresign or toopening about dealing leaving left to A is going ongoing the ortoresigning I'm going to spend

fi

3

Complete the sentence with the present simple ar wi//-future

form of the verb in brackets.

a We will usually respond to enquiries immediately we (receive) Hr?c,?iy~ them. b When we (reach) .. ...an agreement, we'll ask our legal department to draft a contract. c Wark on the second stage of the project (begin) .. stage (prove) .. .HHHHHH successful.

as soon as the first

d Until the economic situation (improve)HH , the company (not risk) ..any further investment in this field. e A detailed break-down of the figures (appear) .. on our web site as soon as both companies (sign) H.HHthe agreement. f

aur office (contact) ..H any news.

you the moment we (h ave) ..

g aur human resources team (then assess) ..

..HH your application before we

(decide) .. . whether you can go farward to the next stage. h By the time the banks (reach) an agreement on this issue, the amount of debt (be) . ...H out of control.

4

Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the word in capitals.

a The 12th English Teaching Conference takes place on 5-12 June. Th?JZ,±het\qli?hT.?ac,hivtq9Qvt±?C?~c,?i~±Q±ak?plgc,?()t\?:::IZ,c)~vt?, b The president is expected to arrive here at 9.30.

TO

c Everyone was on the point of leaving when the fire alarm went off.

ABOUT

d He's got the bad habit of playing very laud music late at night.

WILL

DUE

e The car has broken down, we're miles from anywhere, and we haven't got

f

a phone. Sa, what's our plan?

TO

Good news! lane is expecting a baby!

HAVE

g I intended to phone you last night, but it slipped my mind.

GOING

h I'm driving to Leeds anyway on Tuesday, so why don't I give you a lift?

I'LL

'There's a letter for you.' 'I'm sure that's my new credit card.'

WILL

I expect the police have caught the thief by nowo

WILL (])

E +-' (]) !o-

::J +-' ::J

'+-

fa

5

Complete

the text with

will be, will have

or

will have been + the

correct

form

of the verb in brackets.

What are your hopes for the future? 11'5

hard to make predictions

too far into the future, but I think I can

say quite a lot about my life in about ten years' time. I think 1 a (stilllive)will~JiIIQ~IiVivtq

in the same city. By that time

I b (finish)

my studies, and, who knows,

perhaps I c (find)

a good job. And I

d (probably go out)

wit h the same

friends too!

I'm optimistic

about the future, 50 1think that by the time I'm 35, say,

e (make)

my fortune.

f (run)

By then I

my own company for about ten

years, and I g (almost certainly become) a millionaire!

So I h (drive)

an expenslve

sports car, I hope!

I think we should ali be worried about what the world

i (be)

like in fifty years' time.

By then, I hope that the world's governments

j

(find)

an answer to the problem of global warming,

but perhaps scientists k (still search) for technological

solutions. It's quite

possible that we I (still talk) about the problem, as we are now!

By the time I'm fifty, I expect that nearly everything

m (change)

and everyone n (try) their best to adapt to new circumstances. that we o (use)

For example, I can't imagine cars, because by then

most of the oil in the world p (run out) People q (travel) perhaps we r (walk)

in electric cars, or everywhere.

that scientists s (solve) problem,

t (come)

G

I hope

the pollution

but who knows! Perhaps some other worse problem along by then!

6 Choose the correct form, A, B or C, to complete the sentence. a 'Can I talk to you for a moment?' ' Sorry,0E3 b Actually, Sue's house tomorrow, so if you like I could leave the books for her. c David and Susan .. . in May, but they've had to change their plam. d We a party for Professor Allan on Friday evening, and we'd like you to come. e I've done a lot of revision, but I'm sure that when I sit down to do the exam .. f

Chris doesn't do much work. the windowo

g Come back about 4.30

the whole day drinking coffee and looking out of the report by then, and you can take a copy.

h I ...., but I'lllet you know if I get delayed. 'What time is the pIane supposed to get here?' 'It.. Quick, run! The bomb.. ! a

A I'm just going to leave.

any minute now.'

B I'm just leaving.

C

I'1I just leave. I'1I be passing

b A nI pass

B

I'm going to pass

C

c A will be getting married

B

were going to get married

C expect they will get married

d A are giving

B

are about to give

C will give

e f g

A I'm forgetting everything

B

nI forget everything

C

A HeJs going to spend

B

HeJII spend

C He will have spent

A I've {inished

B

I'1I have {inished

C

h

A am not due to be late

B

am not going to be late

C

A will come

B

was going to arrive

Cis due

A is exploding

B will explode

EXTENSION A

C

nI be forgetting everything I'm {inishing donJt think I'1I be late

is going to explode

ACTIVITY

Make some persona I predictions about ten years' time (or choose another length of time). what you will / won't be doing where you will / won't be what you will / won't have done by then

B

'According to the 2006 Revision, the world population will probably increase by 2.5 billion over the next 43 years, passing from the current 6.7 billion to 9.2 billion in 2050.' Use research in a library or on the Internet to find more predictions about the next fifty years.

Q)

E +-' Q) !....

::i ::i

+-'

'+-

fa

tense contrasts 1

Complete the sentence using a suitable form of the verb in brackets.

a 'What exactlyc!i4'1()~cl().. fire alarm.'

.

when you saw the smoke?' 'I pressed the (do)

b By the time we get to the stadium, the match.. .. . (start) c 'How long here for?' 'I don 't know. I haven't decided yet.' (stay) d Jackson the Nobel Prize, but says she is still hoping far recognition. (win) e If you happen to see any one in the garden, don't warry. H ..... the gardener. f 'I'm sony to be late. I hope you .... g Anna didn't understand why the mysterious stranger such a letter. h Tom sends his apologies but he I don't like this bed. H j There k H's really unfair! You (always) I I'm glad I've run into you. I.. for ages.

2

her (send)

a few minutes late. uncomfortable. a strike this morning, but it has been cancelled. me! to get in touch with you

(be)

(feel) (be)

(criticize) (mean)

Underline the best verb form.

The arguments about climate ehange According to all the measurements, climate change a happens / is happening, but science b appears / is appearing to be split on what to do about it. Unfortunately, scientists c do not all agree / are not all agreeing about the causes of global warming. In a recent book, two scientists - Fred Singer, a climate physicist, and Dennis Avery, a biologist - d argue / are arguing that the warming currently observed around the world is part of a 1,500-year cycle in solar energy. Singer, an outspoken critic of the idea that humans e warm / are warming the planet, and Avery, f believe / are be/ieving that a well-established, 1,500-year cycle in the Earth's climate can explain most of the global warming that g takes place / has taken place in the last 100 years. We are currently on an upswing, getting warmer after the Uttle Ice Age, but in a few hundred years h will be / are back on the downswing, and getting colder again. They say / are saying that efforts to slow down the current warming by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases are at best pointless, or at worst economically damaging. This, of course, is not what the fourth assessment report of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) j has said / said a few weeks ago. That report from the UN climate science working group k has concluded / concluded that it I is / has been likely that rising greenhouse gas concentrations m have caused / caused most recent warming and that, depending on our actions now to slow the growth of emissions, warming by 2100 n will probably be / is probably between about 1.5°C and 6°C. So, which scientists o tell / are telling us the truth?

i

CD

(be) (wait)

long.

3

Choose the correct phrase 1 to 15 for each gap.

NelM tunnel planned beneath the Alps For centuries, the Alps Italian

aHJ()

....

wine to the Netherlands,

as a natural trade barrier

between northern

and southern Europe. Sending

or German washing machines to Greece, b

a long, slow journey along

narrow alpine valleys, through tunnels and over passes. The amount of freight 1990 an estimated

crossing the Alps in heavy go ods vehicles c

40 million tonnes d

sharply over the last two decades. In

by road; in 2001 that

eHH

big increases expected by 2010. But concerns for the Alpine environment pressure to move freight

to 90 million tonnes, with further and fears over safety

oft the roads and onto the railways. Both Switzerland's

France's Mont Blanc road tunnel g As long ago as 1994, the Swiss

Gotthard

f

to big

road tunnel and

major fires in the last ten years in which many h ..

i

in a nationwide

referendum

to put ali freight

crossing their country

onto the railways. Naturally, such an ambitious

j

plan

overnight, but now the project dubbed the

engineering feat of the 21st Century k beneath the Alps, the Swiss I

. Deep

a high-speed rail

link between Zurich and Milan. It m ..

H ••••••••••

57 kilometres

(35 miles), the world's

,

at

longest tunnel.

A key feature of the project, which is new to alpine transport, n..

is the fact that the entire railway line

.....at the same altitude

of 500 metres 0,650

ft) above sea level. This o

trains using the line

to reach speeds of 240 km/h 049

mph), reducing the

travel time between Zurich and Milan from today's four hours to just two and a half.

1 will allow

8 13 14 15 11 has 9 slowly voted went had risen risen suffered 10 have served 12 is will stay taking shape

will have include led go ing means 234675 died are was building not to happen

4

Complete the text with the appropriate

form of the verb in brackets.

POLICE SEEK MISSING SHED

Hqol..

A 32-year-old man a (get) b (steal) ..

.

home from work on Friday to find that someone

the shed from his back garden. Martin Graham, who c (Iive) ..

H ... H. ...H

Vl

+-'

Vl CO

in Francis Road, Darnely, d (tell) .. nothing there. I thought I e (go) ..

f (notice)

H

H

. .

HH

H HHH

us he couldn't believe his eyes. 'There was simply into the wrong garden.' A neighbour who

the men while they g (disassemble)

i (ask)

h (assume)

that Mr Graham

j

in a white van. Police k (investigate)

(drive off)

I (issue) ..

.

..H

a description of the two men.

the shed, them to do it. The two men and

~

+-'

C O

u Q) Vl

C

Q)

+-'

o

S

Complete the text with the appropriate

form of the verb in brackets.

life expectancy Gur country a (go)j$q.9iVlQ around 3.7 million

through a period of accelerating change. Today, there b (be) ..

people aged over 60 in this country but the large numbers of people who c (belong)

...to the baby-boom generation d (produce)

an explosion in the number of elderly

people from around 2011. By 2030, there e (be).... the period after the post-war baby boom

f

some 8.8 million and because the birth-rate in

(decline)

sharply, these elderly people g (represent)

..a much larger share of the country's population we h (introduce)....

than ever before in our history. In 1966, when

our national pension scheme, there

age people for every retired person, whereas today, there

j

i (be)

(be)'

about eight workingabout five, and in 2030, there

k (be)........

only three. There I (be) ..another dramatic change

wh ich a Iso m (affect)

th is

situation, as thanks to medicai advances and higher living standards, life expectancy n (increase)

and o (continue) ...to increase in future years.

Today people can expect to live three years longer than in 1966. By 2030, they p (live)..........

an average of

4.5 years longer.

6

G

Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the word in capitals.

a There's a party at om house on Friday.

WE

....),lj~gr~hg\li~q g pgC±'1gVl.fCic:lgt.l, . b This is my tirst trip to Siberia.

BEFORE

c What's yom job, exactly?

DO

d Karen's hair was short once.

HAVE

e I'm leaving in a minute, so I can't talk now.

JUST

f H's a long time since I last went to the theatre.

FOR

9 When was the invasion ot Britain by the Romans?

INVADE

h I'm sure it won't rain tomorrow.

DON'T

Is this yom suitcase?

DOES

When I have enough money, 11m going to buy a new computer.

SAVED

7

Complete the text with the appropriate

form of the verb in brackets.

CWld employment in Victorian Britain In Vietorian London, mud larks were children who a (search for)$~?lrc:h~dJ()r the shores of the River Thames. They b (not do) ......until the tide d (go) .

valuable bits and pieces on

this from boats, but c (wait) .

out, and then e (crawl) .

about in the river mud looking for anything valuable. Henry Mayhew, a Victorian writer, f (interview) ..a 'mud lark' in his book about poor working people in London in the 1850's. 'My family is Irish though I was bom in London. My father g (work) ..at London Docks. He is a strong-bodied man of 34. I h (go) ..

.

to school with my

i

brothers for about three years and (learn) .. reading and writing and arithrnetic. One of my brothers

j (be) .... k (work)

..at sea for the past five years. I in the neighbourhood of

..H

MillwalI picking up piece s of coal and iron, copper and bits of canvas on the surface. When bargemen I (carry) ..coal to the shore some of it m (falI) ..in the mud and we n (pick it up) ..' The most I O (ever see) ..... my companions find is one shilling's worth a day. There are usualIy thirteen or fourteen mud larks, boys and girls, around Limehouse in the summer and six boys steadily in the winter. When a bargeman p (gets hold) he generalIy q (throw) ..

of one,

H

.

them into the

river. The police boat r (chase)..

. ..

H.H

me two or

three times. One night I s (see) .. a large piece of copper drop down where they

t (repair)

a ship. That evening as a ship u (come) ..out of the docks, I v (strip off) my cIothes and w (dive) ..down several feer, x (seize) H

y (selI) ..

the piece of copper and later

.

it to a marine dealer.'

V'l

+-' V'l

EXTENSION A

ACTIVITY

Write a short news report, like the one in Exercise 4. If you prefer, find a report in your own language and translate it.

ro l+-'

C O

U (]) V'l

B

Write a report about yourself for an online dating service. Include information about what you do, what you are doing, and things you have done recently. Make yourself sound as interesting as possible!

C (]) +-'

fi)



passlve passive forms The basic formation is be + past participle. Ali tenses and simple or continuous forms are possible, but some are much more common than others.

be + past participie present simple passive present continuous passive will passive past simple passive past continuous passive present perfect passive

The machines are controlled by computer. The crime is being investigated. The building will be completed next year. The new school was opened by the Mayor. The man died while he was being taken to hospital. A thousand new books have been published this month.

Only transitive verbs (verbs with an objeet) can be made passive. Some transitive verbs cannot be made passive: become, fit, get, have, lack, let, like, resemble, suit

why use passive? •

to move important information to the beginning of the sentence The new swimming



pool has just been opened.

to be impersonal in a scientific or technical process The plastic casings are produced



in China.

when the performer of the action is generai (eg people) or obvious from the context, or unimportant, or is intentionally not named Ali pupils are taught computer skilis. The match has been cancelled. The workers have be en told that the factory will c10senext week.

We can also use it + passive decide to show an impersonal decision. /t has been decided to close the factory



Useof the passive is partly a matter of choice, though some verbs may be used more often in passivethan active.

agent and instrument •

We can mention who or what performed the action using by and a word or phrase. The new swimming pool has just been opened by the Mayor. The parked car was hit by a lorry



The agent is not mentioned if it is unknown, general, obvious or unimportant etc, but is mentioned if the speaker wants to draw attention to it. I was told I wouldn't need a visa. I was told by the Embassy that I wouldn't need a visa.



We use with when something is used deliberately for a purpose. During the robbery, the manager was hit with a baseball bat. Compare: Twa passengers were hit by f/ying glass. By

shows that the action was accidental, not deliberate.

verbs with two objects Verbs such as bring, give, lend, pass, par, promise, sell, send, show, tell can be made passive in two ways: They gave Sarah a prize. They sent me a letter I was sent a letter. Sarah was given a prize.

G

A prize was given

to

Sarah

A letter

was sent

to

me.

verbs with object and complement Some verbs have an adjective or noun phrase as a complement. When they are made passive, the complement still follows the verb. People consider her attraetive. She is considered attractive.

They eleeted Jim elass representative. lim was e/ected c1assrepresentative.

verbs and prepositions When a prepositional verb is made passive,the preposition goes at the end of the sentence and has no objeet. Sameone is looking after the children. Sameone shot at them.

The chi/dren are being /ooked after. They were shot at.

make The passive forms of make are folIowed by to-infinitive. They made Helen write the test again.

Helen was made

to

write

the test again.

Helen was maae to write the test again.

see, hear, feel Verbs see, hear, feel, wateh, notice etc have different mean;ngs when folIowed by bare infinitive, ar -ing. I saw him /eave. (completed) I saw him /eaving. (incomplete) When see and hear + bare infinitive are changed to a passive, the verb is folIowed by to-infinitive. He was seen to /eave. (complete) He was seen /eaving. (incomplete)

1

Rewrite the sentence using a passive form 50 that it does not contain the words underlined. a They are coUecting the rubbish

on Tuesday this week.

. Thc, ..cubbisk ..is ..bc,if1.q..coU&c..l.c,J.of'\Tuc,sd?Uj ...l.kis ..t
will not be renewed.

stole my bike last week.

e The chef cooked the fish perfectly. II

f We'U reach a decision next week. g The builders completed

the building

h People deliver aU aur products

at the end of last month.

to your door.

We have asked Pauline to take over the job until the end of June. While they were making

2

the film, the money

ran out.

Complete the text with a passive or active form of the verb in brackets, in a suitable tense according to the context.

Local cheeses Traditional cheeses a (produce)

gC~PC()c!UC:~cl

after the area in which they

in many regions of the UK and b (name) C

(first develop)

with a strong, nutty taste, is the most popular and d (now make)

. Cheddar, a hard che ese aU over the world. A 'true'

Cheddar must come from the counties of Somerset, Dorset or Devon in southwest England or specificaUy from the Somerset village from which it e (take)

its name.

Wensleydale f (come)

from the Yorkshire Dales (vaUeys)

in northern England. Originally made from sheep's milk, it g (base) on a recip e introduced by the Cistercian monks in the II th century and has a mild refreshing flavour. Traditional Lancashire, from northwest England, has a light, salt y flavour. During the Industrial Revolution (around 1760-1830), Lancashire cheese h (become)

the staple

[ood of the mill workers. Caerphilly, a crumbly cheese,

i (first produce)

in the Welsh town of

that name in about 1831. The cheese j (soak) overnight in salt water to seal in the moisture. It was popular with the local coalminers who k (lose) a lot of salt during their work underground.

Blue Stilton, made only in the

counties of Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire

G

I (prize)

and Derbyshire,

as the 'king' of British cheeses.

3

Complete

the text with a suitable

passive form of the verb in brackets.

BLocked drains shut gaLLery Link A multi-million pound underground tunnel connecting two of Edinburgh's art galleries for two weeks 50 that blocked drains which have dogged

a (close)hes,Q~~VI,c.,JQS~d"

the building from the outset can be fixed. The repair work b (estimate) ... to cost around

flOO,OOO

c (expect)

.,.,.,",..

,

d (house)",

but it is unclear who will foot the bill. Major losses at the museum and at the gallery restaurant, which ,.,'

in the link and e (force)

to shut whilst the work f (carry out)

""""".M'



was likely that the fault had occurred while the tunnelg 'It probably happened while it h (build) ..

.

The head of buildings said it

(construct) ..

",

.. ,'

because we have had

i

blockage problems since it opened. We (tell) , flOO,OOO

-

.... '

it will cost around

who will pay for it will be the issue: A spokeswoman for the National Galleries said:

'Everything j (do).. ...

,a..

".•'

to ensure minimal disruption to visitors. Many of

the educational workshops and events k (accommodate)

elsewhere

in the galleries. The National Gallery of Scotland and the Royal Scottish Academy Building

I (not

affect) .....""'.,.

by the work, and will open as normal throughout:

The work to the faulty drainage system at the Weston Link, which m (only complete) in August 2004, will take eight weeks from mid-February until the start of March.

4

Rewrite each sentence

sa that it contains

a passive verb and by + an agent ar with + an instrument.

a A number ot trainee doctors examined Dora. PQCetYes~\(eMil'l.~JQI::lg,VI,t:lMQ~CQ{JceiVl,~~dqc.,lq[$"

b The extent of the flood-damage has surprised everyone. c Someone used a counterfeit key to open the security door. d The freezing conditions put oft many would-be shoppers. e Someone used a brick to smash the windowo f The high cost of gas and electricity is hitting same families hardo g The force of the explosion blew in the windows on nearby buildings. h The high winds damaged several buildings.

Somebody used a blunt instrument to hit the security guard on the head.

OJ

.2: . VI

VI

The unusually high tide completely washed away the sea wall.

l'O

o.

G

5

Complete the text verb in brackets.

with

a suitable

Wangari

Maathai

Wangari Maathai

a (award)

passive

form

tVt:lSt:ltVt:lrde-d

of the

.. the

Nobel Peace Prize in 2004. She b (praise) by the Nobel committee for everyone

in Africa fighting

as 'a source of inspiration

for sustainable

development,

democracy

and peace'. When she started

her Green Belt

movement

in 1977, Kenya was suffering

fram deforestation

and desertification.

Thousands

of trees c (cut down)

d

and many families in poverty her successful

campaign

to mobilize

as a result.

(leave) Since then,

women to plant some

30 million trees e (copy) countries.

nutrition

During that time the movement

f (transform)

into a campaign

on education,

Her campaign

has not always

and other issues.

been popular. several

by other

Mrs Maathai g (arrest)

times for campaigning

against

deforestation

and once she h (beat) in 2002, she

i (elect) j

to power, and she

6

Complete

the sentence

in Africa,

unconscious

by heavy handed

police.

as an MP as part of an opposition (appoint)

using

as a deputy

a passive,

50 that

it means

the same

enviranment

But in elections

coalition minister

which swept in 2003.

as the first sentence.

a The managing director promised me a pay-rise . . ltUt:lSpC()r\Ai~~40P0Lj:::ch;~

by the managing director.

b They sent me the contract by courier the next day. The contract c A multi-national Our firm

company is taking over aur firm.

d Several people noticed the man trying to climb in the windowo by several people. e They awarded David a medal for bravery. David f They made Sylvia take the exam again. Sylvia g An elderly aunt gave Paul the paintings. Paul h The police are going to look into the case. by the police. They considered any further rescue attempts pointless. Any further

G

They elected George president for a second term. George

7 Rewrite each sentence about the James Band film stage, using a passive form where possible. a Pinewood Studias will rebuild the James Band stage which fire destrayed at the weekend, according to a statement fram the studias . ...Ac:c:()rJi~q. ±() ..0 ..$lgle-I'\Ae-l1.± ..±[()I'\A ..Piae-t
b Nabody has yet confirmed the cause of the blaze at Iver Heath, Buckinghamshire, which left the celebrated stage completely gutted.

c They had completed shooting of the latest praduction spokesperson explained.

and were removing the film sets, a

d 'We have not yet assessed the fulI effects of this incident, but it won't affect the financial performance of the company.'

e Sameone calIed Buckinghamshire Fire Brigade at 1118 BSTon Sunday.

f

Eight fire engines tackled the blaze, and the smoke was visible fram ten miles away.

g The raof covering the stage caved in thraugh fire damage and they required special equipment to reach it.

h It is the second time fire has destrayed the stage, originalIy built for the 1977 Band film The Spy Who Loved Me.

They previously rebuilt the building folIowing a fire in 1984 after which they treated six people for bums, smoke inhalation, and shock.

Since its reopening, when they christened it The Albert R Broccoli 007 Stage after the long-time praducer of the series, they have used it in five James Band films.

Q)

A

Choose a page from a baok ar magazine, and count the num ber of passive tenses. Do this with several different kinds of texts. Do same have more passives than others?

B

Translate the answers to Exercises 2 and 4 into your language. How is the passive used differently in your language?

> V1 V1

ro

Q.

G

hearsay reporting Hearsay reports describe what people say, report, believe, think, consider, know, et c, and are often used in news reporting. They are introduced by a passiveform of the report verb, either in present simple ar past simple form wit h a to-infinitive. The report can refer to the present, or past, or a time before the time of reporting.

present verb, present reference We use a present reporting verb and refer to a state or action in the present. passive The patient

present infinitive

~~ is said to be

as we!! as can be expected.

(That's what people say now about the present situation.)

present verb, past reference We use a present reporting verb and refer to a state or action in the past. passive

I

The robbers

past infinitive

_~I II

_

I I are thought to have sto/en more

than :E3million.

(That's what people say now about the past situation.)

past verb, reference to time of reporting We use a past reporting verb and refer to a state or action at the time the report was made. past simple passive

present infinitive

Iii Last week, the Prime Minister was said to be undecided. I

I

.. mi

(That's what people said then about the situation then.)

past verb, reference before time of reporting We use a past reporting verb and refer to a state or action at the time before the report was made. past simple passive I I II Mr Smith

past infinitive I

was believed to have taken

I

the car by mistake.

(That's what people said then about something that had happened earlier.)

CD

continuous forms Continuous infinitive forms are also possible. The escaped men are believed to be wearing prisan clathes. The injured man is thought to have been trying to climb the cliff. wear wear

present continuous infinitive past continuous infinitive

to be wearing to have been

wearing

09 :30

passive infinitives Hearsay report expressions can also be folIowed by passive infinitives. There are a number af diseases which are known to be caused by paar hygiene. The men are said to have been recaptured. At the time af the wreck, the diamands were thought to have been fost. eat eat

present passive infinitive past passive infinitive

to be eaten to have been

eaten

passive participies •



These can be used with report verbs like appreciate, deny, enjay, remember I appreciated being met at the airpart. Mr Archwaad denied having been convicted af any crime.

etc.

Note that there may be no difference between using past and present participies. He denied being there.

He denied having been there.

present passive continuous past passive continuous

eat eat

being eaten having been eaten

Ol C

+-' l.-

O

Q. Q)

l.-

1

Rewrite each sentence about ancient beliefs 50 that it does not contain the words underlined. a In Irish mythology, people said a meteor was a soul passing fram purgatory to heaven. ..??1SSiV1.q ...:frQrt-t.... 1l1, ..lcisk ..rt-ttjlhQIQqtj,.?1.M~l~Qr.lAJ?1s ..s.?1id..lQ ..b~..?1..SQLAI ..?LArq?1lQctjlQh~?1V~l1" b In Greek mythology, people believed the beech tree was able to carry messages fram a worshipper to Zeus, the father of the gods.

c In ancient Egypt ~

thought bats' blood cured blindness.

d In Aztec mythology, people believed the Sun was the home of the god Quetzalcoatl.

e In Norse mythology, people thought the bravest warriors lived after death in the hall of Valhalla.

f In ancient Egypt, people believed the scarab, or beetle, carried the Sun acrass the sky.

2

Rewrite each sentence 50 that it begins with the words underlined. a People say that the company's European division is having a good year. The company's European division"s.S?1idlQb~h?1ViV1.q?1qQQdtj~?1C, b In contrast, they say that the Far East division has be en suffering fram rising costs.

c People believe that the company has been talking to a competitor about a possible merger.

d People know some directors have be en thinking on these lines for some time.

e People believe the CEO. Carl Graham, is making an attempt to focus the business more sharply in some areas.

f People say he is also looking at the possibility of job cuts.

g People think the company is holding a top-level meeting about these matters next week.

CD

3

Complete the sentence sa that it means the same as the first sentence. a Oak Island in Canada is one of many places in the world which people think is the site of buried treasure. Oak Island in Canada is one of many place s in the world which isJh()L.lqh±JqQ~±Vt?$i±~()± ...QL.lri?dJr?g$L.lr~· ... b People say that the treasure is in a place called 'the money pit'. The treasure is .. c People think that pirates buried the treasure centuries ago. Pirates are .. d The money pit story dates back to 1795, when people report that alocal youth felI into a hole at the foot of a large tree. The money pit story dates back to 1795, when alocal youth is .. e People believe that he and a friend discovered traces of treasure in the hole. He and a friend are .. f

People say that the twa men found a treasure chest in later excavations. The twa men are

g However, before they could open the chest, people say that water flooded in. However, before they could open the chest, water is h Since then, people believe that more than adozen groups of treasure hunters have searched for the treasure. Since then, more than adozen groups of treasure hunters are People think that some explorers found old pieces of metal in the hole. Some explorers are ... However, people naw report that the pit is a natural phenomenon, fortifications.

ar the remains of old colonial

However, the pit is now .....

4

Rewrite each sentence using appreciate, deny, enjoy, !ike ar remember and the word a Thanks for taking me to the station.

...I..gpPC?cJg±?Q~il\q ..±gk?I\ ..±q ..±h? ..$±g±iq~, ..... b I was shown around the school, and I enjoyed it. c I don't remember when they arrested me! d He said he liked it when people took him seriously. e Tina said she hadn't been paid to appear in the play. f

I don't remember when they gave me the anaesthetic.

g Thanks for giving me another chance.

BEING GrVEN

in

capitals. TAKEN ~ Vl lU O Q) lU ..c C Q Q) >.. +-'

CI) TAKEN BEING HAVING BEING

~

O'l

5

Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the word in capitals.

a People say that the hat sold yesterday at the auction was wom by Napoleon during the invasion of Russia in 1812. SAlD

.Th~..hg± ..S()ld ..Lj~s±~rdgLj ..g± ..±h~ ..guc:±i().~...is ..$gid ..±() ..hg'{~ ...Q~~Vl..~()Ql ..QLj... .. Ngp()I~()Vl..duriVlq.±f\~ ...iVl,{ g$i()~ ..(); ..'RlAS$ig ..i~..131.Z" .... b People think that the earthquake in the North Sea was caused by a release in pressure after oil and gas extraction. THOUGHT c People believe that Harriet the tortoise, who has just died aged 176, was owned by Charles Darwin. BELIEVED d People now know that three patients were infected with the disease through blood transfusions. KNOWN e People think that more than a hundred football supporters were involved in the riot after the match. THOUGHT f

People believe that the recent forest fires in Califomia were starte d deliberately.

BELIEVED

g People now know that three other religious leaders were arrested at the same time.

BEEN

h People believe that the helicopter which crashed yesterday killing 18 service personnel was shot down. BELIEVED

6

Rewrite each sentence 50 that it is a hearsay report, using a form of the verb in capitals.

a Two suspects have be en arrested .

THINK

.T~() ..$lA$P~C:±S..gC~.±f\()lAqh± ..±() ..hgY~ ..Q~~~ ..grr.~s±~d,.

CD

b The pIane crashed into the sea near a smalI island.

BELIEVE

c The minister is considering changing the laws on smoking in public.

SAY

d Yesterday the situation had improved.

REPORT

e Whales have been seen in the area for the first time.

SAY

f The fire broke out at 3 am.

BELIEVE

g Last year the company recorded rising profits.

REPORT

h The number of unemployed

THINK

has fallen by 10%.

7

Read the information about the life of Shakespeare and the example hearsay sentence. Then write seven more hearsay sentences about events in his life, beginning 'he is believed' or 'he is thought'.

The life of Shak:espeare We know some definite facts about Shakespeare's

life, but we can

onIy make informed guesses about many other details. • His actuaI birthday is unlmown but is ceIebrated today on 23 April, just three days before his baptism was recorded in the parish register of the Holy Trinity Church on 26 April, 1564. • He probably started his education at the age of seven in 1571. • In 1582, aged 18, he married Anne Hathaway, aged 26. • Twins, Judith and Hamnet, were born in 1585. • Between 1585 and 1592 Shakespeare

probabIy left his family

in Stratford to join a company of actors. He was probably both a playwright • In

l S89-159

and a performer. Ohe may have vvritten his first play, Henry VI, Part One.

• By 1592 he was well known in London as a writer. • In 1592-93

Shakespeare

may have written the poem Venus and Adonis while the London

theatres were closed because of the plague. • In 1595 he may have written A Midswnmer Night's Dream, probabIy for a wedding. Romeo and Juliet was probably aIs o written in this year. He continued

to write regularly.

• In 1597 he bought an expensive house in Stratford on Avon. • 1600-160

l is when

he probably wrote Hamlet.

• In 1603 Queen Elizabeth was present at a performance

of A Midsummer's Night's Dream, and

after her death that year, the new king, James I, watched a performance • In 1616 William Shakespeare

of As You Like It.

died on 23 April. He is buried in Stratford on Avon .

...H~..if, ..±hqtlqi:t± ..±()..h0V~ ..Ql'::l'::~ Q()Qt ..qlt ~.:?..Apc/L ..I?t,.L{.~

.

O)

C

t

O

Q. OJ l..-

A

Make some comments upon these topies, using hearsay reporting. aliens

global warming

historical situations

>-

m Vl l..-

m B

Comment on situations in the news, using hearsay reporting. Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

OJ

...c

e

have and get samething dane, other uses of get causative have •

For a service someone does for us we use to have something dane. There is a fuli range of tenses but the most common are present continuous, going to, present perfect and past simple. The infinitive is also used.

----------::--------==----~ We're havin9 our (lat decorated.

have + object + past participie

present continuous going to

present perfect past simple infinitive •



We're having aur fiat decorated. She's going to have a tooth taken out. He has had his nose altered. I had my hair wt a week ago. We want to have our car repainted.

We do not mention the agent (the person who performed the action) unless this is important. I'm going to have my photograph taken by a top fashion photographer. We mayaiso mention the place where we have things done. at my local hairdresser's.

I have my hair cut



We also use causative have to describe unfortunate Maria had her car stolen last nighf. He had his nose broken while he was playing rugby They had their house broken into recently

events that have happened to people.

get something done In everyday speech we often use get instead of have for present continuous and past simple, but not for present perfect. We're getting our fiat decorated. He's getting his nose altered. l le 's gat his nose a/tered.

He got his nose broken '4~ri~

et

(not possible) in a fighf.

hOl, Ant hQ- r~- ,tA'O",

(not possible)

get meaning manage We also use get something done to mean 'manage to do it', with a sense of achieving mean that somebody else did the work.

something.

This does not

1 got my work (inished in the end. I got my wark finished in the end. Jack is difficult to wark with, but he gets the job done. Have you got the computer to work yet?

(= I managed to do it in the end.) (= He manages to do the job.) (= Have you managed to make it work?)

get with -ing Get is also used to mean 'start to do something', Get moving! (= start)

when we give someone an order.

get someone to do something I have someone do something This means that we make them do it. I got him

to

check the figures a second time just to make sure.

We can also say: I had him check the figures a second time just to make sure.

:::::l

get married ete Get also forms expressions wit h married, arrested, accepted, He got arrested on the way out of the stadium. They're getting married in Paris next month. I got accepted for the job!

VI (]) VI

chosen etc.

1

Rewrite each sentence without the words underlined, using a causative have construction. Make any other necessary changes. a Same painters have painted the outside of aur house. ~~hgV~H~04H±h~()~±~i4~():f()~Ch()1l~e:P0ilt±~4· b A hairdresser cut Martin's hair yesterday. c Same plumbers are installing a new central heating system at aur house tomorrow. d An optician is going to examine my eyes this afternoon. e A surgeon altered Tom's nos e last year.

f The dry-cleaners cleaned my leather coat specially. g An art specialist has valued aur paintings. h A mechanic 100ked at the car before Maria bought it. A carpenter replaced the windows in aur house last year. A dentist is going to take out twa of Julia 's teeth.

2

Rewrite each sentence with a causative have construction, beginning as shown. Include the agent (the person who performed the action) if this is important. a Katie's car was stolen by one of her friends. Katieh04h~CC:0C§±ql~vlgl1.()lt~.():f.~~C.:fc"~'I\4~ b A photographer

is going to take a photo of us.

We ..

c Can you come quickly? Sameone has braken into my house. Can you come quickly? d Tracey Emin, the well-known British artist, is going to paint Laura's portrait. Laura ..

I

e A well-known architect designed their house. They .. f A 10cal tailor makes all my suits.

L

g Sameone repaired Dave's bike at a shop in the High Street. Dave .. h A surgeon is replacing my hip next week.

L

Sameone brake one of Tony's fingers while he was playing cricket. Tony .. A 10cal firm is going to redecorate Maria's fiat. Maria ..

CD

3

Write a new sentence unnecessaryagents. a Someone

with the same meaning

containing

the word in capitals.

Leave out any

GOT

broke the leg of one of the players.

.... Q~~.Q-f..lh~ ..pla'1~C$qQlhi$.I~q.Q[Qk~~, .... b Andy wants a doctor to alter his nose.

HAVE

c The police arrested Anna as she was leaving the shop.

GOT

d Doctors amputated

HAD

the patient's

leg after the accident.

e The shop on the camer usually repairs my shoes.

HAVE

f

GOT

I made SUTethat Tom checked all the windows

before he left.

g Jim says he'll be late because he.is at the hairdresser's.

GETTING

h Have you managed

GOT

Someone

4

has stolen Sue's car.

Complete A

to start YOUTwork yet?

HAD

the text with one word in each gap.

few weeks ago, while we were out at the cinema, we ah!?,J

house broken into. We'd been meaning to b.. windows, but we hadn't c ..

.

. . the work d

, and so the

burglars found it easy to get in. Luckily we e taken. When the police

arrived,

they f ..

our

locks fitted on the have many things

.

us to go through the house

and check what was missing. We were actually g ..

....a new kitchen

fitted at that time, and som e power tools had been stolen . One of the burglars was seen acting suspiciously near another house a few days later, and h

himself arrested. When he had

i

taken at the police station, the police were able to had burgled us. Since then we j

his fingerprints prove

he was the one who

;....o

(])

Ol '+-

O Vl Q) Vl

:J

~

Q)

..c. +-'

O

•. (])

c:

O

had new locks fitted and a new

"'C

alarm installed. Next week we're k

bars put on the ground floor

windows, so we're hoping not to I

burgled again.

,-c:

Ol

':S (])

E O VI

;....o

(])

Ol A

Make a list of things you have dane, are having dane, have had dane, are gaing to

have dane, had dane. B

C ro

Same peaple use casmetic surgery to have their appearance in a library or an the Internet,

"'O

changed. Do same research and make a list of things peaple can have dane.

~ ~

..c:

Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

CD

conditional and if-sentences (1) real conditions (first conditional) •

if + present simple + will / won't (do) This shows the results in the future of a real situation, with possible or likely results. H you eat ali the ice-ueam, you'lI



be sick!

other variants Jf can also be foliowed by can / can't, present perfect (to emphasize completion), going to, present continuous with future meaning. If you can't answer Exercise l, you won 't be able to do Exercise 2. H you've finished washing the floor, 1'11help you clean the kitchen. If you're going to buy a car, 1'IIIend you same of the money If you're going to the shops, 1'/1come with you!

The second clause can contain could requests, be able to, can, going to, imperative, had better, could and might etc. !f I give you the money could you get me same stamps7 !f you've finished washing the floor, you can start c1eaning the kitchen. If it rains this afternoon, we're going to stay in and watch same OVOs. If you're going to buy a car, make sure you get it checked by a garage. !f you're going to the shops, you'd better take same money! !f Cole scores naw, that could be the end of the match!

future results: if c1auseswith will •

There are some if-sentences that describe the possible results of an offer. In these sentences, will is used in the if-clause. 1'/1talk to your teacher, if that will stop you worrying



sa much

In some if-sentences, if is foliowed by emphasised will, meaning 'insist on', or won't meaning 'refuse

to'. H you will wear such thin clothes, of course you'll feel cold' If you won't listen to common sense, there's no point my talking to you. •

Jf can be foliowed by will and would as polite request forms. If you'lI just wait here, 1'11tell Mr Brown that you've arrived If you'd just fili in this form, /'II check the details.

unreal conditions (second conditional)

G



if + past simple + would (do) This shows the results which would follow from an imaginary situation, with impossible or unlikely results. If the Earth didn't have a Moon, there wouldn't be any tides.



Could and might are often used instead of would, as are other modals. If we all worked together, we could solve the problem faster

• The difference between real and unreal may be a matter of speaker choice and context. If you buy a bike, you'lI get a lot fitter. (You are really thinking of buying one - perhaps we are in the bike shop.) If you bought a bike, you'd get a lot fitter. (We are only discussing possibilities.)

bike, you'd get (Sf yaoulotbought fitter. a

impossible past conditions (third conditional) •

if + past perfect + would have (done) / (passive wauld have been dane) Used for the results which would follow from an imaginary past situation. As we cannot change the past, this is an impossible condition. Passiveforms are common. If the ship had had more lifeboats, more passengers would have been saved. If the ship hadn't hit an iceberg, it wouldn't have sunk. If another ship hadn't arrived saan afterwards, none of the passengers would have been saved.



Cauld have and might have are often used instead of wauld have, as are other modals. If the ship had been trave/ling more slowly, it might have avoided the iceberg.

mixed conditions •

if + past perfect + would

(do)

Used for an imagined or actual event in the past with a result in the present. If she had wom her seat-belt, she would still be alive.



VI

(])

u C

(])

If you hadn't given me a lift, I'd probably still be at the station!

+-'

if + past simple + wauld have (dane)

(])

C VI

'-

Used for a present state which has influenced past events.

"+!..

If you weren't 50 lazy, you'd have finished your work by now If she was better-qualified, she wauld have gat the job.

""O

C

ro ro

C O

+-' ""O

C O

u

1

Complete each sentence giving computer advice using an if-condition, 50 that it has the same meaning as the first sentence. a Don't press that button on the keyboard, ar you'lllose what you've written. U .... tjQ4.pr~ss.lhel ..l::)4llQa ..Qa.lh~.k~tjbQeG;t ..AjQu\1l ..IQse-.~he.lAjQ4\V~..~ri.lle-a .. b Make a back-up copy of yom work or you'lllose it. You won't .. c You need virus protection to avoid having problems with yom computer. U you don't d Sitting too long at the computer will make yom back and arms ache. Yom .. e Don't tum off the computer befare closing all programs, ar you could have problems. You ..

f You'lllose yom work unless you save it before closing the word-processing program.

IL g You can save a lot of time by learning the keyboard shart cuts.

IL h Running too many programs at the same time will probably make the computer crash. The computer will .

2

Choose the correct option, A, B or C, to complete the sentence. a Why don't you use the Internet? U you had looked up the infarmation on the net, b U Alice a cycle helmet, she might have been seriously injmed.

YOUAH

c U there wasn't any water on the Earth, life .. d Luckily I checked my diary. U I .. ..... that, I would have completely fargotten her birthday e You don't believe in yomself. That's why you failed yom driving test. U you were mare selfconfident, I'm sme you ... f U you travelled to the Sun at the speed of light, you minutes. g U you're thinking of having a sun-and-sea holiday, h You can start looking at the next unit if you ..

there in about eight and a half

.H •• H

yomself from the sun. Exercise S.

It's a lot quicker going by train than by car. And even if you find anywhere to park. U we

G

.

by car, it's impossible to

an hom extra every day, we could finish the project a week early.

a

A would know the answer

B

b

A wasnJt wearing

knew the answer

C

will know the answer isn 't wearing

B

hadnJt been wearing

C

c A wouldn 't have begun d A hadn't done

B

will not begin didnJt do

C

e Apassed

B

A arrive

B

would have passed would have arrived

e will

f

g h

A you have protected

B

you should protect

e you will protect

B

wouldn 't begin C would do pass

e would arrive

A would have {inished

B

{inished

e have

A went

B

A work

B

had gone have worked

e hadworked

{inished

ego

Chaase the carrect option, A, B ar C, to complete the sentence. a D c d

You can start doing Section 2 if you.. C Section l. If you/ve become completely confused, you start again. Could you get me a book from the library, if I the details. If.. . a moment, I'U see if I can find another question paper for you.

nI go over the figures again, if you If you.. . the instructionsl then of course you'U get the answers wrong! g If you .. .....a dictianarYI then make sure you know haw to use itI If I finish my project on time, I.. a couple of days off! e

z

HH

..H

a

A

D A

will finish will

are going to finish had better

C

have finished

B

C

are going to

B

c

Agive you

B

will give you

C

have given you

d

A you'll wait

B

you have waited

C

you are waiting

e

A

will think that helps.

B

aren't reading

think that will help. read

C

B

C

will think that will help. won't read

B

have used

C

are going to use

B

am able to take

C

am gaing to take

;

A

g A will use h A had better take

4

Complete the sentence with a suitable form of the verb in brackets.

The Earth after humans If al! the people on Earth a (disappear)ciis.gpp~gc~4 b (begin)

tomorrow, nature

to redaim the planet. For a start, if people no

longer c (pol!ute) ..

.

the atmosphere, the air d (soon become)

dean again. If there e (be) H...

no people to maintain

.

buildings, they f (soon begin) ..

.

parts g (take)

thousandsof

to decay, but more solid years to disappear. In general,

if the 6.5 billion hum ans no longer h (compete) . other species on Earth, most species

i (benefit)

....with

...HH



For

example, if hum ans no longer j (catch) ..

.

fish, the numbers

of fish worldwide k (eventually increase) ..

.

However, if

humans

I (vanish)

from the Earth, endangered species of

animals m (not necessarily recover) ..greater difficulty surviving if no humans o (take) the trouble to protect them from other species. Even if we no longer p (poison) ..

H.

.H ••

the planet, several decades

before all dangerous chemicaIs r (disappear) . And even if the burning of fossil fuels s (cease) ..tomorrow, the oceans

t (not absorb) ..

all the CO2 in the atmosphere for thousands of years. In the end, though, if alien visitors u (land) ..H.H on the Earth in 100,000 years time, they v (find) .. ever lived here.

.....•..

Vl

as some are already too few in number. Some endangered species n (have)

q (go by)

..•....

.... no signs that an advanced civilization had

OJ

U C OJ

+-'

C OJ

Vl

'-

~

""O

C l'U

l'U

C O

+-' ""O

C O

U

G

5 Complete the sentences about the possible future for our world, using a suitable form of the verb brackets, depending on whether you think the sentence describes something real / possible or unreal / impossible. in

a If the Earth (stop). $±oPP?cI in darkness.

spinning, one side (always be)

b If the polar ice-caps (melt) (rise)

completely, sea-levels worldwide

by about 60 metres. c If we (recycle) more household waste, there (be) less damage to the enviranment. d If an astranaut (fall) into a black hole in space, what ? (happen) e If people (not stop) using cars so much, the country's raads to a standstill. (eventually grind) f

What (happen) (run out)

when the world's supplies of oil ?

g If human beings (finally start) living on the Moon, they (need) to praduce water artificially. h If there (not be) a better place? If we (not stop) (become)

any money (the world be) over-fishing the world's oceans, many species extinct.

If everyone in the world (jump) (be)

6

up and down at the same time, there

no measurable effect (apart fram 6.5 billion footprints).

Comment on each sentence beginning as shown. Some forms may be passive. a Mrs Allen's neighbour searched his garden shed, and found the missing cat inside. If .....MrS ..AIIe,Vl.IS..Vl.e,iqhbo~r ..hedVl.ll ..se,en:he,J ..heve, ..±o~Vl.d ..lhe, ..rI,\.iSsiVl.q..cel

..hiS ..qerde,VI. ..she,d; ..he, ..IAJQuldVl.1l

..iI'lSide,.

b The hikers were rescued quickly fram the storm on the mountain because one of them had her mobile phone with her. If

c The boy who fell into the sea fram the boat was wearing a life jacket, so he survived. If

d Mr Anderson woke up because he heard the smoke alarm, and the family managed to escape the fire. If

e Rescue workers didn't search the car praperly and didn't notice the injured man. If

f

Luckily most of the staff had left the raom to attend a meeting, so only one person was injured by flying glass fram the braken windowo If

g United didn't win because the goalkeeper made a mistake in the last minute of the match. If

h A police officer stopped Pratt for drink-driving, and took a DNA sample, which led to his being charge d with the previously unsolved mur der of Mrs Jones.

G)

If

7

Put the verb in brackets in a suitable form, using a negative where necessary.

The extinction

of the dinosaurs

The dinosaurs probably became extinct after a giant asteroid hit the Earth about 65 million years ago. But what a (happen)t()()~Ic/~g\'~Hhgppe:Vl~cl

if this asteroid b (miss)H?

believe that in this case, dinosaurs c (continue).. modern animals d (probably

.

g (develop) ..

types of dinosaurs, because the animals we have now simply

to evolve. Some scientists have even suggested that dinosaurs .

along the same lines as human beings, but this is aminority

The general view is that perhaps dinosaur brains h (grow) ...

i (exist)

..

to dominate the Earth, and that

. Instead of elephants and lions and so on, there different

f (be able) ..

.

exist)

e (be)

Scientists

. today, dinosaurs

general, and k (Iook)

HH.

so good, however. If the asteroid I (collide)

j

.. ...........H

(change) ..

view.

larget; but if they .

..H

very much in

much the same. The prospects for human beings would not be

..

.. with the Earth, there m (probably

be)

.. any humans alive today. When the asteroid disaster wiped out the dinosaurs, it gave mammals the advantage. Without much chance against the dominant

that space collision,

mammals

n (stand)

dinosaur species.

!!

-..-... VI

u C (]J (]J

+-'

C

EXTENSION

ACTIVITV

(]J VI 'i!...

'-

"'O

A

Write same endings for these if-sentences.

C lU

a If the weather gets hotter / colder, b If I was able to live anywhere in the world, ... c If scientists hadn't discovered how electricity works, .. d If YOll want to learn a foreign language, ..

lU

C O ,~

"'O

C O

B

Choose an example from each section on pages 50-51 and translate these examples into your language.

u

G

conditional and if-sentences (2) unless Unless is used when we say that if something as a result.

does not happen, something

else will happen (or be true)

If you don 't help me, I won 't be able to lift this I won 't be able to lift this unless you help me.

otherwise Otherwise is another way of saying if not. It can also come at the end of a separate sentence. Help me with this, otherwise I won 't be able to lift it. Help me with this. I won 't be able to lift it otherwise.

if only •

If only can be used as a way of emphasizing if. Jf only you'd told me, I could have helped you.



The if only clause can also be used alone as an exclamation. If only you'd told me!

provided / providing (that), as long as, on condition (that) These are more emphatic ways of saying only ... if. You can onI y go to the party, if you are home before 72.00. You can go to the party, provided you are home before 72. 00. You can go to the party, as long as you are home before 72.00. You can go to the party, on condition that you are home before 72.00.

even if •

Even if can also be used in conditional sentences to emphasize Even if you begged him to take the money, he wouldn 't accept.

if (you) should ..., if you happen to

_



If + should emphasizes that an event is not very likely, or to make a request seem more indirect polite. If you should see him tomorrow, could you give him my message")



If + happen to has a similar effect, and can be used with should to emphasis unlikelihood distance. Phrases such as by any chance are also used in the same way. If you happen to be in the neighbourhood, do drop in and see us. If you should happen by any chance to find the money, can you send it back?

if (I) were to

,



This is often used in writing which speculates about the future. If the government were to lower taxes, they would certainly win votes



This can also make an event seem less Iikely. If I were to offer you more money, would you stay in the job?

if (it) were / was not for / hadn 't been for

_

This describes how one event depends on another. If it were not for Helen, aur team would be the worst in the area!

G

if.

(lf Helen wasn't a really good player. .. ) Jf it hadn't been for lim, the chi/d would have drowned. (lf Jim hadn't jumped

in to rescue the child ... )

or

or

but for We can use but for to mean 'if it were not for'. But for your assistance, we would not have succeeded.

supposing, suppose, imagine These are ways of expressing conditions without if. Supposing you had ES million. What would you spend it on? Imagine you were president. How would you change the country?

jf 50/ if not These can refer to a previous sentence and form a condition. If Jean is too iii to play, Mary can play instead. Jean may be too iii to play If 50, Mary can play instead. Jean may still be ab/e to play If not, Mary can play instead.

leaving out if

,-

In everyday speech, we can use an imperative phrase + and + will c1auseinstead of an if-conditional sentence. !f you come over here, 1'11 show you what I mean. Come over here and 1'11 show you what I mean.

jf

+ adjective

In informal instructions, we can leave out the verb to be in phrases with adjectives such as interested, necessaryetc If you are interested, phone this number. If interested, phone this number.

jf I might, if I can / could ... Might and can / cou/d are used in an if-c1ausewhich stands alone as a very polite request. If I CDuld just have another look. (=Could I have another look?) If I might help you with your coat.

had

(J)

"0'

were (I)

'0"

should

(J) ..

0

It is possible to begin formai conditional sentences by inverting had or were or should and the subject, leaving out if (see Unit 40).

..-

N -Vl Q)

u C Q)

+-'

C Q) Vl

'-

~

"'O

C

ro ro

C O +-' "'O

C O

u

1

Underline the correct form. a Small dogs can be carried on a passenger's knee if only / provided they do not cause inconvenience to passengers. b Even if / Supposing you could visit any country in the warId. Where would you go? c I would like to thank the many colleagues who have made invaluable contributions:

unless

/ but for their help, this project would not have be en possible.

d You must register yom copy of the CD-ROM online, othelwise / unless it will not wark. e Ii the government were to / should balance the budget, it would be able to increase spending. f You can easily get into trouble if you happen to be / on condition that you are in the wrong place at the wrong time. g We will give you a guaranteed price of €lS0 far yom old computer, even if / otherwise it doesn't wark. h Accarding to the smvey, most people are happy to welcome foreigners to their country, as long as / otherwise they don 't start behaving like foreigners. Please don't interrupt the lesson as long as / unless you have an impartant point to make. Ifhe should happen to have / Ifit hadn1t been for a leg injmy, Adams would probably have won the race.

2

Choose the correct option, A, B or C, to complete each sentence about security issues. a b

C .....leaving valuable property in parked cars, their cars wouldn't be broken into. a serious crime, what exactly should you do?

c Please do not use the 999 emergency number . .....you are reporting a genuine emergency. d you were travelling abroad, what could you do to improve yom personal safety? e the infarmation provided by members of the public, the police would have a much more difficult job. .H

f

Police often conduct secmity checks in this area so they may stop you, and

you

might be asked for yom identity card ar passpart. g ....any objectionable items on the website, let us know and we will have them removed. h

CCTV cameras installed in the store, many shoplifters would escape detection . ..people locked all their doors and windows, there would be fewer break-ins. yom computer has a virus protection program, you might still fall victim to e-mail scams or malicious software.

a

C

1f only people stopped

1f you were to witness

C

CIf only you witness

B

provided

C unless

A Supposing

B

As long as

e f

A Supposing

1fso Provided that

C

B

C

1f it were not for

A othelwise

B

ifso

C even if

g

A Unless you notice

B

1f you happen to notice

C

1f you were to notice

B

If it weren It for

A 1fonly

1f only there were Otherwise

C

B

C

A Unless

B

Even if

C

Even if On condition that

A Unless people stopped

b A Unless you witness c A

d

if

h A 1f there were to be

G

B

1magine

B

3

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, beginning as shown.

a We will refund your booking fee, provided you cancel 48 hours in advance. We will onlyr~fuVlc:l Ij()tAc{;()()ki~q+e-e-if lJOtA .c:tl~c:~ILl3 ~()Ur$iVltldv 0VlC:~. b I wish you'd told me about the cheap flights to Haly.

U c Thanks to the skill of the surgeon, the child survived. U it d Let us know if you have second thoughts. U you should e U you hadn't helped me, I would have made a complete mess of this. But

f

Please come this way, sir. Could I take your coat? Please come this way, sir. U g You can offer me more money, but I still won't sell the house to you! Even h If you let me get a word in edgeways, fIl tell you what I discovered. Let U you changed your mind about the job, we'd be interested in hearing from you. U you were As long as there are no delays, we'll be there by six. Unless

4

Complete the text wit h one word in each gap.

Environmental issues Everyone agrees that a ..tA~I~S$ protected, tigers b c

the world's tiger population is eventually become extinct. If it

not for the efforts made by international campaigns

over past decades, the extinction d

already have become

a factoTigers can coexist with human beings, e

local

people are involved in conservation. However, f

if tiger

habitats are redeveloped there is no guarantee of success. Government

......•....

agencies must be involved, and there must be adequate finance:

..........

g

conservation

N Vl

(])

u

projects are neglected. An organized

C

programme with safeguards must be introduced. If h the illegal hunters quickly move back in. tigers left in the world: how j

i

(]) +-'

there were no

C

(])

we all feel? According to

Vl

'-

~

some environmentalists, that day may be coming sooner rather than later.

""O

C

ru ru A

B

Make a list of instructions a teacher might give to a class, including: unfess otherwise provided / as fang as / on condition Make true examples which include: even if if you shoufd if it hadn't been for

C O +-' ""O

supposing

Need more practice? Go to the Rev;ew on page 208.

if sa

imperative + and + will c1ause

C O

u

G

unreal past tense wishes about the present Like a second conditional sentence, these wishes use a past tense form to express a feeling about the present. I wish I knew the answer. (= If I knew the answer, it would be better.) I wish it wasn't raining! (= If it wasn't raining, it would be better.) I wish they were arriving ear/ier. I wish I was / were Iying on the beach

at

this moment!

~

I wish I was Iying

on a beach.

Wishes with cou/d also express a feeling about the present. I wish I could get a better job. (now)

wishes about the past Wishes about the past use past perfect in the same way as a third conditional sentence. I wish I had brought

an umbre//a with me.

( = If I had brought an umbrella with me, it would have been better.) I wish we'd left ear/ier.

( = If we had left earlier it would have been better.)

hope Wishes about the future are expressed with hope. I hope you enjoy your trip. (future) I hope I can / will be able to get a better job. (future)

wishes with would / wouldn't •

Wishes with wau/d / wou/dn't are abaut general behaviour ar habits, aften bad ones which we wis would change. I wish everyone wauld /eave me a/one. I wish you'd



stop interrupting me.

I wish you wauldn't

do that

Using unreal past tense can give the same meaning in same contexts. I wish it didn't rain sa much. (it may or may not be raining now) I wish it wouldn't rain sa much. (it's probably raining now)



To wish sameone wau/d do samething

can also mean that we wauld like them to do it.

I wish you would ask for my advice more often.

(D

ii I were you Ne use jf I were you for giving advice. Note that I and you are stressed more heavily than were. The jfclause can come at the beginning ar at the end. I wouldn't touch that wire, if I were you. If I were you, I'd go to the police .

.vould rather, would sooner We can use would rather / would saoner + infinitive to express choice. Would you rather stay at home? I'd rather have tea than coffee. •

would rather / would saoner + person + unreal past are used to show what we would like sameone

else to do ar not to do. I'd rather you didn't tell anyone. (lt would be better if you didn't tell) I'd sooner she went to university than got a job naw

'/ould prefer

(see Unit 16 Woulcl)

We can use would prefer + to-infinitive to express a preference. Do you want to go out? No, / think I'd prefer

to stay

at home.

We can compare preferences with rather than. I'd prefer

to

go out for a meal tonight rather than stay in and cook.

Would prefer + that + unreal past or would prefer it if + unreal past can be used to show what we would like someone else to do or not to do. I'd prefer that you didn't mention thls to anyone. I'd prefer it if you didn't mention this to anyone.

We can also use would prefer + person + to-infinitive with the same meaning. I'd prefer you not

to

mention this to anyone.

'stime + unreal past .'.'e use it's time + unreal past to express what we think we ought to do. My shoes are wearing out. It's time (that) I bought same new ones. It's already 800. / think it's time (that) we leh

We also often say It's time we were going.

as if, as though Real comparisons with as if, as though He looks as if he wants to leave. (real)

use look, seem, appear etc with present or future meaning.

It seems as though City are going to win. (real) It doesn't look as if 1'11ever repay my debts. (real)

Unreal comparisons with as jf and as though use was / were to refer to the present if the comparison seemsunreal or imaginary. 5he acts as if she was / were queen! (unreal - she isn't) OJ

In C OJ +' +' In

eu

Q. eu OJ

I...

C ::J

CD

1

Underline the correct form.

a Parents who also work often wish they have / had more time to spend with their children. b No doubt the prime minister now wishes he listened / had listened to what other people were saying before he made his decision. c Local councillors say they wish more people could / would let them know what they think about the new anti-smoking laws. d Many people wish that fast-food companies would stop / had stopped targeting children with advertising. e Local residents generaUy wish that tourists didn't leave / hadn't left so much litter behind in the town. f

I have had nothing but trouble with this computer, and I now wish that I didn't buy / had not bought

it.

g When we grow older, with hindsight we aU wish that we spent / had spent our time at school more profitably. h We wish we knew / would know how to solve the problem of vandalism, but so far we haven't come up with a perfect solution. Doctors say they wish that more people pa id / had pa id attention to the amount of salt they consume. I hope / wish I could believe what politicians say, but

2

11m

afraid I can't.

Choose the correct option, A, B or C, to complete the sentences about the generation gap.

a H's time that older people( ...listening to what younger people say. b Some older people treat teenagers as if they aU dangerous criminals. c Some older people wish there behaviour on the young.

more police officers on the street, and blame aU bad

d Perhaps it's time that young people more responsibly towards other people. e GeneraUy speaking, young people spend their time with other young people. f Many older people the world to be just the same as it was when they were young. gOlder people also wish that young people more politely. h Some people think.. that 16-year-olds were given the vote. Many young people, however, have no faith in politicsI and just wish the world different. Some of them A were A rat/m" opinions. a A would start

o

if everyone just left them alone and stopped asking them for their started B are act were wou/d B though would been behave rather start didn't wou/d it's time behave act itprefer prefer BC C had as would hope as they wOl,lldprefer though wouldn't prefer

3

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, beginning as shown. a H seems that more and more young people will go into higher education in future. It seems as ....i.f..rt:t()r~..g~J..rt:t()r~...lj()tlf1,q..p~()ple-...lAJill ... q() ..il\±()...~iq~~C.~J~c:.g±i()l\ ..il\..f~~... .ftl±tlre-. b Most parents want their children to study a useful subject leading to a good job. Most parents would rather . c Students, however, usually want their parents to let them make their own choices. Students, however, usually wish ... d Later on, though, same students regret not having chosen their courses more carefully. Later on, though, same students wish e University advisers don 't usually want students to chaos e a subject simply because they think they are good at it. University advisers usually prefer students .. t The usual advice is: 'Think about what kind of wark you want to do in the future.' The usual advice is: IIf I g Same students seem from their behaviour to be only interested in having a good time. Same students behave as .. h When they leave university, many students regret not having worked harder. When they leave university, many students wish .. They aIso think they will never repay their student loans. H also seems to them as Universities should naw pay more attention to students' financial problems. H's ..

4

Complete the text using one word in each gap.

Neighbours and noise Do you ever wish that your neighbours a . H/AJ()~IJ

..HH

tum down their

musie? Perhaps you're trying to sleep and you wish that the people next-door

b

not holding an all-night barbeeue party

in their garden. Or do you feel it is c uninhabited

you moved to an

island? Don't worry - you are just another vietim of noise

pollution. Of eourse, most people would prefer d .. . no noise at a11,neighbours f

e

mice, and nobody g

..HH

windows and high-powered h

....if ears as quiet as

about the streets in ears with open sound systems. You may even wish you

stop ehildren from playing in the street,

from passing overhead. But in the end, if l

i

OT

planes you l j

just get used to it. Close the

windows, buy some earplugs, laugh and tum up your own stereo. Just aet k I....

.HHH

if the noise

simply not there! Who knows, perhaps it will go away!

A

Make a list ot wishes about past, present and annoying habits.

B

Choose an example from each section on page 60 and translate into your language. Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

modals (1): obligation, recommendation, ability must Use must • for a necessaryaction.

You must keep thls door locked.



to give someone an order.

You must be more careful!



to describe a duty.

Everyone must recycle as much as possible.



to make a strong recommendation.

You really must go and see The History Boys.



to emphasize an intention.

I must lend you this book.



for formai questions (must I, you etc).

Must you go?

Have to is more commonly used for questions in spoken English. Do you have to go?

have to / has to Use have to / has to • for a necessaryaction.

We have to be there by six



for a rule.



In most contexts, must or have to are both possible. Some speakers may use have to because it is longer and allows more emphasis. You have

to

Everyone has

We have to wear a uniform at aur school.

be more careful!

to

recycle as much as possible.



Have to is the more commonly used question form.

Do you have to go?



Have / has got to can be used informally instead of have to. We've got to be there by six.

must not, do not have to •

Must not describes what is not allowed. You mustn't



start untill tell you.

Do not have to or have / has not got to describes what is not necessary. Tony doesn't have to go to college this afternoon. Tony hasn't got to go to college thls afternoon.

had to, didn't have to •

We use had to as a past form of must. Sorry /'m late. I had to stay on at wark. I didn't have to pay to take my bike anto the train.

should, shouldn't (ought to, ought not to) Use should, shouldn't (ought to, ought not to) • to make a recommendation, when we say what we think is a good idea. You should come to wark on your bike It would be much quicker



to say what we think is the right thing to do. I think you ought

CD

to

go to the doctor You look terrible.



to say that something is correct or incorrect. You shouldn't write your nam e at the top of the letter The answer ought to be a whole number



in formai writing; should can be used with a similar meaning to must, but is more polite. Ali students should report to the examination room by 8.30.

should have, shouldn't have (ought to have, ought not to have) •

Useto saythat we think someone has made a mistake or done something wrong. You shouldn't have put in 50 much sa/t. You ought not to have written your name

at the

top of the /etter.

had better (not) •

Useto make a recommendation, when we say what we think is the right thing to do. Note that this is often contracted to you'd better etc. Jthink you'd better go to the doctor. You /ook terrib/e.

be to • This is a formai way of saying must in instructions. You are

to

at once!

leave here

A// students are

to

report

at

9.00.

need, need to •

Need is a modal verb, with no 3rd person form. It is used mainly in questions and negatives. The meaning is similar to have to. Need you ask? The Prime Minister need not worry



Need to is a norma I verb. Sarah needs to be more careful. Do I need to fili in this form?

You don't need

to

worry

didn't Tleed to, needn't have (done) •

Didn't need to describes a past situation, where something was not necessary,50 it was not done. Kate /ooked after the chi/dren, 50 we didn't need to take them to the nursery



Needn't

have dane describes a past situation, where something happened ar was dane, but it was

not necessary. I needn't

have gone 50 ear/y to the office. The meeting was cance/led.

..o

be able to, can, could •



Be ab/e to emphasizes that a difficulty has been overcome. Harry can 't speak, but he is able to communicate with sign /anguage. It is also possible to use can in this context.

We use tense forms of be able to to make the description of ability more definite than can, ar for time references not covered by can / CDu/d. 1'1/be able to finish this tomorrow (= I can and will) I haven't





rtl

been able

to

find the answer yet.

Cou/d describes a general past ability. lane CDuld swim 200 metres when she was nine. Was / were able to describes having the ability and doing something successfully. Maria was able to swim to the rocks and rescue the child.

In this context, using cou/d might suggest an unfulfilled possibility. She could swim to the rocks, but she decided not to.



In negative sentences, couJdn't has both meanings. However, she couldn't

/ wasn't able

to

rescue the pet dog.

C O +-'

rtl

""'O

C

(1)

E

E O

u (1)

l...

~

C

O +-'

rtl 0"1

..Q

O

.....•..

•...

.......•..

Note that modals have more than one meaning (see Units 14, 15).

V'I

rtl ""'O

O

E CD

1

Underline the correct form.

a You mustnIt / don't have to conduct any chemistry experiments unless you are wearing safety glasses. b There are a lot of books which Anna did not have to read / need not have read as part of her university course, but which she decided to read out of interest. c We don't have to / We'd better not talk for too long. These calls are expensive. d I went to see the dentist yesterday, but luckily treatment!

I didn't

need to have /

I needn't

have had any painful

e You didn't have to tell me / shouldn't have told me about the party. Naw it's not a surprise! f Same people believe that the government does not have to / should not allow genetically modified craps to be grawn on a large scale, as they could spread out of contral. g These books are on the wrang shelf. They shouldn't / mustn't be here. h The report concluded that the rescuers should not have attempted / didn't have to attempt to move the injured passengers before medical help arrived. Please put the paper cups and plates in the bin. We mustn't / don't have to leave the raom in a mess. There is plenty of time. We mustnIt be / don 't have to be at the cinema until 8.00.

2

Complete the sentence using one word in each gap.

a In the early years of motoring, drivers didn't .. ht3Y? to take a driving test. b You sign the application form at the end of the page, or it will not be accepted. c Hurry up. We . . to get to the airport by 9.30. d l think we had stop and ask someone the way. e This bus is going to take ages. WeHHH 'H'"have taken a taxi. fImportant notice. All new arrivalsHHHHH to report to the reception desko g Thanks for coming. I'm glad you H'HHHHHH make it. h You look really tired. You tak e a few days off and have a holiday. Sorry I'm a bit late. IH You ....

3

'HHHHH

to pick up the children from school.

not decide immediately whether to join the class.

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, beginning as shown.

a If I were you, I'd take an umbrella. I think you'dQ~±±~r±gk~g~~I1AQCedlg b Is Saturday morning school compulsory in your country? Do students .. c In the third week, students must hand in a typed copy of their first lab report. In the third week, students are .. d Sheila changed the battery in her camera, but it wasn't necessary. Sheila .. .."'HHHHHH'HH e You look really ill. If I were you, I'd stay at home today. You look really ill. I ..................HHHHHHH f It was a bad idea to leave the windows open while it was raining. You ...

CD

the battery in her camera. to stay at home today.

g The theatre tickets were free, sa there was no need for us to pay. The theatre tickets were free, sa we .. .

.

h I can stay here until 10.00.

I..

.

leave until 10.00.

Helen managed to stop the car before it crashed into a wall. Helen was .. Steve's laptop had a wireless Internet connection, sa there was no need for him to connect it to a phone line. Steve's laptop had a wireless Internet connection, so he ..

4

Complete the text with one word in each gap. Rubbish - ar refuse as we ashoulcL really cali it - is big news at the moment. For many years, people in Britain b..

.... had to paya local tax

(council

tax) which includes a charge for

refuse collection. In many parts of the country people have also been c to ask their local council to remove unwanted household items, such as furniture and electrical appliances. However, in recent years, as a result of EU legislation, councils have d .. to reconsider how they collect rubbish, and what they do with it. In the past, householders simply e

to put out their dustbins once

a week, and the council collected the rubbish. Now the emphasis is on recycling, and householders

f

to separate recyclable waste (paper, plastic, cans and bottles) from organic waste

(food and garden waste) and other items. 'Really we g

have started doing this years

ago,' explained Karen Graham from recycling consultants WasteNot. 'We h .. filiing up holes in the ground with rubbish and look at what other countries have to do.' One likely change is that soon householders j collections. I .

.

m..

.

'People k

..to stop

i..

.

to reward people who recycle and consume less. People in Belgium, for example, had to get used to this system - and it seems to have worked.' And if you think that get used to it. Before long, an

electronic chip in your dustbin will be weighing the bin and calculating how much you o

..HH

able

have to pay for their rubbish

.

C O +oJ

pay according to how much rubbish they produce, and we

weighing your rubbish is a strange idea, you had n......

...o ro

ro ""O

C (l)

E E O

u

(l)

~

.•

C O

to pay.

+oJ

ro

O) EXTENSION A

ACTIVITY

Make a list of:

...o

O .........•

-III .•....

things you have to do in your job, ar in your studies things you think you ought to do things in the past you should not have done B

Choose an example fram each section on pages 64-65 and translate these examples into your language.

ro ""O

O

E CD

modals (2): possibility, certainty can/could •

We use can to make statements about what is generally It can be very cold here in winter. (= it is sometimes)

possible.



We use could to refer to past possible situations. In those days, ships could tra vel for weeks on end without seeing land.



We use easily to emphasize a possibility with could. People could easily fali down these stal"rsin the dark.



We use could always to point out a possible choice or decision. You could always phone her when we get to the cinema.



We use can or could when we ask questions about possibility. Who can / could that be outside Mr Smith 's office?



We use can hardly or could hardly when we think something is impossible. It can / could hardly be Jane Thompson She's in Berlin this week.



We use can only or could only when we are sure about the answer. It can / could only be the new sales manager.

may, might, could •

We use may; might or could to describe what is possible in particular with be.

situations.

They are com mon

This may / might / could be the last time I ever see you. The car won 't start. The battery may / might / could be dead. •

We often add we/! or just between may / might / could be and the verb to emphasize the possibility. Just makes the possibility less likely. You may / might / could well have the answer! (Perhaps it's possible) Your plan may / might / could just workI (It's unlikely, but possible)



We use may / might as we/! when we say that there is no reason for not doing something, because we are disappointed something else has not happened. There's no point waiting for the bus any longer. We might as well start walking.



We can use may not or might not for negative possibilities. We cannot use could not for this meaning. I may / might not be here tomorrow I may / might not have time to come.



We use may have, might have, and could have for possible events in the past. Jack isn't here yet. He may / might / could have missed the train.



The negative forms are may not have, might not have. We cannot use could not have. Perhaps he's stil! at home. He may not have got out message.



We use might have and could have to show annoyance, when someone fails to do something feel they should have done. You might have told me the match was cancel!ed! I went al! the way there for nothing!



We use might have and could have when we are shocked because something Thank heavens he's safe , He could have drowned!

can't be, couldn't be •

CD

We use can't or couldn't when we are certain that something is impossible. That detinitely can't be / couldn't be Tom over there. He's in Canada.

usually

nearly happened.

we

must be • We use must when we are certain something is true. You must be tired after working sa hard. There must be same mistake. I definitely booked a table for five.

can't have done, couldn't have done • We use can't have or CDuldn't have when we are certain that something in the past was impossible. Helen can't have taken / cou/dn't

have taken the car. She didn't have the keys.

• We use surely to emphasize that we can't believe what has happened. Surely you can't have carried ali these bags on your own!

• We use can't have been / CDuldn't have been when we are sure something wasn't true. We can also use CDuld / can with hardly and only. That can't have been successful. (I'm sure it wasn't) That CDu/d hard/y have been an easy thing to do. (I'm sure it wasn't) Judging by the pawprints, it can onfy have been a very large animaI.

must have done •

We use must have when we are certain something in the past was true. I can't find my wal/et. I must have dropped

it in the supermarket.

I can't (ina my wal/et. I must have aroppea it in the supermarket. be bound to, be sure to, be certain to •

When we need to describe a future event which we are sure will happen, we use be bound to, be sure to or be certain to. We're going to the seaside tomorrow, sa it's bound Don't worry about the exam. You're sure to pass!

to

rain.

should, ought to •

We use should, ought to to describe something we think is probably true, or has failed to happen. There ought to be a car-park at the end of this road. (I think there is) There shoufd be a turning here! (but there isn't)

..Q V') V')

O

Q.

N

••........

......•.

V')

should have, ought to have

CO

""O



We use should have, ought to have when we describe what we expect has probably happened, or believe has failed to happen. They shou/d have arrived in London by naw (that's probabie) The piane ought to have fanded Where is it? (it hasn't landed)

O

E CD

1

Choose the correct form, A, B or C, to complete the sentence.

a Why don/t you phone Katie naw? SheA b c d e

yet.

Take some sun-block and wear a hat, as it get very hot in the middle of the day. There's no point waiting here any longer. We go and have something to eat. Lucky you managed to hang on to that tree. You down the diff. 'What am I going to do about a present for Caro!?' 'You same flowers.'

f I don 't know what time I'll be home. I be quite late, I'm afraid. g Don/t worry about yom driving test. You to pass. h There's no sign of the dog anywhere. Sameone it out. Why don't you ask Nick about it? He know the answer, I suppose. There must be same kind of technical problem. The film by naw. a Acan A mustIthardly have left

2

Bean ((may are bound toto B are must bound have started sent her her (could let have B Bean must have let might have as well well started ((can Bmay may as must could have always (allen send left B must have (allen

Choose the best continuation

1 to 10 for sentences a to j.

a I'm still waiting for the money the bank is supposed to have sent me. b There/s still no sign of Alex. c HIS getting rather late to de al with this naw. d I wish you wouldn't leave yom bag near the door like that. e You/d better take yom umbrella with you. f This piece is the right shape, but it doesn't fit. g There should be a filling station here. h HIS a very long book. Oh sorry, yes, these are yom keys. Leave yomself plenty of time for the journey. 1 You're bound to need it if you don't. 2 Smely you can't have finished it already! 3 ILshauld have gaL herc by nmf. 4 H can take quite a long time in the rush homo 5 H can/t be the right one after all. 6 That/s strange! I can/t see one anywhere! 7 You could always come back tomorrow. 8 He may have missed the train I suppose. 9 I must have picked them up by mistake. 10 Sameone could easily fall over it and hmt themselves.

G

'3

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, beginning as shown. a Running is not allowed on the stairs. There is a danger of accidents. Running is not allowed on the stairs. YouC:9l.:1IJJY\A.iqh±~gv.~gltgc:.c:.iJ~V1.± .. b You'd better not use this ladder. Look at itI I'm sure it's not safe. You'd better not use this ladder. Look at it! It .. c I think I know how this window got broken. I'm sure someone kicked a ball against it. I think I know how this window got broken. Someone .. . d Unless you follow instructions, it's possible for a gymnasium to be a dangerous place. Unless you follow e l've turned off the I've turned off the f Ouch! Why didn't Ouch! You ..

instructions, a gymnasium .. electricity. l'm sure it's safe to touch these wires now. electricity. It .... you tell me that piece of metal was hot! .

.

!

g Where are the fire fighters? I expected them to have arrived by nowo Where are the fire fighters? They .... h I'm sure you didn't dean this bowl properly. You ..

4

.... I can see stains on it.

Complete the text using one of the phrases 1-10 in each gap.

1 can't have set oft 2 could easily be 3 could expect 4 must have been 5 can't have been 6 could easily sail 7 rnight have 8 must have made 9 should have reached 10 might involve

16th-cen tury explorers Imagine what it a'L like to have sailed around the world in a smalI wooden ship, as Drake and his men did in 1577-1580. On a ship only some 35 metres long, it b easy for the 80 or so crew to live comfortably. Exploration was part ofwar and rivalry with other nations, so these voyages c attacks on other ships and towns, and had to make a profit. There were alI the usual dangers toO. A ship d

destroyed by a storm or run

out of food and water, and the captain e..little idea of where the ship was or where it was going. Explorers f many wrong decisions in an age when there were only basic maps and navigation equipment; and in unknown parts of ocean where a ship g for weeks without reaching land. Very often places tlley thought they h turned out to be much further on, or in a different direction. However, they i on such long voyages without some general idea of the places they j to reach along the way,and as knowledge ofnavigation improved, voyages became more and more succe.ssful. ..o VI VI

EXTENSION

ACTIVITY

Write some sentences about these situations. You notice that a large crowd of people has gathered outside, shouting and singing. Who could they be? What could have happened? What might happen next? You hear a knock at the door, and when you open it there is a large parcel outside. Who could have sent it? What could it contain? What might you have to do next? Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

O Q.

N

.•...•.•

VI CO

"'O

O

E

fa

modals (3): other uses can/could Could is generally considered to be more polite than can. Use can / could



for requests. Can / Could you carry this for me?



to ask for permission. Can / Could Ileave early?



to make an offer. Can / Could I offer you same tea?



to make a suggestion. Can / Could I make a suggestion?

can't / cannot •

Usewhen something is not allowed. You ean't leave your bike here.



Useto emphasize that something is unbelievable. You ean't be serious!

can + be + -ing •

Usewhen you wonder what is happening. Who ean be knoeking

on the door at this time?

could •

Useto express surprise. How could you waste 50 much money!



Useto emphasize how you feel. I'm 50 unhappy I could ery!

How could you be so clumsy, that

vase was worth hundreds

of pounds.

couldn't •

Useto mean 'it doesn't matter to me at ali'. I couldn't



ta

eare less what you do / when you leave / who you are / whether you

Usewit h a comparative for emphasis. Things couldn't

be better!

go ar

not etc

may •

Usefor polite requests May I make a suggestion?



Use in be that as it may ... , an idiom meaning 'perhaps that is true but ...' Televi5ion brings the family together, even though when watching it they don't talk to each other. Theyare physically together, but no communication takes place. SA in same respects, watching television together makes the members of a family distant from one another. Be that as it may, being together as a family at least keeps the younger members at home, and away from possibly antisocial activities.



Use in try as 1/ you etc. may ... , a formai phrase meaning 'Although I try I can't remember.' Try as I may, I just can't remember.

might • •

Use in the formai phrase try as 1/ you etc. might. Try as I might, I couldn't reach the shelf. (Although I tried, I couldn't.) Useas emphatic form of 'perhaps 1'11do that' I might just do that!



Useto express annoyance at a bad habit I might



have known

it was you!

Useas emphatic form of 'although you are...' You might be older than me, but

shall •

Usefor an offer. Shalll



carry that for you/

Useto ask for advice when uncertain. What shall we do?



Use in formai legaI language (ali persons). The tenant shall be responsible for ali repairs.

shouldn't have done, needn't have done •

Useto express aur thanks for gifts, said in a way that expressesthanks. You really shouldn't

have brought

me f/owers. That's very kind of you.

will/won't •

Usefor an assertion about a result etc. I'U definitely



win! No, you won't!

Usefor an offer ar agreement. 1'1/

do the washing-up Vl



Usefor a promise. 1'1/be home byeight.



ClJ

I won

't be

late.

Vl ::J

Usefor a threat. You'l/ be sorry!

von't

...........

M

........•



Usefor a present refusal. I won 't do it' (see Unit 16, wouldn't)

The dustbin needs emptying.

CO

"'O

O

need doing •

Vl

E Sameone needs to empty it.

fa

1

Underline the best form. a To be honest, I cauldnt / cant care less whether you come to my party or not! b It's difficult to know whether to stay here, or try and walk. What might / shall we do? c How kind of you to have brought such a lovely present, but you really shauldn't / cauldn't havel d My phone isn't working very well. The battery needs / want charging. e Look how much they have charged us for the meal! That wan't be / can't be right! f Excuse me, do you think you could / shall possibly open the window? g Just look at this room! How could / might you make such a mess? h Don't wony about the washing-up. !'ll da it / It needs daing in the morning. Try as she could / might, Maria couldn't pull the cork out of the bottle. Everything is going well with my new job. In fact, things couldn't / want be better.

2

Complete the sentences famous people did not say, using a modal word or phrase in each gap. a William Shakespeare, dramatist: 'To be, or not to be ... ' No, that<:0vtllQ~

.....right.

think of something else. b Neil Armstrong, first man on the moon: Well, it was a great trip! What ideas?

1'11

have to

now? Any

stay at home and relax for c Genghis Khan: I'm tired of eonquering the world. I think I a few years. d Isaac Newton, scientist: It was very silly of me to sit under this tree. I an apple would falI on my he ad tell me the way to Ameriea? I seem to be e Christopher Columbus, explorer: Exeuse me, lost. f

Emperor Qin Shihuang: that direction?

you take the wall down, and build it a few more metres in

g Ludwig Beethoven, composer: I think this musie

ehanging a bit. How about adding

some guitars and drums? h Michelangelo, artist: Paint pietmes all over this dome? You my neck!

3

serious!

1'11

falI and break

Read the description of each situation, and write what you would say. a A friend eomes to yom house and brings you some flowers. Say something polite as you aceept the gift . ...Jhavtk$, ..Q?Il ..?lP?l..[~0I1?l..$hQ?lldvtll..h0V~..Qrp?lqhl ..f1A~ ..±lqlAJ~r'2,t b Yom teacher is canying a pile of heavy books. Offer to help.

.

c A friend tells you that he / she is thinking of running away from home and joining a cireus as a clown. You think this is a silly idea. d A friend boasts that they are taller than you, so they are better at basketball. e It is hot in the classroom, and you ask yom teaeher for permission to open the windowo f

G

You are having an argument with a friend, and tell him / her that you don't care what he / she says.

Choose the best sentence 1 to 10 to follaw sentences a to j. a Why donlt you take a day off for a change? It would do you good. b c d e

Sa youlre the one who broke the windowi This maths problem is really hard to understand. I feel really great today! Harry is a really irritating person. f That's funny, therels same one knocking at the door. g I'm not yom little sister any more, you knowi h I'll be home as soon as I can. The last part of yom answer doesn't quite make sense. I'm sorry but I simply refuse to treat sameone like that. 1 In fact, he's sa annoying sometimes I could scream. 2 I just wonlt do it. 3 Could you help me with it? 4 5 6 7

It needs re-writing a bit. I might have known it would be you! I certainly won't be very late. Who can that be at this time, Iwonder?

8 Yes, I might just do thatl 9 And just because you're older than me doesn't mean you're always right! 10 In fact, I'm sa happy I could jump with joy!

5 Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the word in capitals. a Is it aU right if Itry that shot again?

...CQ4IdJ.lc(jlhelshQl.eqei~? ..

SHALL HAVE ]UST COULDNIT

b Before we start playing, you should adjust the net. c Do you want me to hol d the flag while you take yom shot? d Although I trYl I canlt skate properly. e I promise not to let the team down f

It doesn't matter to me whether you run in this race ar not.

g You never know, perhaps United will win aU their matches! h

omember of the club is to use insulting language to any other member. Naw the weather has improved, it's an ideal situation. That's kind of you, but there was no need for you to buy my ticket.

-

COULD M

Q) ::) +-' O ~ "'O O l...

E

fa LESS NEEDS MAY WON'T SHALL

~ ..c ro

.........

~

The following exercises practise grammar from units 13 and 14.

6

Choose the correct option, A, B or C, to complete the sentence.

a Well, if you always feel tired, I think you9

go to bed earlier!

b I'm sorry I dropped the eggs. I to carry sa many things at the same time. You .. give a credit card number when you make your booking, ar we cannot reserve your room. d H's going to get colder later. take a pullover with you.

t

e You. ....to begin writing until I give the instruction. f Instruction to the authar: columns in the two-column format.. ...

3-1 /4 inches wideo

g You park outside the school. This is a 'no parking' area. h I've been trying to contact Maria all day, but I reach her yet. You.. ......look up all the words you don't know. You can guess same of them from the context. In my country, all the young men spend twa years in the armed forces. a

7

A don't have A must haven 't got to to be

B B

should not not have needn't had B Cshouldn't haven't must don You'd needn are need mustn't had must You better to't to are have better better not 'tbe been have to tonot able tried to have tried got to

Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the word in capitals.

a Is aur final test compulsary? P()IAJ~hgv.e:

HAVE

lo lCol~~±h~Jt~gl±~~±?

b I think you were wrong to put sa much leman in the cake.

HAVE

c Tim's computer crashed, but he managed to save the pages he was working on.

WAS

d H is forbidden for passengers to pass beyond this point.

NOT

e I think you should see an eye specialist about this problem.

HAD

f Paula started the class immediately, as it wasn't necessary for her to take an entrance test. DIDN'T

fi

g Our tickets were free.

HAVE

h H was necessary for Dave to leave before the end of the performance.

HAD

We bought a second tin of paint, but it wasn't necessary.

HAVE

Kate didn't take her umbrella, which was a mistake.

HAVE

Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the word in capitals. a By the time they leave school, we expect that most students have understood the importance of regular exercise. SHOULD ...'E3?l ..lh~ ..l.i~.~ ..lh~?l ...I~ev~ ..$~hQQIJ..f}lQ$l..$l4d~Vt,l$ .... ...$hQ4Id..heV~...4Vt,d~rslQQd..lh~ .."I\APQrlel1.~~..Q± ... . mq.4IeL.~.)(~r~.i$~, b When they start a job] or higher studies, it's possible for some people to forget that time needs to be set aside for this.

CAN

c Those who don't find the time for exercise, certainly regret this in the future.

BOUND

d When they feel tired or over-stressed, for example, they are sure this has happened because they have been working too hardo

MUST

e They don 't realize that this is possibly also the result of failing to keep tit.

MIGHT

f

When they do have any free time, they feel it is just as good for them to relax in frant of the television, as in the gym or on the running track.

AS WELL

g Perhaps they think that the people who find time for exercise are certainly taking time away fram doing their job praperly.

MUST

h However, research shows that it's not possible for this to be further fram the truth.

COULDN'T

It would be possible for most people to easily find the time to keep fit if they organized their time more effectively. MUST

COULD M

o

...•.•... Q) ::J V\ +oJ V\ ""O ~ O l... ro

E

Q)

...........

fa In the end, we have to remember that someone who feels fit and well is sure to be able to work more easily and with more energy.

EXTENSION

ACTIVITY

Write same examples using the words given. Could I... 1'11... I won 't ... ... needs... You might be ... ... I could jump for joy!

How could you... I couldn't ...

Shalll ...

V\

would habitual activity in the past We can use would to describe a person's habitual activity in the past (see Unit 4). Every morning we'd go for

a

walk along the beach.

This use is not possible with state verbs: 'I/e wou/d ooon a house in Me mountains. (Not possible) We used to own a house in the mountains. (Possible)

annoying behaviour We can use would to express annoyance or irritation at things that are happening now. There is ususallya sensethat this is typical, or not very surprising. You would say that' (It's typical of you, and it's annoying). Wouldn't you just know iti (I knew that would happen - and it's annoying).

later future events in narrative Would is used in past narrative to refer to later future events (reported form of will). In New York he met the woman who would later become his wite.

unspoken if-c1ause We can use would to talk about situations where an if-clause is understood but not spoken, or expressed in some other way. You wouldn't believe who I've just met' (. .. if I told you ...) Why would anyone wantto live there? (... if they could avoid it ) How would you feel about going to the cinema? (. .. if I asked you ) Why don 't you take the exam? You'd pass easily (. .. if you took it ) l wouldn't do that. ( ... if I were you ...) l wouldn't worry about it. (. .. if I were in that situation ...) You wouldn't do that would you? (. .. if you had the choice etc) lt would be a good idea to ask for same help. (... if you want my opinion ...) The consequences of such a storm would be serious (... if it happened ...) Under the proposais, salaries would increase. (= if the proposais became fact) lt would be great to see you again. (. .. if you wanted to.) lt would be good to stop and have a coffee. (= if we stopped it would be good)

being willing Would can be used to describe what people are willing to do. This can also be seen as including an unspoken condition. Tony would lend you his car. (... if you asked him ...) Only a real fan would pay that much for a ticket (Only if someone was a fan would they pay ...)

refusal • •

We use wouldn't to describe a past refusal. She was upset because l wouldn't speak to her. Inanimate objects can also refuse to do things. The door refused

G

to

open.

My car refused

to

start.

polite requests •

Requests become more polite the more distanced they are. Would makes a request more distanced. WouJd you heJp me with my homework? WouJd you mind helping me? Would it be aU right if Ileft early?



The more tentative the request, the more distanced it becomes. You don't think you'd



be able

to

help

me

with this, do you?

SeeUnit 10 for polite requests beginning Ifyou If you would

would ... come this war, 1'1/take you to the director's office.

would imagine, think, hope, expect, suppose etc •

Would imagine / think / hope / suppose + (person) + might are used when the speaker is not completely certain what another person feels, does, etc. I would imagine that you might find John a bit difficult to work with. We 'd hope we might complete the project before the end of the month.



Would hope / expect + to-infinitive is also possible, when you hope that you would do something. We'd hope to complete the project before the end of the month. We'd expect to complete the project before the end of the month.

I'd Iike, J'd prefer •

Would like and would prefer refer to immediate situations. I'd like same coffee now. / think I'd prefer tea.



Like and prefer refer to general states. / don 't like war fi/ms. / prefer romantic comedies.



We say we would prefer it if + unreal past when we say what we want to happen. I'd prefer it if you didn't wear shoes inside the house.

wouldn't you Iike to know •

This is an idiom we use when we refuse to give someone information. How much do you earn exactly?

Wouldn't

you like to knowi

(=I'm sure you'd like to know but I'm not going to tell you!) (For would in reported speech see Unit 17.)

1

Choose the best response 1 to 10 for comments a to j.

a

Persona11y,I think I should be paid more, because I'm better at the job.

b c d e

Kate is going to spend her holiday painting a11the inside of her house in black and gold. We're a11going to go down to the gym to do some extra training for an hom. Do you fancy a nice cup of herb tea? I was thinking of spending my summer holiday in Slovenia.

f g

I think I might have given Alice the wrong directions. I don't know how 1'm going to get home at this time of night. I'm still getting that pain in the leg I told you about. What's the matter with Sue?

h

I have an appointment 1 2 3 4 5

b

with Helen Adams for 10.30.

I think I'd prefer a cup of coffee, if you don't mind. If you'd just wait here, 1'11see if she's free. Why would anyone want to do that? You'd have a great time there, it's a rea11yfantastic place. It wouldn't be a bad idea to ask the doctor about it.

6 Well, you would say that, wouldn't you! 7 8 9 10

2

I wouldn't worry about it. It's very easy to find. I think she's annoyed because I wouldn't go to the shop s with her. Would it be a11right if I stayed here and finished this work I'm doing? 1'm sme Mark would give you a lift.

Rewrite the sentence using the word in capitals.

a Can Ileave now?

BE

....119lA1c1 ...i±..l??.011 ciqh±..i± .. I?±±..l\9vJ? b The computer refused to work properly. ..

CI

I ..

..

WOULDN'T

c Trust you to say the wrong thing!

WOULD

d I'd rea11ylike to see you again.

GREAT

e Can you open the door for me?

MIND

f

TURN

What I did then, later tumed out to be a mistake.

g Do you want still or sparkling water?

LIKE

h Please fo11owme, and 1'11take you to the meeting room.

WOULD

Hopefu11y we'l1 deliver the finished pro duet in six weeks' time.

TO

There's no need to worry about the results.

WOULDN'T

3

Underline the best verb form. a H's a pity you haven't

got a camera. Perhaps Josie would len d / lends you hers.

b Why does / would ice float on the surface of water? c Diane was annoyed

because her parents

wouldn/t refuse / refused to let her go to the club.

d Don't warry about me. I'm sure nl be / rd be aU right. e Martin used to work / would work as a waiter when he was student.

f

'Why don't we ask Geny to pay?' 'No, that would prefer / wouldnt

g Tony isn't really sure what would / will happen h You're a good friend. What do I do /would

be a good idea.'

next.

I do without

you?

I'm not very keen on fantasy novels. I would prefer / prefer mare serious ones. Do you help / Would you help me cany this case? H's rather heavy.

4

Complete the text using would or wouldn't, or leave the gap blank.

Crime and punishment I am one of those people who aLA!Q4kL to eurrent types of punishment b..

.

eommunity

Iike to see ehanges made justiee system. It

in the eriminal

surely be better to sentenee minor offenders to serviee of some kind, c

rather than giving

them fines or prison sentenees. That way they d..

....at least

do something useful, and the justiee system e.. money.

I f..

.

.....also save

also imagine that this g....

better for young offenders, as they h.... fashionably

'bad' while they

work

.. feel 'eool' or

i..

.

helped an old person or

eleaned the streets. Of eourse, a system of this kind j effeetively

without

some thought

work

being given to the tasks whieh offenders

were asked to perform. There k

obviously be more benefit

to be gained from work whieh I.....

.

involved responsibility,

and

where offenders had to mix with others and m .. eommunieate

with them. Some people also n

think that offenders should meet and talk

to their vietims, and be more involved with eompensating eertainly

help to make offenders p

well stop them offending

again. Whether

another mattet; but again

it

I r..

beeoming career criminals.

q



<~

work for ali offenders, and for ali offenees is believe that this s

.

And that

::

t..

....be

~-

~~

-'

EXTENSION A

and even helping them. This o ..

realize the eonsequenee of their aetions, and that might

~,'

stop young offenders from

an important

-

-

change for the better.

~~

-

ACTIVITY

Make some comments on the situations in 2 beginning with the phrase in 1. 1 It would / wouldn't be a good idea to ... I would ... I wouldn't ... 2 being trapped in a lift which is out of order being lost in a foreign country without any money being arrested by the police for a crime you didn't commit

B

Choose ten examples tram each section on pages 78-79 and translate them into your language.

indirect speech present time When we report things happening now, or general facts, or give messages, or report something we are reading, we use a present tense reporting verb, and do not backshift tenses into the past. Note that for written texts we report what the text 'says'. 'l'm going to wait for you. ' He says he's going to wait for us. 'Fifty people were injured. ' It says here that fifty people were injured.

past time with tense changes When reporting what people said, we use a past tense reporting following into the past. 'We 're thinking it over' She said they were thinking it over 'I had an aecident. ' He told me he'd had an aecident. 'We'lllet you know '

verb and we backshift

the tenses

They said they would let me know.

Note that both past simple and present perfect become past perfect. 'l've had an idea. ' She said she'd had an idea

facts and states When we use a past tense reporting verb, a continuing state is not back-shifted, though back-shift this is not wrong. 'Reindeer ean swim really well. ' He told us that reindeer can swim really well. He told us that reindeer could swim really well. If we do use back-shift, it may be necessary to use a time phrase to make the time reference elear. She said she was unhappy She said she was unhappy

if we use

in her job at that time. (= unhappy in the past) in her job at the momenf. (= unhappy now)

modals and conditionals •

Can, will / shall (future) '1'1/be baek on Friday' 'I may be late. '

and may change to could, would and might. He said he would be baek on Friday She said she might be late.



Shall in requests etc changes to should. See also wh-questions below. 'What shall we do?' They wanted to know what they should do.'



Would, should, ought to, could, might, used to remain unchanged. Must is often changed to had to, but can remain unchanged, or be changed to would have to if there is future reference. 'You must be more eareful in future.' She told me I must be / had to be / would have to be more eareful in future.



First conditional sentences are usually changed, but not second or third conditional. 'If you're late, they won't let you in.' (first conditional) He said that if I was late, they wouldn't let me in. 'If you'd brought a map, we wouldn't have got losf.' (third conditional) She said that if I had brought a map, we wouldn't have got losf. '

changes of viewpoint •

CD

References to time, place and specific reference usually change. 'Bring this tieket with you tomorrow. ' He told me to bring the tieket with me the next day. 'Give that to me. ' He told me to give it to him. '!'II see you here in the moming. ' He said he would see me there the next moming.

eported yes / no questions "es / no questions are reported using if or whether, there is no inversion or auxiliary do / did. If the =:.Jxiliaryhave is used in the question it becomes had. The same backshift rules apply as for statements. nere is no question marko 'Do you /ike Japanese food?' She asked me if / whether Iliked Japanese food. 'Have you finished7' They asked me if / whether I had finished.

ported wh-questions We form reported wh-questions without inversion or auxiliary do / did. Auxiliary have becomes had. 'What's the time?' He asked me what the time was. 'Where have you been?

'She asked me where I had been.

In everyday speech, questions with very long question phrases remain inverted. 'Where is the restaurant serving the cheapest Thai food? He asked me where was the restaurant serving the cheapest Thai food.

Polite requests beginning cou/d / wou/d are not back shifted into the past after a past tense reporting verb. 'Cou/d you he/p me? she asked. She asked me if I CDuld help her / to help hero



It may be possible to report the request rather than the actual words of the request. 'Cou/d you tell me where the station is7' He asked me for directions to / the way to the station.

reporting imperatives: tell and ask Ne use tell to report orders and ask to report requests. 'Stop what you are doingl' She told me to stop what I was doing. 'P/ease don 't go.' He asked me to stay

verbatim reporting and summary Speakers do not always report exactly every word spoken, especially if this would make a lengthy and repetitive report. Speakers summarize and often use words that describe what was said. 'Take the first /eft, then go straight on, and then tum right after the church. ' She told me how to get there. 'What did you think?'

I asked him for his opinion.

think and don't think When we use opinion words like think and be/ieve, the opinion verb is negative in negative statements. This isn't very tasty

I don't think this is very tasty

(Seealso Unit 18.)

...c

U OJ OJ

Q. V'l

+-'

U OJ \o"",

1

Underline the best option. a When I got to the office, they told me that Mr Adams already left / had already left. b My teacher wamed me that if I was / had been late, they wouldn't let me into the examination. c Harry told us he is / was catching the first bus to New York the next day. d The students go ing on the trip wanted to know what time they would / will get back. e Sam told the police he didn1t know / hadn1t known what had happened.

f It says here that the pIane crashed / crashes soon after taking off. g Alan told me he had no idea what was / is going on. h The customers said angrily that they were waiting / had been waiting for more than two hours. Erica told me she wont / wouldn1t be back until the foHowing Thursday. The professor told us that the Moon is / was more than 380,000 km from the Earth.

2

Rewrite the sentence as reported speech, beginning as shown, and backshifting tenses. a 'I wouldn't lend my car to just anyone,' Andy said. Andy said that ....h~ ..~qlAldvt)±..I~VI,d ..hi$ ..<:.0r.lqjlA$l ..0a!jqVl,~... b 'rm not very satisfied with my job,' said Peter. Peter said c '1'm not going to worry about the money until I hear from the bank,' said Elaine. Elaine said d 'I don't know where Bill is living at the moment,' said Nicky. Nicky said e 'Emma hasn't had her operation yet,' her brother told me. Emma's brother f

'If you eat too much, you'H feel ill' my mother told me. My mother told me

g 'We'H be writing to you later this week,' they told Maria. They told Maria h 'The prices won't rise before the end of the year,' Mrs Devlin said. Mrs Devlin said 'If the police had noticed J ack's car, they would have arrested him,' explained the lawyer. The lawyer explained that if 'rUlet you know if I have any more problems,' Carol told me. Carol told me

CD

3

Read the historie predictions below. Rewrite each one as direct speech, then match it to the person who said it fram the list below. a He said that aeroplanes were interesting

toysJ

but did not have any military value.

lA~rQplel't~$pr~ ...il't:t~r~.$:til'1.q±Qkj$.,.buldp.l'1.pl..hey~.el'tkj/1,\."lile['1yelu~,I... b He said that whatever young Einstein did, he would amount to nothing.

c This person said it would be

yearsJ

g

and not in their lifetime, before a woman would become

British prime minister.

d He said that he thought there was a world market for perhaps hve computers.

e He said that television wouldnJt stay popular for more than six months, because people would soon get tired of staring at a wooden box every night.

f They said that they didnJt like their sound, and that guitar music was on the way out.

g They said that the telephone had too many shortcomings and was of no value to them.

h He said that the horse was here to stay, but the car was only a novelty.

1 President of Michigan Savings Bank, 1903J advising Henry FordJs lawyer not to invest in the Ford Motor Company. 2 Darryl F ZanuckJ 1946, Hollywood film producer 3 Decca Recording Co. rejecting the Beatles, 1962. 4 Albert Einstein's teacher to his fatherJ 1895 5 British politician Margaret Thatcner, 1974, before she became prime minister. 6 Western Union Telegraph Company, 1876 7 Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943 8 Marshal Ferdinand Fach, of France, in 1911

...c

u (]) (])

Q.

VI +o'

U (]) lo...

4

Report the question beginning as shown. a IHow long does it take to get to the city centre?' I asked her. I asked her ooohQ~IQl'\.qojllQQkolQHoqe"llQolhe"cjltjoooc.e"l'\lce"ooo b IHave you visited the National Museum?' she asked me. She asked me 00

c IWhat do you think of the hotel food?' I asked her. I asked her d 'Will you be travelling by train?' she asked me. She asked me e 'Do you know the way to the Opera House?' I asked her. I asked her 00

t

IHow much did you pay to stay in the student hostel?' she asked me. She asked me 00

g IAre you thinking of changing hotels?' I asked her. I asked her h IDo you have to leave at lO.OO?'she asked me. She asked me 00

IWould you come with me to the station?' I asked her. I asked her o 000

5

Underline the sentence, A, B ar C, which best reports the statement or question. a 'You mustn't wark sa hard/ he said. b c d e

IWhat did you think of the film?' she asked me. II wish you wouldn't stare at me like that/ he said. II reaUy don't know at aU where we are,' she said. IDo you have any idea what time the next bus leaves,' he asked.

t IWhat do you think I should do?' she asked. g IWhatever you do, don't touch that wire!' he said. h IIf I ask you nicely, will you buy me an ice cream?' she asked. a A He told me I didn't have to wark sa hardo

e He b

B He sa id he didn't think I was staring at him in the right way.

told me to stop staring at him.

d

A

e

A He asked me which bus came next.

She said they were lost.

e She

B I think she asked me about the film.

asked me what did I think of the film.

c A He asked me if I would wish not to stare at him.

e He

He told me not to wark sa hardo

told me I must not have worked sa hardo

A She asked me my opinion ofthe film.

e She

B

B

She sa id she didn't know they were lost.

said they didn't know where she was. B He asked me the time ofthe next bus.

e He t

A

asked whether there was time for the next bus. She asked me what I should do.

e She

h

CD

B He told me not to touch the wire.

told me that whatever I did, I didn't touch the wire.

A She asked me to buy her an ice cream.

e She

She asked me whether she should do it.

asked me for my advice.

g A He asked me whatever he should not do.

e He

B

asked me to ask her for an ice cream.

B She asked me whether I had asked her for an ice cream.

6

Complete the text with one word in each gap.

The detective story Marlowe made some notes on a sheet of paper, and then looked across the desk at Angela. 'Go on, what did he a.Set.! around hel' fingers. 'He b..... . Garden c I told d

then?' Angela twisted the hanclkerchief me whether I knew what 17w Enchanted I thought it was one of my unde's

paintings.' Marlowe smiled. This girl was good, very good. 'And e did he say to that?' 'He told f to stop wasting his time. He said I g very well what it was. He h .. . it was a painting worth $10 minion. And he said that my unde i stolen it from a French art dealer.' Madowe made more notes on the sheet of paper, hut he had stopped smiling. 'Then he told j...... that k I failed to tell him where the painting was, J I never see my unde alive again.' 'And then he left, I suppose?' He thought the gid had hlushed slightly, but he wasn't sure of it. 'He told me he m .. calI again at the end of the week - Friday, ar Saturday. And he told me n .. . to talie to anyone about it 01' I' d be sorry. And he gave me this.' From hel' bag she took something yellow and red and held it out in front of hel'. Madowe told hel' o put it on the desko It was a man's tie, a hloodstained man's tie. There ~ were a few more questiolls he would have to asIeMiss Angela Hemingthwaite.

EXTENSION A

ACTIVITY

Write another paragraph of the story in 6, to include five reported questions. Use these words as a guide. He / she asked me where ..... He / she asked me what ...

Write five quiz questions, and then write them as reports beginning

u OJ OJ

Q. Vl

+-'

u

He / she asked me why .. He / she asked me where .. He / she asked me if .. B

.s=-

OJ

I...

They asked me ...

report verbs report verbs •

Same verbs express the general meaning of what people say sa we do not need to report exactly what they said. '/'11bring my homework tomorrow, honestly, 1will, reallyl.' He promised to bring his homework the next day 'Well done! You've passed the exam!' She congratulated me on passing the exam.



Some verbs (eg check, convince, explain, imply, point out, suggest) express what effect someone wanted their words to have. It is not easy to show this effect in direct speech. She implied



that I ought to start working harder.

Different verbs can be foliowed by different constructions, and the same verb can be foliowed by more than one construction. Check usage in a dictionary. Note that verbs in these lists may appear in more than one section.

verb + person + that-c1ause assure convince promise remind

She assured me (that) she would

'1'11defindely be there ' 'Of course it's rigM ' '1'11do d. ' 'Remember we start at 3.00'

Other verbs: inform,

be there.

She convinced me (that) it was rigM He promised (him) (that) he would do it. He reminded me (that) we started at 3.00

tell

verb + that-c1ause

J

complain 'It's tOGexpensive" confess 'I stole the money , (or confess to doing something: suggest 'Why don't you use a calculator7'

She complained (that) it was tOGexpensive. He confessed (that) he had stolen the money He confessed to stealing the money) He suggested (that) I used a calcu lator.

Other verbs: accept, add, admit, agree, announce, explain, imagine, whisper

imply, insist, mention,

point

assure, boast, conclude, dec/de, deny, doubt, out, prediet, promise, protest, remark, repeat, threaten,

verb + -ing suggest deny

'Why don 't you use a calculator?' 'I didn't break the jar.'

He suggested (my) using a calcu lator. He denied breaking the jar.

Other verbs: admit, apologize

for, mention,

verb + object + preposition

+ ing

congratulate

'Well done, you've won.'

recommend,

regret

He congratulated

her on winning.

Other verbs: accuse someone ot, blame someone for, thank someone for We can also blame something on someone. 'The fire was your fault, Alan" They blamed the fire on Alan.

They blamed Alan for the fire

verb + to-infinitive offer

W A

promise refuse

'1'11help you. ' '1'11bring d tomorrow ' 'I won 't sit downl'

agree

'Ok, /'11pay (you)

noo.'

Other verbs: swear, threaten,

He offered to help her. She promised to bring it the next day He refused to sit down. He agreed

volunteer

to

pay (him)

noo

verb + person + to-infinitive advise beg remind wam

She advised me (not) to stop. He begged me to stop. She reminded him to lock the door. She warned me not to touch the wire.

'I would (wouldn't) stop, if 1were you.' 'Please stop!' 'Don 't forget to lock the door.' 'Don't touch that wire!'

Other verbs: challenge, command, convince (meaning persuadeJ, encourage, invite, order, permit, persuade, request, tell, wam

She warned us not

to go

instruct,

near the building.

verb + person + to-infinitive believe

expect, forbid,

'He's over 27,1 believe'.

+ complement I believe him

to

be over 27.

Other verbs: believe, consider, presume, understand

verb + person + object invite offer

'Would you like to come to dinner7' 'Would you like som e ice cream?'

He invited me to dinner. He offered her som e ice cream.

other patterns explain agree with greet announce

'This is how you do it. ' 'Yes, 1think the same. ' 'Good morning. ' 'And now the names of the winners. '

She explained how to do it. She agreed with him. She greeted me. He announced the names of the winners.

verb + whether / if doubt wonder

'I don 't think he knows.'

I doubt

'Am 1right7'

She wondered

whether

he knows. whether

she was right.

insist, demand, propose etc •

Verbs used to tell people what they should do, or to give advice or orders, are often used with should, or subjunctive (without 3rd person 5) or unreal past. This is a more formai use. They insisted that he should hand over the documents immediately They insisted that he hand over the documents immediately They insisted that he handed aver the documents immediately



Other verbs which can be folIowed by should or to-infinitive: advise, instruct, order, persuade, recommend,

remind,

urge

Always check the meaning and use of report verbs in your dictionary.

1

Underline the best verb. a AlI my friends congratulated / greeted me on passing my driving test. b Rachel refused / denied that she had used the laptop without c The twa students d You didn't

permission.

confessed / admitted to setting fire to the telephone

box.

remind / suggest me to bring my dictionary.

e The boy said he explained / regretted not telling the truth from the outset.

f

Paul apologized / admitted for being rude to his next-doar

g Sarah volunteered / insisted to stay behind

h The manager

and pick up alI the litter.

boasted / pointed out that the prices were in fact clearly stated on the menu.

David assured / insisted me that he would definitely

finish alI the wark on time.

]ane's doctor wamed / instructed her that she was putting

2

her health

at risk.

Choose ali possible answers, A, B ar C, to complete the sentence. a The bank manager b To be honest,

reminded

I doubt

GeargeJ3.1HC

e Dr Collins convinced

f ]im boasted

his pocket money by doing jobs around

his colIeagues

directar

Harriet refused

right. the earlier flight.

threatened

if his proposaIs

were not accepted.

with the police, and was arrested.

Rabin wondered

a b

the house.

to the island and back.

g The tra vel agent recommended

h The managing

.

much difference.

c Tom's parents expected d The driver of the white van

the right thing to do. C that he should bring his passport

to bring his passport

A bringing his passport

B

A whether it will make

Bitmaking

C it to make

c A to eam

B

eaming

C him to eam

d

A blamed the collision for Helen

B

blamed Helen for the collision

C

blamed the collision on Helen

e

A that he was

B

ofbeing

C

to be

f

A to swim

B

A to take

B

his swimming that we should take

C that he could swim

A that he would resign

B

resigning

C

to resign

A co-operating

B

that she would co-operate

C

to co-operate that it was

g h

A whether it was

3

neighbour.

etaking

C

Babout doing

Complete the text with one word in each gap. The head teacher, Mrs Symes, congratulated told b

me

aPI'\,

winning the science competition,

she was very pleased that I had worked so hardo I admitted c

expected to win first prize, and that at one point I even regretted d have won without his encouragement.

Mrs Symes pointed g

to be aU my own work, and wondered h want the organizers to accuse me

i

aU my own work. My brother had offered k let him do it. had refused I

I hadn't the competition.

that I should have a try, and I doubted f ..

brother had persuaded e

G

and

.

My

I could

that my project was supposed

perhaps my brother had helped me at aU. She didn't cheating. I assured j

that the project was

find some articles for me on the Internet,

but I

4

Tick the

line if it is correct.

If you find an error,

underline

it, and

write

a correction

above

the

line.

to come to his tent to discuss the situation,

and

MedicaL report forecasts increase in high bLood pressure probLems 00 A recent

medical

report

has predicted

a

countries

b

developing

countries

c

to educate

people about

d

high-fat

e

of the world's population

f

major cause of heart disease

g

lifestyle

h

diet which contains

increasing

will suffer from high blood pressure.

diet,

unhealthy

long working

problems.

high amounts

Complete

the text

agreed pointed

with

out whether

the situation

and announced them

They recommended

many

failing

governments

to a

that

a quarter

high blood pressure

people that they are making changes that everyone

should

of fat and salt, and added to smoking

The report concluded

could be suffering

pointed

They blamed

They explained

and advised

of people in developed

and accused

hours and lack of exercise

were affected.

to the problem.

world's adults

lifestyles.

numbers

The authors

now have the same problems

to deal with these

contribute

5

that

and by 2025 almost

is a

in a

avoid

and alcohol

a third of the

from high blood pressure.

a verb fram

the

list in each

gap.

announced begged decided invited ordered out reminded swore thanked volunteered

persuaded

The wooden horse ofTroy Agamemnon

aiYl,vj±I':.:c1

b

ali the Greek generals

that he was considering

everyone

abandoning

his attempt

for their efforts, but said that they had tried everything

Odysseus stepped e

forward and d

had failed. Odysseus

g

fuu

•••••••••••••••••

that his plan was flifferent,

After a long discussion,

thought I

j

...........u

he h...

that the war had not succeeded, and involved using agiant

.... the generals

to conquer

about this, and finally

impossible.

Then

the city for years, and ali their previous

kuuu

but then

wooden

horse fi/led wit h men.

that this plan would succeed

who would come with him inside the horse. Many of the best warriors him. They

Troy. He c .

the king to try one last idea. Agamemnon

him that they had been trying to capture

attempts

to capture

and the task seemed

and then asked to accompany

iuu

the city of Troy from the inside, or die in the attempt. that they would try Odysseus's

his men to build the giant wooden

Agamemnon

plan, so he

horse.

In

EXTENSION

..o l.-

ACTIVITY

Q)

A

Make a list of ten things that people told distant past, using different report verbs.

you in the

recent

ar

> +-'

l.-

O B

Look up the report verbs on page find other ways they can be used.

88 in your

dictionary,

Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

and

Q. Q)

l.-

questions indirect questions •

Questions can be introduced by statements. In this casewe do not use inverted word order for a question, or auxilliary words, or a question marko These questions are generally called indirect or embedded questions. I was wondering when the train /eaves. I'd /ike to know what her name iso It's not elear what I write here. I'm not sure who I'm ta/king to.



Questions can be introduced by other direct questions in th'e same way. In this case there is a question marko Do you know when the train /eaves? Cou/d I askyou what her name is? Wou/dyou mind tel/ing me what I shou/d write here?

tag questions •

positive verb, negative tag When we use a positive verb and a negative tag, we generally expect a yes answer. You /ike horror fi/ms, don't you? Yes,I do.



negative verb, positive tag When we use a negative verb and a positive tag, we generally expect a no answer. You haven't got a pen, have you? No, / haven't.



positive verb, positive tag When we use a positive verb and a positive tag, we are showing surprise. 50 you're a student, are you? (You don't look like one!)

intonation and meaning •

The meaning of the question depends on the intonation we use. When the intonation falls or is level, we are checking iniormation we already know. You /ike horror fi/ms, don't you? Yes,of courseI do! You're not in tomorrow, are you? No. When the intonation rises, we are asking a question. You are a student, aren't you? (I'm not sure about this) You're not He/en,are you? (I'm surprised) You haven't broken the window, have you? (I hope not!)

negative questions We use a negative question when:

G



we assume someone will agree.

Don't you fee/ tired?

• •

we are annoyed wit h someone we are surprised, or don't believe something

Can't you stop ta/king! Don't you remember me?



we want to get the answer we want

Wasn't it you who sto/e the money?

echo questions •

Echo questions are commonly used in informal conversation to show interest or other feelings eg surprise, disbelief. I've got a new job.



Have you7 Congratulations!

That's wonderful!

Echo questions are made in response to statements. Normally a positive question echoes a positive statement, and a negative question echoes a negative statement. I don't know the answer. There isn't any mdk left. I rea/ly like her new novel.

Don 't you7 It's a very easy problem! Isn't there? Are you looking in the right place? Do you? I found it rather heavy going.

echo tags •

When we agree with what the speaker saysor are surprised by it we can echo the statement and add a tag.



Echoing positive with positive with a negative tag, or negative with negative with a positive tag, suggests agreement. The intonation is level or falling. It's rea/ly cold today /t is, isn't it7 (agreement) I'm not a very good golfer. You aren'f, are you7 (agreement)



Echoing positive with negative with a positive tag, or negative with positive with a negative tag, suggests disbelief. The intonation is rising. I've just seen David Bowie! You haven't, have you? (disbelief) I don't like ice-cream. You do, don 't yau? (disbelief)

... do you think ... In everyday speech when we ask someone's opinion it is common to put do you think / believe / suppose etc between a wh-question and the verb. What do you think the athers are doing naw? What do you believe we should do7

ellipsis In ever.ydayspeech, questions are often shortened by using the verb stem only. Like my new fiat?

Want a drink7

Had a good time7

end prepositions •

When we make questions with verb + preposition, the preposition generally goes at the end of the sentence, unlessthe preposition is part of a phrase eg in what sense. What are we waiting for? Who am I talking t07 In what sense is Jane Eyre a feminist nove/7



With whom, used in forma I speech and writing, the preposition comes first. With whom do we wark?

1

Underline the best form.

a b c d e

What do you think they should give him / should they give him far his birthday? I'm not absolutely sure what time does her piane arrive / her piane arrives. That's a really nice dress she's wearing, isn't she / isn't it? 'Sarah hasn't arrived yet.' 'Has she? / Hasn't she? Iwonder where she is.' 'You were right about Steve. He's a really great player.' 'He is, isn't he? / He isn't is he? And you didn't believe me.'

f

Excuse me, but for what exactly are you waiting / what exactly are you waiting for?

g Do you happen to know where the Astoria Hotel is / where is the Astoria Hotel? h 'There's a police officer waiting to see you.' 'There isn't, is there? / There is, isn't there? Iwonder what on earth the police want with me!' You'll be long, won't you? / You won 't be long, will you? I need you to be back here by 11.00 at the

latest. Would you min d telling me when the text train leaves / when does the next train leave?

2

Complete the sentence sa that it contains an indirect question and means the same as the first sentence.

a b c d e

How old is she? I'd really love to know. How much does this shirt cost? Can you tell me? Where's the projectar? I don't suppose you know. Which room is which? It's not cIear. What time does the lecture finish? Iwonder.

f Where do I have to go? I'm not sure. g How does this wark? Can you explain? h How long do we have to wait? Have they told you?

3

.. ?

I don't It's I'm Can Have

? ?

Rewrite the sentence as a question, sa that it contains the word in capitals and has the same meaning.

a I wish you'd finish your wark on time! ...CgV1.\l ../j()4 ...f/V1.i$~../j04r

G

I' dC~gll/jI()\I~±()k~OtV~()lAJ()IJ$~~i$

Can

CAN'T

.t
b Why are we waiting?

FOR

c What's her first name?

KNOW

d I'm sure this isn't your seat.

IS

e What's the time?

COULD

f

ISN'T

Good heavens, is it really 8.00 already?

g Surely you understand the second example.

DON'T

h Have you seen Chris, by any chance?

HAVEN'T

4

Write a response

to each statement

or question.

a The Albanians

don 't calI their country

Check the answers on page 231.

Albania, do they?

NQJfJ:t?41JQall.,Th~?1~eIlJl'R?p?lQlike?pkaipe:ci$e:. b Doesn't

the small country

of Andorra lie between

c Isn't the island of Trinidad

France and !taly?

just oft the coast of Venezuela?

d Sydney is the capital of Australia. e Dominica

f

is another

name for the Dominican

Republic, isn't it?

Over a third of the people on the island of Fiji originally

g Lesotho in southern

5

Complete

came from India.

Africa used to be called Liberia, didn't

it?

the text with one word in each gap. Contracted

forms (eg isn't) count as one word.

Global warming arguments H's easy to suppose that we ali feel the same way about global warming. After ali, everybodywants

to save the world,

aA()~I±

they? We ali want to

make a eontribution, however smali, and we ali do our best. You aren't one of those people who wastes wate~ b ..

....you? Of eourse not! And

I'm sure you've got low-energy light bulbs in your house, c You bet! Not everyone is so enthusiastie, d

you?

of eourse. Some people wonder

they ean do to help, and don't really know what to do. Until

they find out by paying attention to what the world's seientists are saying. At least, we all hope this is true, e..

.

we? Still, there are quite a lot of

people who just hope that the problem will go away. Why do they do this, we might asie f ..

.

they want to make a differenee?

Their usual response is 'We don/t really know whether the elimate is ehanging.1 g..

of elimate

we? Welll of eourse we do. There is plenty of evidenee

ehangel

isn/t h...

and polluting the planet, don't

....?

We know that we are wasting energy

i

? H's all quite simple really. And

if you do knowanyone who is still uneertain about whether to save the world or not, your message to them should be elear. What are you waiting j..

? lf you think this is just somebody elses probleml it wiliI very

soonl be your problem as well. Believe it.

VI



EXTENSION

~,

ACTIVITY

= -:;.rf-?<:~ :"""';'"" ~

....

..

,

C

O

+-' A

Write some quiz questions

like the ones in Exercise 4 and ask a partner

B

Make a list of indirect questions

which would be useful to a traveller.

Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

to make tag responses.

VI OJ

:J

O"

articles (1) article use depending •

on context

When we refer to something we have already mentioned, we use the definite article. First, I grate some cheese. Then Isprinkle the cheese into the sauce.

• •

A noun can be made definite by the details which follow it. This is called post-modification. There's a tower over there. Yes, it's the Tower of London. Some things are definite because they are already known to the people talking about them. Jim is at the pub. (= The one we ali usually go to.) Pass the vegetables, please. ( = These ones on the table.)

groups and c1asses •

An example of a thing, instrument etc usesa / A barometer

ano

is used to measure air pressure.



We use a / an for one of a classof things or people. Peter is a German. Maria is a teacher. This is an electric shaver.



We use a / an for one of a set of named things. They've bought a Picasso. (= a work of art) This is a Henry Moore sculpture.



We use zero article with plurals and uncountables when they refer to a classof things or people in general. Teachers often work very long hours. Water is becoming a scarce resource. Girls are better at learning foreign languages

than boys.

These too can be made specific, eg by the details which follow. The water tastes funny (= the water from the tap) The girls in my c1asslearn fas t. (= these particular girls) •

A singular noun to describe a classof things uses the. The bicycle is becoming increasingly popular. The whale is in danger of extinction.

ideas •

Abstract ideas use zero article. Health is one of the most impartant things in life.

Note that an abstract noun can be made specific by what comes after it - then we use the. The health of millians of people may be at risk. numbers and measurement •

With rates and speeds use a /

ano

The car was going at 50km an hour.



The rent is E500 a month.

Usea / an for large whole numbers, fractions with singular nouns, weights and distances.

a

hundred

a

millian

a

third

a fifth

twa and a half a kilo a metre and a half But: twa and seven eighths half-way Half is usually used without an article. He has eaten half of the cake.

e

people • We use zero article with names of people, unless we specify the person. Tom Iives in Bristol. 15 he the Tom Davis you went to school with? • We can use a / an with names when we mean 'a person called .. .' 15 there a Tom Davis staying here? • We can use the with the names of groups, when these are clearly piuraI. the Democrats

However, if a proper name comes before the noun there will be zero article. furo MPs



Manchester

United supporters

Names of musie groups vary a great deal, and may not fit general rules. The Who

Prima/ Scream

Many groups of people are described by the + singular adjective. the unemp/oyed

the dead

cities, towns, streets, places •

Usezero article with proper names, though the is used when there is post modification with of. Ilive in A//an Road in Bristol in an area called Red/and. Oxford University

• •

the University

of Oxford

Use the with the names of shops and places with a generai reference. at the cinema / the supermarket / in the garden / in the mountains / at the beach etc Other places vary. If they begin with the name of a place or person, then they tend to use zero article. London Bridge Water/oo But: the London Eye

Station

Madame

Otherwise they use the. the Golden Gate Bridge the Hard Rock Cafe •

Tussaud's

the Odeon Cinema

Note that a place name can also be used as an adjective, in which casewe could use the. The London rush hour can cause long delays.

Some other cities have adjective forms, eg Paris / Parisian, Rome / Roman.

unique objects •

The is used with some familiar objects when we think of them as the only one. The Sun was setting over the sea. The moon rose into the sky.

illness etc • A / an is used with a headache, a cold etc. Have you got a co/d / a headache / a toothache

/ an earache?

Most illness words use zero article. I've got fiu.

She's suffering from appendicitis.

exclamations •

Use a / an in the expressions what a ... !, such a ... ! We use what a ... when we are surprised or impressed by something. What a fantastic sight' What an awful mom! We use such a / an ... for emphasis with singular nouns. This is such a great film! He is such an Interesting person.

(Seealso Unit 21.)

..---

1

Camplete the text with the ar zera article.

aJh~

smvival OfHH

b ISH c

foreigners

d

decoration cmtains.

e

most large mammals

is being put at risk by

person you are talking about]ane

I missed

often have in

trouble small bedroom

beginning

of ...H.H

global warming.

Small you knew at getting used to

university?

Scottish climate.

is really pleasing but I don 't likeHHH

film, so I didn't

understandH

colom of

plot until half-way

through.

f

experts disagree as to whether women

g

most of

people

I know

men are

better drivers than

don't always get on with HHHH other people ..

first time they meet them.

h What exactly is andHHHH

difference

between

rhythm

of a piece of

music

tune?

Helen has gone tOHH doing at

library to get

information

she needs for

project she's

school.

I don't know why you always put H

sugar in yom coffee if you're trying to los e

..weight.

2

Complete the text with a / an ar the, ar leave blank for zera article.

George Orwell aTh~

author George Orwell (1903-1950: real name Eric

Blair) was b English novelist, critic and pol itical and cultural commentator. He is best known for c .. H.H.'HHH novels AnimaI Farm and Nineteen

Eighty-Four, d

both of which

were written and published toward e

end of his life.

name George Orwell in gH early He chose f 19305 when his first book, Down and Out in Paris and London, was published. This book describes what it was like to be h

poor and

..H

and also described

i

homeless in j

H

time he spent in Paris working in

kH

kitchen of mH father was o p

Britain,

high-c1ass hotel. nHHH .....Orwell's

civil servant in India, and Orwell grew up in

middle-c1ass family. He was q

pupil at Eton,

r ....H.H.Hwell-known English school, and as his family could not afford to send him to university, he joined s v.

Indian Imperial Police. He learnt

x.... northern

...schoolteacher, and in YH

lot about

UHH

World War he made 8 in 1950 at 11

H.

H'

career as 6.. •••

age of 46.

British Empire, but came to hate writer. He worked as book about 1

bookshop, wrote z

England (The Road to Wigan Pier) and also fought for 3 . ..H

civil war. He developed 5

e

t

H.HH job, and in 1927 he resigned and decided to become W'H

Republican side in 4..

. journalist and reviewer, and during 7

regular broadcasts on 9

poverty in 2 ..

BBC. He died of 10

.'H

Spanish Second

tuberculosis

3

Complete the sentences with a / an or the.

The-

aHHHHH'H

t"1ger1S

l

l

. .. amma w h'1Ch st rugg es t o surV1veIn

mo d ern wor Id .

b I need

kilo and half of minced beef, but I want all fat taken off please. art gallery used to own Picasso, but it was stolen in daring daylight robbery. d'H first thing students need to appreciate is that laboratory can be dangerous place. e We spent week in Paris and had great time going up Eiffel Tower, and taking trip aIong Seine in small boat. CHH

HHHHH

H

HHH

f Tom Gibson,

architect mainly responsible for

................... farmhouse in g rent is €1000 of city. h I can never understand H

country. month because

design of

apartment is in

new building, lives in most expensive part

••••••

H

US elections, because I'm not sure I know

Democrats and

difference between

Republicans.

worst thing about travelling on the motorway is that if there is accident, there is usually ............... huge traffic jam. My dad is down at pub having drink with.. . other members of pub-quiz team. H

4

Complete the text with a / an or the, or leave blank for zero article.

Bird migration Whether a.Ht:{

particular species of b

depends on c

number of d.. .

important influence on

bird migrates fadors. e

migration is g

fHH

mo.st climate of

i

h .. . area where birds breed, and j number of birds remain in an area where there is k winter: Sa in I

Scandinavia m

migratary bird, but it is not Europe where q r

t..

type of s

o

.. H' HHHH

smali harsh

blackbird is n migratary in p

southern

winters are milder:Another fador is food involved. Same birds eat mainly 50 these birds

..insects which are not available in winter,

have to undertake u However, lack of v

migration in order to nnd food. food is not w

trigger for

migration, and birds need to be well fed before they start x .. long-distance flight.The main reasons for y be partly genetic and partly as z in 2H

weather ar in 3

migrating seem to

result of 1

smali changes

length of 4

EXTENSION

day.

ACTIVITY

Choose a paragraph from a book and make a practice passage like the ones in Exercises 2 and 4. Remove all articles and leave a space, add spaces for zero article, and add some trick spaces. Ask someone else in the c1assto complete your practice passage, and show them the original passage 50 they can check their answers. Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

---V'l OJ

u +-'

•...

ro

articles (2) nationality •

We use the with nationality adjectives that end -ese, -ch, -sh, -ss and are used to refer to ali the people of that nationaiity, eg Chinese, Japanese, French, Spanish, British, Swiss, Dutch. The French drink a lot of wine. The Swiss are famous for their ban ks.



We use the with piurai nationaiity nouns in same way, eg Russians, Americans, Poles, Greeks, Turks, Germans, Belgians etc. The Russians and the Po/es are used to cold weather.



We use a / an with singular examples. an Australian, a Greek, a Turk, a Russian, a Pole, a Romanian, a Bulgarian, an Egyptian, a Jordanian Same nationalities end in -man / woman, and others have unique names. an Englishman / an Irishman / a Scotsman / a Welshman / a Frenchman / a Dutchman a Spaniard / a Cypriot / a Pakistani / an Iraqi / a Saudi / a Philippino Same nationalities can only be used as an adjective with a noun, eg Japanese person / man.

geography •

We use the with the names of oceans, seas,rivers, geographical areas. They crossed the Pacitic / the At/antic / the Mediterranean etc in a smali boat. The sun sets in the West. She travelled widely in the Midd/e We took a voyage down the Danube.



The is used wit h north, south etc. to indicate geographical areas, but zero article is used to describe general directions. The sun sets in the west.



East.

The road runs trom north

to

south.

We use zero article with continents, countries, lakes. Lake Geneva borders France and Switzerland. Morocco is in Atrica.



We use the with piurai ar collective names. From here you can see the A/ps. She lives in the Philippines / the Netherlands



/ the United Kingdom

/ the USA

Names of mountains vary. He's c!imbed Everest and Mont B/anc but not the Matterhorn.



Names of islands normally use zero article unless they have post-modification with I've been to Crete / Majorca / Cuba. I haven't been to the Is/e ot Wight



We use the with deserts. The Sahara is not as dry as most people think.

school subjects •

We use zero article when we talk about school subjects, such as geography, I'd rather study physics than biology.



These can also be used as adjectives wit h article + noun. I've started a physics course. The bi%gy

G

teacher is really good

history.

ot ...

calendar • We use zero article when we refer to days, months ar parts of the day. 1'11 see you on Monday

at midday.

School begins in September.

• We can use the with a day of the week when we refer to a particular week, and the with a month when we refer to a particular year. It started as an ordinary week but on the Friday I received a surprising message • We use a / an with a day of the week when we refer to the day as a typical example. It was

a

Tuesday afternoon

in August and nothing much was happening.

home, school, prison, hospital,

work

• We use zero article wit h at home, at school, in hospital, in prison, in bed when we speak about the place in general, ar wit h reference to its use. Jack is in hospita/. (he's iii). Sue is at schoo/. (she's a student) • When we refer to something just as a building, place, etc we use the. The bus stops outside the schoo/. (the building) Leave the towels on the bed (the item of furniture) I was walking past the hospita/. (the building) There was a riot in the prison. (the building) •

Compare: Alan 's in bed. (he's asleep) There's something crawling in the bed! (the item of furniture)

other generalized

locations

and activities

• We use other phrases with zero article to describe what people are doing or where they are in general. on /ocation (place where a film is shot) on holiday on tour (performers) at work on stage on duty •

Specific examples use a / an or the. They decided to take a holiday abroad

He ran onto the stage.

changes of meaning •

Some nouns can be countable or uncountable and have different meanings according to the article they use. a coffee a / an a cup of coffee Can I buy you a coffee? the zero



grains or beans etc. in general

Put the coffee in the jar Do you like coffee7

Many names of substances have a change of meaning when used as a single object. a g/ass for holding water etc g/asses for helping the eyes

glass iron paper



the coffee coffee

an iron

for smoothing clothes

a paper

a newspaper or a piece of published research

Some food nouns which usually have no piurai can be used with a / an to talk about one particular type of that food. I try to eat as much fresh fruit as I can. This is a fruit that only grows in the tropics.

Other foods used in this way are: wine, beer, cheese, meat, oil. (Seealso Unit 20.)

Exercises in this unit also practise material from Unit 20.

1

Camplete the sentence with a / an ar the, ar leave blank far zera article.

f

..

. lm was waltmg for a me.. V1C to ok place.

bus OUtSl 'd e...................... h'osplta l w h en

offence

b Maria forgot to tum off iron when she went to answer. knock at door, and she bumt hole in ironing board. c We went to Crete on holiday and spent week walking over .. mountains admiring scenery. d After you put coffee in machine, fill it with water, and make sure ..water comes up to level of thick black line. e When I'm at work, I'm only allowed to take personal calls in .. emergency. f Helen is in .... bed with temperature, so trip to country has been postponed until. . next week. g At last minute, David decided to go away for hotel by sea. h train to .. Manchester was .. half reached. Watford.

2

few days and stay in hour late by

time it

Camplete the text with a / an ar the, ar leave blank far zero article.

The Great Wall of China aTh~

Great Wall of b

China is one of c

wonders of d

modern world,

and became e UNESCO Heritage site in 1987. It is f. one of g (6,700 km) structures in h world, and has i history of more than j

longest two

wall began between m . . 7th and 8th thousand years. k building of I . centurie s BC as n... . means of defending most of o. China fram p .. . invading people of q .. .... north. r .. rulers of different parts of s .. ....country built sections of

t w y

wall, and these were joined together in u time of v .. . Qin dynasty. During Ming dynasty (1368-1644 AD) x wall was repaired and extended and took on appearance it has today, with z complex system of 1 forts and towers. 1t

has 2 . ... .....average height of ten metres and 3 4 east to 5 west.

G

width of five metres, and it runs fram

3

Complete the sentence with a / an or the, or leave blank for zero article.

aThe..

British

b

We went

c

Jim is at

d

on

Can

f

Helen

g

Peter

I have

hH

begins

.. HH

works

at ..

coffee

at ..

quiet in

.

amount

. H.. duty

.

end

. location in H.

fast food

.

milk,

they

eat.

final year geography

course.

trainer.

end of .. H

of

July.

please.

road.

of

fiu.

in

Philippines.

I usually

moming

at H

.

of ..HH

personal

atH

glass with

of..

as part

.

afternoon

attack

on .. .H.. work

on..

He's

at

bed with

On my way to ..

4

for

moment.

. HH hospital

was in HH

he's

.

on

film was shot

When

(ar notorious)

field trip to ............H Lake District wark

story

e

are famous

prison,

buy..

. .H.H paper

Jack has to wearHH

I get

before

on

bus.

uniform.

Complete the text with a / an ar the, ar leave blank for zero article.

The Dominican Republic aThe- ..Dominican c g

IH

eastern

Republic is b

two-thirds

country

of d H.

. Caribbean

Greater Antilles islands. h capital of m

part of q

Hcountry

island. r...

depends

largely on 2

6

tourism

island of e

western is n

Hsecond

8 million people, and is located on Hispaniola,

i

largest city is s .......H

semi-desert agriculture,

part of

city of o

h ighest pea k is v.. .HH

ra nges, a nd u

varied, and ranges from y

of approximately

island forms j

wit h 3H

HH Republic of k.

Santo Domingo and is located Santiago. tH

Pico Dua rte (3,175m). w... plains to ZH

which is f.. HHH second-Iargest

country

. geography

lush valleys of tropical

sugar as 4

in p..

has three of x rainforest.

main crop, though

5

. .

of

Haiti.

southern

major mountain cou ntry is 1 ....HH

economy

mining and

are also important.

..Choose a paragraph from a book and make a practice passage like the ones in Exercises 2 and 4. Replace all articles with a space, add spaces for zero article, and add some trick spaces. Ask someone else in the c1assto complete your practice passage, and show them the original passage sa they can check their answers. Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

number and quantity many, few, much, little •

With countable nouns we can use too many, not many, (only) a few, (very) few. There are too many mistakes here.

We've had very few complaints.



Few is negative, a few is positive. I have a few friends in Germany (same) I have few friends in Germany /(not many)



With uncountable nouns we can use too much, not much, (only) alittle,

(very) little.

We haven 't got much time. There is too much smoke in here. I need a little he/p. There's only alittle milk leh

a lot of / lots ot, plenty, hardlyany, not enough •

With countable and uncountable nouns we can use a lot of / lots ot, plenty ot, hardlyany, enough, hardlyenough. (SeeUnit 23 for the use of much, a lot as adverbs.) We've got /ots of time We had a lot of complaints. There's hardly any milk. There are hardly any seats. We haven't got enough time. There aren 't enough chairs.

(not)

A lot and lots can stand alone as pronouns. How many complaints have you had7 Lots / A lot

no, not any, none (of) •

No and not any can be used with countables and uncountables. There's no time to lose! There isn't any time for that'



None stands alone as a pronoun, often wit h at ali. None of is used wit h nouns, with either a singular or aplural verb, though many users prefer a singular verb. There mlght be lots of customers, ar there mlght be none (at all).

None

of

the passengers was / were saved.

much / many with numbers and quantities •



Many can be used as an intensifier with hundreds of / thousands Many thousands of people took part in the demonstration.

of etc.

A good many is a colloquial way of describing a large number. were carrying banners.

A good many people



We use as many as ar up to to indicate the highest number. We use as much as or up to to indicate the highest amount. As many as a hundred people were arrested. We spent as much as f300 yesterday



We use more than or in excess ofto indicate the lowest number. More than E10 million

has been spent already

too much, too many, enough •

We use too many wit h countables and too much with uncountables to show that the number or amount is greater than necessaryor more than is acceptable or possible. There are too many cars in the centre of the city



There is too much traffic

We use far ar way as intensifiers in everyday speech. There is far too much salt in this sauce.



c

We use enough with countables and uncountables when we want to show that the num ber ar amount is acceptable or sufficient. 1'11

give you enough

money to buy tickets for all of uS.



Hardlyenough means 'almost not enough'. Just enough means the right amount or number. More than enough means 'more than is needed' (plenty of has a similar meaning). There are hardly enough chairs for 50 many people. There is just enough food for the three of us. Don't worry, we've got more than enough chairs

quite a lot, rather a lot •

Quite a lot is a fairly large number, but not a very large one or more than we expected. There were quite a lot of people waiting outside.



Rather a lot is generally a greater number or amount I can't come out. I've got rather a lot of work to do.

than quite a lot, almost too many.

number and amount •

We use a number or a large number / piurai verb, though many users prefer A number of houses have already been A large number of people was waiting

a smali number to describe how many. We use a singular or a a singular verb. built. outside.



We use a large / smali amount to describe how much. A large amount of money has been recovered by the police.

loads ot, masses of These are informal expressions meaning a large number or amount. Jim's a banker, and has got loads of money.

hundreds of, mi/es of etc Measurement

words can be used with of. Note that measurement

words such as litre, ton, etc are also

folIawed by of: a litre of milk, a ton of earth. Thousands of tons of earth had to be moved. Millions of Iitres of water are wasted every day There were several mi/es of wiring in each machine.

twice as much as / as many as •

We use twice as much, three times as much etc to make comparisans quantity or number. Paula earns twice as much money as I do. There are ten times as many students here as in my last schoo/.



(Just) as much / many means an equal amount Paula earns as much as I do.

between

a larger and smaller

or number.

every and each + noun In some cases, the meaning of every and each is the same, though each is often used to mean separately ar one by one, especially when we are thinking of a definite num ber. fvery / fach time I have a holiday, I catch a cold. There is a caf t': in each com er of the square. (there are faur cafes)

more, fewer, less •

More can be used with countables and uncountables Bring more chairs. We need more milk.

to mean a larger number or amount.

lQ)



We use fewer with countables amaunt.

to mean a smaller number, less with uncountables

There have been fewer storms this year

to mean a smaller

...o

E :::::l

And less rain.

In everyday speech, peaple often use less wit h countables,

C and this is becoming

mare common

in print.

1

Underline the best option. a b c d

There is hardly any / too (ew milk left, 50 we'll have to buy same more. I don't think there is enough / plenty o( salt in the soup. You don't have to huny. Theres lots 0(/ much time. There are lots o( / very (ew books on this subject, so you might have difficulty finding one.

e There's only alittle /only a (ew paint left. Do you think it will be enough? f There's not enough / too much time to finish this exercise naw, so we/ll do it tomorrow. g Can you wait a minute? There are a (ew / (ew things I have to do before Ileave. h It costs a lot 0(/ plenty o(money, and I don't think it's really worth it. well have to find a larger room for the lecture. Not enough / Too many people have turned up. i I have to sleep with the window closed because there is plenty 0(/ too much noise outside. k When the money was counted, it was found that as much as / as many as f,SOO/OOO was missing. I I'm sony/ but there aren't too many / enough books for everyone, so you/ll have to share.

2

Choose the best option, A, B ar C, to complete the sentence. aCan you come and help me, because there'sJ3 b Helen reads a lot, and has books as I have.

of shopping to cany.

c of people gathered outside the town hall to hear the mayor speak. d Many people write uninteresting diaries, and of them are on the Internet. e Have you got paper to print twenty copies of this worksheet? f

An eIephant drinks about a hundred and fifty

a day.

g If you're careful, there is .. hot water for a bath. h Gnly people came to see the play on the first night. I triedu house in the street, but nabody had heard of Mrs Salkeld. It's a lovely house, but it cost themu money. k There's no need to huny. We've still got time.

i

lu

people nowadays are being taken in by fraudsters on the Internet.

Bmuch rather a(ew C More too Cwater litres A Too Many litres more water large number rather a water lot o( C A every A Enough large large number amount enough litres o(thousands aenough agood quite thousands Bvery rather B just quite loads athan smali many lot aenough lots lot ao( number o(lot o( o( a A too many many

G

3

Put one suitable word in each space.

Salt consumption

and health

Health experts beJieve that a .. f\.1.?U'1./j . people are consuming far too b salt, and that this is a health risk. There are plenty c

studies which show that increased salt

consumption

raises blood pressure and can cause heart problems,

and the recommendation d

is that we should a11be consuming

salt. Even ifwe add e

any salt to

our food at the table, we may be consuming a f salt without realizing. The daily recommended

of

amount is 6 grams,

but many people are consuming twice as much g this and the average daily consumption in the UK is over 9 g per day. Bread, biscuits, ketchup and ready made meals a11contain h

a lot of salt, 50 each time we eat a slice of bread,

for example, we are adding to our daily intake. 50 what is the much solution? We all need to be more aware of

i

salt we are consuming, and try to limit our intake. Governments are encouraging food manufacturers

j

to cut down on the

of salt they put into food, and every food product

should state c1early on the wrapper how k it contains.

4

salt

Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the word in capitals.

a There's too 1ittle time to finish naw. ..Jhe,-re,-ls ..~g± ..e,-~()tlq~..±it1)&..±()..·ft.f\i$~ ...f\()tU, ...

b All of my answers were right. c There isn't any money in yom wallet. d There weren't many customers this morning. e There were more crimes this year. f

The red one costs €50 and the green one costs €lOO.

g Hundreds of people were queuing at the front entrance. h There is plenty of food for six people.

The cupboard hasn't got any paper in it. There wasn't much snow last night.

ANY THERE LARGE MORE MUCH

NOT

+-' Q) C :J ..Q Ci:i C l:JC "'O

LAST VERY 1S WRONG

+-' Ci:i O-

E >,

~

5

Write a new sentence wit h the same meaning, beginning as shown.

a The traffie is heavy today. There ....iS..±()() ..f1ALlC:~ ..+(vtJf, c ..±qq0!;l ... b This eoffee is too sweet. There is c This house is double the value of that one. This house is worth d A lot of money has be en spent on this projeet. A large e I've got plenty of money to buy the tiekets. I've got more f Nearly a thousand football fans were arrested. As

g There are hardly any taxis at this time of night. There are very h This is a secret and not many people know about it. This is a seeret and only AlI of the paintings were undamaged. None The tank hasn't got any water in it. There

6,

Complete the text with one word ineachgap.

The 'flu pandemie The infiuenza pandemie

pL

a ....

of 1918-19

people

As b

of 1918-19 killed millions

at the end ofWorld

War One.

as 40 million people are believed

to have died and more or less (

part

of the world was affeeted. As might be expeeted, a d

num ber of the victims were

soldiers. In fact, in some parts of the war zone, e

many soldiers died of infiuenza as

died in the fighting, In the US army at home and abroad, ten f

as many soldiers died of infiuenza.

Unusually, in the eivilian population

there were relatively

g

vietims among the young and elderly, the usual vietims of infiuenza, Instead, ,l)1ost of the

h

millions who died were the strongest

20 and 40. Doetors as the war ended people evidenee

at the time had and

j

of people

between

the ages of

home, At the time, k

was eaused by biologieal warfare. However

its genetie composition,This

pandemie

was believed to have eaused as many n

G

returned

this suspieion. Seientists now believe that a pandemie

infiuenza virus ehanges

outbreak

of the population,

little idea of how to treat the disease and it spread rapidly numbers

believed that the epidemie to support

i

members

is now believed to have originated

is I

oeeurs m

is sometimes

8 million deaths in China,

there

of

time the

known as the Spanish Fiu beeause

in Spain in 1918, However

the

it

7

Complete the text using one phrase from the list in each gap. 1 a few

5 hardly any 6 large numbers 7 many 8 more

2 aren't enough 3 enough

time

4 lot of

9 quite a lot of 10 too much 11 twa ar three times as much 12 very few

Women in power More than a century after women starte d campaigning seems that there

.. women

ap~

there have been b ..

in positions of power. In the world as a whole,

female heads of state, and in some countries women have

P ••••••••

c

political power. In indusmalized

still happens that men earn e

f

for the right to vote, it still

countries where d

of women work, it

for doing the same job. Although there are

successful female business leaders, there are clearly many g

men at the

top. Many people believe that this situation reflects the fact that women haven't got h

to be successful in the wark place, and in the home. There is much .................. pressure on women, they say, to be good wives and mothers, and they are at

a disadvantage in the job market. However, there is j evidence to suggest that women can be more successful in the modern business environment than men. k

modern business operations

now depend on co-operation

and

flexibility, and women are better at these skilIs than men. So it may well be that in the future, quite a I

important

business will be run by women, and it will be the men who earn lower wages or stay at ho me.

A

Write true sentences about yourself which include these words. hardlyany

too much

quite a lot

twice as much

every

fewer

l...

(])

.Q B

Write sentences about your town or country, beginning as shown. Many thousands of people ... There are too many... We need more ... We haven't got much ...

There is far too much ...

E ::J C

nouns nouns always end ing in piurai s •

Nouns end ing -ies have no singular form, they use zero article and a singular verb, eg mathematies, Mathematics

/inguisties, physies, po/ities, ath/eties. is my favourite subject.

When not used to mean 'subjects of study', nouns of this kind can use the + piurai verb. Eeonomics is a difficult subject. The economics of this case are comp/ex. •



Some nouns always end ing in piurai s are counted as singular, though they have no singular form, eg the news, darts, bi//iards (and other piurai games), cities wit h piurai forms Nap/es, Athens etc. The news is on at 10.00 Athens is a beautifu/ city Illness words always end ing in piurai s use a singular verb, eg meas/es, mumps. Meas/es is a high/y infectious disease



Some nouns always end ing in piurai s can have a singular verb when singular, and aplural verb when piurai, eg erossroads, series, species, means. This species is interesting. This is a means to an end



80th species are naw extinct. Ali means have been exhausted

Some nouns always end ing in piurai s use aplural verb, eg be/ongings, earnings, goods, outskirts, Are these your be/ongings?

c/othes, congratu/ations,

remains, stairs, surroundings, thanks. These are the remains of my car!

Some of these nouns have a singular form with a different meaning. /ooks She was admiring Jack's go od /ooks. /ook Cou/d I have a /ook at your answers? nouns deseribing groups (collective nouns) •

Some nouns describing groups of people are singular only, but can be foliowed by a singular or piurai verb, eg the majo rit y, the pub/ie.



Some singular nouns describing groups of people use singular or piurai verb depending on how we think of them, eg government, army, counci/, management, etc. The government is p/anning to raise taxes. ( = one body) The government are undecided about this matter (= a group of individuals)



Some nouns describing groups of people or animals have no piurai s and use aplural verb, eg peop/e, the po/iee, eatt/e. The police are investigating the fire. Peop/e can be used with piurai s to mean nationality ar race. The peop/es ot the world are united in their desire for peace.

change of meaning Some nouns have different meanings for singular and piuraI. damage damages custam custams

The insurance company paid for the damage to the house. The court awarded damages of f50, 000. Giving eggs at Easter is a custom here. When we passed through customs, we had to open aur cases.

Others include, expense / expenses (money spent as part of a job), manner / manners (way of behaving), wark / a wark, warks (af art, literature etc), g/ass / g/asses (spectacies). pairs •

G

Some nouns with piurai form anly can be used with a pair of .. ./ twa pairs af et c, though this can be left out, eg g/asses, trousers, shorts, pyjamas. Where are my g/asses?



I've got twa pairs ot g/asses.

Other wards which can be singular, and which can alsa be used with pair are soeks, shaes, sanda/s, g/oves.

collections Some collections of nouns are described with a + noun + ot, eg a bunch ot t/awers, a circ/e ot triends, a crowd ot peop/e, a gang ot thieves, a herd ot catt/e, a t/o ck ot sheep, a pack ot cards, a panel ot experts, a team ot /awyers / doctors partitives Some mass nouns eg bread have a countable item which describes a 'piece' of the whole, and which can be used when we want to specify 'one' of that item. eg a /oat ot bread, a bar ot soap, a cloud ot dust, a f/ash ot /ightning, a ciap ot thunder, a shower ot rain, an item ot news, a slice ot cake etc, • container + of a tube of toothpaste, acan of beer, a carton of mi/k etc •

container: compound noun

a beer-can

a matchbox

The name of the container usually begins with the name of what is contained, with a singular noun if it is countable. • •

smali quantities abstract nouns



quantities

a piece of advice / information, a spot ot troub/e a litre of beer, a kilo of cheese etc



words describing types

a kind of, a type of, a variety of, a species of



game, round

a game of chess, a round of golf

compound •

a speck of dust, a grain ot rice, a scrap of paper

nouns

Noun + noun The first noun is normally singular (but: a clothes brush). Check in a dictionary for the use of a hyphen, as this varies greatly. a bus ticket a key ring Categories include: type containers purpose (-er) (for) place part of a whole

a seat belt a comedy film a milk jug a water bottle acan opener (a thing that opens cans) a book shelf (a shelf for books) a bedroom chair a school playground a car door a mouse button



-ing + noun

frying pan



noun + -ing

sight-seeing



from multi-word verb

a take-off

ot and •

water-skiing

a hold-up

possessive apostrophe

Use ot for things when there is no compound noun, for parts of things and for abstract ideas. the end ot the road



writing desk

the aim ot the project

Use possessiveapostrophe for singular apostrophe piurai with s apostrophe piurai without s apostrophe

things belonging to people. s

only s

Michael's desko The boys' bedroom. The children's bedroom.



Names end ing in s add apostrophe s, or apostrophe, but are pronounced as if they have apostrophe s. the Jones' house / the Jones's house (both pronounced the same)



We also use possessiveapostrophe with references to time, and in some fixed expressions. time an hour's bus-ride, a days' wark etc expressions be at your wits' end V'l

C ::J

O

C

Some exercises require the use of a dictionary.

1

Underline the best option. a I'm afraid that the news ts. / are not very encouraging. b It took Helen a while to get used to her new sUlToundzng

/ surroundzngs.

c Athletics zs / are a popular pastime in many countries. d Do you fancy a game of card / cards? e The cattle

has / have

got through the fence by the main road.

t Mumps

zs / are a serious illness for many older people. g What do you think of my new trouser / trousers? h The bathroom is on the left at the top of the stazr / stazrs. 'Extras' zs / are the funniest comedy series I have ever seen.

Local police

2

zs / are

baffled by the disappearance of more than fifty pet dogs.

Complete the sentence with a singular or piurai form of a word in the list. custom

damage

expense

glass manner

work

a You'll have to declare these items atcLAsloltl.S when you land in London. b The newspapers were not impressed by the ....HH of Mr Smith's election. c The violent storm caused severe . . throughout the west of the country. d The school gave Tony the complete e You can put in a claim for your travel t People here have theHHHH Year's Eve.

of Shakespeare as a prize. when you come back from the trip. of opening the front door at midnight on New

g The waiter filled Maria's . .H h The injured passenger was awarded..

with sparkling water. H. of over El million.

As far as I'm concemed, eating and drinking on buses and trains is simply bad j In this part of the country, factories have closed and many people have no .. k Have you seen my anywhere? I can't see a thing!

I

3

For most students, rent is their biggest ..

Complete the sentence with a word from the list. bun ch a b c d

cloud

erewtl

flash

gang

item

pack

piece

shower

team

The stars of the film were met outside the cinema by a~r()LA!c1HHHHof fans. A suddenH of lightening lit the night sky. The building crashed to the ground, leaving a of dust. A.. of doctors in south London is carrying out a new study into childhood illnesses.

e One of the soldiers produced a

of cards, and they started to play.

t After a heavy

of rain, the pitch was slippery. g Let me give you a of advice. Don't borrow any money from that bank. h Harry bought a largeH of grapes from the supermarket. The train crash was the first. .. ..on the late news.

G

The bank was raided by a

of armed robbers.

4

Use the description to make a compound noun. a A belt you wear when you sit in the seat of a car.

a se-tll be-ll

b A shelf which you put books on. e A chemical which softens water.

a

d A pot for making coffee.

a

e A brush for cleaning teeth.

a

f The window of a shop.

a.

g Climbing

a

in the mountains.

h Equipment used in the office.

a

Something used for sharpening pencils.

a

A network of computers.

a

5

Add an apostrophe where necessary and underline the word.

Hamlet by William Shakespeare Hamlew father the King of Denmark has died, and his mother has married his fathers brother, Claudius. Denmark is under threat of invasion by a foreign prinees army. Two soldiers on duty on the ramparts of the eastle see Hamlets fathers ghost. Later, the ghost speaks to Hamlet and deseribes his brothers method of murdering him. Hamlet promises to avenge his murder, but pretends to be mad to eseape his uneles suspieions. Claudius asks Hamlets friends to find out the reasons for his strange behaviour. Claudius adviser, Poionius, the father of Hamlets girlfriend Ophelia, suggests that his madness is eaused by love. Hamlets friends invite a troupe of aetors to try to make Hamlet less unhappy. Hamlet asks them to put on a play he has written in whieh his fathers murder will be aeted. His uneles guilt beeomes elear when he stops the play and leaves with his eourtiers. Hamlet kills Polonius in error and is sent to England with his friends as part of the kings attempt to kill Hamlet. What happens next? You'll have to read the play!

A B

Choose a page in a magazine, newspaper or book and make a list of any collective nouns, collections or partitives, and compound nouns.

VI

Choose twe nt y words from the explanation pages, and look them up in a dictionary. How would you translate them into your language?

C

Need more practice7 Go to the Review on page 208.

C ~

pronouns, 50, it, there each (of), both

(of), either,

neither



Each as a pronoun (see Unit 22), refers to two or more things or people separately. If twa players win, they each get an extra card / each of them gets . The winners received :[500 each.



Both as a pronoun refers to two things or people together. They both arrived at the same time. 80th (of them) arrived at the same time. Ilike them both. Ilike both of them.



Either (of) means one or the other, when it doesn't matter which one. It usesa singular verb. Not ... either is also possible. These twa colours are both fine. We can use either. Either of them is suitable. No, we can't use either of them.



Neither (of) is the negative form, meaning not one nor the other. I don 't like these twa colours. We can't use either Neither of them is suitable.

each other,

one another,

one ... the other



Each other refers to two or more things or people each doing something to the other. The twa men accused each other of stealing the money



One another

has the same meaning. Some speakers prefer to use each other for two things or people, and one another for more than two.

When they get into difficulties, al! the children help one another.

reflexives •

Some verbs use a reflexive pronoun (eg myself) to refer back to the subject. I blame myself for what happened

I hope you enjoy yourselves.

Other reflexive verbs include wt, hurt, introduce. These verbs can also have norma I objects: We enjoyed the play a lot. The police blamed hooligans for the problems. (norma I objeet) •

Behave is intransitive, and can have a reflexive but no other objeet, though the reflexive can be left Make sure you behave yourself. Try to behave!

out. •



Dress, wash, shave often have a reflexive but it is not necessary. Hurry up and dress (yourself).

Reflexives are also used with verbs like see, help, give in some expressions. Then he saw himself

someone,

anyone,

in the mirror

everyone,

I couldn't help myself.

no-one,

(somebody,

something

etc)



These pronouns can be used: as a subject pronoun with a singular verb, or as an object pronoun. Quiet! Someone's coming' with an adjective. I've got something important to tel! you. with a comparative adjective. Have you got anything smal/er? with an infinitive. He says he's got nothing to do. with for + pronoun + infinitive. 15 there anything for us to drink?



The same usesalso apply to adverbials anywh ere, somewhere, There's nowhere I need somewhere



nice to sit.

00 you

know anywhere

cheaper?

to stay

Else can be added to ali of these words to mean 'other'. I'm in love with someone else. 00 you want anything else? There's nothing else to say There's nowhere else to sit.

G

She gave herself a pat on the back.

nowhere.



There are problems with using personal pronouns or possessiveadjectives to refer back to somebody et c, as the person could be male or female. Traditionally he / his was used. Someone / somebody

has left his wallet on the desko

This is considered 'sexist' by many people, and an impersonal they / their is often used instead. In formai writing he or she / his or her is used. Ooes everyone know what they are supposed to be doing? Everyone should bring his or her passport for inspection.

• We use general same / any rules for negatives and questions. Is there anyone there?

There's nobody

here.

Do you want to see someone?

(specific person)

one/ones •

can be used to avoid repeating a countable noun. One can also mean 'person'.

Are those the ones you meant?

She is the one Ilove!



can be used with an adjective.



can be used with this / that etc.



One ... the other can be used to refer to two things. What's the difference between the M1 and a lawnmower?

Ilike the red one.

Do you like these ones? One is a motorway and the other is a way to mow

one,you •

We use one in formai speech or writing as an impersonal pronoun. One grows to rely completely upon one's servants.



In everyday speech, we use you. I think you soon get tired of commuting long distances.

it • It is used as an 'empty subject' for verbs that have no real subject. It's 6.30.

It's raining.

It was hot.

It's going to be 40°C.

It's 200 miles to Scotland

It's cold



It is also used as a subject for say, to describe what is written; for take, to describe length of time; and in expressions it doesn't matter and it's no use. It says here we have to be there an hour before. It takes an hour to get there. It doesn't real/y matter. It's no use, I can't make it wark



It is often used with seem to + action verb, and with seem as if, seem that, look as if, appear that. It seems to snowa lot in this part of the country It seems as if everyone /5 having a good time. It looks as if we're going to be late. It appears / seems that the meeting has be en postponed



It is used in phrases it's a pity, it's a shame, it doesn't matter if. It's a pity you missed Jack. It's a shame you didn 't come to the party It doesn't matter if I catch a later train.

there •

There is used with be, seem, appear to introduce a statement about what exists or happens. There's a shop at the end of the road There seems / appears to be a problem. There's been a fire at the schoo/. There was nabody in the building at the time. There is no point in do ing the same thing over and over again.



After the statement of existence, other pronouns are used to refer back to the thing or person mentioned. There's a shop at the end of the road. It's open untillate. There's a girl outside. She says she knows you.



There is used in idiomatic phrases with come, fa 110W. There comes a time in everyone's life when . There fol/ows a party political broadcast.

V'l~

C ~ O

C

O Q.

lo...

1

Underline

the best option.

a 1'm really thirsty. Is there anything / nothing to drink? b I've tried two phones

so far but each / neither of them was out of order.

c I told you that knife was really sharp. Now I've cut myseI( / yourself d I read the two books you recommended,

but I didn't

like either / both of them.

e Do you know anywhere / it where I can get my bike repaired?

f You have to press both buttons at once. Nothing either / eIse seems to work. g The lemon cakes are really good, but I don 't really like one another / the other ones. h Not those children We couldn't

2

again! Why can't they behave

have finished

Choose the best option, a The problem b Someone

A, B or C, to complete

c I'm looking for H

g

Here's your chicken.

3

l wanted

to talk to you about.

l hop e you enjoy it. Is there ..

really understands

.

that you need?

me, except you! that is iti There is

more to say!

A something somewhere no-one no-one their B nowhere hel' A eIseCC nothing something anyone nothing something evelything eIseeIse nothing evelything B anything B evelywhere eIse anythzng

Write a new sentence

with the same meaning

containing

the word in capitals.

a Every person who picked the correct number won E500 . ..Th~..p~Qpl~..~hQ..pi<;,k~J..lh~ ..<;,Qr:r~<;,l ..~4.lli.O.~r.WQa.l?QQ ..~ed\, ....

EACH

b Some children

ONE

in the class we re throwing

piece s of paper at other children.

c I've looked in all the other places.

ELSE

d Are you hurt?

HAVE

e What happened

G

on the table.

I do is wrong! l give up!

h As far as I'm concerned,

a

passport

... to go in the evening.

cheap to stay for a couple of nights.

to you,

e Before you go, there was

f

helped each other / ourselves.

the sentence.

with this town, is that there iSH(3

seems to have left

d According

theirseIves / themseIves?

the project so quickly if we hadn't

MYSELF

is my fault.

f Don't wony if you can't get here by eight.

IT

g Have a good time at the beach, children!

ENJOY

h A lot of people were driving too fast, but they police stopped

me.

ONE

4

Complete each sentence with it or there. a Look at the sky!Jl b

looks as if ..

c

is a slight problem

d

'd'dd

'd"

says here that

•••••

e 'dd

are volcanoes

."ddddddd

50

is a shame that ..

•••

is only one train per day.

with the air eonditioning,

is a bus strike tomorrow •

is go ing to be a starm.

takes six hours to get there, and

d

.

5

d'"

beeause

d

••••••••••••••••••••

means we ean't play tennis .

is a good idea to take mare exereise .

.................................. were some great goals in the mateh matter if ..

on Mars.

is no way we ean get to sehool in time .

eomes a time when

.................................. doesn't

is not serious.

is go ing to take me longer to get to work . is raining,

.........is no point in running. .

but

'd'd

'd

sa ..

. ..

dddddd

is a pity you missed it .

isn't hot. I like eold pizza.

••••••••••••

Choose the best option, A, B or C, to complete the text.

Robin Hood Most of us are familiar with Robin Hood from Hollywood films. In the popular story, Robin has two main enemies, Prince John and the Sheriff of Nottingham.

a

,C'dd'

try to capture and kill him. Robin Hood's men

and the local villagers, who are usually described as poor Saxons, help b the enemy. But did c really existed. e

called Robin Hood really exist? As with most legendary figures, d who was an outlaw. In the earliest stories, he isn't g

from the rich and gives to the poor. h of heroism attached to him.

years. But

I

'dddd

whether he was a real person or not. He is m ..

of millions of people.

. .

sense

a 'real' Robin Hood, just a story that has been

A Either There is no-one a A B AlI someone themselves There either isnt Alt seems one anyone there doesn't another isis otat not them matter elearB Neither it C It both itotthem There there not seems doesn't elear isis no elear who matter exists nobody else There something A anyone There nothing alI B Evelyone there Bissomeone someone anything isis nothing else point important that seems CNobody eise A it Somebody else C Both it's a no pity ot them

.

i

we lmow from Hollywood films, Maid Marion, Friar Tuck, Little John and

jdddd

for nearly a thousand

and in

who steals

d

in his story to make him a hero: he is just a robber, and

so on, has been added to the story over the centuries. k imagination

whether he

from the early legends that he was an outlaw in Yorkshire, not Nottinghamshire,

those times the name was given to f

changing

to defeat the Normans, who are

EXTENSION

ACTIVITY

.'.-~

A

Write ten more examples beginning 'It .. .' and ten beginning 'There .. .'

B

Translate your examples into your language. Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

'c:

d

in the

adjectives adjective position •

attributive adjectives These come immediately before the noun. an old building a heavy suitcase



predicative adjectives These come after be, become, seem, look, appear, feel, and can be used without a noun. This vase looks old.



It's heavy too.

The following adjectives are usually attributive (before a noun): classifying: chief, entire, local, main, national, only, particular, sole, whole etc. This is the main problem. I have a particular reason for asking. emphatic: mere, sheer, utter This is utter nonsense! The mere thought

of losing depresses me.

Other adjectives take on an emphatic meaning when attributive (before a noun): complete,



perfect,

total, pure.

This is pure nonsense!

Some adjectives are only predicative: afloaf, afraid, alighf, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, awake, il/, we 1/. Are you awake? Luckily they were both alive. I feel iII. You look wel/.



Others are usually predicative: glad, pleased, sorry, upset. You should be pleased.

I don

't feel sorry.



something, anyone etc and adverbials somewhere etc can be foliowed by adjectives. Do you want to know something interesting? I need somewhere quiet.



When looking up adjectives in a dictionary, check whether the meaning you want is attributive or predicative. Helen is a responsible pupil. (attributive - sensible, reliable) Who was responsible for the accident? (predicative - who caused it?)

verbs of sensation •

appear, feel, look, seem, smel/, sound, taste are foliowed by adjectives not adverbs. This smells bad. It tastes awful too.

gradable •

and ungradable

Gradable adjectives have degrees of meaning, they can be used with very, too, enough and have comparative and superlative forms. It's very heavy.

This one is heavier.

Ungradable adjectives are absolute, they do not have comparative or superlative forms and cannot be used with very etc. This tree is dead.

This vase is unique.

nouns as adjectives •

Nouns that refer to substances, places, seasonsand parts of a whole can be used as adjectives. Some substance words have adjectives ending -en: wooden, wool/en, golden. Check with a dictionary for usage. These are cotton

G

trousers.

They are my summer

c1othes.

participie adjectives •

We can use participies as adjectives. (it's dripping naw) (a promise that has been broken) (an idea that is accepted)

a dripping tap a broken promise an accepted idea



We can make compound adjectives by putting an adjective, adverb ar noun before the participle. a a a a



fast-f/owing river Iife-saving operation French-speaking area tight-fitting dress

a a a a

freshly-made footprint. tree-Iined street self-employed p/umber mass-produced product

Same -ing adjectives and -ed adjectives which refer to feelings are easily confused. -ing adjectives describe the thing that is having the effect on others. This news artic/e is rather worrying. (It worries me)

-ed adjectives describe the person and the way they feel because of the effect. (Something has worried her)

He/en /ooks worried.

Other adjectives like this include amazed / amazing, bored / boring, excited / exciting, exhausted / exhausting,

interested

/ interesting,

p/eased / p/easing,

tired / tiring.

adjective + adjective In the following three expressions, the first adjective functions as an adverb to say how wet etc something iso boi/ing hot, freezing co/d, soaking wet

compound

adjectives

Compound adjectives can be formed in the following ways: • from adjective + noun. a cheap-rate



with numbers (piurai s in never used). a four-year-old chi/d a two-hour meeting a fittyeuro



phone-ca//

ticket

a three-hour

journey

with a noun + adjective. a tax-free

car

an air-tight

box

meaning As many adjectives have a wide range of meaning, and may be used metaphorically, always check in a dictionary. ( = she smokes a lot) Janet is a heavy smoker I wa/ked away with heavy heart. ( = idiom: I felt sad ar depressed) ( = serious) This is a heavy responsibility ( = involving many people and weapons) Heavy fighting continued ali day ( = hard to understand) The /ecture was a bit heavy going.

V'l Q)

> +-'

u

.Q) ....., ""'O

ro

1

Underline the best word.

a Don't eat the fish. It smells bad / badly. b It's a two-hours / two-hour train journey fram here to Manchester. ( I stumbled acrass an asleep / a sleeping man in the doorway. d They ran home thraugh the rain, and when they arrived were sheer / soaking wet. e f g h

2

As far as Maria was concerned, it was a losing / lost opportunity. Tom opened the eloor and found a very large / enormous parcel on the doorstep. I read that article, but I thought it was mere / complete rubbish! The smell of baking-fresh / freshly baked bread made me feel hungry. That suitcase looks really heavy / heavily. What's the matter with you? You look worrying / worried.

Put very in front of the adjective where possible, or leave blank (-).

a I put my foot in the water, and it was freezing! b Please don't make that silly noise! It's annoying! c When we first saw the wave we were shocked, because it was d e f g h

You really should read this book. It's interesting. Jeff has be en missing for two days, and we're worried. Unfortunately, the ring I found turned out to be worthless. At the end of the race, most of the runners felt exhausted. By the end of the second week, many of the villagers we re starving. It's unusual for so much rain to falI here in July.

j

I've checked the figures again, and I can assure you that they are

k How do you do. I'm pleaseel to me et you. I When I realized what she had said, I was upset.

3

Make an adjective + noun phrase which fits the explanation.

a Clothes you only wear in the winter. b Shirts made of silk. c Batteries used for a torch.

tlJiVl,±?ccJqlh?s

d Sales held in the spring. e An overcoat made of leather. f

Equipment used in an office.

g Fans who are supporters of football clubs. h A bowl made of glass. Holidays we take in the summer. j Software which is used on a computer. k A bracelet made of silver.

I Leaves that falI in autumn.

e

enormous.

correct.

4

Use the word in capitals to form an adjective + noun phrase which fits the explanation. EGLECT

a A masterpiece which nobody cares about

..... g ..~?qle.:~±e.:cLl1A,gsJ?rpi?~&. b The headlines at the end of a news broadcast.

CLOSE

c Very low temperatures.

FREEZE

d A door anyone can go through.

UNLOCK

e Different feelings about something at the same time.

MIX

f

ARRANGE

A marriage which the family of the couple organizes.

g An author people think well of.

RESPECT

h An attack that causes serious harm.

DAMAGE

A crime without a known culprit.

UNSOLVE

A roof with a hole in it.

LEAK OPEN

k The scene at the beginning of a play. A taste for something that you develop after first disliking it.

5

ACQUIRE

Complete the sentence with a compound adjective made from a form of the two words in brackets.

a Ticino is in the .. b I usually buy

.

area of Switzerland.

HHHH

.loaf from the local baker's.

al~c;{liCl~~~P~c;{~i~q

c The dog fell into a.. river and was swept away. d We let our flat to a couple. e The school believes it should educate children to be . .H

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

..H

f All we could see was a bare landscape. g The building fell to the ground with a / an .. . .....crash. h I particularly like nuts. It was a .. .H. decision, but we had to make it. ..HH

..HHH

i

The..

. ... hills stretched into the distance.

k The automatic iron ing machin e is described as a device. I The tomb is being examined by archaeologists.

(Italy, speak) (bake, fresh) (flow, fast) (new, marry) (min d, open) (sweep, wind) (shatter, earth) (coat, chocolate) (break, heart) (cover, tree) (save, time) (discover, new) Vl Q)

>

u

+-' Q)

:.0-

m

6

Choose the best option, A,

B

ar C, to complete the sentence.

a Fortunately the surgeon was able to perform a H13

operation.

b Twa children gave flowers to the president. c The historie centre of the city is aH area. d This kind of gambling machine is often called a

bandit.

e The narrow street s were lined withH shops. f Julia's visit to India was a experience. g Brian looked out of the windowat theH street. h A spokesperson explained that there was a HHH situation. Please send me a capy. j It's a joumey from here to the other side of the island. k There was an

explosion, followed by a thick cloud of smoke.

I

Dogs used for hunting have a

a

three-hours A life-changing A A traftic-freed high-developed life-saver

sense of smell.

B ear-shattered rain-soaked B one-arm's rained-soak one-armed Cthree-hour life's-changing highly-developing B brightly highly life-saved traftic-free life-changer rapid-change typewritten three-hourly ears-shattering bright-lighting developed litchanging BC traftic-freely typewriter seven-year-olds seven-years-old rapidly life-saving

7 Complete each sentence with an adjective fram the list. Use a dictionary to check the meaning. fme a b c d

great

heavy

high

light

long

law

narrow

open

short

small

We didn't want to eat too much before the theatre, sa we just had aliqhl lane is a very easy person to talk to, and is very friendly and There was a .. shower of rain, and we got soaked through. Bill was very thirsty and ordered a.. ....H ...drink.

e They didn't have a lot to say to one another, but spent the time on ... f His name is Alexander, or Alex for

wide

..... meal.

....talk.

g If you're looking for gifts, try Bentley's which sells a selection of local products. h There's a verYH line between being surprised and being amazed. Julia and I areHHHHH friends, and we get on really well. j I think it's time you stopped watching television and did same wark! k Ellis scored in the last minute, giving the team a H 89-88 victory.

I The govemment has promised to do more to help people on...

G

.....HHHH incomes.

8

Complete freshly

the text

with

prepared

much-reduced

home-cooked

time-saving hard-working large-scale

far-reaching

so-called traffic-clogged ready-made

a compound

adjective

from

the

list in each

gap.

home-produced locally

grown

Superma rket food Few of us have the luxury of aHh()~e:~pr.Qc:liI<::e:J increasingly

food fresh from our own garden,

we live in a world where such food is becoming

fresh fruit and vegetables

at b .H...

.

.

f are beginning

households.

The consequences

are

food, which also means that huge supermarket roads. Smali farmers,

IH

who produce

h

for

foods' sold in meals in many

i

. Food has replaced

which might

j ..

lorries are added to k ...

only smali quantities

... H...praduction,

Many .

solutions

to replace more traditional of su ch changes

buys them.

'convenience

have a long jou rney fram the other end of the country

can sell

few meals are c....

meals are e

people, and g

supermarkets

supermarkets

H.prices, not everyone

people cook very little at home, and in some households Frozen and d..

rare. Although

and

of food,

also find that supermarkets

prefer

and are often forced out of business

EXTENSION

ACTIVITY

A

Choose ten participle adjectives into your language. Then write

B

Choose ten compound adjectives fram these pages and translate them into your language. Then write an example sentence for each one.

from these an example

pages and translate them sentence for each one.

adjectives with infinitive or -ing adjective + to-infinitive •

ab/e / unab/e, carefu/, wrious, due, foo/ish, free, inelined, prepared, Sorry, but I'm unable to lend you the money The train is ready to leave.



it-sentences advisab/e, best / better, diffiw/t, easy, wrious, impossib/e, lt's easy (for peop/e) to make mistakes lt's curious to imagine what peop/e once used to think lt's best to leave before the rush hour.



ready, we/come,

willing

nice, possib/e

it's hard to p/ease you / you are hard to p/ease Same adjectives (eg easy, good, hard, impossib/e) can follaw this pattern: lt's impossible (for me) to reach the top she/f. The top shelf is impossible (for me) to reach.

Adjectives describing feelings (eg annoying, interesting, /ove/y, terrific, wark in a similar way. It was interesting to visit the cast/e. The cast/e was interesting to visit.

wonderful)

However, not ali alternatives wark in the same context. to see you. '
It was wonderful



adjective + of + person + to-infinitive good, great, interesting, /ove/y, nice, wonderfu/ It was good of you to see me. ( =:: thanks for seeing me) It was nice of you to think of me. ( =:: thanks for thinking of me) Compare: It was good to see you. ( =:: I enjoyed it)

adjective + that-c1ause or + to-infinitive •

afraid, angry, annoyed, ashamed, astonished, certa in, disappointed, sorry, sure, surprised, unhappy, upset, worried

g/ad, happy, p/eased, shocked,

In an infinitive construction the subjects of both c1ausesare the same. We were afraid to go back to the house. I was pleased to see him again. •

In a that-clause, the subjects of the clausescan be different. I was afraid that the bus was going to crash. I'm astonished that you haven't won the prize.

Note that it is possible to leave out that. I was afraid the bus was going to crash. •

A past infinitive may be possible. I was disappointed

not

to

have won.

adjective + that-c1ause •

aware, it's elear, confident, hopefu/, it's obvious, positive I wasn't aware that the ru/es had been changed It's elear that something has gon e wrong.

Note that it is possible to leave out that. •

e

fee/ + awfu/, bad, good, gui/ty, terrib/e I felt guilty that the others had been punished I felt go od that I had been proved right

(very sure)

adjective + that-c1ause wit h should •

Used in more formai speech and writing, and common in it-sentences. it's absurd, it's advisab/e, it's a/arming, /'m angry, /'m anxious, /'m ashamed, it's awfu/, /'m content, I'm determined, /'m eager, it's essentia/, it's fortunate, it's funny, /'m keen, it's natura/, it's unnecessary, it's odd, it's right, it's sad, it's sil/y, I'm sorry, it's strange, it's unusual, it's unfair, it's vital etc It's odd that you should say that! I was just thinking the same thing. I'm angry that they should take that approach to this issue. We are keen that he should take up this post immediately



Past simple is also possible. It was odd that he shou/d have forgatten.



These phrases can also be used informally without shou/d. I'm angry that they are taking that approach to this issue. lt was odd that he forgat.

adjective + -ing •

We can use busy, no good, (not) worth + -ing. We can use fee/ + awfu/, bad, good, gui/ty, terrib/e + ing. Martin 15busy cooking the dinner It's not worth seeing that film. I feel terrible leaving you alone Ilke that.

adjective + to-infinitive or -ing •

common

in it-sentences

a/arming, absurd, awfu/, cheap, dangerous, easy, *foo/ish, good, great, hard, hope/ess, /ove/y, nice, p/easant, point/ess, *rude, *sad, safe, *silly, strange, *stupid, *unwise, usefu/, use/ess, wis e, *wrong It was point/ess to do that / doing that. It's better to go naw It was sad to hear / hearing your bad news. It was lovely to see / seeing you. •

Those marked * can also be used with a person, with a to-infinitive. 11mwas foolish to give up his job. I'm sad to say I agree. You were wrong to say that. She's sil/y to spend sa much.



For it's easy / hard see above, adjective

+ to-infinitive

(it) makes me + adjective •





(it +) make + person + adjective + to-infinitive Use to describe how something makes us feel, wit h adjectives describing feelings: angry, ashamed, aware, embarrassed, furious, g/ad, happy, miserab/e, nervous, sad, tired, uncomfortab/e, unhappyetc. We can also use it makes me fee/ + adjective + to-infinitive. This news makes me feel embarrassed to be a member of this company Knowing that you love me makes me g/ad to be alive! It makes me sad to know that you feel you way you do. We can turn the it-infinitive into an ing-form and use it as the subject. Knowing that you fee/ you way you do makes me sad.

O

> +-'

Informally we can also use it makes me + adjective + -ing, especially with sad, happy, unhappy. It makes me sad knowing that you feel you way you do.

Seem /ook, appear can also be used instead of be in the constructions

io...

Q.)

C ~ C ..r:

be, seem, appear, look •

Ol

c: oI

+-'

above. V'l Q.)

>

u

+-' Q)

:.o

1

Underline the correct form.

a b c d

Sony, but I'm unable to help / helping you. It made me really angry to find out / finding out I'd been cheated. I think it's better to leave / leaving early. I'm sony, but it wasn't elear that you wanted / to want the projects finished today.

e It's hard for some people understanding / to understand maths. f It makes me angry to see /see so many people wasting their time. g Helen is busy getting / to get things ready for her party. h You are free to go / going whenever you want.

This book about astrophysics is impossible to understand / understanding. I was surprised that I found out / to find out what happened at the end of the film.

2

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, containing should.

a You are here at the same time! How odd! ll1s ..Qdd ..lhel.tjQl.-l

..shQL-tld..Qe-..he-re-..el ..lhe- ..SeMe-..liMe-, ....

b Why talk to me like that! It makes me angry! c Maria has won first prize. And that's right. d We have to work until IO.30! That's unfair! e No repetition of today's unfortunate f

events! I'm determined about that.

There's no security at all in the building! That's alarming!

g The employees feel badly treated. That's only natural. h You have the same initials as me! That's strange!

3

Complete the sentences about sport training by writing of the word is written for you.

a It's o

QviQLlS

one word in each gap. The first letter

that if you have a serious sporting ambition, you should go about

training in a serious manner. b It's e that you should follow a regular training programme. c It's really p to train a lot one week, and then miss training for two weeks. d It's b to work an another area of fitness (eg gym exercises, swimming etc) than do no training at all. e You should aIso be a

that diet and rest are important.

f Too much training can fi .you feel exhausted and unmotivated. g It's also L to get nutritional advice from an expert. h Most athletes are not to train without proper warming-up.

c

In some sports it is L and feedback from a coach.

G

It's v

. to improve your performance without visual recording

that you should refer any injuries to a sports elinic.

4

Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the word in capitals.

a I'd put on plenty of sun-cream before you go out, if I were you.

BEST

lll$Q?$lJpP?d::Ql\pl?l\lI1Q:f$?tvt~<::.r?erlAQ?.f.Qr?I1Q?.t'3pq?d::, b Your bad news upset me very much.

SORRY

c I find this bad weather depressing.

MISERABLE

d Something will have to be dane, obviously.

OBVIOUS

e Revising for exams takes up a11my time at the moment.

BUSY

f I rea11yenjoyed meeting David Bowie.

WONDERFUL

g I was unhappy that I had to lie to her.

TERRIBLE

h I intend to make sure this doesn't happen again.

DETERMINED GOOD

Thanks for giving me a lift.

5

Complete the text with a word fram the list in each gap.

aware

Science

be able

cIear hopeful

impossible

possible

surprised

unusual

unwilling

unwise

news

Scientists carrying out research in swamps in Sumatra have discovered the world's smallest fish. The female is only 7.9 mm. !t was thought to be a

JrlAppSs.ible,.that

any living organism should survive in the swamps, as the water is

extremely acidic. !t is also very low in minerais and this is thought to explain why it is b...

.

for larger speciesto

develop. Researchers examining satellite data from the Antarctic have been c and rivers beneath the ice sheets.'!t's d

to find that there are large lakes

that Antarctic ice is moving much faster than we supposed,' said

Professor Susan Graham from the Antarctic Survey. She was e

..

rapid rise in sea levels due to melting ice. '!t's f..

to predict at this stage exactly what this discovery means,

but it makes us g .

..

.

i

to say whether this would mean a more

O

>

to detect earthquakes fram space before they happen.

to monitor the build up of energy in the Earth's crust, and scientists are j ..

~ (])

that Antarctic ice could be melting faster than we had thought.'

Scientists at NASA believe that they may h !t's

..

Q)

'-c:I

...that this

information can be interpreted by computer programs which will give approximate predictions of future quakes.

+-'

C ~

C

~

+-' V1

(J)

EXTENSION

ACTIVITY

Write five example sentences based on each of these patterns. 1 I'm + adjective + that c1ause 2 It makes me + adjective + to ...

Need mare practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

> +-'

u (])

:o

adverbs adverbs and adjectives • • •

Some words ending -ty are not adverbs but adjectives: friend/y, /one/y, sil/y, ug/yetc. Some adverbs and adjectives have the same form: fast, dead, ear/yetc. Hard and hard/y are both adverbs, but have different meanings. I can hard/y hear you. (=almost not) You've worked hard. ( = with a lot of effort)

gradable •

and ungradable

Adjectives that describe age, size, beauty etc can be measured or graded, and are called gradab/e. We can use intensifiers very, extreme/y with them. This tree is extreme/y o/d. It's a very beautifu/ painting. This problem is extreme/y



adjectives and intensifiers

Ungradab/e

difficu/t.

I feel very unhappy

adjectives cannot be graded because the qualities they describe are either present or

absent. This painting is superb

We cannot say

This problem is impossib/e.

".·"t;"", .",•••••.•.""n"" •.I.

Tf,·",

degree adverbs: quite •

With gradable adjectives (or adjective + noun) or adverbs, quite has a negative meaning: 'not very much' or 'less than expected'. The film was quite entertaining, It's quite a /ong way to walk. They did the wark quite s/ow/y.

but I didn 't really enjoy it.



Wit h ungradable adjectives and adjectives with an 'extreme' meaning, quite means comp/ete/y. It can be used in the same way before a verb or adverb. I'm sorry, but you are quite wrong. (ungradable) This puzzle is quite impossib/e! (extreme meaning) I quite agree. (= I agree completely) I can't qu;te make up my mind. (not completely)



Quite can be used with + a / an + noun to show that something is unusual or interesting. That's quite a car!



Quite can be used with a superlative to mean 'very much'. That's qu;te the /ongest book I've ever read'

degree adverbs: rather •

Wit h gradable adjectives (or adjective + noun) rather has a stronger meaning than quite. It can be used in the same way before a verb or adverb. I think she's rather c/ever. This is rather a steep hill. We all worked rather

e

hardo

I rather like your friend Anna



Rather is common with negative adjectives. I thought the film was rather uninteresting. That was a rather stupid thing to do'



Rather is also often used with comparatives (see Unit 28). This painting is rather more interesting.

degree adverbs: fairly •

With gradable adjectives (or adjective + noun) fairly usually has a similar meaning to 'quite'. Fairly is lessstrong than quite. It can be used the same way before an adverb. She's a fairly good pianist, I suppose. (= not very good) They worked fairly hard, but that wasn't real/y good enough.

Soph;e ;s a fairly

90011 p;an;st

but she neel1s

to

pract;se

more.

intensifiers •

These are words that modify gradable adjectives and adverbs: very, extremely, real/y, terribly, particularly, awful/y etc. This is really tasty!





I thought the play was terrib/y

boring.

especial/y, particularly, real/y are often used with verbs. I really admire youl I particu/arly like this one.

Some intensifiers ten d to collocate wit h certain adjectives: absolutely

ridiculous,

completely

useless, entirely

unexpected,

greatly

admired,

obvious etc.

perfectly

There are no rules to explain which intensifiers go with which adjectives. •

Some ungradable adjectives, usually with a negative meaning, can be modified by utterly, complete/y, total/y. The food was comp/ete/y awfu/! The house was totally destroyed

in the explosion.

These adverbs can also be used with verbs. I comp/etely

agree with you.

We utter/y

condemn

what has happened.

comment and viewpoint adverbs •



Comment adverbs show the attitude of the speaker, eg elearly, probably, Sue naturally didn't agree. We obvious/y liked it. Alan kind/y gave us a lift. 5tupid/y, I had left my wal/et at home.

luckily, surprisingly,

foolishly.

Other sentence adverbs indicate how we should understand what follows, eg general/y, apparently, supposedly.



Viewpoint adverbs tell us from what point of view the speaker is talking, eg political/y,

financial/y,

technical/y. Environmentally, this was a disaster. ( = From an environmental point of view ...) Logically, this can't be correct.

Sometimes phrases are used for emphasis, eg political/y as far as politics is concerned

speaking,

from a political

point

of view,.

1

Underline ali the forms which are correct. a Bye for nowo I'1I see you rather la ter / soon /obviously. b Everyone acted welI, but I thought that Naomi did absolutely / fairly / particularly welI. c Tony can't quite / really / surprisingly decide what he wants to study at university. d If you work hard / extremely / hardly, I'm sure you'lI be a success. e Technically / Exactly / Apparently, this is one of the best low-cost cameras currently available. f Sorry, can you speak up - I can't quite / rather / really hear you. g The thatched cottage was completely / structurally / awfully destroyed by a devastating fire. h I'm leaving tomorrow early / extremely / quite in the moming, so I'1I say goodbye nowo See you again soon. Yours truly / fairly / friendly, Your friend Carl. Luckily / Really / Fortunately, we managed to catch the train at the last moment.

2

Underline ali the words in brackets which can be used to complete the sentence. a This French cheese you bought is .... tasty. b The hotel tumed out to be expensive. c Gina Evans is

expected to be com e deputy prime minister.

d The glu e I bought was useless so I had to buy some more. e It was. obvious that Jack had made a mistake.

f Sue was

disappointed to lose the match.

g The police decided that Tom was ... blameless. h We appreciate alI the help you gave us. I liked the first beach we went to. Quite honestly, I think this is

3

ridiculous.

(absolutely, realIy, completely) (clearly, incredibly, luckily) (considerably, greatly, widely) (completely, extremely, utterly) (completely, perfectly, realIy) (awfully, terribly, very) (entirely, extremely, greatly) (completely, greatly, widely) (absolutely, especialIy, particularly) (totally, utterly, very)

Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the word in capitals. a I realIy do understand how you feel.

QUITE

.... lq/-(i±~..?-lvtd~C$±gVl,d.hq~tj()/-( ..±e-~"....

e

b Nobody came to the party, which was unfortunate.

UNFORTUNATELY

c I didn't find the match very exciting.

RATHER

d The decision was disastrous from a financial point of view.

FINANCIALLY

e We realIy didn't expect this result.

ENTIRELY

f

KINDLY

Mrs Bums has agreed to provide sandwiches, which is kind of her.

g This printer is of no use at alI!

COMPLETELY

h I can't see the end of the road very welI!

HARDLY

The answer is as obvious as it could be.

PERFECTLY

H's logical to suppose that the missing money must be in this room.

LOGICALLY

4

Choose the best option, A, B, or C, to fili each gap.

Street design People in some British towns are eomplaining

about the a ..13

designed by 10eaI eouneil arehiteets. lt seems that one b and safety Iaws is a / an c as fountains,

unimaginative

uninteresting unexpeeted

approaeh to urban design. d ..

, street features sueh

steps and even eobbled roadways, are being excluded from our streets beeause of the risk

of aeeidents. e

, many eouneils are paying out huge sums on claims for damages made against

them by people who injure themselves in the street, and although it is f g...

streets and squares being

result of improved health

aeeident-proof

urban environment,

arehiteets are taking the easy way out. Henee the h

designs we now see in some eity eentres. lt seems ................. important

possible to design a / an

i

obvious that streets should be safe, but it is also

that they should make us feel proud to be walking in them. k .

who have eome up with I.

dull

, there are arehiteets

more ereative solutions, as a visit to many city eentres will show. So in the

end, it's up to Ioeal eouneils to try harder.

a

A politically rather rather A quite completely Fortunately A Logieally entirely Teehnieally swprisingly

B C rather rather fairly B BC Cpartieularly Absolutely extremely very fairly Financially hardly utterly Naturally hardly perfeetly extremely Really elearly hardly Apparently veT)! Surprisingly entirely

EXTENSION

ACTlVITY

Vl

Give some opinions using fair/y, quite, rather about the following: public transport

in your town

TV in your country

learning a foreign language

..o ~ (])

>

"'O lU

Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

making comparisons modifiers •

Comparisons can be modified to make them lessextreme. This is probably the best computer at the moment. Smiths is one of the largest companies in Britain. I've dane just about as much as I can. This isn't quite as easy as I thought. The new one is not nearly / half / nowhere near as good as the old one. It is nowhere near as good as the old one. (informal)



Comparisons can be made stronger. This is easily the best car in its c/ass. Football is far and away the most popular sport in the world. It's the most popular sport in the world by far Tennis is far / a lot / much more demanding. It's much / miles /Ioads more interesting. (miles and loads are informal) Golf is every bit as interesting as football. Golf is rather more interesting than I thought.

comparative constructions •

as + adjective + a + noun + as We asked for as large a car as possible. It's not as long a journey as I used to have.



too + adjective + a + noun A nuc/ear war is too terrible a thing to contemplate



not as / sa + adjective + to-infinitive + as It's not as / sa easy to explain as I thougM



sufficiently + adverb + to-infinitive Same students are unable to write sufficiently



(formal)

well to pass the test. (forma I)

more + adjective + than + adjective, or not sa much + adjective + as + adjective This construction can be used to make a distinction between two similar adjectives. I was more surprised than angry I wasn't sa much angry as surprised.

be + comparative + to-infinitive • it + be + comparative + to-infinitive It's cheaper to buy a return ticket. •

noun + be + comparative + to-infinitive French is easier to learn than Chinese Tennis is more interesting

to watch than golf. ( = It's more interesting to watch tennis than golf.)

comparative + comparative Two comparatives together are often used in descriptive writing, with verbs of becoming, changing, movement, etc. The bike began to go faster and faster. The boat was getting further and further away lane was growing more and more confused.



the + comparative or superlative + of the + number / quantity •

This structure can be used with a comparative to compare two things This is by far / easily the more interesting of the two.

• It

can be used with a superlative compare one thing with many things I think this one is the best of the lot / themall / the bunch. (informal)

present perfect + superlative We often use the present perfect with a superlative. This is the worst holiday I've ever had. (I'm on holiday That was by far / much the best film I've seen this year

now)

the + comparative, the + comparative •

This structure is often used to give advice. The more you put off going to the dentist, the worse you will feel. The longer you leave it, the more painful your tooth will become.



Adjectives and adverbs can be mixed. The more exercise I take, the more slowly



Fixed phrases include: The sooner, the better.

I run!

The more, the merrier.

like and as •

as ... as Stay for as long as you want. His hands were as cold as ice. You look as white as a ghost. as ... as is often used in proverbial expressions. He was as good as gold She's as happy as the day is long.



like A caravan is like a house on wheels

(it is similar)



look like, smelllike The schoollooks like a prison. (it resembles a prison) You smelllike a beautiful flower! (the smells are the same)



look Iike, sound like It looks like rain. (= it looks as if it's going to rain) That sounds like the postman. (= it sounds is if he has arrived)



feellike The pain felt like a burning needle in his arm. (it is similar) I feellike going out tonight. (That's what I want to do)



work as / lik e Sue works as a bar-maid compare:

They worked

at weekends. (She is a bar-maid) like slaves to get the project finished. (They are compared

to slaves) V'l



look as if + present simple / unreal past simple You look as if you need / needed a rest. You must be really tired

C O

V'l l0-

ro

Q.

enough and too •



not + adjective + enough + to-infinitive I wasn't quite old enough to get into the film (= I was nearly old enough.) He didn 't run fast enough to win too + adjective + to-infinitive The rescue services arrived far / much too late to save him It was too great

a

temptation

(for him)

to

resisf.

E O

u O)

C ~ ro

E

C

1

Underline the best word.

a This camera is easily the / a best of its type. b I wasn't sa much surprised as / than shocked by the result. c That was probably / not nearly the best football match I've ever seen! d Politics is too / so important an activity to be left to politicians. e H was as / too good an opportunity to miss, sa I accepted the job. f H's quicker to travel by bus than / like by car in the city centre. g As the medicine took effect, Tina became far and away / more and more sleepy. h You are every bit / mzles as responsible for what happened as lam. Cats are not nearly / a lot harder to understand than dogs. j This looks like / as the place. H fits the description, anyway. k I think the Harry Potter films are about as / a lot more interesting than the books. I This is definitely the better / the best beach we've been to sa far.

2

Complete the sentence with one word in each gap.

a b c d e

Budapest is one of theltt()$± beautiful cities in the world. You haven't really worked hard .. ..... to get a higher marko The more exercise you take, the you will feel! Quite honestly, I don't think this is as hard an examination it used to be. This is the most beautiful beach in the Mediterranean. Don't you think sa?

f I've dane just..............

as much shopping as anyone can do in one day! g The film was every.. . as entertaining as I expected it to be. h Most of Winterson's books are good, but I think this one is the best of .. The boat drifted .. . and no-one noticed Sue had fallen into the sea.

j

3

The hotel was a ..

alI.

. more expensive than I expected, sa I looked for a che ap er one.

k This crossword puzzle isn't quite as easy..

.

I

the best in the exhibition.

Helen's paintings were far and

I thought it was.

Complete the sentence with like, as, too or enough.

a You can use the pool.. c;{S many times as you like in a week. b We called the fire brigade but they didn't get to the house soon c Wear same warm clothes. H looks snowo d Harry walked into the city centre, but it was .. e A kilt is a bit a skirt, but for men.

.

Open a window! This room smells a farmyard! j The man next to me on the train was snoring .... . a pig. k Quite honestly, I thought the news was.. ....good to be true.

I

The ladder wasn't quite long

..to save it.

early to get any breakfast.

f At weekends Tony works a cashier in a supermarket. g They wouldn't let Dave into the club because he didn't look old .. h You don't look as well .. you did last week.

c

.

to reach the upstairs windowo

4

Choose the best option, A, B or C, to complete the sentence.

Memory It's quite common to hear sameone complain that their memory is ac;

as it used to be,

ar that the more things they try to remember, b

quickly they seem to forget. However,

memory is c

complicated than we

usually think. For example, remembering facts is not at aU d.

remembering

how to perform an action, and it seems that we don't 'forget' how to ride a bicycle ar drive a car. For same people, it may be e

to remember what they have just read

'.

f recaU where they left their car keys. or course, g interesting a topie is, the more we remember

about it, and we are almost certainly h

to recaU something we have read

ar seen recently, because it remains active in aur memory. Where studying is concerned, certainly ways of making the me mory sa note-making

and summarizing

i

It's j

are important,

I

there are

to remember disorganized information,

and the learner, not the teacher, has to do this.

Regular reviewing of what has been learned is k learners have

•••••.

ways of strengthening

memory. Same

visual than a verbal memory, and may remember more by associating ideas

with visual images. There are plenty of books on the market which illustrate these techniques, always assuming that you can remember to buy one!

a

A just just less the as important same good about as(aster as much Aprobably by (ar A not (aster nearly as and good easy as as

B B

i(

worse the like than more the easier lotmore and easier much more and easier anowhere better more more near as not as good easily as not soC Cto the easy one it's as best just o(likely the as (argood more and and as more every away more bit important asbest

Vl

EXTENSION A

Make statements about these topies, including a comparative or superlative, and using some of the modifiers on the explanations page. a film, book etc

B

ACTIVITY

something you dislike

a sport

an activity

Check these proverbial as ... as expressions. What is the equivalent in your language? as cool as a cucumber as hard as nails

as easy as pie as keen as mustard

as free as a bird as large as life

C O Vl lm Q..

E O

u O) C ~ m

E Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

~

place and movement, prepositional phrases prepositions and adverbs •

A preposition always has an object, but many prepositions of place can be used as adverbs (adverb particles) with no object. What's inside the box? (preposition) Shall we wait inside? (adverb) Others include: above, across, along, around, behind, below, beneath, by, in, inside, near, oft, on, opposite, outside, round, through, under, underneath, up. These adverbs often combine wit h verbs (see Unit 29). Come on! Please sit down.



Some adverbs cannot be used as prepositions Brian lives abroad. The red car moved ahead.

and do not have objects.

These adverbs can often be used with a preposition The red car moved ahead of the blue one.

and an object.

place At, on and in, and their variations such as within, upon are used with be and verbs that describe position not movement, eg sit, stand, live etc. • at a place, an address, a house, a building, a point on a journey She's at the shops / at home / at 12 Green Street / at the cinema / at the Grand Hotel Thi" train doesn't stop at Acton. (point on a journey) •

on

He was standing on the chair trying to reach the book on the top shelf. She was on the bus / train / pIane



in

aroom, container etc, a city, country ar area It's in the kitchen / in your pocket / in New York / in Greece / in the car.

movement •

With a verb of motion, eg come, go etc we use to, into /onto, out ot, towards and other prepositions or adverbials that involve movement: along, up / down, through, across etc. He ran out of the house and down the street.

word list •

round / around These are used to talk about movement Follow the road round





to

the left.

as in a circle.

I've been walking around

the centre.

abroad, ahead, ashore Ashore implies movement, while abroad and ahead can be place or movement. Several boxes were washed ashore later that day (= to the shore) Peter lives abroad. I'm going abroad next week Let's stop now we are ahead. United have now moved ahead in the tit/e race. across /over With a verb of motion these often have the same meaning She walked across / over the road.

(from one side to the other).

Over can also mean 'covering an area' or 'above' wit h a verb of motion. The police put a blanket over his head. They f/ew over the mountains. •

e

along / on / alongside Along means 'in the direction of a line'. He walked along the top ofthe On just describes place, not movement in a line. He sat on the wall. Alongside means close to the side. The road runs alongside the canal.

wall.



away (fram), out (of), in, back (to) Away (fram) describes a movement, the opposite of towards. Come away from the firet It's dangerous. To be away means you have left home for some time, perhaps to stay somewhere else. Helen and Bill are away in France. Anna is away from school today

We often use far with away, or as an adjective to describe a place. I wish I was far away from here.

It's at the far end of the room.

Out (of) can mean 'not at home', in can mean 'at home'. Back (to) describes a returning movement. I'm afraid Maria is out / isn't in at the moment. She's out of town. When wil/ she be baek? •

backwards,

forwards

Come baek! I want to talk to you!

/ forward

80th describe a direction of movement. This bus is going baekwards! Backward •

and forward

I reached forward

and took her hand.

are also used as adjectives eg a forward

movement.

by, past

80th describe something that passes,wit h verbs of motion. We wa/ked past / by the house twice before we recognized it. Someone ran past / by me and threw a bag to the ground.



up / down

Often used with raad, street etc to mean along. I saw him as I was walking up the road. •

above, below, over, under Above and over can be used to mean the same thing, especially when something is at a

higher level exactly vertically. We used to live in a fiat over / above a restaurant.

In other contexts, above means at a higher level than something, and not touching it, while over means touching. There is a forest above the vil/age. They put a blanket over him. Undercan mean 'covered by' while belo w has a more generai meaning 'at a lower level'. There's a cat under the tab/e. Terry lives in the fiat be/o w us.

V1
Under can also mean 'less than' and over 'more than' with numbers and measurements. The total cost of the project was over E2 mil/ion. There were over 200 peop/e present. Are you over sixteen? •



among, between Among means 'in a num ber of things', between means 'in the middle of two things'. Among the guests were several of Tom's old teachers. We live half way between London and Oxford.

V1

ro !o...

.J:: o.. ro

C O +-'

pairs Many adverbials are used in pairs to describe movement, usually in first one direction, then the other, and repeated.

V1

backwards and forwards (back and forth) to and fra raund and raund up and down in and out He's been pacing baekwards and forwards for an houf. The children were running in and out of the house.

o..

O

o..
+-'~

c:
phrases

E
Many prepositions form phrases with nouns. Check meanings wit h a dictionary. on in

at above below under

on trial in contral at war above average belowaverage under construction

on average in charge at peace above the law

on the way in the way at rest

under pressure

under suspicion

> O

E "'D

C ro Q)

V

ro

o..

1

Underline the best word. a Jane isn't here at the moment. She's in / at / to the shops. b The children ran at / down / on the street shouting. c Does this bus go at / to / in Southampton? d Maria could see someone coming at / towards / anto her. e You'll find more coffee in / on / at the top shelf. f Are you coming at / to / in the cinema this evening? g Delivery on purchases is fn~e at / by / within the London area. h With a shriek, Juliet fell senseless at / upon / down the floor. Walk along / on / through Hillway Road until you come to the roundabout. We spent an enjoyable evening at / in / on the theatre.

2

Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the word in capitals. a Jim covered his he ad with a sheet and pretended to be a ghost.

OVER

.clil1A.p~±..g ..she:e:± ..qve-, ..~.ic;;...f1e:g4 ..gV\4 ..PCe:±e:V\cl~cl ..±O ..be- ...0 ..CJ~qC;;±~ ....

3

b Anna walked from one side of the street to the other.

ACROSS

c I wish I were a long distance from here.

AWAY

d When do you think Alan will return? I want to talk to him.

BACK

e The dog was running in circles and barking furiously.

ROUND

f I first visited Moscow more than forty years ago.

OVER

g The temperature is lower than usual for this time of the year.

BELOW

h The elephant was coming in Peter's direction at high speed.

TOWARDS

When he's not with his friends, David stops showing off.

AWAY

We paid less than €200,OOO for this flat.

UNDER

Complete each sentence with a word from the list. abroad

among

ashore

away

by

a The Smiths aren't at home. They'reQul

backwards

ettt through at the shops, I think.

b The train went H a long tunnel before it stopped in the station. c You have to stand the fridge at least 20 cm from the wall. d Helen has left the country and gone to live . e Angela walkedHHHH me without saying a word. f The boxes felI off the ship and were later washed ......H

e

200 km away.

gHHH those present at the ceremony was the local MP, Claire Sims. h The car starte d slipping .. . ..down the hill.

4

Complete the second sentence with one word so it means the same as the first. Use a dictionary if necessary. a I really don't have any time to spare. rm /1\ a hurry. b Helen often travels abroad as part of her job. Helen often travels abroad .. .....business. c As things are, we'll replace the faulty machin e free of charge . ....the circumstances, we'll rep lace the faulty machine free of charge. d Leave the building as quickly as you can. You are all at risk. Leave the building as quickly as you can. You are all danger. e For ten long years, the twa countries fought each other. For ten long years, the twa countries were war. f

The company employees have stopped workingin The company employees are .. ......strike.

order to get what they want.

g After buying the remaining shares, Michael Wilson is naw head of the company. After buying the remaining shares, Michael Wilson is naw control of the company. h I supposed that lane would be bringing the keys with her. I was the impression that lane would be bringing the keys with her. The police said that David was to blame for the accident. The police said that David was fault for the accident Generally speaking, a child dies on the roads every day of the year . . . average, a child dies on the roads every day of the year.

5

Complete each sentence with one word. a Please sit4QWI\ b c d e f

over there.

Vl

When the pIane rose the clouds, there was brilliant sunshine. The cat jumped .. the wall and landed in next door's pond. I walked .. . the security check without noticing it was there. The policeman walked up and the street checking the doorways. They're building a new house.. . aur house and the primary school.

a; Vl m

~

...c

Q. m

c O

g We walked the riverbank looking for a good place to fish. h The teacher put Mark charge of the class during her absence. Walking is difficult if you don't look over your shoulder. j After the murder, several people were . . suspicion.

+-'

k The police officer stopped the fight and stood . I You'd better tum round. The road is blocked further

+-'

the twa men. .

Vl

O Q. a; ~ Q.

C a; E a;

>

O

E '1J

C m

Q.

6

Complete the text wit h one word in each gap.

~ Arriving by bicyc1e Tum a

fordwich Road frorn Malling Road.

Ja-f-Q

Walk b c

the visitors' car park until you corne to the science building. your right there is a footpath running d

Take this footpath and follow it e Directly f

the side of the building.

the left.

, there is a bicycle shed for visitors g

your bicycle here. fordwich l10use is h

your left. Please leave

the end of the footpath.

Arriving by car Drive

i

the town centre until you see a sign for Malling Road (A1202).

Once you have passed Downs Road take the second right, which is fordwich Road. follow the blue signs for visitors' parking. Please park j

7

the archway at the far end of the car park and take the footpath running

I

the two large buildings. fordwich l10use is at the m

Complete the sentence wit h one suitable word. Use a dictionary

a b c d

the visitors' car park. Walk

k

end of the path.

if necessary.

The children kept running in and aul of the room. The injured man was swaying to and and looked as if he was about to collapse. That policeman has been walking and down outside the house for an hour. I've be en driving round and this city alI day!

e Next door's burglar alarm has been ringing and off for two hours. f People came from and wide to see the Christmas lights in the main street.

e

g I've be en going and forwards to the hospital alI this week. h Our company offers cheap holidays both at home and

8

Complete the texts with a phrase from the list in each gap.

along the western side between on the plains

Global warming

along the route in danger on the island

below average ifi Ifidia through the region

spelIs disaster for Ganges

Scientists ajV\.JVlc/ig have warned that an ancient glacier in the Himalayan region of Nepal is b.. . of melting before the end ofthe century. Water from the glacier feeds the River Ganges which f10ws CH

mountain monsoon

l

, supplying water to millions of people. At present .....H' rivers depend on glacial melt, and d.. rains provide much of the water. However, these rains may well fali

e......

.

levels in future as a result of climate change.

J

Hi-speed

railway

under construction

The high-speed rail project f .. in Taiwan promises to promote and balance economic growth g . The railway, which will run h of the country, involves the construction of a high-speed raillink i.. . Taipei in the north and the port of Kaohsiung Six stations have been constructed

1'0

C O +-' V'l

O

Q.
lQ.

in the south.

+-'~

c

. (2005)


E
> O m~~1:

-~.: -

A B

'"~~~,.~~~ 8::~~~",~_';;;:~"A<-

.-""~

'::'~~7".-"-::.._::;"

' ..... 'EXTENSION ~

ACTIVITY ~

Translate the answers to Exercise 3 into your language. Use a dictionary to find phrases beginning: above

be/ow

under

above all e/se

You can also use an Internet search engine.

E -O

C 1'0


V 1'0

Q.

time words yet and already •

Yet comes at the end of questions and negatives, and in BrE is used with perfect tenses. I haven't dane it yef.



Have you seen that film yet?

Already is not normally used in negative sentences and it can take any position. I've dane it already / I've already dane it He's already here.

for, since, ago •

For is used with a period of time. I haven't seen him for weeks / for ages.

I've been waiting for an hour.

For can be used with past simple as well as present perfect. Maria lived in Rome for a year. •



Since is used with a point of time, and comes before the time reference. I haven't seen him since last Thursday I've been waiting since 10.00.

Ago refers to a period of time going back from now, and comes after the time reference. Ilast saw him

a

week ago.

I started waiting an hour ago.

by, until, so far •

refers to an action which will happen at some point before a certain time, though we do not know exactly when. 1'11 cali you at six. 1'11 have finished my wark by then. (= at some point before) By the time I len I was tired. (I became tired during the time before)



Until/ till refers to a point of time at the end of a period of time. I waited until six, and then Ilett. 1'11 be here until Thursday, but then I'm going to Paris.



For a situation that continues into the future, we use 50 far. The police have been searching ali day, but 50 far they haven't found anything. (and they are still looking)

By

Note that we cannot use until now in this context.

by, past By

or past with go can also describe time that passes. A week went by / past, and no letters came for Helen.

during, throughout •

During describes a point in a period of time, or a whole period of time. The house was broken into during the nighf. (point in a period) During the day, cats tend to sleep. (whole period)



Throughout emphasizes 'from the beginning to the end'. She had many successes throughout her career. (ali the time) There were several explosions during the nighf. (at some points)

after, afterwards, later •

is a preposition and needs an objeet. Afterwards that', and can stand alone.

After

is an adverbial meaning 'after

see you after the lesson. I've got a lesson now 1'/1 see you afterwards.

1'11

e



Later or later on means 'at some time after this', and is more general. It can combine with a time word to make a more specific reference. Bye for now

1'11

see you la ter.

1'/1

see you later this afternoon.

on time, in time •

On time means 'at the moment which was arranged'. The opposite is /ate. The train arrived exact/y on time



In time is the opposite of too /ate. The paramedics did not arrive in time to save the man's life.

(They were tOG late to save him.)

at last, finally, in the end, at the end •

At /ast is used when something you have been waiting for happens. At last you are here! I've been waiting for 50 /ong to see you'



Final/y introduces something that happened after a long time. It is usually positioned before the verb. We finally moved into the f/at last Thursday

It also begins a sentence, to describe the last in a series of events or process, or introduce the last thing you want to say. Finally, the products are packed in cardboard boxes and sent to the warehouse. Finally, I'd like to propose a toast to the bride and groom.

nowadays, these days Both are used to describe generai present time. Nowadays very few men wear hats. Most people these days wear casual c1othes.

once, one day, at once •

Once refers to a past event, or something which used to exist but no longer does. I ance ate nothing but apples for three days! There was ance a castle here, but it was destroyed many years ago. Once can also mean as soon as. Once we got on the piane, we started to relax



One day can have past or future reference. One day I was waiting for the bus, when suddenly I saw ... I hope that one day everyone in the world will have enough to eat.



At once means immediately. Please make sure you complete the letter



at once.

Ali at ance means suddenly. Ali at once there was a knock at the door.

in, within In and within can mean 'before the end of a period of time'. Within is more forma!. Helen managed to finish the exam paper in / within fifteen min utes. Please be sure to return the completed form within fourteen days of receipt.

They can also have future reference. 1'11 see you in four days / in four days' time.

next Tuesday etc Although we use on with days and dates, we cannot use on if we use next or last. 1'11 see you on Friday.

1'11see you next Friday.

1

Underline the best word.

a Harry has already / before / yet decided which university he wants to go to. b I've got to go now, but 1'11see you after / later. c If I haven't finished past / by / until six, 1'11give you a call. d Luckily, we landed exactly in time / on time, so we were able to catch our connecting flight. e Apparently, Sam at once / once played football for Scotland. f Kate waited for Pat by / until / since 6.30, but then gave up and went home. g Later / ance / One day I got used to the water, it didn't feel so cold. h Martin had a bad attack of hay-fever within / during / on the film and had to leave. In the end / At the end of the lesson Kate waited outside for her friend. 1'11see you on next Saturday / next Saturday / the next Saturday, same place, same time.

2

Complete the sentence with one phrase from the list.

at last at once by now during the night ever since for weeks in half an hom in the end in time until 5.30 a 1'11be here ..

4I'1,lile),'BO

,

but 1'11have to leave then.

b , a tree next to the house was struck by lightning. c The whole basketball team has been training hard d Good news! The plumber has turned up to fix the shower, .. e Wait for me here, and 1'11be back .. f That's very odd! Alan should have got here ..... g , the whole trip turned out to be a disaster. h I've be en looking forward to meeting you .. . I heard you were coming. Tina arrived at the station just .. to see the train draw away fram the platform. I need to speak to you urgently. Please come to my office ..

3

Complete the text with one word in each gap.

Vesuvius Vesuvius is a volcano which started forming about 25,000 years a .. gqq b................. its best-known eruption in 79 AD, which destroyed the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, the volcano had c.. . erupted many times, but its history had be en forgotten. It seemed to have d.......... grown quiet, and was covered in gardens and vineyards. e hundreds of years the Romans lived around the volcano without realizing the danger. f the 79 AD eruption, which is thought to have lasted 19 hours, the volcano released about four cubic kilometres of ash and rock over a wide area. Down the sides of the mountain rushed a pyrocastic tlow, a cloud of superheated gas and ash, which g the time it reached the cities below had a temperature of about 350°C. This is probably what killed their populations. h the eruption of 79 AD, Vesuvius has erupted around three dozen times, with four serious eruptions i.. .the past 100 years. It last erupted in 1944, and j scientists learn to accurately predict the dates of serious eruptions, the risk of a sudden eruption remains a constant danger to the three

c

million people living nearby.

4

Complete

the sentence

a The convicted

with one word.

bank robber was sent to prison±Q[

six years.

b I'm a bit busy now but I can see you e The contract

on.

should be ready for signing

d By the time we got to the theatre, e H's ages

a week.

the play had ..

..

started.

I last read a really good novel.

f There's no point in calling Chris, because he won't be awake g I was

in yom situation,

so I know how you must feel.

h My project is due in on Friday, but I won't have finished The letter I had been waiting Sam hasn't

.

for

it

then.

arrived on Satmday

felt well

the beginning

morning.

of the year.

5 Choose the best word, A, B or C, for each gap. The BattLe of ThermopyLae The Battle of Thermopylae took place nearly 2500 years a .. C. .., Greece.

A

huge Persian army

moved

when the Persian King Xerxes

down the east coast of Greece b ..

Thermopylae, which was defended by Leonidas with 300 Spartans, 600

. slaves

invaded

it reached the narrow pass of .. and a small number of other

Greeks. The Persian army halted, and soon c............ a Persian scout reported to the king that the Greek defenders were combing their hair, their custom before battle. The Persians waited d.... while they tried to persuade the Greeks to

but the Greeks held firm. e ....

leave,

.. four days

on the fifth day the

the following two days, the Persians launched ,an attack but the Greeks easily defeated them. f.. Persians attacked again and again, but g the end of the second day the pass had still not been taken, and thousands of Persians had been slaughtered. On the third day a traitor, Ephialtes, offered to show the Persians a secret path force set off and

over

the mountains to the rear of the Greek position. h

a large

a brief battle with the Phocians who were defending the path, the main Greek

i..

army was surrounded. j ....

the small Greek force was completely destroyed, but their

bravery

and skill

and the small size of their army shocked the Persians, and won them a place in history. at ance since B at last a A Buntii In la theterend A Afterwards since until On time BBy C within Once Until Clater Aby ago A During B past Finally Immediately after C Already aftelwards after for

VI

EXTENSION Write some examples

ACTIVITY

which include these phrases.

since the beginning af the year for three manths until the end af the week by the time Ileave taday later on at the end at ance one day Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 20B,

"'O

•.. O

S E

verb and preposition This section lists verb + preposition foliowed by noun / verbal noun (-ing) patterns or a wh-c1ause. Some of these verbs also have verb + that-c1ause patterns, or can be foliowed by a wh-clause, or an infinitive, but these are not listed here. Other meanings are also possible. Always check with a dictionary.

about boast about / of dream about / of guess about protest a'bout / against

She is always boasting about her och relatives. I've been dreaming about / of you latelyl For centuries people have guessed about the nature of the un/verse. The students are protesting

about / against

the war.

against advise against advise on / about argue for / against argue with decide against / in favour of decide on insure against vote against / for

We advise you against travelling alone. He advises the government on / about global warming. The report argued against any change /n the law Stop arguing with your sister' I've decided against buy/ng a larger car. We decided on Greece for our hol/day You should insure ali your belongings against theft. More than a hundred MPs voted against the proposais.

at glance at / through laugh at laugh about

I've only just g/anced at the pap er. I haven't read it in detal!' We weren't /aughing at you. (a person) Something silly happened, and we've been /aughing about it ali day

between choose between

You might have to choose between

your work and your sociallife.

for account for admire sne for al/ow for apologize for blame sne for blame on charge for charge with pay for

Poor weather cannot account for the sheer number of accidents. I admire you for your honesty In the financial plan, you have to allow for unforeseen future costs. I must apologize for being late. The traffic is a nightmare tonight. I b/ame myself for everything that happened They b/amed the crash on the bus driver. We won 't charge you for use of the gym. It's free for guests. A man arrested nearby has now been charged with murder. Let me pay for the coffee. You paid last time.

from benefit from deter from differ from

e

distinguish sth from distinguish between resign from result from result in suffer from

Many people have benefited from the government's new polic/es. The bad weather didn't deter people from trave/ling to the match. How exactly does a toad differ from a frog? It can be hard to distinguish faet from fiction. Only experts can distinguish between genuine and fake paint/ngs. Tom was forced to resign from the company The acc/dent resulted from poor maintenance of the rai/way traeks. A three-hour delay resu/ted in the patient's death. After the acc/den( she suffered from double vision.

in involve sne in sth specialize in succeed in trust in

The goal is to involve workers in the decision-making prace55. Anna specializes in Latin American dancing. Fortunately, we succeeded in rescuing all the passengers. You should have trusted in me alittle more.

of accuse sne of approve of convict of know of / about remind sne of suspect of taste of

They accused Jim of stealing three cars. I don't approve of children staying up too late. After a long tria I, he was convicted of theft and sentenced to four years. 00 you know of / about any flats to rent in this area? That old man reminds me of my grandfather. Police suspect the same man of breaking into four other houses nearby This is supposed to be chicken soup but it doesn't taste of chicken!

on base on concentrate

on

congratulate sne on depend on elaborate on impose on insist on

The authar has based the book on her experiences in China. You need to concentrate more on your written wark. We must congratulate you on passing your driving test. How much money you make will depend on how much you invest. The prime minister refused to elaborate on his statement any further. The council has imposed higher parking charges on 4x4 vehicles. Jane insisted on seeing the doctor immediately

to apply to attend to confess to devote sth to sne

The restrictions no longer apply to those aver 75. Please wait here. Sameone will attend to you shortly Twa men have confessed to stealing the lorry Louisa devotes a lot of time to her children.

explain 5th to sne object to prefer 5th to 5th refer to see to

Could you explain this to me please7 Many local residents have objected to the redevelopment scheme. Personally I prefer tea to coffee. Kate referred to the matter several times when I spoke to her. The central heating has braken down, but sameone is coming to see

to

it.

with associate with charge sne with col/ide with confuse with deal with discuss sth with sne plead with provide with tamper with trust with

Same people only associate sport with their school years. They charged Bill with receiving stolen gaods. The speeding car collided with a tree. /'m sorry but you're confusing 'profit' with 'turnover'. /'ve been dealing with this problem all morning. I need to discuss something with you. She pleaded with her parents to let her go on the trip. The school authorities provides all pupils with textbooks. Someone almost certainly tampered with the bus and caused the crash. Can I trust you with a secret/

(See also Units 37, 38, 39, phrasal verbs.)

cO +-'

In O

n. (]) l0.-

n. ""O

C CO

.n lo.-

(])

>

1

Underline the best word. a The head teacher accused George fI[ / for starting the fight. b I haven't really read the report properly. I just glanced for / at it while I was on the train. ( I strongly object to / for the tone of the last paragraph of your letter. d Sarah was involved in / with a traffic accident on hel' way to work. e Harry pleaded with / to the judge not to send him back to prison.

f I always confuse Kate with / on hel' sister Maggie. H's hard to tell them apart. g A diesel engine differs {rom / to a petrol engine in many important respects. h Same business people find it har d to choose with / between their work and their family. I insisted on / for seeing the doctor at ance, even though I did not have an appointment.

2

Complete the sentence wit h a preposition. a b c d

The future of civilization dependsC)Vl .. our use of technology. I would advise you taking any violent exercise before the leg has healed. The manager feels that nabody else can be trusted the keys to the safe. Two boys have confessed setting fire to the school.

e f g h

l'd like to congratulate you passing the examination. We finally decided a camping holiday in Greece. ]im has been suffering severe headaches for same time. Helen voted the proposal, but everyone else voted against. Harry says that his car accident has not deterred him

3

driving again.

Choose the best word, A, B or C, for each gap.

Goats in My Bathroorn Jane Howe's book Goats in

My Bathroom

is ac:

hel' experiences on a Mediterranean

island. Jane has always b escaping from the rat race, but has never c taking the plunge, and is trapped in a duH nine-to-five job in an insurance office. After a comic episode with an amorous boss, she d the job and heads for the sun, and this is the story of hel' adventurous new life. And there is plenty to e ! She has to f short-sighted builders who can't understand a word she says, and then gets g a dispute with hel' neighbours about the mysterious disappearance of twelve goats, which the whole village h

her. She is also the kind of person who seems to

saying the wrong thing at the wrong time, but somehow, surprise, surprise, the local population end s up completely j her. How does she do it? You'H just have to read the book.

i

A marvelled concentrated on B C involved inwith A at accounted B collide based succeeded deal involve devoted seen with on with to in to in choose between B blames on{rom advised confide congratulate in against on A specialize a in A C protest agreed identified depends charges B benefited borrowed resigns for on about with on from {rom

4

Complete

each sentence

advise

apply

with a verb from the list.

benefit

blame

boast

a If I were you, I'dc:()~c.?I't:±r::g±~HH b We will c Richard likes to

concentrate

more on studying,

specialize

tamper

and forget sport for a while.

their poor performance

e A security guard caught someone

trying to ..

I think you should .. .

in psychiatrie

in the area will.....

The new regulations

.

..

on others.

with the CCTV camera.

.

.HHHHthis problem

g Helen would like to .. h Everyone

refer

you with aU the necessary equipment. about his success as a foatbaUer.

d Some people always try to

f

provide

to an expert. medicine.

trom the new social centre and sports club. . to anyone parking in the area between 8.00 and

20.00. I..

5

.

Complete

you against taking this case to court, as it will not succeed.

the text with one word in each space.

Wornen and the First World War After the outbreak of war in August 1914, as more and more men became ajYlYQly~d

.... in the war effort,

many women replaced them at wark. However, most employers b between jobs they thought were suitable for women, such as office work and work in the c10thing industry, and others, such as in heavy industry, where they believed women's skilIs (H

greatly from those of men.There were

other reasons why they did not d

of

women working in heavy industry.They felt that women would not be able to e in skilled engineering work, and they also feared that the unions would f..

....on restricting such jobs to men

only. By 19 16 the war effort had g

In a

severe labour shortage, and the employment of women was to some extent h..........H

on an unwilling

nation by circumstances. Soon government industries such as munitions manufacturing

i.. .

on women to a great extent, and those who had j

to women in men's

jobs were proved quite wrong, as women took on a range of jobs - engineering, welding, steel working, bus driving - which had previously been k

co .•...

exclusively with men.

olI'l

Q. C])

l..-

Q. "'O

C

ro Write some examples argue about

describing

dream about

things you: admire someone

Need more practice7 Go to the Review on page 208.

..o l..for

approve

/ don't approve

of

C])

>

prepositions with adjectives and nouns A selection of phrases is given here. Always use a dictionary to check meaning and context. Note that other prepositions may be possible, with different meanings. The most common are given here.

adjective and preposition •

about curious about the subject pleased about / with your performance right / wrong about something sorry about / for being late

angry / annoyed about something anxious about the test results upset about / over / by something not sure about the answer

• at amazed at the difference / by the difference (+ similar words shocked, surprised) •

angry / annoyed at / with someone good / bad / awful/ terrible etc at tennis

for eager / desperate / impatient famous for its cheeses

for news

ready for something different responsible for the damage

feel sorry for a person •



from absent from school different from / to the others

in interested





free from additives safe from harm

in ballet

of afraid of the dark

fond of children

ashamed of myself (un)aware of the problem (in)capable of doing better

free of charge jealous of his brother

on keen on gardening



with satisfied

with the work

good with his hands

be + participie -ed + preposition Note that many participies are used as adjectives, see also the list above. •



about I'm concerned / worried

about Tom.

in She was absorbed

in her work.

I'm not interested

in buying the house.

• to I'm now resigned Peter wasn 't used •

to the fact that I was to the hot climate.

wrong.

Maria is addicted

to

Internet chatrooms.

with We are faced with serious social problems. He was confronted with a diffiwlt situation. Are you acquainted with this article? The train was packed with people. This meeting is concerned with the details of the scheme. (formal: is dealing with, is about) I was bored by/with this film

e

noun + preposition •

for I have no sympathy for you I have a lot of respect for your view

15

there room for one more?

You must take responsibility

for your actions.

• on Kate is an authority •

over this dog!

to This is an exception



Coffee can have an effect on appetite.

over You have no control



on Picasso.

to the rule.

We need a solution

to this problem.

with Sue has a good relationship

with her parents.

preposition + noun phrases • at More than a hundred homes are The company was

at

at risk.

At any rate, nobody was injured. ( = anyway)

fault for the power cut.

• by I went to the wrong house by mistake. The antique vase was broken by accident. The army took over the country by force.



for /'11be staying here for the time being. Gur team won yesterday for a change.



out of I think that attitude is rather out

of

da te.

It's out of stock but we can order it for you The books were out of reach on the top shelf. What a terrible shot! /'m out of practice! •

Vicky is in trouble with the police. In theory this works, but not in practice! In business, mistakes can be costly Sam was in tears at the end of the film.

on Storms occur once a month on average Run' The house is on fire!



Sorry, but the car is not for sale.

in Please describe what happened in detai/. Jim was in danger and had to be rescued. You need to come to the office in person. The doctor asked if I was in pain.



We met completely by chance. Can I pay by cheque / by credit card? I know this poem by heart.

I think Helen broke the cup on purpose. The railway workers are on strike again.

/'m afraid the lift is out of order. You're singing out of tunel /'ve been running and /'m out of breath. Good news. Jan is now out

of

danger.

under Under the circumstances, we accept your excuse. ( = considering the special ditficulties) I was under the impression that you had finished the work. (that's what I thought) The fire was brought under control after an hou(



without Please send my order without delay. This is without (aj doubt an important day

You must be here at 8. 00 without Everyone must be here, without

fai/. exception. Vl

c: O .•... Vl

O

Q. (1)

l-

Q.

1

Underline

the best word.

a lane has been absent trom / at school for several days this month. b Charles is very fond for / of the sound of his own voice. c Sorry, but 1'm not acquainted

with / in the details of the plan.

d Kate is still anxious for / about her exam results. e You know that stealing is wrong! You should feel ashamed

f

Because we are students,

we get into all the museums

g Our town is famous for / from its medieval h Is anyone

interested

The transport

system is incapable

The minister

2

Complete chance

date

detail

churches.

(rom / of dealing with the increasing

number

would be ready for / with the opening

of commuters. of the Games.

with a noun trom the list. effect

fault

accused Tim of breaking

b What

free (rom / of charge.

a tai-chi club?

said she was sure the stadium

each sentence

a The teacher

in / with starting

with / of yourself!

person

practice

the window

purpose

room

time

onpUCrQSe,

did the closing of the factory have on you?

c My French is terrible! I'm really out of d I found the address I was looking for completely e Before my parachute

f The computer

jump, the instructor

by

explained

in

what would happen.

software I've been using is now out of

g Alan was unable

to receive the award inH

but his manager

received it on his behalf.

h There's H. .. ...HHHHH.HH for at least three more people at the back. I've decided to stay here for the The inquiry

3

Complete

be ing, and think about moving

found that the builders were not at ..

.

next yeal.

for the collapse of the building.

the text using a phrase fram the list in each gap.

an effect on annoyed by at fault aware of better at by mistake different from in business without exception wrong about

EFFECTIVE

(OMMUNICATION

a ...lnQ?i$il'1,~$S ....how staff communicate with each other and wit h customers is vitally important. Not everyone is b

the importance of using both the right language and the appropriate

tone of voice. You can give someone the right information, but be c...

.

the way you

have chosen to express yourself when you do this. In this case, you could be sending the wrong message d..

.

, by putting it in an inappropriate way. The same issues apply to writing. The

way you come across in an email may be very e ..H

the way you speak on the phone,

or talk to someone face to face. Some people may even be f...

.

what you say if you

appear too friendly or tOGdistant. In writing, the organization of a letter or email, its typeface and general appearance can also have g..

c

how the message is understood. In this case your style

of writing may be h ..HHHHH'

and you may need more practice. It may be true that some

people are naturally

communicating than others, but ali staff,

j..

i..

.

....., need training in this area, and their performance should be monitored.

4

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, containing the word in capitals. a I didn't know about the problem. I waS Lm.aware- 0+ lhe-

UNAWARE

b The drinks machine isn't working.

ORDER

c You didn't damage this chair by accident!

PURPOSE

d David was concentrating

ABSORBED

totally on his work.

e Mr Gordon gets on well with his employees.

RELATIONSHIP

f

TEARS

Many people in the crowd were crying.

g Send in yom application

DELAY

at once.

ADDICTED

h Harry can't stop playing computer games. We don't have this book in the shop, but we can order one.

STOCK

Robert knows a lot about genetic engineering.

AUTHORITY

Complete the text with one word in each space. Nowadays we are all well agl()g[~

of the problem of global

warming, and it is generally agreed that we are ali at b .. fram rising temperatures, climate change, and changes in sea levels. Massive consumption of fossil fuels, such as oil, coal and wood, is c for greatly increasing the amount of atmosphere, and many people believe that we are d

CO2

VI

in the

~ O

. However, there is another side to the fact that we are

"'O

possible catastrophe if we cannot bring this situation under e a world f 9

C

to the use of petral, oil, coal and wood. In

going for several centuries, but in practical terms, we might have to get to looking for energy elsewhere, as resources dwindle

and become more expensive. There is no when, on j

iHH

for complacency

, an American home uses more than 30 times

as much electric light as an Indian one, and 1.6 billion people in the world have no electricity at all.

C re

, there is enough oil and gas to keep industrial societies

h

C

with

e.,j)..RV

VI

G)

>

u G)

.•...

:.o re

..c

.•...

e.,

":3

VI

C O EXTENSION

ACTIVITY

.•... VI

O A

Choose ten example sentences from the explanation

pages, and translate them into your language.

Q. G)

B

Choose twenty phrases from the explanations pages, and look them up in a dictionary. Note any other uses. Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

l-

Q.

verbs foliowed by -ing or infinitive folIowed by -ing •

*admit, avoid, *consider, de/ay, *deny, dis!ike, enjoy, escape, face, fancy, fee//ike, invo/ve, keep, *mention, mind, miss, practise, risk, spend / waste time If you do that, you risk /osing the contract,



Verbs marked * can also be foliowed by a that-clause. He admitted



finish, can't he/p,

that he was wrong / being wrong,

Note that the -ing form can be preceded by a possessive. I dislike your being on your own 50 much.

folIowed by -ing or to-infinitive •

mean doing, mean to do !f you accept the job, it means moving to Scotland. (= involve) I meant to post these /etters, but I forgot. (= intend)



suggest sameone does, suggest doing, suggest that sameone shou/d I suggest we take the bus as far as the square and then walk. In that case, I suggest going to see a physiotherapist. I suggest that you should re-apply next year. (formal)



can't bear, love, /ike, hate, prefer Normally folIowed by -ing, though to-infinitive

is com mon in US English. In GB English, using -ing

means that the activity is enjoyed (or not). I/ove going to the cinema,

I can't stand working

on a Saturday

To-infinitive wit h these verbs describes a habit, what you choose to do, or think is a good idea. llike

to

get up early on Saturday

I prefer

to

buy organie vegetab/es

They can be used with a person + to-infinitive, to talk about another person's wishes. My boss prefers me to dress forma/ty at the office. •

forget, remember Forget / remember

to do are used for things we intended to do (often used when we didn't do

them). Oid you remember

to phone

Jack?

I forgot

to post

my letter.

Forget / remember doing are used for thinking about a past event. I don't remember /eaving the party I have no memory of it at ali •

try Try to I tried

do describes an attempt. to stop him, but I failed.

Try doing describes an experience, or an experiment. Have you tried changing the batteries/ That might wark. If yau feel faint, try putting yaur head between yaur knees,



go on, continue Go on / continue

doing and continue to do are used to talk about a continuing action. The guests went on eating and drinking for three hours.

Go on to do is used to talk about the next in a series of events or actions. Hi/ary Clinton went on to become president three years later. The prime minister began by describing what measures had already been taken, and went on new proposais. •

G

regret Regret doing describes being sorry for a past action. I regret not learning to play the piano when I was younger. Regret to do describes a person's feelings when something happens. We regret to announce the death of professar Angela Jackson.

to

outline



stop Stop doing describes stopping an action. Please stop shouting at me like that. Stop to do is used when we stop one action in order to do another. The lecturer stopped to have a drink of water.



consider doing, and be considered to be I'm considering getting a new job. She is considered to be the greatest tennis player in the world.



imagine doing, and imagine something to be, imagine that I can 't imagine living in a really hot country I imagined skiing to be a lot easier. I imagined that skiing was a lot easier.



need / require do ing, need / require to be dane, need / require sameone The windows need c1eaning. These books need to be put back on the shelf. I need you

to

help me.

folIowed by to-infinitive •

to do something

or that-c1ause

agree, arrange, decide, demand, expect, hope, hurry, learn, plan, pretend, promise, swear, threaten, wish We agreed to meet again the next day We agreed that we would meet again the next day



appear, happen, seem foliowed by a to-infinitive, ar with it + verb + that-c1ause. We appear to be lost. It appears that we are lost.

folIowed by bare infinitive or to-infinitive •

help We helped them (to) find a hotel.



make, force make + object + bare infinitive, but with a passive be made + to-infinitive They made him give them the money He was made to give them the money (])

>

folIowed by bare infinitive •

C

let My paren ts didn't let me go to the club.

folIowed

'+-

C l-

O

by an object and to-infinitive



assist, beg, command, dare, employ, enable, encourage, Sarah dared me to write my name on the desko



verbs marked * can also be folIowed by a that-clause. They warned him that he was in danger. They warned him not to interfere.



+-'

invite, select, sen d, *teach, *tell, train, *warn

With to-infinitive: advise, instruct, order, persuade, recommend, (See also Unit 18 report verbs.)

0'1

'-I c::

>-

..o ""O

(])

urge

S O

O

'+-

VI

..o l(])

>

1

Underline the correct form. a Joe dared his brother to kick / kicking the ball out of the windowo b c d e

I used to spend a lot of time to worry / worrying about the future. Gina tried to open / opening the door, but it seemed to be stuck. The police made the two boys to pick up / pick up the litter they had dropped. All night people kept to bang / banging car doors outside in the street.

f I remember to appear / appearing in the Christmas play when I was at primary school. g Our teacher likes us to stand up / standing up when she enters the room. h Your car really needs to dean / deaning! It's filthy! I I can't help to wonder / wondering whether we are going in the right direction. My parents always encouraged me to think / thinking for myself.

2

Complete each sentence with a verb from the list. avoid

bear

consider

deny

a This construction project will

imagine

ifivolv€

min d regret

risk stop

demolishing part of a run-down industrial area.

iV'-v()lve-

b c d e

Helen says she doesn't coming in early tomorrow and dealing with that problem. Both teenagers taking part in the robbery, and claim they were not in the area. I think we should causing unnecessary damage to the woodland area. If you exercise without warming up, you pulling a muscle. f I can't wearing the sort of clothes they wore in the 19th century! g Please staring at me like that! It makes me nervous! h People often not studying seriously during their schooldays. Would you Sheila can't

3

selling this painting if you received a suitable offer? being pestered by fans who want her autograph.

Complete the text using one word

in

each gap.

Vincent Van Gogh Vincent Van Gogh aE.P~VI.± unknown artist. He did not b twenties, and at one time c

the 37 years of his life as a more ar less painting seriously until his late becoming a priest because of his beliefs.

His beliefs also d him living in extreme poverty among the outcasts of society. His brother Theo. who was an art dealer, e him to take up painting, and f to support him financially throughout his life. Vincent's precarious mental state g to have been made warse by alcohol and Hlhealth. A stay in Paris from 1886 to 1888 h Vincent to study Impressionists such as Manet and Degas, and i getting to know many artists, including Paul Gauguin. Van Gogh and Gauguin painted together at Arles in the south of France, where Vincent's mental state worsened and he j

to murder Gauguin, before famously cutting off part of his ear. Two

years later Vincent committed suicide. Since his death, his paintings have k on to become amon g the most famous of the 19th century.

G

4

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, containing the word in capitals.

APPEARS

a Apparently, the match will be cancelled. l±gpP?g~±hg±±h?f1,tg±Coh~iIIH9e-c:gltc:?II?q'~

b The burglars jumped out of the window so they weren't caught.

AVOID

c People think Ulysses is ]oyce's greatest work.

CONSIDERED

d They intend reaching the mountains by the end of the week.

PLANNING

e I don't like wasting time watching television.

PREFER

f

FANCY

Would you like to go skating on Friday?

g We can't continue to ignore this problem.

GO ON

h My parents didn't allow me to stay out late.

LET

5

Complete the text using one word ar phrase from the list in each gap.

continued to decided to demand expected forced involved persuade regretted seemed to stopped urged warned

The deeision to drop atomie bombs on Japan Sinee the US dropped the first atomie bombs on Japan in 1945, historians have a <:'QYtl;l1,?te-dlQ

argue about whether ar not this was justified.

By

1945 Japanese forees had been severely damaged, but they had not bH

fighting.

Ameriean forees had c ..H.HH

Japan, but an invasion wou Id have d. plaees, and military

H

•••

planners e

H.

invade

landing in several

that there would be at least a

mil lian US easualties, and far more Japanese ones. Dropping the newly-tested

(])

atomie bomb f..

+-'

g..

.

be a better alternative,

C

the Japanese government that surrender was the best

option. After the first bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and wounding over 150,000 hHHH.HHHH

>

whieh might

people, the Ameriean

the Japanese that further

C

on 6 August, killing

l.-

government

j

..HHHHH

and the government surrendered

O

i

bombs wou Id fa II ow, and

A seeond bomb dropped on Nagasaki three days later, whieh they were in an impossible situation,

'+-

them to surrender. the Japanese to aceept that

on 14 August. Only when US seientists

and medieal experts finally examined the devastated eities and their suffering

populations

effects of atomie weapons beeome elear. Many Amerieans k..

that sueh weapons had

been used, and began to I..

.

.

they would never be used again.

did the terrible

01

'-c:I

>-

..Q "'O (])

S O O

'+-

EXTENSION

ACTIVITY

Write examples of things you Iike / can't bear / regret / want to stop doing. Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

Vl

..Q l.(])

>

relative and non-finite clauses defining

relative c1ause

A defining relative c1ausegives information about a person or thing etc, it comes immediately after the thing it defines, and is not separated from it by a comma. It is central to the meaning of the sentence and cannot be removed without changing this meaning. There are only one ar twa Greek Islands that I haven't

non-defining

visited.

relative c1ause

A non-defining relative clause gives extra information which does not define the person or thing etc it follows. It is separated fram the main c1auseby commas. Naxos, which I've visited several times, is my favourite island.

which and that •

We can use which or that in defining clauses. Which is more forma!. There are only one ar twa Greek Islands which / that I haven't

visited.



Which is used in a non-defining clause.



That cannot foliowa preposition. It is an island on which / where important excavations have taken place.

who and whom •

Who is often replaced by that in everyday use in defining clauses. The people who / that own that house are away on holiday



Whom is the object form of who, and is used formally in object clauses. He was exactly the person whom I wanted to see.

However, who or that are used in everyday speech instead of whom, or whom can be left out. (see below) He was exactly the person (who / that) I wanted to see. •

Whom is used after a preposition, but this is often avoided in everyday use by putting the

preposition at the end of the c1ause. A hundred adults were asked to detail the individuals with whom they had conversed over the period of one day (forma!) They were asked to list alf the people they had spoken to. (lessformal)

whose •

Whose is the possessiveform of who, and is used in both defining and non-defining clauses. It can apply to both people and to things. Make a list of everyone whose last name ends in '-san'. Make a list of countries whose papulatian is greater than

prepositions •

and relative

pronouns

In everyday use we often put the preposition at the end of the clause to avoid over-formality. The hotel roam, for which we had already paid, turned The hotel roam, which we had already paid tor, turned The minister, from whose office the e-mail originated, The minister, whose office the e-mail originated trom,



e

20 millian.

out to out to denied denied

be very naisy be very noisy being invalved. being invalved.

We do not split phrasal verbs in this way. The story, which she had made up, was accepted as the truth. *The story, up which she had fflade, was accepted as the truth. (not possible)

when, where, why, how •

in defining c1auses That's the office where my brother



works.

I can't think of a time when I wasn't

mad about football.

in non-defining clauses Kate loved being in London, where there was 50 much to do.

Ileft at 5.00, when

it started to

get dark.

• We often use why after reason. I can't think of a reason why I should help you. The way that can be used instead of how. Tom didn't understand the way that the photo-copier

worked.

leaving out the relative pronoun •

In defining object c1ausesit is possible to leave out the relative pronoun. This isn't the book (thatlwhich)



lordered.

In a non-defining c1auseit is not possible to leave out the relative pronoun. This book, which I bought secondhand, was really cheap

reduced relative c1auses •

In defining clauseswe can leave out the relative pronoun and part of the verb phrase to leave a participle acting as an adjective defining the noun. Peter was the only one of the group (who was) not arrested Tell the people (who are) waiting outside to come in.

after the match

• We also use reduced relative clauses in non-defining c1auses,usually in descriptive writing. The two friends, (who were) soaked

to

the skin, eventually arrived home.

anyone who etc, those who etc etc, and after this / that / these / those. Have you seen anyone who looks like this? I think there is something (that) we need to discuss. Those who stayed to the end saw an exciting finish to the match



We can use relative clauses after anyone, something



Reduced c1ausesare also possible with a participle acting as an adjective. We went back and picked up all those (who had been) left behind.

sentence relative:

which



We can use which to relate a non-defining clause to the main c1ause,and act as a comment upon it. Several people turned up late, which wasn't surprising.



We can use other phrases in the same way: at which time / point, by which time, in which case. You may experience swelling or discomfort, in which case contact your doctor.

Vl OJ

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what, whatever, whoever, whichever •

u

What can be used as a relative pronoun meaning the thing or things which. I don 't know what to do.



We can use a what-c1ause as a subject for emphasis. What I really want is a new bike.



Whatever and whoever meaning 'anything / anyone at all' can be used in the same way. Whate ver you do, do it nowi You can bring whoever you Iike to the party.



Whichever

can be used instead of whatever

when there are more than two items to choose from.

There are three rooms, You can sleep in whichever

you prefer

OJ

+-'

C '+I

C O

C

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C tU OJ

> +-'

all ot, most ot, some ot, none ot etc •

These can combine with which and whom. He owns three cars, one of which is over fifty years old.

tU OJ

I-

1

Underline

the best word or words.

a The historie eastle, which / what was rebuilt after the war, contains the city museum. b What / Whatever I would like to do next is go and visit the Modem Art Gallery. c I didn't know exactly whom / who I was warking with on the project. d You may tick the 'No Publicity' box, in that / which case no details of your win will be given to the press. e I've never seen anyone who / which can kick a balI as hard as David can! f I'm afraid this isn't the meal whom I asked for / I asked for. g Can someone tell me that / what I am supposed to be doing? h Brussels, that / which l've visited several times recently, is a good place to spend a weekend. After eating so much I felt siek, that / which wasn't so surprising! The police asked me if I had seen anyone who / which fitted the description.

2

Complete

the sentence

with the correct word.

a Many Asians live in mega-eities, that is, cities ... t
We looked at three flats to let, one of seemed suitable, though it was expensive. Elsa seemed like the kind of person to .. ..happiness came almost naturally. This e-mail is intended solely far the use ofthepersonto itis addressed. 1t was a mistake both generals were to regret before the day was over. The buildings .. were damaged in the earthquake were marked with a red cross. Sophia lived alone in a house owned by her father, for That's the building I used to work.

3

Underline

she paid no rent.

the best word or blank (-) for no word.

Are men better at maths than women? One of the stereotypes about the differences between men and wamen, a who / which / - seems to be supparted

by same research, b what / - / where is that men are

better at maths. According ta brain research, levels af grey matter; c it / who / which creates processing centres in the brain, are higher in men than they are in women, On the other hand, it is women d who / - / they have more white matter; e - /

it / which

creates the links between processing centres in the brain. f Does / Which / What this seems ta suggest is that while the maie brain g - / that / it contains more areas for processing infarmation, h which / what / who means that the maie brain has mare capacity to solve maths problems, it is the female brain

i it / that

/ and has the greater

ability to perceive patterns. In ather words, it is brain structure j what / it / that makes men better at maths, but k whose / which / where also makes wamen better at communicating. Hawever; other researchers argue that it is the stereatyping itself I it

/ - / that

causes the difference in performance in maths,

rather than any innate abilityWomen m - / who / which believe they are inferior at maths, especially when they take maths tests in rooms n where / whose / which men are present, tend to produce the kind af results o - / and / they expect to produce. Research p - / which / what analyses maths test results on a large scale

e

suggests that the results attained by women are just as good as those attained by men.

4

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, containing the word in capitals.

WHO

a This man jumped over the counter and took the money. This is ..lhe, ..t:\-I,el:\~hqjl.!!1,I.p~dQ\le,[H.lh~<:,[email protected],[email protected] b It wasn't unusual for George to tum up late.

..l.he,t:\-I,QI'l~Aj ...

WHICH

George turned .. . . c Some of the many people we questioned gave us good descriptions of the robber. We questioned ..

.................................H

WHOM



d My aunt and uncle live in that house. That's ..

WHERE

e Everyone likes Angela when they meet her. Everyone

WHO

H'"

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

f Many people came to the meeting but some were half an hour late.

WHOM

Many people came to the meeting, some .. g We sheltered from the rain in a shepherd's hut that we found eventually.

WHERE

We eventually .. h The train was extremely crowded and stopped at every station. The tra in,

WHICH

H'"

ISN'T

I thought the bus stopped outside a different building. This ..

5

Complete the text wit h one word in each gap, or leave blank where possible.

JaneAusten jane Austen, awhoSe., novels feature many clergymen, had two brothers bjoined the ehureh, and two others c.. . careers in the navy are also refleeted in her novels, in d several naval offieers appear. She also had asister, Cassandra, with eH she had a close relationship. historians have leamt mueh They exehanged frequent letters, from f about g.....

..jane was doing and thinking during a life h.. .

was

fairly uneventful. AlI i we know ofjane Austen's appearanee is based on Cassandra's eoloured sketeh j ... hanging in the National Portrait Gallery in London. We know jane was encouraged to write by her brother Henry, k also wrote himself, and that the family borrowed novels horn the loeallibrary, influencedjane's writing. "'H

.•...•..•..••....•.

IHH

Althoughjane Austen wrote during the period of the Freneh Revolution and the Napoleonie Wars, m she wrote about '\fas largely eonfined to n H'H'HHHHH she knew: the manners of mainly welloff people o .. . living in small-town soeiety near London, and the problems p .. faeed by women in choosing a marriage partner. Her novels also show women q .. . have ehosen the wrong partner, or those r.... . diffieult finaneial situation influenees their behaviour. "H"

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. EXTENSION

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ACTIVITY

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Complete these sentence examples. ... is a place where ...

... is someone who...

Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

+J

What I really want is ...

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adverbial clauses time •

Adverbial time clausesare introduced by time conjunctions: when, after, as, as soon as, before, by the time, during the time, immediately, the moment, Anna started to play the piano when she was five. Keep the book for as long as you like.



naw, ance, since, till / until, whenever,

while.

If the clause comes first, we usually put a comma after it. The moment he came into the room, /recognized him As I was going upstairs, I heard a strange noise.



In adverbial time c1ausesreferring to the future we do not use will; we use present simple, or present perfect to emphasize completion. As soon as I hear any news, rll let you know Let me know as soon as you've

finished

Note that we can use will future in relative clauses beginning with when. Can you fet me know when you'lI be coming back.



Note that as long as has a similar conditional meaning to provided. You can borrow my bike, as long as you bring it back tomorrow As long as can also mean 'for the length of time'. You can keep that book for as long as you like.

place •

Introduced by where, wherever, anywhere, after the main c1ause.

everywhere.

Clausesbeginning where normally come

There is an impressive monument where the battle was foughf. You can sit wherever you like. Everywhere David goes, people ask him for his autograph.

manner •

Introduced by as, and normally coming after the main clause. f took the train,



as you

recommended.

Introduced by the way in colloquial English. You didn 't write this the way I told you to.



Often used in comparisons with (in) the way (that), (in) the same way (as). You're not doing it in the same way that you did it before.



As if and as though can be used after be, act, appear, behave, feel, look, seem, smell, sound, taste. He acted as if he had seen a ghost ft sounds as though they are having a good time.

reason •



Introduced by as, because, since, seeing Because I'm late, / won 't be able to meet Since you refuse to answer my letters, Seeing that I am paying for the tickets,

(that). you after a/I. / am referring this matter to my lawyers. f think f shoufd decide what we see.

Introduced by for, but coming after the main clause. This is often formai or literary. They said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid

G

contrast •

Introduced by although, though, even though, considering (that). Even though Tim goes to fitness c!asses, he is a very poor runner. Helen plays extremely we", considering how young she iso



Introduced by while, whereas, in formai speech and writing, and by much as, usually foliowed by verbs of liking etc. Much as / While we appreciate your work, I'm afraid we have to let you go. The research found that whereas women under stress talk about it with other women, men under stress tend to keep their problems to themselves.



however + adjective We are determined to complete the project, however

difficult

it iso



no matter + question word No matter where you Iive, the weather will have some affect on you.



wh-question word + -ever Wherever you Iive, the weather will have som e affect on you. I'm going to do it anyway, whatever you think.

purpose •

Introduced by so (that) usually foliowed by a moda I auxiliary. I asked you to come early so (that) we could discuss last night's meeting.



Introduced by in order that in forma I speech and writing. Legislation is needed in order that this problem may be dealt with effectively



50 as (not) to is used with infinitive constructions. I c!osed the door quietly so as not to disturb anyone.



Introduced by in case, meaning 'to be prepared for a possible event'. We turned down the music in case it disturbed

the neighbours.

result •

Introduced by so + adjective / adverb + that, ar such (a) + (adjective) + noun + that. He's so tall that he can easily touch the ceiling. They ran away so (ast that nobody could catch them. He's such a tall boy that . They were such (ast runners that .



Introduced by so much / many / few / little + that There were so many people



in the room that some had to sit on the floor.

In reduced c1auses. He's so tall! He 's such a tall boy! There were so many people in the room!

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1

Underline

a b c d

the best words.

Tina was given the job, even though / seeing that she did not have the required experience. Seeing that / Considering that it/s his birthday today, Tom has decided to take a day off. This is the way / as ifwe deal with hooligans in this country. We/d better take some money with us, seeing that / in case we can't find a cash machine.

e However / Much as I admire his earlier work, I think that his recent novels are rather poor. f The moment / until you see anything move, press this alarm bell. g No matter what / However you say/ I still can't really forgive you for what you have done. h Unfortunately Carol didn/t pass the exam/ although / however she studied really hardo As soon as / Everywhere I look these days, I seem to see people dressed the same. In case / Considering that shes only been learning the piano for six months, Jan plays really well.

2

Rewrite each sentence the list.

anywhere

without

the word

as soon as now

once

or words

until

underlined,

when

and using a word

whenever

or words from

where

a Any time you're in the area, drop in and see us . ..W.h~VL~Y~C.11()l/C~..iV1. .. ±h~ ..gC~g

J ..

qC()P ..il\ ..gVLq..S.e:e:.l:lS.~...

b The moment I saw you, I knew I liked you! c Piona starting training as a ballet dancer at the age of six. d I won't leave before you come back. e You can park yom car wherever you like outside. f You're finally here, so you/d better sit down. g When the exams are out of the way we can start learning something new. h The memorial shows the site of the pIane crash.

3

Complete

the text with

one word

in each gap.

The Earth and the Sun a

A!lhQ?lqh

...most

ancient Greek philosophers considered the Earth to be fiat, Eratosthenes calculated that it was

a sphere and worked out i,ts circumference around 240 BC b calculation

is surprisingly accurate. c

stood sti II, th is was the basis of astronomy d e

the work of Copernicus in the 16th century.

Copernicus's work was published in 1543, it became increasingly difficult for scientists to see the

universe in the

f

they had done before, wit h the Earth at the centre of the universe. However, the

theory was g

controversial for religious reasons that it did not become widely known.

h

G

that he used only rough estimates, his

it seemed obvious that the Sun moved in the sky and the Earth

Galileo came to the same conclusions as Copernicus in 1610, he was accused of heresy bythe Church imprisoned,

in

i

his view of the universe encouraged people to doubt the existence of God.

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, containing the word in capitals.

SOUNDS

a They seem ta be having a good time.

1l.s.()L,lvtc:l$gs.Jf±h~'1gC~hgyivtqgq()()(:L±if1A~. b You are supposed ta be doing this differently.

THE WAY

c He seemed to be carrying something.

LOOKED

d You suggested I taak up jogging, and I did.

AS

e By the way he behaved, I thought he owned the place.

ASTHOUGH

f By the taste, the meat hadn't been cooked properly.

TASTED

g Peter didn't conduct the experiment according to instructions.

THEWAY

S

Choose the best word, A, B or C, for each gap.

Will human beings ever live on other planets? a

HJ3.H

we have become accustomed to the idea of space travel, and in films and fiction it seems b ..

space travel is inevitable, neighbouL c

it appears unlikely that human beings will ever get any further than Mars, our nearest

films we make about space travel, the fact is that it remains technologically

and extremely expensive.

dHH.H.HHH

the distances involved

challenging,

are immense, any voyage outside our solar system

would take hundreds of years using current technology. e

human beings went into space, they would

have problems of how to eat and breathe, and their spaceship would have to carry vast amounts of fuel

f

cover the distance. Even Mars is g

h

the distance between Earth and Mars varies, astronauts would have to wait for nearly two years

i

far away that it would take about six months to get there.

they could return using the shortest journey time. j

it could cost as much as $100 billion,

a manned mission to Mars is planned for sometime between 2010 and 2020.

a

A so Wherever as that (As In Wherever order A 5ince A50 Although the 5ince moment (C since in 50 to how many though Considering ((as before A even though B B(50 A Although Even Eefore after ltho though ughthat No if matter

Write some examples beginning or end ing as shown. The moment I...

Everywhere I go ..

0

You look as if

Need mare practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

o..

Even though I'm ...

adverbial participle clauses participie phrases •

A participie information,

phrase (eg noticing the door was open) can be added to a c1ause to give more or describe the time, the manner ar the result of the event in the main clause.

Noticing the door was open, I walked in. This means the same as 'I noticed the door was open, and I walked in.' •

If the participie phrase comes before the main clause, it must refer to the subject of the main clause. It is usually foliowed by a comma. Walking up the street, I heard a bell ring. (= I was walking up the street and I heard a bell) Walking up Me street, a beN rang. (= The bell was walking up the street when it rang)



If the participle phrase follows the main clause then either the subject ar the object (if there is one) of the main clause can be the subject of the participle phrase. This will depend on the meaning of the sentence. We saw jim walking up the street. ( = We saw Jim while he was walking The boat struck a rock, throwing the crew into the sea.

one action before another

performed

up the street)

by the same subject.



Both present and past forms are possible. Leaving the parcel on the doorstep, he drove away Having left the parcel on the doorstep, he drove away



When a phrase is negative, not normally Not having an umbrel/a, I got really wet.



Not may occur elsewhere in the clause, if another Having decided not to stay longer, I went home



Using a past form can show that one action is the consequence Having forgotten my keys, I had to climb in the window



This kind of clause often explains the reason for something happening. before the participle. On / upon noticing a policeman coming down the street, he ran off



A passive participle can sometimes also be shortened. Having been introduced to the president, he could think of nothing to say Introduced to the president, he could think of nothing to say

goes before the participle.

part of it is negative.

of the other.

We can put on ar upon

time phrase with after, before, since, when, while •

The participle follows the time word. After reading the letter, she burst into tears. C1eanit thoroughly with warm soapy water before using it for the first time. Since talking to Mr Ashton, I've changed my mind about my career. When taking this medication, avoid drinking alcohol. While waiting for the tra in, we had a meal in the station restaurant.

time phrase with on, in

G



On + participle describes an event immediately folIowed On hearing a noise at the window, Ilooked out.



In + participle describes how one action causes something else to happen. In trying to adjust the heating system, I managed to break it completely

by another

event.

manner phrase with by, •

as if

By + participle describes the method you can use to do something. By using the Internet, it's possible to save money

reason phrase •

To explain the reason for something we can use being to replace because / as + be. Because I was afraid to go on my own, I asked Sam to go with me. Being afraid to go on my own, I asked Sam to go with me.

past passive participie •

We can replace a passiveverb wit h a past passive participle. I was offered a higher salary, 50 I took the job. Having been offered a higher sa/ary, I took the job.

subject and participie •

phrase

A noun and participle can be used to give extra information about the subject of the main c1ause. His ears bursting from the water pressure, he rose to the surface. Ali three goals were excellent, the first one being the best, I think.



It or there can also be used as a subject in formai speech or writing. There being no further time today, the meeting will continue in the moming. It being a Sunday, there were fewer trains than usual.

with and without •

These are often foliowed by participle constructions in descriptive writing. With b/ood pouring from his wounds, he staggered into the room. Without making a sound, she opened the door.

reduced adverbial •

c1auses (see Unit 35)

C1ausesof time, place, manner and contrast and conditional c1ausesoften have the verb reduced to the present or past participle, or omitted in the caseof be. This is more common in formai writing. While (she was) at the shops, Helen lost her wallet. Where (it is) indicated, use one of the screws labelled A. She waved her arms about, as if (she was) swatting a fly Though (he was) feeling iII, he was determined to play in the match. A/though fee/ing iII, I went to the meeting. If studying ful/-time, expect to spend 20 hours a week outside of set lectures. Un/ess travelling in an organized tour gro up, you will require a visa. VI QJ

VI

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1

Tick the correct sentences and underline and correct any mistakes. .I

a Not knowing the way, I got lost several times. b c d e

A+ler

After leaving the room, the telephone rang. Having lost my money, the conductor wouldn't give me a ticket. While falling asleep, there was a loud knock at the front door. By forcing open the window, I was able to get into the house.

l Yt~dIe-+l

f Not wishing to be a nuisance, I left as early as I could. g Having opened the box, it tumed out to be empty. h Though feeling tired, Helen went out dubbing with her friends. Having asked my name, I was taken to me et the prime minister. On arriving at the station, the train had already left.

2

Complete the sentence wit h a word or phrase from the list.

abandoned

although

being

by

if it

there

though

while

without

.. feeling dizzy, Sarah managed to play on until the end of the match. a powerful swimmer, George reached the island in less than an homo

a ..AllhQuqh b c d

waiting for a reply, the mysterious stranger vanished into the night. being a Friday, everyone in the office was in a good mood.

e f

walking across the field, Rita noticed something glittering by the path. by its owner, the old dog sat by the side of the road and howled.

g h

shocked by what he had seen, Martin tried to keep calm. being no chance of escape, the two men gave themselves up to the police. using a fan-assisted oven, reduce cooking time by half an homo signing yom name here, you agree to the conditions listed below.

3

Complete the text using one word in each gap.

The GaLapagos IsLands akqc,ele,-d near the equator, the graup of volcanic by Spanish in about

colonists

specializations

e

the Galapagos Passing ships

few of these naturalist association

species hunted

creatures

had became

Once

were kept alive on ships for long near extinction,

remain today.

fram the Galapagos

com mon

unique and unafraid

seals and giant tortoises.

with Darwinian theory,

part of a national

their own

After g

later that

a

of predators

h

Charles Darwin in 1835, the islands

j evidence

the attentions

the tortoises and later eaten.

on maps d

developed

of people.

are a

of Ecuador. b

were rarely visited,

and escaped

f

islands

in 1535, and first c

elsewhere,

periods

off the coast

1570, the islands

haven for pirates.

G

islands

Galapagos

by the still have a close

i

birds which differed in the development

park, the islands

the home to many species fram island to island of his theory

are popular with 'eco-tourists'.

isolated

were in fact the same species,

of natural

selection.

Darwin used

Now k

Efforts are continuing

~

fram the mainland.

to save their wildlife.

as

4

Write

a new sentence

with

the same meaning,

a As it was a public holiday,

containing

the word

in capitals

and a participie

c1ause.

BEING

there was a lot of traffic on the roads.

HHI±HQ~J~q?l9UQU<:.hQIiJe~JJh~[~we$eIQlq±l[eff,<:.ql1,±h~rQeJ$, b When I opened

c The palace was destroyed

THOUGH

by fire during the war but later reconstructed.

d As Carol walked from the room, tears streamed

My hair has become sof t and shining

g Jan was taken to hospital

STREAMING

from her eyes.

e I broke the camera as I tried to rem ave the memory f

ON

the letter, I realized it was trom Professor Alton.

IN

card.

USING

since I've used Glosso shampoo.

after she was knocked

BEING

down by a car.

HAVING

h After he had been shown to his room, George lay down on the bed and slept.

5

Choose the best option,

Stem-cell aA

.....the

lens

A, B or C, for each gap.

research

sight of people blinded by macular

degeneration,

a condition

of

the eye, could start within five years, according to a British team b .. human eye stem celi implants. have blindness

CH

More than 500,000

by macular

degeneration,

lossof central vision due to degeneration back of the eye. e

a/most

f4

people in the U 1<

a disease d

are starting

the team told us: 'g

of the macula, a spot at the

to conduct tri ais. f

a team from two British

on the project, a spokesman for

up to one third of the population,

of blindness, 50 a new kind of treatment patient's

by a

million towards the cost of developing

a stem celi therapy by an anonymous philanthropist, universities

H

this condition

is a major cause

is vital. In previous operations, h

own eye, we have seen about 25% of patients report improvement.

new eye cells

i

in the laboratory

a A A Affecting Restoring causing marked Giving Commented transplanted developing

vitreous gel

tissue from Howeve~ creating

from human embryos will be much more effective.

B eaused BRestored Being given grown Bgrown B Affeeted marking Commenting being C Having Being developed having transplanted restored been eommented been eaused given having being developed marked affeeted transplanted

VI Q) VI

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EXTENSION Write

sentences

beginning

Having ...

.o

-

On realizing ...

Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

lo-

ACTIVITY While waiting ...

Q)

If using ...

> ""O

ro

phrasal verbs (1) This unit and Units 38 and 40 list both two-part and three-part phrasal verbs. Some phrasal verbs are colloquial, and most have a more formai equivalent. Many phrasal verbs have multiple meanings, not all of which are included here. key points • •

An intransitive verb is one which does not take an object. His story just doesn't add up. object positions bear (someone / something) out (someone / something) This indicates that bear out can have an object either after out or between bear and out. Jackson's new research bears out his ear/ier c1aim that sea-Ievels are falling. The research bears him out. The research bears this c1aim out.

If the object is a pronoun, it always comes between the verb and particie. This bears it out.



It bears this out.

Avoid putting a long phrase between verb and preposition / particie. Tom explained that bad weather always brought his iIIness on. Tom claimed that the dusty room had brought on a severe attack of asthma.

add up (not) (intransitive)

bring (something)

make sense

cause a problem for (yourself)

I'm afraid your story just doesn't

add up

I sympathize with your problem, but really, you brought it on yourself

allow for (something)

consider when making a plan

bring (something)

You haven't

publish, release

allowed

for the cost of ali the materials.

bear (sameone / something) something)

David is bringing

out (someone /

bear out the victim's

out a new DVD next summer. ot view)

persuade someone to agree I argued with her ali day, but co uIdn't bring her round to my point of view

break down (intransitive)

bring (something)

lose control of one's emotions

mention

A friend of the dead man broke down and wept when he told how he found the body

I'd like to bring up another matter, if I may

break off (something)

increase in size (negative)

stop doing something

Tension between the rival groups has built up over the past few weeks.

She broke off their conversation to answer her mobile phone.

up (something)

build up (intransitive)

cali (someone)

up (someone)

break up (intransitive)

order into military service

come to an end

A week after the war started, Jim was called up.

The meeting broke up in confusion.

carry (something)

out (something)

break out (intransitive)

complete a plan

when a war or disease begins

Please make sure you carry out these instructions.

Fighting has broken the country

catch on (intransitive)

bring (something)

out on the southern border of

become popular (informal) Camera phones have really caught on lately

about (something)

cause to happen The digital revolution has brought changes in our society bring (something)

about profound

on (something)

Tom claimed that the dusty room had brought severe attack of asthma.

come about (intransitive)

happen Many positive changes have come about as a result of his efforts.

cause an illness to start

G

out (something)

bring (someone) round (to your point

confirm the truth The police investigations didn't claims.

on / upon (oneself)

on a

come down

to

(something)

in the end be a matter of In the end, thi, problem comes down

to overpopulation.

come in for (something) receive blame, criticism etc

fali back on (something)

The Government's proposais have come in for a great deal of eriticism.

His father persuaded him to finish college sa he would have something to fali back on.

come into (something)

fali for (sameone)

inherit

fali in love with (informal)

Sarah came into €20 million when her grandfather died.

Kate has fallen for George's brother.

come off (intransitive) take place successfully

fali for (something)

Everyone is hoping that the new plan will come o"

Harry feli for the oldest trick in the wor/d.

come out (intransitive)

fali out (with) (someone)

appear, be published

quarrel (with)

Her new book comes out next month.

Paul and lim have fallen out again.

come up (intransitive) when a problem happens

fali through (intransitive) when a plan or arrangement fails

I'm going to be home late. Something has come up.

We thought we had agreed to buy the house, but the deal feli through.

use after ali else has failed

be deceived by

come up to (something) be as good as (one's expectations) The restaurant didn't

come up

to

fit in with (something)

be included in a plan

our expectations.

I'm afraid your suggestion doesn't

come up with (something)

think of an idea, plan etc

fit in with my plans.

across (ar intransitive) make others understand

get (something)

Sue has come up with a really good idea.

Chris has same great ideas, but can't always get them across.

count on (sameone)

relyon

get

You can count on me for support at the meeting.

at

(something)

suggest meaning

crop up (intransitive)

What exactly are you getting

happen, appear unexpectedly (informal) The same names kept cropping in vestigation.

to

get down

up during the

at? l don 't understand.

(something)

start to deal seriously with It's time you got down to same serious work.

do away with (something)

abolish

get (sameone) aft ar get oft (intransitive)

The school decided to do away with uniform, and let pupils wear whatever they liked.

avoid punishment (informal)

do without

(something)

manage without

Terry was charged with murder, but her lawyers managed to get her oft. get on for (something)

I can't do without essentia!

a cup of coffee when I get up. It's

draw (something)

up (something)

approach a time, age or number It's getting

on for six, 50 it's time we were going.

get on (intransitive)

prepare a plan or document

make progress

The lawyers are drawing

How are you getting

up the contract.

on in your new job?

draw up (intransitive)

get (something)

come to a stop

finish something unpleasant I always try to get my homework

Two police cars drew up outside the door.

over with as quickly

as possible.

drop in (intransitive), drop in on sameone visit (informal)

get round / around

to

..-...

(something)

.•....

find time to do

Do drop in if you're in the area.

1'/1try and get round

drop oft (intransitive)

fali asleep Several people at the back of the hall had dropped and were snoring.

over vliith

get up oft

to

...........

to

Vl

writing som e letters later.

..o lo...

(something)

Q)

>

do something you shouldn't do What are the children getting

up

to

in the garden

I

ro Vl

end up (intransitive)

finish in a certain way ar place We missed the bus and had to walk, and ended up getting home at 4.00 am.

ro lo...

..!:

Q.

1

Choose the best phrasal verb, A, B ar C, to complete the sentence. a 1'm sme we'lI be able toCL ....to om way of seeing things by the end of the meeting. b We haven't realIy a solution to the problem yet. c Don't forget that you have to the expansion of the metal in yom calculation. d Wrist watch television was an interesting idea but didn't realIy .. e Helen the issue at the next meeting. f To be honest, the hotel didn't to om expectations. g I hate going to the dentist's, sa I try to as soon as I can. h David his business partner over the pl ans to reduce the workforce. Kate says she can't a cup of coffee in the moming. Sorry, but something important has over with a A A get draw hirn up Agetup

2

and I'll have to ring you back.

B corne catch bear about on hirn out B broke down with BC Cget corne brought end (ell allow B get over out up up it (or with with over on with build bring carne carry corne (allen (ell round (or up hirn (ar out back with round on

Choose the best end ing 1 to 10 for each sentence a to j. a b c d

To Anna's smprise, a pink stretch limousine had just drawn Tony told the doctor that his attack had been brought A team of engineers has been carrying After searching for homs for somewhere to eat, we ended

b

e I think I can change my meeting to Tuesday, sa I can fit f After a great deal of discussion, we believe we have come g I don't realIy know what you twa have been getting h The tense situation on the border has come I haven't looked at yom project yet, but l'm hoping to get Latest research in the hospital medical school bears 1 2

up with a solution to the parking problem in this area. out the claim that the condition is caused by exposme to high levels of noise.

3 4

in with yom pl ans for the visit to Leeds on Monday. out emergency repairs on the bridge since eady this moming.

5

up to, but 1'11find out saoner or later, believe me!

6 7 8

up outside the front dom, and sameone who looked like lohnny Depp 'was getting out. round to it later on this afternoon. about as a resuIt of rocket attacks from both sides in recent weeks.

9

up buying same fruit from a street market behind the bus station.

10

G

on by a meal he had eaten in a hotel.

3

Camplete the sentence with a phrasal verb fram the list.

break aff break out com e off come out

bring round com e about come into do away with falI back on get off

a Police feared that after the match, fighting between rivaI fans wouId. bre-~k aul b Nabody is sure whether the revised plan will.. . . c Most scientific developments . as a resuIt of team-wark. d You need same savings to.. e The lecturer was forced to ..

in case you run in to financial difficulty. and drink a glass of water before resuming.

d

.

f Despite the evidence, the accused man managed to . . , much to everyone's surprise. g Alan will a fortun e when he reaches the age of 21. h David's new album is expected to .. . at the end of the year. ..dd

The party is proposing to ..

dddd

with council tax and repIace it with IocaI income tax.

The prime minister said he hoped to

4

.

the rest of the cabinet to his point of view.

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, using the carrect farm af a phrasal verb fram the list. Use a dictianary if necessary.

bear out bring about bring up calI up come up with count on draw up falI for get at get-fflt a

It's nearly 8.00, so you'd better get ready to Ieave.

dJll$'J~l.l.il'1,qQI1,.fQC~'QQl$QljQ?lldj7?±l.?rq?lr?edljlQJ?ev?, b I couldn't realIy understand what she was suggesting. c I don't think we can rely on Johnson to support uS. d There's an important point I think I should mention. e In 1939, Jim was conscripted into the army. f The director is preparing a list of suitable candidates for the job. g The statement of the accused was corroborated by other witnesses. h CaroI has thought of a realIy good soIution to the problem. The stranger offered to selI Harry the Eiffel Tower, and Harry was taken in. A lack of marketing expertise eventualIy led to the downfalI of the entire motor industry. V'l

...a lo...

OJ

> A

Choose twenty phrasal verbs and look them up in a dictionary, noting any other meanings and whether these are transitive ar intransitive.

CO

V'l CO lo...

B

Choose ten examples from the explanation

pages and translate them into your language.

Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 20S.

..c

Q.

phrasal verbs (2) give (something)

go

away (something)

with (something)

complete a promise or plan (often negative)

I'm not giving away any secrets if I tell you this!

David says he's going to resign, but I don 't think he'l/ go through with it.

give in to (something), yield, surrender

give in (intransitive)

go

The company said it would not give in to blackmail by the workforce. give off (something)

without

(something)

manage without something We had to go without burst.

water for a week after a pipe

produce a smell, gas, heat etc

growon

The glass globe was giving

when someone begins to like something

oft a pa/e green /ight.

(someone)

give out (intransitive)

I didn't /ike this book at first, but it is growing

become exhausted

hang around

When John 's money gave ouf, he had to take another job. give over to (usually passive)

use time for a particular purpose

on me.

spend time doing nothing There were severa/ teenagers hanging end of the street.

around

at the

hang onto (something)

The afternoon is given over to sports activities.

keep

give (onese/f) up

I'm going to hang onto this painting. It might be va/uab/e in a few years.

surrender The two gunmen gave themselves police arrived.

up when more

have (got) it in for (sameone)

be deliberately unkind to someone (informal)

give (someone) up (for)

My boss is a/ways tel/ing me oft He's got it in for me.

stop looking for because lost or dead

hit it oft (with someone)

The dog had been given up for lost before he was found 200 mi/es away

get on well with someone (informal)

go

hit on / upon (something)

about

(something)

do what is normally done I'm not sure how

go

to

go about removing the o/d boi/er.

back on (something)

break a promise

go for (something)

like something (informal) Anna says she doesn't

go

real/y go for that type of boy

in for (something)

make a habit of Peter doesn 't go in much for sport.

go

I don 't real/y hit it oft with my new neighbour.

discover by chance, have an idea We hit upon the answer to the problem complete/y by chance.

ho/d (something)

MPs accused the government of going back on ear/ier promises.

in for (something)

enter a competition

up (something)

delay Sorry I'm /ate. I was held up at my office. ho/d with (something)

agree with (usually negative) I don't hold with the idea of peop/e borrowing more than they can afford. impose (something)

on (something

/ one)

force people to do accept something It's wrong that some peop/e shou/d impose their viewpoint on everyone e/se.

Are you going in for the Advanced Eng/ish Test this year?

keep (something)

go aft (intransitive) when food becomes bad

Don 't re/ax the pressure We must keep it up unti/ we finish the job.

This fish sm el/s awful. It must have gone oft.

go on (intransitive) happen There's something strange going on here! go round (something)

be enough

G

through

betray

Are there enough books to go round the class? If not, you'l/ have to share.

up (something)

continue to do something

keep to (usually passive)

be limited to Make sure you keep the job in time.

to

the dead/ine. It's vita/ to finish

/ay down (especially the law) (or + that-c1ause) state a formai rule In the constitution it is laid down that al/ accused are innocent unti/ proved gui/ty

let (someone) down (someone) disappoint lim was supposed to help me yesterday, but he let me down. let (someone) in on (something) tell someone a secret

with a warning, and

miss out (on something) lose achance Ali her friends won prizes, but Karen missed out again.

Don't let on that I told you about Mike's surprise party live up to (something) (expectations) reach an expected standard My holiday in China certainly Iived up expectations. It was fantastic.

to my

upon his new job as an opportunity

to

Why don 't you look us up the next time you're in London.

up

pin (someone) down force someone to make a decision been

+ noun)

The new stainless steel body makes for easier c1eaning. make off with (something) take (something stolen) Whi/e my back was turned, someone made my suitcase.

pay (someone) back (for) take revenge (informal) 1'/1pay him back for ali the rude things he's said about me! pick up (intransitive) improve (informal) A lot of people think that the economy is picking again after a slack period

up

look up (intransitive) (usually progressive) improve Since we won the lottery, things have definitely looking up for ust

up.

pack (something) in (something) stop (informal) Sue decided to pack in her job and tra vel abroad for a while

look on / upon (something) consider

make for (comparative result in

own up (to something) admit When the teacher asked the c1asswho had started the fire, Chris owned

look into (something) investigate The airline is looking into my complaint about my missing baggage

look (sameone) visit

out (something)

You've missed out the fuli stop in this sentence.

let on (intransitive) (+ that-c1ause) talk about a secret

George looked prove himself.

It turned out that Joe had made up the whole story, and wasn 't a journalist at al!.

miss (something) fail to include

off

up (something)

make up for (something) compensate for Joe 's si/ver medal in the 200 metres made up for his disappointment in the 700 metres.

Don't let Helen in on any secrets, because she'lI tell everyone. let (someone) off excuse from punishment Luckily the police let Maria didn 't give her a fine.

make (something) invent

He says he'lI cali round and do the job, but I can't pin him down to an exact date. play up (intransitive) act badly The washing machine is playing a horrible noise!

up again. It's making

point out (+ that-clause) draw attention to a fact

off

with

make out (+ that-c1ause) pretend When the security guard challenged him, the man made out that he was a customer

Can I point out that I did suggest that idea in the first place! pull (something) off (something) succeed in doing United nearly won the match, but just failed to pull it

off.

..-...

N

.•.......

make out (something) manage to see, hear, understand etc I could just make out some writing across the top of the door make (sameone) out understand someone's behaviour David is a strange boy! Ijust can't make him out'

push on (intransitive) continue doing something I don 't think we should wait here. Let's push on and try to get there tonight.

VI

..c lo...

(l)

> m VI

m lo...

..c

Q.

1

Choose the best phrasal verb, A, B or C, to complete

the sentence.

a It's a bit hard toJ3 .....what the sign says from here. b Tina doesn't expensive fashion items. c I didn't like this place when I first came here, but now it is me. d The police are complaints from other shoppers at the store. e How do you think we should finding somewhere to live? f The president is still power, even though he was voted out. g This cheese smells as if it's ! h My teacher always blames me for everything. I think she's

for me.

The authorities repeated that they would not to the demands of the armed group. Smith has since deceiving more than twenty other customers. back a Agoing A hold with B got make out Cgive in C given hanging it in on to Cpin looking own owned make keep made B packed up toupon for orr up upon on with to infor A going in for on BBCgrowing making pinned making going make hitdown up down orr in for with

2

Choose the best end ing 1 to 10 for each sentence

a to j.

a Well dane. Make sure you keep b Oh dear, it seems that she has missed

b

c The company spokesperson later pointed d Fifty years ago, such behaviour would have been looked e It turned out in the end that Sue had made f

I really feel that you have let all of

liS

g After thinking about it, the survivors hit h How exactly will you go There was a strange glass globe on the floor, giving It's been great seeing you - why don't you look

1 ... down, because we were relying on you completely. 10 68342975

... ... ... ...

out that the figures were only rough estimates, and had not be en confirmed. us up again the next time you're in the area? upon as criminal, and severely punished. about removing the old heating system? up the good vvork in future!

... off a mysterious throbbing light. ... upon the idea of using pieces of wood to spell out 5.0.5. on the sand . ... up the whole story, and had never actually studied at university. ... out on beating the record ance again.

3

Complete the sentence with a phrasal verb from the list. give away give out go about go round look into make up for pack in play up

keep to point out

a The government has agreed tolook.JrJ,lo b Don't worry, there are plenty of life jackets to .. c The doctors are afraid her heart will d The computer used to e Paula decided to

f I'd like to..

the claim that [,2 billion has been wasted. unless she has an operation.

a lot so we decided to get a new one. .. her teaching job and work in a bar.

that I haven't actual1y received any payment yet. g I hope this award will your disappointment at not winning first prize. h Try to .. . the announced topie. You're going off the subject slightly. How exactly do I applying for a student grant? Don't say too much, or you'll.. the answer without meaning to!

4

.

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, using the correct form of a phrasal verb from the list. go on let on

growon hang around miss out let down pay back pick up pull off make up

a The government expects the economy to improve in the later part of the year. The,qqve,O\Me.,l:tle,.\(pe.,<;,lslhe.,e.,<;,o~qrt:tljlqpi<;.k4Pjl1,lhe,.Jele,cperlQ±lhe,.Ije,ec b You've forgotten to put a question mark at the end of the line. c There are a lot of people doing nothing in the street outside our house. d I think it's time we took revenge on him for all the awful things he has done! e Ann was supposed to look after my dog, but she disappointed me. f

What on earth is happening here?

g Frankie nearly won both race s but just failed to manage it. h I didn't like the film at first, but then I started to like it more. Don't tell anyone that I put that notice on the door! Tony invented a story about meeting Bob Dylan in a cafe.

N

•.•........

.........

A

Choose twenty phrasal verbs and look them up in a dictionary, noting any other meanings and whether these are transitive or intransitive.

B

Choose ten examples fram the explanation pages and translate them into your language.

Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

phrasal verbs (3) put (something) across (to something) explain an idea I can understand you, but can you put these ideas across to the general public? put (something) down (to something) explain the cause of The team 's poor performance was put down insufficient training.

see to (something) deal with The fridge has broken down, but someone is com ing see to it tomorrow

to

set about (something) begin doing something We know what we have to do, but we're not sure how to set about it.

to

put in for (something) apply for Mark has put in for the post of assistant director.

set (something /someone) back delay progress The cold weather has set back the work, and the

put (someone) oft (something) discourage, upset I can't sing if people stare at me. It puts me oft.

building won 't be finished on time.

put (someone) out cause problems (negative / question) Sorry we can't come to dinner. I hope this doesn't put you out at all. put (someone) up (someone) let someone stay in your house Why don 't you come and stay7 We can easily put you up for a few days. put up with (something / someone) tolerate, bear After a while the noise became 50 loud that Brian couldn't

yourself

set something up (something) establish, arrange (a meeting) The police have set up an inquiry into the complaints. set upon (someone) attack

oft!

The security guards were set upon by three armed men. down sa much

7

shake (something) oft get rid of I can 't seem to shake oft this fiu. I've had it for ten

run into (someone) meet by chance You'll never guess who I ran into the other day! Your old friend Marianne. run to (something) reach an amount or number The cost of the Olympic building programme naw runs to over f5 billion. run over / through (something) check, explain Could you just run over the details again? I'm not sure lunderstand. see (someone) oft (someone) go to station with someone etc to say goodbye Anna is coming with me to the airport to see me oft.

G

set out (+ to-infinitive) intend to The court heard that the two men deliberately set out deceive customers.

run (someone) down (someone) criticize Why do you keep running You're fantastic'

set out (something) give in detail This document sets out exactly how much you have to pay, and when.

to

put up with it any longer.

rip (someone) oft charge tOG much, cheat (informal) €250 a night in that hotel? You were ripped

set in (intransitive) when something unpleasant starts and will probably continue It looks as if the rain has set in for the day!

see through (something) understand dishonesty, pretence He pretended to be busy, but I saw through deception at once.

his

days sink in (intransitive) be understood I had to read the letter several times before the news finally sank in. slip up (intransitive) make a mistake I think someone has slipped up. These are not the books I ordered. sort (something) out (something) do something to solve a problem I'm sorry about the mistake. We'II sort it out as soon as we can. stand by (something) keep to (especially an agreement) The leader of the party said they would stand by the agreement they made last year.

stand for (something) represent this sentence, i.e stands for id est the Latin for 'that is'. stand for (something) olerate

(usually negative)

tell (someone) off (someone) criticize angrily Ted's teacher told him off for being late.

I won't stand for any more shouting and swearing! stand in for (someone) ~ake the place of /5 Mr Davis is in hospital, Jill Cope will be standing for him for the next twa weeks.

in

step down (intransitive) resign At the end of this month, Helen will be stepping down as union representative. step (something) increase

up (something)

The report has stepped director to resign.

up the pressure on the

stick up for (someone /something) defend (informal) Jon'tjust

say nothing! Stick up for yourself!

sum up (intransitive) give a summary Let me sum up by repeating the main points. sum (something) up (something) show what 5th is like I think that what he has done sums up his behaviour in general. take (someone) in (someone) deceive He took me in at first but then I realized what he was really Iike. take (someone) off (someone) imitate Jack can take off ali the teachers really well. take (something) on (something) acquire a particular characteristic Her words have taken on a different meaning since the accident. do extra work Pat has taken on too much wark and is exhausted. take (something) over (something) gain control of A smali group of determined men took over the country take to (someone /something) grow to like My mother took to Sarah as soon as they met. take to doing something develop a habit Sam has taken to wearing

talk (someone) into / out of (something) persuade I didn't want to buy the car, but the salesman talked me into it.

his grandfather's old suits.

tie (sameone) down to (something) force to do or say something definite Anna says she will visit us, but I can't tie her down adate.

to

track (som eon e / something) down find after a long search (someone / something) The police finally tracked the robbers down in South America. try (something) out (something) test to see if it works They tried out the new drug on animals before using it on humans. tum (something) down (something) reject The council has turned down aur application for planning permission. tum out (+ to-infinitive)

or (that-c1ause)

happen to be in the end The girl in red turned out to be Maria '5 sister. tum up (intransitive) arrive or be discovered by chance Guess who turned up at aur party? Your old friend Martin! wear off (intransitive) lose effect When the drugs begin to wear oft, you may feel same pain. work (something) calculate

out (something)

I can't work out the answer to this maths problem. Don't worry about the money you owe. We'lI work something out. deal with a problem work out (intransitive) be successful, have a happy end ing I'm sure that everything will work out fine in the end.

,..........

M

..........

1

Choose the best phrasal verb, A, B or C, to complete the sentence.

a H's easy to .A ....the deceptions of people like George. b The unusual test results were a fault with the computer. c You have to learn to yourself or no-one will respect you. d Mrs Andrews the children who c1imbed into her garden. e The pain in my leg began to

after a couple of hours.

f The letters BBC British Broadcasting Corporation. g The project has be en by technical problems, and won't be ready on time. h Don't look over my shoulder while I'm writing. H Tom's parents managed to At the end of the film, it wzth a Aputup A see through Aput zn for

2

of buying motorbike by offering to buy him a car. that the police chief was actually the murderer.

worked out C set tzed take turned take out down over zn out to BCputs talk B tracked set nes turned hzm zn me out down down Cput hzm me out C sum slipped stzck step stand told B putout aft up up up for up for aft

Choose the best ending 1 to 10 for each sentence a to j.

a b c d

b

H has been announced that the prime minister will step Sue is looking for a new job and has decided to put The government has promised to set I'm sorry, but I won't put

e We apologize for the mistake, and we are doing our best to sort f Quite honestly, I think you've taken g I was walking through the park the other day, when who should I run h Do you think that the government set

Mrs Watson will be standing I only heard the news an hour ago and it hasn't really sunk

1 2 3

on far tOGmuch, and you really ought to get an assistant. in for the position of assistant director. out to deliberately deceive people about this matter?

4 5 6

up with such rude behaviour. in completely yet. down at the end oOune, and take up a post with the

7 8

e

9 10

'H

in for Mr Dobbs while he is in hospital. things out as quickly as we can. into but my old French teacher, carrying a baby. up an inquiry into the sale of armaments.

UNo

3

Camplete the sentence with a phrasal verb fram the list. put dO'Vffl put out see off set about set out step up track down tum down work out a b c d

The managing directorpttldown the company's poor performance to high interest rates. The police were able to the car thieves using satellite technology. This is a sensitive matter, and we have to dealing with it very carefully. Paula seemed rather .. when we brought so many other people to her party.

e f g h

AlI the points for and against are The company has decided to .. You might need a calculator to .. Claire decided to Our maths teacher simply won't ..

clearly in the report. ...production of cars at its factory in Hull. .... this problem. the job, because it would have meant more travelling. .. any talking in class.

Helen is going to the airport to ..

4

stand for

.

some friends.

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, using a form of the phrasal verb fram the list. put across rip aft run down set upon step down take in

run through run to see to take over tum down rurn up

a The local planning office has rejected the company's application to build flats on the site. 1h~19c::gLpl(;{l1,t\il1,q9:f±tc::~hg$±l,lCl',~dd9~I1,1::h?G,9f\A,pgl1,t.1\;eppli<::<3±i911,1::9 .....Q~iId.:flg±$911,1::h? ..$i±~, ....

b The lawyers made notes as the judge went over the details of the case ... c The security guard was fooled by the thief's disguise ... dCaroi

arrived at the party unannounced,

much to everyone's surprise ...

e Harry has very good ideas, but he can't explain them to an audience ... f

I don't think you should keep criticizing yourself ...

g Sameone has to fix the children's lunch at 12.30. h Mr Johnson will be leaving the job of company spokesperson at the end of the month.

A group of foreign investors is naw in control of the company ... ...•....•.

Jim was attacked by three muggers in the street ....

M

..........

Vl ..CI

k €500 for that? I think you've been cheated! The report has got over five hundred pages ...

~

(])

> eu Vl eu

~

...c

Q..

5

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, containing the word in capitals. a I can't seem to get rid of this pain in my left leg. ...I~qttl±.s..??l1Afp~*f*?q.f.ffhis..pgi~.i~.t1A,'1 ..I?:ffle-q ... b Tina is realIy good at imitating the accounts manager.

SHAKE

c You can stay at aur house for a few days.

PUT

d I think same one has made a mistake, because I'm not owed any money.

SLIPPED

e I think this bad weather is going to last alI day.

SET

f The foreign minister promised that his country would honour the agreement.

STAND

g David has started running up and down the stairs for exercise.

TAKEN

h That realIy defines what sort of person she is!

SUMS

The following exercises practise grammar from

6

Units 37

and

38.

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, using the correct form of a phrasal verb fram Units 37, 38 and 39. a I was worried about the examination and didn't manage to falI asleep for ages. .' ../AJgs. ../AJ()rci?q.gapt(+..fh??.r:gt1,tirtgfi()V1...O-rt9 ..c:JiqV1. lf ..t1,tgrt0q?..f() ..9cop ..p.f.f ...f()C..0q?S.~... b I'm slowly beginning to like that song. c The prime minister and the finance minister have quarrelIed again. d Three young boys committed the robbery on their way home from school. e We waited for a bus for ages, and in the end we walked. f I don't understand exactly how much this is going to cost. g The Mexican restaurant we tried wasn't as good as we thought it would be. h The spare parts we have be en waiting for have been delayed in the post. Helen didn't quite understand what Ben was trying to say. I don't like the way he talked to you! I wouldn't stand for it, if I were you.

e

TAKING

k When the teacher asked who had braken the deski two boys confessed. Fiona doesn't really like camping holidays. m I'm going to use my French and see what it's like when I'm on holiday. n I'll try and find the time to calI you later on today.

7

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, containing the word in capitals.

a Make sure you keep your ticket, as you/ll need it later . ...M!3k.~...$?lr~ ..tjQ?l..hm\.q ..pV1, ..lQ ..tjP?lr ..li~k~l,.!3$

HANG

..tjQ?lIIl..V1,~~d..il ..I!3l~r, ...

b Nick says he's going to complain, but Idonit think he'll actually do it.

GO

c I don't think you should force people to believe what you do.

IMPOSE

d I decided to calI on my old aunt while I was in the area.

DROP

e The wark we had done on our house was perfarmed by a firm of local builders.

CARRlED

f The party finally ended after the neighbours complained about the noise.

BREAK

g Emily says she'll visit us one day but I can/t get hel' to give a definite date.

PI

h Our luxury cruise holiday wasn't really as good as we expected it to be.

LIVED

h When there was no food left, the two men were forced to eat insects.

GAVE

Rita is a strange person, I really don't understand hel'.

MAKE

George got on really well with his mother-in-Iaw.

HIT

k Idonit think the gunmen will surrender without a fight.

GIVE

I

POINT

I'd like to make it elear that I'm not in fact English, but Scottish.

•..•..••..

M

,

-

,o

,

,et'

0'0

EXTENSION

ACTIVITY

A

Choose twe nt y phrasal verbs and look them up in a dictionary, noting any other meanings and whether these are transitive or intransitive.

B

Choose twenty phrasal verbs which you think are useful or interesting from Units 37, 38 and 39, use each one to write a new example.

organizing text (1) This unit includes a variety of words and phrases which can be used to organize text. Not ali their uses are given here, and many can be used in other ways. By connector is meant any word or phrase that can stand alone at the front of a sentence, often foliowed by a comma.

adding a point •

Also is used to add a point within a sentence. It is not normally used as a connector at the

beginning of a sentence in formai speech and writing. Cars use up valuable energy resources, and also pol/ute the environment. •

As welf as is foliowed by a noun or -ing, and can be used in an introductory clause. Cars use up valuable energy resources, as well as polluting the en vironment. As well as polluting the environment, cars use up valuable energy resources. As welf as this can be used as a connector, referring to a previous sentence. Cars use up valuable energy resources, and also pol/ute the environment. As well as this, they make life unpleasant in big cities.



In addition

can be used as a connector.

Cars use up valuable energy resources, and also pol/ute the environment. In addition, unpleasant in big cities. •

Moreover,

furthermore,

they make life

what is more are formai connectors which emphasize that there is an

additional point to be made. Cars use up valuable energy resources, and a/so pol/ute the environment. Moreover is more, they make life unpleasant in big cities.

/ Furthermore

/ What



Above alf is a connector which adds a point, and stressesthat this point is the most important one. Cars use up valuable energy resources, and also pol/ute the environment. Above al/, they make life unpleasant in big cities.



Besides is an informal connector: it has the same meaning as anyway or in any case. This car is too big for me. Besides, I can't real/y afford it.

contrast or concession •

However can be used as a connector at the beginning or end of the sentence. Note that there is

always punctuation on both sides of it"ie a fuli stop or comma. It cannot be used to connect two c1auses. Wind turbines are another source of renewabIe energy Ho we ver, they are not without drawbacks. Wind turbines are another source of renewabIe energy They are not without drawbacks, ho we ver.

Compare the use of although: Wind turbines are another source of renewabIe energy, a/though •

they are not without drawbacks

Despite (this) introduces a point which contrasts with a previous statement. Note that despite is foliowed by a noun or -ing form of the verb. Wind turbines are an increasingly popular source of renewabIe energy Despite being easy do have some drawbacks.



build, they

Neverthe/ess, none the less are more forma I connectors referring back to the previous point: they can also come at the end of the sentence. Wind turbin es are an increasingly popular source of renewabIe energy Neverthe/ess / Nonethe/ess, they do have same drawbacks. They do have som e drawbacks, neverthe/ess / nonethe/ess.

e

to

degree •

To same extent / to a certain extent are used as a way of saying 'part/y'. It can come at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a sentence. Most people would accept this argument to same extent. To a certa in extent, I agree with you. This solution is, to a certa in extent, easy to understand.



In same respects / ways are used as acannector limiting what comes before or after. Some people argue that the only solution to the problem of global warming is new technology In same respects, this is true. Some people argue that the only solution to the problem of global warming is new technology In same respects, the development of non-polluting fuels might solve part of the problem.

comparing •

and contrasting

On the one hand ... (but / while) on the other hand ... introduce contrasting points. On the one hand, nuclear power does not add carbon to the atmosphere, but on the other hand it presents other more serious pollution risks.

We can also use on the other hand to introduce a contrasting paragraph. •



On the contrary introduces a contrasting positive point after a negative statement. The cost of electricity produced by nuclear power does not go down. On the contrary, clean-up costs mean that in the long term the cost increases substantially Compared

to, in comparison

to / with are used as an introductory phrase, or at the end of the

sentence. In comparison to / Compared with last year, there has been some improvement. There has been some improvement in comparison to / compared with last year. •

In the same way introduces a point which is similar to the previous one. Wave power generators use the constant movement of the waves to produce electricity. In the same way, tidal generators use the back and forward motion of the tides.

The sentence adverb similarly can also be used. Similarly, •

tidal generators use the back and forward motion of the tides.

(But) at least is used to emphasize that there is an advantage, despite a disadvantage just mentioned. Wind turbines are noisy, but at least they do not create air pollution.

results and reasons •



consequently, as a result (of) The house was left empty for several years and no maintenance was carried out. Consequently is now in a poor condition. As a resu/t ot this neglect it is naw in a poor condition.

/ As

a

resu/t, it

thus (formal) The locks on the front door had been changed. Thus, it was impossible for the estate agent to gain entrance to the house. It was thus impossible to gain entrance to the house



accordingly (formal) Smith was away in Italy at the time of the attack. According/y,

he could not have been responsible.



Hence explains how the words following it are explained by what has gone before. The city is the site of ancien t spring and Roman bath; hence the name Bath.



On account ot, owing to have the same meaning as because of and are both prepositions. Maria had to retire from professional tennis on account ot / owing to a toot injury.



Due to is a preposition with the same meaning as owing to, but which can follow be. Her retirement from professional tennis was due to a toot injury.

1

Underline the best word ar phrase.

a Flights abroad are becoming cheaper, although / however most people are aware of the damage they cause to the environment. b The beach is mainly pebbles, but at least / in the same way it is fairly clean. c Wilson was dismissed from his job, in addition to / on account ofthe seriousness of his offence. d Huygens' astronomical observations required an exact means of measuring time, and he was thus / nevertheless led in 1656 to invent the pendulum clock. e Students are often not taught to think effectively. However / As a result, they can become overwhelmed with information, as they cannot see the wood for the trees. f

Alcohol drinking is strongly associated with the risk of liver cancer. Moreover / None the less,

there is some evidence suggesting that heavy alcohol consumption is particularly strongly associated with liver cancer among smokers. g Patience is not passive; on the other hand / on the contraTY, it is active; it is concentrated strength. h This Mary Louisa Smith's marriage certificate is dated 4 June 1867. Accordingly / In the same way, she cannot be the Mary Louisa Smith bom in Liverpool on 12 November 1860. Dodors concluded that the patient's erratic behaviour was probably besides / due to the mild concussion she suffered in the accident. Red dwarf stars fuse hydro gen and helium, but the fusion is slow because of the low temperature at the core of the star. Consequently / In some respects, these stars give off very little light.

2

Complete the text using one word in each space.

Genetically madified faad Genetically modified (or GM) foods are foods from plants (eg cotton, maize, tomatoes) which have been modified in a laboratory by inserting DNA from another organism. As a a ...ee,S41J ..... of this process, the new plant variety will have sorne new quality (eg resistance to certain pests, improved flavour) which makes it, in some b , more valuable. c

all, a GM plant can be specially developed to suit

certain conditions, and although the process produces simi1ar results to normai plant selection to some d , genetic modification is quite a different way of creating new varieties of plants, e to the range of possible modifications. f to natural breeding techniques, which take place over a long period and may require thousands of plantings, genetic modifications can be made more efficiently, and targeted precisely at a specific need. g , the GM industry has corne in for a great deal of criticism. Many people argue that it is dangerous to release GM plants into the environment on h of their unusual characteristics. i , critics stress that such plants are unnecessary. They argue that rather than creating potentially dangerous new varieties, we should

e

be distributing food more efficiently.

3

Write a new sentence wit h the same meaning, leaving out the words underlined, and including the words in capitals. You may need to write more than one sentence. a Regular exercise keeps you fit, and it gives you a feeling of well-being.

FURTHERMORE

12:~(iWI?~r~XE~n::ise,ke,e,PSj1Q~:ffl.f~rlhe,O:\.tQm,jlHqi\le,sIjQ4eJ~e,IiVl,qQ:fw.~J!:::Qe,iVl.q . b Although she suffered a serious leg injury in 2005, Henderson the 400 m this season.

c As well as providing beneficial

lonely people with company,

DESPITE THIS

pets have been proved to have a

effect on many com mon medical conditions.

d Despite lower consumer

demand,

e Bicycles are pollution-free

f

has come back to dominate

the company

has increased

WHAT IS MORE profits by 6%.

HOWEVER

and silent, and take up very little parking space.

The heater has been tested for safety, but must be used according

AS WELL AS THIS

to the instructions.

NEVERTHELESS

g I don 't really like the design of this sofa, and in any case it won't fit into the living room.

4

BESIDES

Underline the best word or phrase.

Globalization What exactly is globalization? a To some extent / Moreover the term means whatever people want it to mean. In economics, the term usually refers to the way the world has become one market, with free exchange of goods and capital. b At least / However, it is also used to describe cross-cultural

contacts.

c Furthermore / As we11as being part of the same economic system, countries in different parts of the world share entertainment,

food, and, d in som e respects / owing to, similar attitudes to life. e Above a11/ Thus, globalization often refers to the way TV and the Internet have created a unified world in which information can be exchanged very rapidly. In fact, a 'global economy' is only possible f as a result oi / however modern information technology. g Despite / Furthermore, politics has also become 'globalized', creating co-operation between countries. h However / Although, there are many critics of globalization who point out that while business has become glob a], there are still winners and losers:

i consequently

/ nevertheless, the

richer nations grow richer, and the poorer nations grow poorer. They also argue that j above a11/as a result ofthe global power of large corporations and international financial institutions, many countries no longer control their own economies. +-' >< OJ

+-'

.

.

EXTENSION

ACTIVITY

A

Write a short text comparing further education with getting a job, or using public transport with using a car.

B

Choose ten examples from the explanation

. ".;

01 C

N C lU 01 I... O

page and translate them into your language.

organizing text (2) exceptions

and alternatives



exeept (for) Everyone chose a new book, exeept for Helen, who was still reading her old one. Except for Helen, who was still reading her old one, everyone chose a new book.



Apart from can be used to mean the same as except for. Everyone chose a new book, apart from Helen, who was still reading her old one.

It can also mean in addition Apart •

from the dent in the front bumper, the car had scratches ali along one side.

Instead (of) means that one thing replaces another. I decided not to take the bus, but walked instead. I decided not to take the bus. Instead, I walked. Instead of taking



to.

the bus, I decided to walk.

Alternatively is a more formai way of starting a sentence, meaning ar. You could take the bus. Alternatively, you could walk.

sequences •

Writers often signal that they are going to make a list of points. There are a number of ways in which this can be done. There are several ways of looking at this matter



First of ali, secondly, thirdlyetc; next; finally are often used to num ber points in a sequence. First of alf, there is the issue of cosi Secondly



.

Next, ..

Words such as point, issue, problem, The first problem



Finally, ...

advantage facing the government is .

can also be numbered.

In an argument, there is often a conclusion, which can be introduced by in conelusion. In cone/usion,

we could say that .

summarizing •

To sum up can be used to introduce a summarizing comment at the end of an argument. To sum up, it seems elear that .



And sa forth, and 50 on and etc. are expressions used to saythere are further points we do not

mention. Growth is also influenced by weather, water supply, position, and sa forth.

Note that such phrases can imply that the writer has a lot more to say, but does not wish to go into detail. Ete is an abbreviation from Latin

et cetera.

Note also that ete as an abbreviation either has a fuli stop at the end (etc.), or this is omitted (etc). It cannot be written e-+.-t:. making assertions

A

Wf



Utterly and simply emphasize an adjective. Utterly tends to be used with negative adjectives. Simply can be used with positive or negative adjectives. This is simply wonderful' It is simply / utterly wrong to argue this.



Utter and sheer are used with nouns to emphasize the size or amount. Utter tends to be used with negative nouns. Sheer can be used with positive or negative nouns. Quite honestly, I think this is utter nonsense! Tania's performance was sheer delightl It was sheer madness to buy 50 many shares'



Merely is stronger than only / just and is used in a similar way, to make what follows seem

unimportant or smalI. The Earth is merelya

tiny unimportant speck in the Universe.

Mere is used before nouns, with the same meaning as above. The Earth is a mere speck in the Universe. •

Literally is used to emphasize that what has been said is not an exaggeration but is really true. There are Iiterally thousands of people without homes.

See intensifiers, comment and viewpoint adverbs Unit 27. giving examples •

For example, examples include, to take an example ali need punctuation before and after. Same birds regularly migrate over long distances. For example, swans fly several thousand kilometres . Swans, for example, fly ... Examples include swans, which f/y ... To take an example, swans f/y ...



eg (e.g.) is an abbreviation from Latin exempli gratia. Some islands, eg Naxos, Milos, Santorini etc have airports.



Such as introduces an example. Many birds, such as swans, migrate over long distances.



As far as (subject) (be) concerned is a way of introducing a specific example. Some birds regularly migrate over long distances. As far as swans are concerned, this can involve crossing wide expanses of water.



Namely introduces a more specific reference after a general one. Some groups of birds, namely swans, geese and ducks, tend to fly in a V-shaped formation.

making elear •

In other words is used to introduce a point we want to make c1earerby repeating it in a different way. I think you should go out more with friends, or perhaps take a part-time job. In other words, make more of an effort to be sociable.

• to

put it another way To put it another way, I think you should try to be more sociable.



That is to say and ie (ar i.e.) are used to explain exactly what you mean: ie means that is and is an abbreviation from Latin id est. A number of others are usually referred to as 'ballroom dances', ie / that is and 50 on.

introducing •

to

say the waltz, foxtrot, quickstep,

one side of an opinion

In a way, in som e ways, in same respects mean 'from one point of view' and introduce one side of an opinion. In a way, the film makes the bank-robbers seem really nice guys! In some respects, losing the job was a blessing in disguise. ..•....

deseribing •

types

A kind ot, a sort of can describe a type of something. An okapi is a kind of smali giraffe. Kind of and sort of are also used with adjectives or verbs informally to mean rather. This is kind of interesting. It sort of worries me.

N

..........

+' ><

(]) +'

Ol

C N C

m Ol ~ O

1

Underline

the best word ar phrase.

a There are a number

of advantages

to consider. In a way

I As far as snakes are concerned, as well as I such as frogs and toads,

b Apart {rom snakes c Amphibians,

d You could get it photocopied.

e Don't be silly! What you are saying is utterly t

I sheer wrong!

I'm sorry, but this is simply

g The Chinese h Everyone In a way

restaurant

attended

tumed

ones.

can live on land and in water. I could scan it into my computer.

I mere ridiculous!

out to be closed, sa we went for a pizza in other words

the meeting,

I 50rt 0(, the

there is the lower cost.

Spain has five poisonous

I Instead,

Alternatively

I First orall,

apart for

I from Mrs Deacon,

damage caused by the storm was a go od thing,

of we ak trees, which benefits woodland

I instead.

who was ill. as it brought

down a lot

in the long term.

I

A bat looks like a bird, but actually it's kind of a a kind of mammal.

2

Use a phrase tram the list to complete

the sentence.

l

a kind of 2 as far as the economy is concemed 3 to put it another way 4 and so forth 5 in some respects 6 ap art from 7 namely 8 utterly 9 in conclusion 1 n Tho "-.oT hQh a .IQ

facing the new management

b

the second half of the book is not as good as the first half.

(

The country

d

is moving in the right direction

the ending,

this is a really interesting

e You will also need money t

Education,

will be to reassure staff that jobs will not be lost.

for notebooks,

it is said, is

continuing

g The activity on a site is the amount has been transferred.

film.

pencils, pens dialogue.

of bandwidth

used, or

, the amount

h In the last section, we also suggest other topics that need to be researched, emphasize

the importance

3

For some companies,

the IT assets,

proportion

spent.

Complete

and

of teamwork.

I read the bo ok you lent me, but I'm afraid to say I found it of money

of data that

hardware

incomprehensible.

and software,

account

for the largest

the text using one word in each gap.

Early experiments in town planning A"s lar as B'" ntaln

IS

.., a(:PVl.~ e-rne-d .... ,t h"e IIrst mo d ern examp Ies o f town p I'anning were t h'e gar d en cltles,

b

as Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City, built in the early 1900s.A 'garden city' was a

(

of idealized community, planned around large open spaces, public buildings, and

d

forth. Letchworth, e

example, had no public house,

a bar selling alcohol, and included for the nrst time the idea of a 'green belt', that is to g area of countryside surrounding the town. In some h

an

, Letchworth was ahead of its time, as

the building plan also avoided the cutting down of trees, and the town was there were green spaces and trees everywhere. j

f

i

a 'garden', as

from the attractions of the site, there was

also innovative design, as many of the houses were designed to be cheap, used modern building techniques

G

such k prefabrication, and had front and bacl
luxury for many

4

Complete the sentence with one word in each gap. eoineidenee b This is ..

that the twa women

met outside the door.

. the best, and easily better than aU the rest.

e They said that the explosion d We have reeeived ..

eannot

.

be dismissed

hundreds

e To suggest that I had anything

as a ..

of applieations

to do with the murder,

for the job. is

f The evening of musie and dancing was one of g I'm sorry, but as far as I'm eoneerned h Mr MarweU has brought I'm not eritieizing lane was

S

H

••••••••••••••••••••••••

you, I'm..

ridieulous! pleasure.

this has been a / an ..

the company ..

aeeident.

HHHH

to the brink of ..

. HH

waste of time. ruin.

saying that you could have dane the job differently.

HHH

shocked to diseover how much money

had be en stolen.

Choose the best option, A, B, ar C, for each gap.

The car and change in the 20th Century. The car can be seen not as a

aC; machine, but as an agent of social change. In the USA, b

the twentieth cen tury. cars c

transformed

, during

society. First of aU, more cars meant more mobility. d

as roads became better, people could travel furthel' for jobs. Rathel' than living in the city centre or near

, and drive between home and work. f

factories, people could live in suburbs e

there were new

laws obliging new shops and businesses to provide parking spaces, which furthel' encouraged

a 'car-only' society. The

pace of change was staggering: in 20 years, US roads

gH

increased in length from around 600,000 km. h

, mass production

km to 1. 6 million

of cars transformed

business,

making oil and rubber into major industries, increasing dem and for steel, and creating new service industries . ........... filling stations, moteIs and insurance. j car represented

, the

the American ideal of 'personal freedom'

- before environmental

damage and an epidemie of obesity

began to force Americans to think again.

a

A for sheer utter in aconclusion utter such mere that B is sheer etc as Instead In other such instead mere words as forth literally A example C Literally alternatively B And For Thirdly example sa In Apart Simply way (rom C Except maely namely Secondly for

N

•......•. .•....•..

. A

ACTIVITY

Write a short text about the town or city you live in, using these phrases: there are a number ...

B

EXTENSION

first of al/, ...

second/y...

Choose ten examples fram the explanation

apart from ...

such as ...

a kind of ...

pages and translate them into your language.

to sum up ...

organizing text (3) replacing words (substitution) •

Pronouns often replace nouns or noun phrases, to avoid repeating the same words. I put down my coffee, and gave Helen hers (her coffee). She (Helen) took one sip of it (the coffee) and said, 'This (this coffee) is awful. What did you put in it (this coffee)?'



one and ones We can use one in the place of a noun or when we want to avoid repeating 'l've got three bikes, but Ilike this one best. It's the fastest one. ' 'Yes, that's a good one'

a noun.

The piurai form is ones. The most expensive ones are not always the best. •

mine, yours etc We do not normally use possessive adjectives (mine, yours et c) instead. This is mine. This one is mine.

(my, your etc) with one /ones,

but use only a pronoun



some, any We use some and any on their own to avoid repeating plurals or uncountables. Where are the stamps? I need some (stamps). Have you got any (stamps)?



sa After verbs believe, expect, guess, hope, imagine, suppose, think etc, and after be afraid, we use sa instead of repeating a c1ause. '15Jill coming tomorrow?' 'I hope 50'. ( = I hope that she is coming) 'Will you be long?' 'I don 't think 50'. ( = I don't think that 1'11be long.) We can use not as the negative form. '15Jill coming tomorrow?' 'I hope not'. ( = I hope that she isn't com ing) After say, tell we can use sa instead of repeating ali the words used. 'I didn't really want to see that film.' 'Why didn't you say 50?' ( = Why didn't you say that you didn't want to see the film?) I don 't think Anna did the right thing, and 1 told her 50. ( = I told Anna that I didn't think she had done the right thing.) We can also use sa in an inverted form with say, tell, understand Jack is a genius. Or 50 his teachers keep telling him. ( = Or that is what his teachers keep telling him.)

to mean 'that is what'.

After if, sa can be used instead of repeating information as a conditional There may be heavy snow tomorrow 1f 50, the school will be c/osed. ( = If there is heavy snow ...) With less, more, very much sa can be used to avoid repeating an adjective Everything is running smoothly, more 50 than usual in fact. ( = more smoothly) 'Are you interested in this job?' 'Very much 50.' ( = very much interested).



do sa We can use a form of do with 50 to avoid repeating a verb phrase. They told Terry to get out of the car, and he did sa. ( = he got out of the car) Janet left her wallet in the shop, but didn't remember doing 50. ( = leaving it)

• do Informally we often use do or do that to refer to an action. 'I promised to colleet the children from school, but 1 can't do it. ' 'Don 't worry, 1'11do it.'

G

clause.

ar adverb.

• 50 do I etc When we agree with another person's statement we can replace a verb wit h 50 (when the statement is positive) or neither / nor (when the statement is negative) folIowed by do ar a modal auxiliary before the subject. 'Ilike this film. ' 'I don't like 5eafood. ' 'I can't hear a thingf'

'Sa dol.' 'Neither / Nor do we. ' 'Neither / Nor can I. '

We can use too and not ... either without inversion to mean the same thing. 'Ilike this film. ' 'I don't like seafood.'

'I do too. ' 'We don't either.'

leaving things out (ellipsis) •

In clausesjoined by and or but, we do not have to repeat the subject in the second c1ause. Maria went into the room and (she) opened the cupboard. I stood on a chair but (I) still couldn't reach the top



In c1ausesjoined by and, but, ar; we can leave out a repeated subject and auxiliary, ar subject and verb. I've read the artie/e, and (I have) summarized the main points. David likes rock music, (he likes) going to parties, and (he likes) tennis. Note that it is not possible to leave out subjects, auxiliaries ar verbs after words like becau5e, before etc.



When a second c1auserepeats a verb phrase, we can use the auxiliary part only. I've been to Russia, but Tina hasn't (been to Russia). Jane says she's coming to the party, but Martin isn't (coming to the party).



When a phrase with be + adjective is repeated, we can leave out the second adjective. I'm interested in this, but Harry isn't (interested in this).



We can leave out a repeated verb phrase after to-infinitive or not to-infinitive. Anna doesn't play tennis naw, but she used to (play tennJs). He'll throw things out of the window, unless you tell him not to (throw things out of the window). Jack felt like playing football, but h/s friends didn't want to (play football)

,~

Jack felt like playing football, but his frjencts ctictn't want to. .•.......



In reported questions, we can leave out repeated words after question words. He said he would meet us soon, but he didn't

say when (he would meet us).

M

.......•.

1

Underline the best option. a I'm supposed

to be writing a project, but I do too II havent dane it vet.

b I don't really like this area, and nor my friends do / neither do my friends. c The news is awful. Did you see it / them on TV? d Everyone thought

Helen had chosen the wrong job but nobody

may call an election this year, and if 50 he is / neither is he certain to win.

e The prime minister

t

told it her / told her 50.

Taxing petrol is unpopular, record levels.

and never to do 50/ more 50 than now when prices are hitting

9 I was told to report to office 101, but before it / doing 50 I went to the cafeteria. h The world is getting

hotter, or 50 do /50 many people would have us believe.

They are all more or less the same quality, but this is the most expensive one / this one it's the most expensive. I ate my sandwich,

2

but Emma didn't

eat her / hers.

Replace the words underlined with a suitable word ar words. a I like horror films, but I didn't

enjoy that film.

b IDid you enjoy the play?' IYes, I enjoyed c The museum

may be closed tomorrow.

()~~

it very much indeed.' If so, we'll go on Tuesday.

d We sell a lot of jeans, and these are the most popular e I've finished

t

my project but Maria hasn't

jeans.

her project.

The oWcer told Paul to get out of the car, and he got out of the car.

9 I can't skateboard

and Brian can't skateboard

h Valerie has been appointed

3

finished

finance

'Are we starting

early tomorrow?'

'I really wanted

to leave earlier'.

director,

either. or that is what I understand.

II hope we aren't starting

IWhy didn't you say you wanted

to?'

Choose the best option, A, B ar C, to complete the sentence. a David says he'll be arriving on Monday,

but he doesn't

know

b I didn't believe what lane had said, and I told c Kate has completed

her project,

but

d I tried to repair the washing-machine e Danny didn't

t

accept Helen's invitation,

though

Mary used to like horror films but

9 Now you've finished nor does she. a A A neither when hehave will.I.

e

early!'

yom lunch,

could you give the twins

eBInor but that it. Ishe Bsa. B haven't. couldn't did 50 their. 50. I50. he. couldn't. do50. it. naw. doesn't naw. B very he thought much 50. exactly they hope don't when. like her

c

4

Underline the words that can be

leh out. Leaving out words may be impossible in some sentences.

a I don't have a bike now but I used to have one. b Tony will be going to the shops and he'U get you some stamps. c Harry likes listening to musie and he likes playing computer games. d I'm worried about the exam, but my friends aren't worried about it. e Mary used to make her own clothes, but she doesn't make her own clothes any more. l Kate says she's not interested, but Rita might want to. g I've been to Brazil, but Theresa hasn't been there. h Jack said he would bring someone to the party, but he didn't say who he would bring to the party.

Jim wanted to go swimming, but none of his friends felt like it. I've done the shopping and I've cleaned the house.

5

Rewrite the sentence ar one of the sentences sa that it contains the word in capitals.

a 'Do you think you'U be late tonight?'

'I don't suppose I will'.

SO

l'[)()lj()~±~il1.k.tj()tllllHQ~lg±~±()V\iq~±?lllcl()l'\l±S~pp()S~;;()l'H

b Bond starte d to diseonneet the red wire, but as he starte d diseonneeting itI something told him he had made a mistake.

SO

c If you wanted to stay at home, why didn't you say you wanted to stay at home?

SO

d Sue tried to reach the top shelf but it was impossible.

DO

e I ean't stand folk musie, and David can't stand folk musie.

CAN

f

Laura left her bike outside the einema, but she didn't remem ber leaving it there.

g The robbery was eommitted by two people, ar that is what we believe.

SO SO

.....-...

M

•.........

>< (]) +-' O"l

C

N C m O"l ~

O

The following

6

exercises practise grammar from Units 40, 41 and 42.

Rewrite the sentence or one of the sentences so that it contains the word in capitals.

a There is no problem with money.

AS FAR

b From one point of view, I think you're absolutely correct.

IN

c Jim wasn't there, but everyone else was

APARTFROM

d Those are your cards and these are my cards.

YOURS

e Lastly, I would like to thank the organizers of this conference.

IN

f This country has higher youth unemployment

COMPARISON

than other European countries.

g Tom has be en ill and so has been absent from college.

DUE

h Tony thinks it was a terrible film, and I think it was a terrible film too.

DO

Although United played badly, they won the match.

LEAST

The tennis tournament

OWING

has been postponed because of bad weather.

k 'Will you be here next year?' 'I doubt it.'

SO

I

EXTENT

The scheme has been fairly successful.

m The earthquake has caused the dosure of many roads in the area. n

e

The two artists appear to be different but share similarities.

RESULT RESPECTS

o Poor eyesight forced her to give up driving.

ACCOUNT

P I didn't take the bus, I went on foot.

INSTEADOF

q To begin with, write down a list of your ideas.

ALL

r Many animals, eg bears, sleep for much of the winter.

AS

s No artefact which is alien, ie not from our planet, has ever been discovered.

SAY

7

Choose the best option, A, B or C, to complete the sentence.

a Sorry, I haven't got any change.CL, I don't really think you should be eating more ice cream. b The prices of some holidays have fallen on average last year. c The high winds uprooted many trees,.. .....damaging buildings. d .. HHHH , the second film in the Space Wars series is more exciting than the first, but overall it is less entertaining. e f

HHHH the water shortage, Southem Water has introduced a ban on garden hosepipes. Look over yom notes and think about likely questions. But realistic revision timetable, and stick to it.

, make sme you have a

g I enjoyed ]ohnny's last film, but I'm not so keen on h Accident investigators were unable to recover the aircraft's black box data recorder... exact cause of the crash remains unknown. Sails use the power of the wind to produce forward motion produce a circular movement. j Peter says he can come back tomorrow, but his brother k The Millennium Bridge was opened on 10 ]une 2000.

..HH the

, windmills use it to

.Htechnical problems, it was forced

to close for repairs, and did not open again until February 2002. There has been trouble at previous matches between the two sides; policing this time. m Nothing should go wrong, but ifHH , give me a ring on this number.

the need for extra

A As this one Thus Above all At Besides as more well least B well Nevertheless Hence in None it as 50 addition aas result less Babave all a A hence to canlt acomparison certain want it Thus do Despite compared toofextent Owing B to should athe result On in contrmy toC C As In compared owing the as doesnlt same toas athey result tothe way say of do in does same B Despite ways respects

"

EXTENSION A

M

ACTIVITY

a Write some questions which could be folIowed by these answers. I hope 50! IdonIt expect sa. It's not mine. I think I'd rather have that one. b Write some statements which could be folIowed SA do we. Neither can I. 50 do you!

B

by these responses.

Neither does mine.

Choose ten examples from the explanation

-

.-...

.

pages and translate them into your language.

inversion and fronting inversion This involves using question word order after an adverbial wit h a negative or restrictive meaning comes at the beginning of the sentence. These structures are normally only used in formai speech and writing. Note that all of these adverbials can be used without inversion if they come in the normai position. •

never I have never seen a more obvious case of cheating! (normai Never have I seen a more obvious case of cheating!

• •

rarely Rarely does such

painting

come on the market.

discovery

had such an impact.

seldom Seldom has



a rare

position)

a scientific

No sooner ... than No sooner had I shut the door than I realized I had left my keys inside.





Hardly ... when Hardly had the play started Scarcely ... when (than) Scarcely had they entered

when there was a disturbance in the audience.

the cast/e when there was a huge explosion.



Onlyafter, only when, Only Jane managed to Only in a city as large On/y after we had /eft

only later, only then, only finish the project on time. (no inversion) as this can you find sa many foreign resta uran ts. the ship did we realize that the captain had remained.



On no condition, under no circumstances, on no account, at no time, in no way Under no circumstances is this door to be left unlocked.



Not until Not until he stopped to rest did Jack realize that he had been wounded. Not until the building had been made safe co u/d anyone go back inside.



Not only ... but also Not only did he Jose alI the money, but he a/so found himself in debt.



Little Little did anyone suspect what was about to happen.

c:::J

J

O

Oc::=>

e

No sooner had

I shut the door than I realized I had lef/; my keys inside.

fronting This involves putting first a clause not normally at the beginning of the sentence. It mayaiso involve putting the verb in an inverted position. •

Relative clausescan be placed first when they normally follow negative verbs of understanding, knowing, etc. This is normally a spoken form. I have no idea who he iso Who he is, I have no idea. I really don 't know what you mean. What you mean, I really don 't know



Here, there, back, out, up, down, on, oft etc can begin a sentence or a clause, foliowed by averb. This is usually come or go. The sentence is often an exclamation. A messenger came back with the answer. Back came a messenger with the answer. Here comes the rain! Out went the lights! Down went the ship to the bottom of the sea. As we were walking home, down came the rain, and we had to run for it.



In the same way, an adverbia I phrase can begin a sentence or a c1ause,folIowed by a verb. This kind of sentence is common in literary writing. A group of armed men came along the street. Along the street came a group of armed men. While we were waiting to see what would happen next along the street came a group of armed men, waving their guns in the air and shouting. Up the hill went the bus, creaking and groaning. Through the window jumped a masked man.

conditional sentences •



as, though with may, might It may sound unlikely, but it's true. Un/ikely as it may sound, it's true The car may be cheap, but it's in terrible condition. Cheap though the car may be, it's in terrible condition. tryas

(someone) might

This construction is used to mean that although someone tried hard, they couldn't succeed in what they were trying to do. She tried hard, but couldn't move the wardrobe. Try as she might, she couldn't move the wardrobe. Try as he might, he couldn 't pass his driving test. •

were, ha d, should conditional sentences These are highly forma!, and omit if, putting the auxiliary at the beginning of the sentence. If the government were to resign, the situation might be resolved. to resign, the situation might be resolved. Were the government If proper measures had been taken, this situation would not have occurred. Had proper measures been taken, this situation would not have occurred. If an outbreak of fiu should take place, special measures will be introduced.. Should an outbreak of fIu take place, special measures will be introduced.

1

Underline the best word ar phrase.

a Not only / Rarely do you see top-rate cameras which are also easy to use. b Should / Were the strike go ahead, it could severely damage the company. c Never I have seen / Never have I seen su ch a dramatic end to a football match. d What he is talking about / What is he talking about, I have no idea. e Gnly the two members of the French team managed / did they manage to finish the race. t As it may seem strange /Strange as it may seem, he is actually one of the richest men in the world! g Hardly had the train pulled out of the station when / than there was a loud screeching sound. h Suddenly, ran into the room / into the room ran a huge dog. Had we known / Had we to have known in advance, we could have done something about it. j Not until the wreckage had been examined could / was terrorism be ruled out. k Hardly / Little did I know that it would be another three years before I saw her again. I Should / Were the alarm to ring, leave the building immediately.

2

Choose the best option, A, B ar C, to complete the sentence.

a

c::

how serious the situation was.

b Just as the players took their place s on the court, .. c my bag I really can't remember. d , everyone would probably have escaped from the building. e At no time on the pIane in any danger. t second thoughts, don't hesitate to phone me. g Strange , I actually enjoy working underground. h Jane

the train but aIso lost her luggage. , we might consider making another offer. j Without warning, onto the stage brandishing a knife. k Suddenly the sky went dark, and the rain.

I a

is this piece of equipment to be removed from the building. A Little anyone did realize

b A did the rain pour down

B

Little realized anyone

C

Little did anyone realize

B

down poured the rain.

C

did pour down the rain

B

Where have I left

C Where left I

d A Had it not been locked the fire door

B

Had not been locked the fire door

C Had the fire door not been locked

e

A were the passengers

B

the passengers were

C were they the passengers

t

A Should have you

B

Should you have

C Should you had

g

A as does it sound

B

sound though it is

C

as it may sound

h

A not only did she miss

B not only missed

C

not only did miss

A Were it the situation to change

B Were a change in the situation

C

Were the situation to change

j

A did jump a man

B jumped a man

C

k

A there down came

B

came down

C

did a man jump down came

I

A On no account

B

Hardly

C

Rarely

c

A Where I've left

3

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, containing the word in capitals. WERE

a If we took no action, the situation would only become worse. /A,le.re.,we., ...lo.lekecl'\.o?lc,liQl'1.,lhe.,Hsil?leliol'1.wouIJQl'1.I'1Qe.,c.ol'1,l.e.,woCSe.,

4

,

b A member of the government rareIy admits to making a serious mistake.

DOES

c You are not to Ieave this IDom under any circumstances.

NO

d The police only Iater reveaIed the true identity of the thief.

DID

e AIthough Andrew tried hard, he couldn't pass his driving test.

MIGHT

f If you'd consulted me at the outset, I could have given you the right advice.

HAD

g If you offered me a high er salary, I would take the job.

WERE

h If the weather worsens, the match will probabIy be cancelled.

SHOULD

It was only after checking the accounts that they realized money was missing.

DID

The breach of security has not affected the examination results in any way.

NO

Complete the text using one word in each gap.

Last yeat; we visited Brazil and saw the carnival in Rio. Strange as it may aS~~t:'A.

H

before, and we couldn't

' we just hadn't thought of visiting believe how fantastic

Brazil

it was. Rio is a great

city, and it's sometimes hard to believe it's real! We really enjoyed the carnival. We had booked some events before we arrived, and b..

... did we realize how lucky we were to have tickets for

the Samba show. No c the show began. d ..

had we taken our seats, than .

the stage came groups of dancers,

one after the othet; for hours! That was exhausting but there was more to come. N ot e ..H

we stood and watched the carnival

parade did we realize how many people were taking part! Along

f ..

the street

.HH dancers and musicians, and everyone

clapped and cheered. g

anyone told me

up dancing in the street ali night, I wouldn't

I would

end

have believed them!

There were such amazing costumes and floats. h .. ..H

in a

city as diverse as this, could you see 50 many unusual sights. Never HHHHHHHHH I have imagined what an amazing sight it would be. Only k

j ..

we finally got home and looked at ali our photos

.

HHwe realize how incredible

been.I.HHHH

our holiday in Brazil had

anyone should want to go any where else for a

holiday, I really don't know!

5

Complete the sentence sa that it means the same as the first sentence. a Twa armed policeman ran in to the room. In tolJ1,e, ..rQQf)Ana~lwQ.a~~dpQIic,e,f)Ae,l'l. b You can only really enjoy the view on a elear day like today. Oniy .. c If the ship collided with an iceberg, the passengers would be in no danger. Should .. d The case may be unusual, but such cases are not completely unheard of. Unusual .. e Suddenly it started raining. Suddenly down .. f A govemment has rarely acted with such blat ant dishonesty. Rarely .. g If you asked me again, I would give you the same answer as before. Were .. h I have no idea what the matter iso What .. If we had realized that the hurricane would hit the city, we would have evacuated the residents in advance. Had .. Nobody had any suspicion that the police inspector was the murderer. Little .. k The theft was only discovered when the accounts were checked. Oniy .. Paula had no sooner shut the door than she realized she had left her key inside. No saoner ..

6

Put one suitable word in each space. a Rarely ..clq we find students who are willing to think for themselves. b in the polar regions does the temperature fall to such a low level. eLittle .. anyone suppose that Mrs Robertson was an enemy agent. d Scarcely.. . everyone left the building when there was a huge explosion. e Seldom.. . so many people voted for such an unlikely candidate. f Not until doctors examined Brian later ...... ..anyone realize that he had been shot. g No sooner had we reached the bottom of the mountain .... heavily. h ... no circumstances are bags to be taken into the libr ary. Oniy.... wrong ticket.

it starte d snowing

the airline official checked again did she realize I had been given the

Not only did Harrison break into the house, .. he aIso attacked one of the occupants. k Never there be en a better time to buy a new car. I Not oniy she finish the test before the others in the elass, but she also got the best marko

G

7

Choose the best option,

A, B or C, for each gap.

Odysseus and the Sirens Before the ship came to the island of the Sirens, Odysseus ordered his men to plug their ears with wax and tie him to the mast. 'Under no circumstances a happens; he told them. b' this was d

very

J3HH

cut me free, whatever

we are elear of the island must I be set free:

CH

he did

simple. The Sirens lured sailors to their deaths by their beautiful singing.

all the sailors to hear their songs, they would lose their will to continue on their

journey. Odysseus wanted to hear the beautiful singing, but he wanted to

survive.

Soon e

.H'

appeared the island of the Sirens. The women were sitting on a bank of flowers, holding out their arms to the ship, and singing. No sooner f

them, than Odysseus became mad with

longing. g

have

not been tied to the mast, he would

the shore. h

i

, the

leapt into the water and swum to

he might, he couldn't persuade his men to untie him. Past the island crew pulling at the oars. j

the singing of the Sirens had died away, and the

island had passed out of sight, did Odysseus regain his proper senses. His men untied him, and they continued on their

voyage.

a Ayou will b A Only after C A Little d A Were

e

A than he had expected A he heard

9

A A A A

f

h

Was he Try as did they went Not until

B

are you to Not only B T7yas Blf B had it B had he heard B Did he

C do you

B

C

Blf went the ship Bln no way

C

B

Never

CWhy Should C out of the mist C was he hearing them CHad he C

Only after

C go Odysseus and his men C No sooner than

. '. EXTENSION A

Write some examples

ACTIVITY V\

~

beginning:

OJ

Were my country... B

Choose ten examples

Should global warming ... from the explanation

Had I known ...

pages and translate

them into your language.

>

C

emphasis it-c1auses These are c1ausesintroduced by it is / was, putting the c1auseat the front of the sentence for emphasis. Key words usually receive more stress when spoken. Stressed words are in bold in the examples. Sentences of this kind are also called def t sentences. •

noun phrase (including -ing) + that-clause It's keeping your ba/ance that matters most. ( = What matters most is keeping your balance.) It was the left back who finally scored. ( = The left back was the one who finally scored.) It was the last straw that broke the came/'s back.



adverbia I and prepositional phrases + that-c1ause It was after lane got to the office that she realized she had forgotten her keys. ( = After Jane got to the office, she realized she had forgotten her keys.) It was in the middle of the night that the fire was discovered.

( = The fire was discovered in the middle of the night.) •

when, ho~ what, because + that-clause This kind of sentence is more common in everyday speech. It was when I saw the police that I panicked.

( = When I saw the police was when I panicked.) It was because I had no money that I had to go home. It's how he can put up with it that I don 't understand. It was what she said next that surprised everyone.

what-c1auses These clauses also put more emphasis on what follows, and form another kind of c1eft sentence. This kind of sentence is more common in everyday speech. •

what + verb phrase + is (+ the fact that, the way, why, what, who etc) What bothers me is the way the news was announced.

( = The way the news was announced bothers me.) What upsets me is the tact that you lied. ( = The fact that you lied upsets me.) What we don't really know



at the

moment

is why the accident happened.

instruction + imperative We often use a what-c1ause when we give an instruction with verbs such as want, need, etc What I want you to do is go home and rest. What you need

to

do is fili in this form.



explanation + that-c1ause We often use a what-c1ausewhen we explain a situation What we have to remember is that he 's only been working here for a week.



what + verb + object Some what-c1ausescan be put at the beginning or the end of the sentence. What interests me is his early paintings. His early paintings are what interests

emphasizing •

me.

negatives

These phrases are used to emphasize adjectives with not: not at all, not in the least / the slightest, not the /east / s/ightest bit. No, don 't worry, I'm not at all co/d. Sorry, but I'm not the s/ightest bit interested. Terry wasn't at all worried.

No + noun and none can be emphasized by: no ... whatsoever; There are none at alf in this box, as far as I can see.



There is no money whatsoever

none at alf, none whatsoever.

available for school trips at the moment.

own •

We use own to emphasis possessiveadjectives. She used her own money to buy the stamps. Common phrases include (your) own fault, in (your) own words. The accident was his own fau/t. Tell us the story in your own words.



Note also: on (your) own (without anyone else) Tim lives on his own. of (your) own (not belonging to anyone else) I have a room of my own.

auxiliary do •

We can use do to emphasize astatement. / do Iike your new car! It's really coo/!

We also use do in polite forms.



Do come in!

I do hope you enjoyed our little talk.

aU •

We can put alf (meaning the only thing) at the beginning of a clause for emphasis. Ali he does is watch television. Ali I need is another €500.

very ... indeed •

We can use very + adjective + indeed to add emphasis in speech. Thank you very much indeed.

Often this is in response to what another person says. Was the chicken good?



Yes,it was very good indeed!

We can use very to mean the exact in speech. That's the very book I've been looking for! (= the exact one) She's probably waiting outside at this very moment! (= this one exactly) Very can also mean at the extreme end of something. Tum right at the very top of the stairs. This is the very last time I ask, I promise.

whatever, who ever, wherever etc •

Question words ending -ever make the question more emphatic, and often suggest disbelief. Whatever was that terrible noise! (I really don't know) Wherever

did you find that fantastic dress/

repetition •

A verb can be repeated for emphasis. Commonly used verbs are: wait, try. I waited and waited, but she never tumed up. Helen tried and tried, but she couldn't reach the shelf.



Some adverbials also use repetition for emphasis. They asked him the same question again and again. We are spending more and more each year. The ship was getting further and further away

(Seealso Unit 27, intensifiers.)

Vl Vl

ro ..r:::

Q.

E (l)

1

Underline the best phrase. a Fiona is not the slightest bit / none at all interes te d in football. b I'm sorry, but this is non e at all / nothing whatsoever to do with you! c d e f g h

2

I do hope you / hope you do haven't been waiting too long. The pIane tickets arrived by messenger at the very last moment / the last moment indeed. What we want to know is who did it send / who sent the anonymous letter. That's the very thing / the thing whatsoever I was going to say! What you need to do / that you do is phone your insurance company. Where indeed / Wherever have you be en all afternoon? We've all been very worried! It was ]im the one who / who finally found the answer. Marcia was not whatsoever / at all worried by her high credit-card bill.

Choose the best option, A, B ar C, to complete the sentence. a ...A did you get that silly hat? b Kate upset by what Frank said to her. c the lights went on that we saw the jewels were missing. d I've nearly finished is another half an hour, and that'll be it. e What you have to bear in mind your last chance. f 'Do you have any regrets?' ' . g What annoys me nabody tal d me about the change. h We waited and waited, .. the letter never arrived. The completion date for the new stadium is getting What I.... do is waste time worrying. a

3

away.

Itwas More is but itNone B is that was All whenever at Whatsoever that and when whatsoever all this Ineed none more whatsoever isyou whatsoever A No What whatsoever happened was C wasn't Itwas more is this and at all that more isto Wherever CB BNot want again don't B is you and the want is faet again that

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, containing the word in capitals. AND

a The police asked David the same question repeatedly. lhe.c ..pQlicee.?lske.cd ..Q?lViJ ..lhe.c ..Smt~ee..q4e.cSliQ~ ..?lq?lif'\. ?l~d.tlq?lif'\.,

e

.

b There was absolutely no chance of saving the damaged ship.

ALL

c The house I was looking for was right at the end of the street.

VERY

d The only thing I want to do is sleep.

ALL

e I want to have a bike just for myself.

OWN

f

I became

alarmed

g Thanks a million h I can't imagine Everyone

I saw smoke

coming

IT

from under the dOOI.

INDEED

for your help.

WHATEVER

what you mean!

IT

was taken by surprise by what Robert did next.

You have no-one

5

when

OWN

to blame but yourself.

Complete the text using one word in each gap.

Admitting we are wrong Most people have trouble admitting their a

faults, though they are more than happy

OWl1.HH

to point out everyone else's. This can be useful. After all, it's usually when someone else tells us that we have done something wrong b.. we have to do c..

.

.. we learn something about ourselves. What

take a deep breath, and face up to what we have done. Remember,

when it comes to understanding

ourselves, we're not on our d ..

..... Everyone we know

lends a helping hand! Of course, doing the wrong thing is easy, but it's e

we do about

our mistakes that counts. Naturally we are all good at refusing to believe that we have done anything wrong f.. g ..

.

all. As we try to justify our actions, our explanations get more and

. .. complicated. We try to convince the listener that we are telling the truth, but

it's no use. There is no chance h..

i

all that they will believe us. And the truth is that

is ourselves we have deceived, not them. That's the j

..HHH

make. k

.HH

HH

you do, don't get in the habit of deceiving yourself.

point I'm trying to IH•H

is difficult is

honestly admitting that we are wrong - especially to ourselves.

EXTENSION A

ACTIVITY

Write same true examples beginning ar ending:

I was when I started at this schaol ... ... no time whatsoever ...

What interests me most is ... ... verygood indeed

In In

co

..c

Q.

E Q)

Need more practice? Go to the Review on page 208.

Review How to use this section a As extra practice, if you have finished the rest of the unit and the Extension Activities. b To test yourself. Do the exercises, check your answers, then decide if you need to have a look at the presentation page again. c If you need extra practice, read the presentation page(s) again, then try to do the extra exercises. Unit 3

Unit8

Complete the text with the correct form of the verb in brackets. Use past simple, past continuous, ar past perfect simple.

Complete the sentence sa that it means the same as the first sentence.

a People believed that the car had been stolen. The car ..l~(},s..Q~Ii~v~d..lQ ..h(},v~ .b. ~~V\,..slQl~V\,..... b People thought the pIane had crashed in the mountains.

50mething wholesale by Eric Newby

The pIane ..

My fatl'ler's officewas on tl'le fourtl'l floor. Now I'le a (sit)

gel'lind tl'le large sl'liny desk

wl'licl'l I'le b (occupy)

since tl'le

departure of Mr Lane. As usual, on tl'le top of I'lis desk tl'lere c (stand)

..............•...........••...

c People knew that the prime minister had rejected the plan. The prime minister

a large jug of barley

water. My fatl'ler was now seventy-five years old. A serious operation.cl (reduce)....

I'lim to a

d People reported that the owner of the bank had fled to South America. The owner of the bank

sl'ladow of I'lis former self. He e (undergo) it in an East End I'lospital while tl'le bombs

f

(rain)

down. His former

e People thought the police had found fingerprints at the scene of the crime.

pugnacity g (Iargely evaporate)

The police

Previously I'le h a man of impressive pl'lysique; I'le was now extremely tl'lin and fragile, like a piece of old-Iace. But I'le was still exceptionally

I'landsome, ~nd in a suit of tl'lick flannel, witl'l

a rose in I'lis buttonl'lole

i (Iook)" preparatoryscl'lool

and afresl'l complexion,

(give)

leave to attend tl'le wedding of an elder brotl'ler.

People believed that the hurricane killed over a thousand people. The hurricane

I'le

......•...•• " •... like a smali boy wl'lose

j

f

I'lim

g People knew that the suspect visited the murdered man on the afternoon of his death. The suspect h People reported that the newspaper paid the singer $2

million in damages. The newspaper

Unit 9 Underline the best verb form, or choose both if this is possible.

a It took a long time, but I had / gQ1 my car started in the end. b Sorry, I've got to rush. I have to have / get the evening meal prepared. c Anna is having / is getting her teeth seen to. d We'll have to wark harder if welre go ing to have / get the job dane in time. e I've just had / got my car broken into. f I've been trying really hard, but I haven't had / got my project written yet. g Paul had his hair / got his hair cut yesterday, and he looks awful! h We're going to have / get an electrician to che ck the wiring. Have you had / got your new IPod to wark yet? Are you having / getting your house painted, ar are you doing it yourself?

g I accept the job / I be able to work from home same of the time? WERE

h be a serious outbreak of bird flu in Europe / what the EU do? SUPPOSING

unIe ss we do something naw, the situation get warse IF

2

Complete the text with one word in each gap.

Unit 11

1 Use the

prompts to make a sentence. Include the words in capitals.

a you have a camera with you at the scene of the accident / tak e some shots of all the vehicles involved. HAPPEN 1:f..41QL{.hepp~~.lQ.hev(!" ...eH~e'1t~re.wilh.41Q4..el ..... lh.~ ...$~~~(!"..p:f ..lh(!" ..e<::~id(!,,~l/ ..'1Q?t ..~e~...lek~ ..$Q~g, $hQl$ ..Q:f.ell ..lh(!"..yg,hi~J~$.j~VQIV~d,.... . b che ck the weather reparts before you leave / you might take the Wrong clothes with you. OTHERWISE

c the income from advertising / newspapers not earn enough money WERE

d investars buy shares / they have confidence in the market UNLESS Unit 12

e we guarantee to get you talking / you canlt speak a word of English EVEN IF

Rewrite the sentence so that it contains the word in capitals and has same meaning.

a I advise you not to make any hasty decisiollS. WERE .JNQ4Id~llt1.tekg, ..e~I.:lHhe$l'1.d~&i$iQ~$, .... f

permanent residents can vote / they are aged 18 or over PROVIDED

..i:f ..I .. lAJ~C~H.I.:lQ4,...

b He pretends to be in charge of the office. BEHAVES

c Please don't bring the dog with you. SOONER

Unit 16

d I regret selling my old car. WISH

e Do have a good time at the party! HOPE

f

Please don't calI me again. RATHER

g It's a pity you're leaving in the morning. WISH

h I don't think you should drink any more. WERE

I'd like to find the answer to this problem. WISH

Unit 14

Rewrite the sentences abaut medicine in the past, using

would ar wouldn't. a In the past, surgeons operated on patients without any kind of anaesthetic.

b They tried to work as quickly as possible to minimize the patient's suffering.

c Such operations often took place in the patient's own home.

Underline the best verb form to camplete the sentence.

a There's someone outside, but it can't be / mustn't be Tony. He's in New York. b Hello, you could be / must be Helen. I'm Peter's brother, George. c I'm not quite sure where Anna isoShe might have gone / must have gone to the shops, I suppose. Or perhaps she's upstairs. d I don't know what's happened to Sue. She should have got here / must have got here by nowo e My wall et isn't in my pocket. I should have left / must

f

have left it in my other jacket. Professor James never has any idea about time, so she's bound to be / she must be late.

g It's strange that Brian didn't even stop and say hello. He can't have recognized / shouldn't have recognized us. h Little David isn't usually much of a problem, but he

d In some countries, religious authorities refused to allow surgeons to study anatomy using dead bodies.

e Surgeons often learned about anatomy by treating soldiers in battle.

f

Doctors were also expected to follow the explanations of ancient writers.

g When new medical discoveries were made in the Renaissance, traditional doctors refused to believe that the old methods were wrong.

could get / can get difficult when he's tired.

AlI flights are cancelled until Monday, so we may as well go / can hardly go back to the hotel until then. You might have told / can't have told me there was a test today. I haven't done any revision at alI.

h Some ancient ideas - such as that of removing

blood from patients (bleeding) - survived in medical practice until the late nineteenth century.

Unit 18

Rewrite what each person said as direct speech, and include the word in capitals.

e 'I'm still worried about burglars while we are away . .?' 'Yes, stop worrying!' A Didn't you lock all the doors and windows? B

a Carol invited me to stay to lunch. WOULD

...l/,lJqtlIJ .l.;jqtl.lik~..±q.~±(ll;j.±p..ltlt\chr ....

C

f

You didn't lock all the doors and windowsI did you? You did lock all the doors and windows, didn't you?

'I've got some surprising news! I'm getting married next week!' , ,

b Peter reminded me to take my keys with me. FORGET

A C

c Sue suggested we all met outside the cinema. DON'T

You arenlt, are you? You are, aren 't you?

g

n •

B

Aren't you?

.?' 'Yes, that's right, it was.'

A Didn't Jack Nicolson win the Oscar for best actor

d Martin denied having anything to do with the burglary. HAVE e Paula apologized for taking so long over the phone calI. TOOK f

Mrs James accused the boy of breaking her kitchen windowo YOU

BIt wasnIt Jack Nicolson who won the Oscar for best act01~was it C WasnIt it Jack Nicolson who won the Oscar for best actor

Unit 20

1 Complete

the text with a / an or the, or leave blank for zero article.

g Tony refused to give his nam e to the police. NO h Claudia offered them tea and cakes. YOU Bill promised to return the money as soon as he could. CAN Laura regretted not having studied harder at university. WISH

a'Th~ .....Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is b

Unit 19

Choose the best option, A, B or C, to complete the dialogues a.....'A

7'

es,

'Y<

C

BIs it a lovely day

. astronomer Edwin Hubble.

posifion of f

. "n nn

n

telescope outside

Earth's atmosphere gives it h ..

c.......? The last time I saw you, you were alittle girl in a pushchair! A You can be Annie, can't you B Aren 't you Annie, are you? C You canlt be Annie, can you

d Do you really travel 150 km to work every day? That's a long way! .. B

Don It you get tired

... number

i.

are not blurred by k ..n observe using

m.

I

.......n

atmosphere. It can also ....

ultra-violet light.

.

Hubble was launched into n 1990, and since then it has become one of o .. most important instruments in p q .

. .nn

future of

astronomy. At

t ..

n n

servicing by v...

. .ground.

main advantage is its clearer images, as they

jn

A You want a single, don 't you? B You don't want a single, do you? C Do you want a single or a double?

You don It get tired of itI do you? of it? C You get tired of itI do you?

g ...

d . ...

of advantages over telescopes based on

It isn't a lovely day, is it

b Yes, we have a choice of rooms.n.?

A

Earth, namedafter e.

't cer t'aln l y IS. . ,

1

A It's a lovely day, isn't it

large, space-based observatory in orbit aroundc ..

.

re-enter x

n

Un

rn

n •••••••

n.

space 1n

history of

moment, s ..

telescope is uncertain. Without manned space mission,

telescope will slowly stop functioning, and will

W.n

2010.

Earth's atmosphere sometime after

2 a

We use telescopes

to view distant

objects.

..I~~..lA$~ ..g ..±~I~sc:()p~ ..±() ..Vi~[I) ..Ji$±gyt± b

mixture of 1

Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the word in capitals.

The monthly

A ..()~~C:±$, ...

rent for this fIat is €SOO.

A

gas and 2

air burns with

3

blue flame and produces intense heat. By turning

4

sleeve, 5

and 6

openings are gradually closed,

power of 7

until8

mixture is 9

flame can be reduced, pure gas and burns

yellow and with less intensity. c

My right arm hurts.

GOT

d

This meal is really wonderful!

A

e

Sandy comes fram Australia.

AN

f

Sports utility vehicles

2

(SUVs) are becoming

popular.

less lS

Camplete the text with a / an ar the, ar leave blank for zero article.

Floods a

flood occurs when b

c

low-lying land is covered by d

water. There are various kinds of flood. During e period of f

g

The answer seems to be 2213. Is there someone

here called Steve ]enkins?

Do you want to come and see a film?

heavy rainfall, g

soil and

TWO

h

A

finds its way into k streams, rivers, lakes and 50 on. If I amount of m water is too

CINEMA

great then n

WAR

p

all h

area of

plants which grow in it are unable to absarb

i

water, and 50 j

excess water

flood will follow. o

river

may flood from time to time naturally, and 50 forms Everyone

stopped

in 1918.

fighting

after

area known as q flash flood is s

t

flood plain. flood that occurs

sudden downpour. u

areas may also be flooded by v Unit 21

by w

1 Camplete

the text with a / for zero article.

an ar the, ar leave blank

earthquake.

The Bunsen bumer a .

H ••

b..

A

German chemist Robert Bunsen invented ... Bunsen burner in 1855 when he started working

at c

University of Heidelberg, and demanded

d

new laboratory with e

gas piping. He had

been trying to find f

way of lighting his laboratory

and also producing g

more efficient way of heating

h

equipment. i

problem with j ..

burners already in use was that they produced k .. smoky flame and did not produce very much heat. Bunsen had I

idea of mixing m

air before o and build q

university engineer, to design burner. It was probably Desaga who

came up with r amount of v.. x

..H ..

gas with n

combustion took place. He asked Peter

Desaga, who was p

t

idea of controlling s air mixed in u

means of w vertical pipe of y

is y

burner by

metal sleeve that fits over burner. z

strong ocean winds. x flood caused by z

coastal high tide caused tsunami underwater

Unit 23

Unit 24

Read these sentences about William Shakespeare. Change the underlined words in each sentence, using the c1ue in brackets.

Complete

a

the text with one word in each gap.

Shakespeare was the son of an official of the town in Stratford on Avon. (compound)

....$hgk~$p~gr?.~g$ ..±ft~..$QYl..Q:f..g.±Q~I\ .... ..Q:fSj<;,iglj~$±rg±:fQcJQI\A\lQ~~H"" b

The plays of Shakespeare were published in a collected edition after his death. (apostrophe)

c

He is usually judged to be the greatest English playwright. (apostrophe)

d

He hel d shares in an acting company known Lord Chamberlain's Men. (compound)

as the

left hand or right hand? a'QQItt~QI:'t?

who uses b .

hands equally well is known as ambidextrous. The fact e

He was also an actor and wrote narrative sonnets. (of)

poems and

that c ..

...is a special word for this

ability only proves that for most of us d ... seems more natural to be right-handed or left-handed. Of course we all use e. hands to H'

f

He was successful enough property. (compound)

to become an owner of



H

some extent. A left-handed male, for example, might shave f..

.... with the left hand, but wnte

with the right. However, as we know, in many cultures g g

When he died he was fifty twa.

(of)

who uses the left hand more than

..H

the right is often stigrtJatized. h .. HHHHH'

iS

even an assumption built into many languages that right means 'correet'. Similarly, h

Audiences in the theatre have enjoyed his plays for over four hundred years. (compound)

i ..

some

prejudice against using the left hand, which is seen as

j "..

'clumsy' or 'wrong: Although does not matter whether k

H"

right or the left hand, I His plays are often changed to suit what modern audiences are interested in. (of)

..........,. is

disadvantages



.

clearly uses the

••••

H

••

H"

are many

in being left-handed. m ..

who has tried to use scissors or a computer mouse with n .. . . left hand will understand this. There are also many famous versions films. (compound)

of the plays as

o..

'H

are very few tools and instruments

designed to be easily used by left-handed people. p..

.....is even dangerous in some cases

for the left-handed to use equipment designed for the right-handed,

and 50

q'H

.

.

"'H'

is important

for factories with such equipment to understand that not r is right-handed.

Unit 26 Write a new sentence as shown. a

with the same meaning,

h

After we examined the evidence, it was quite / rather / fairly obvious who the culprit was. I quite / rather / fairly think I'm go ing to enjoy this party!

2

Complete the text with a word or phrase from the list in each gap.

beginning

I can't carry all these bags on my own. It's hard ....±oc ..Me,lo ...cerrl1 ..eU..lfte-se, ..oeqs ..oV\,.... MI1QWv\',

b

c

I didn't know I had to hand in my wark today. I wasn't

I feel nervous

when I think about starting

1 3 5 7

absolutely key 2 completely free entirely financed 4 extremely expensive financially speaking 6 generally speaking naturally 8 quite elear 9 quite unable 10 quite usual 11 totally private 12 very basic

my new

job. It makes

Health services d

e

f

g

You can easily miss the turning It's

if you're not careful.

aj)

the provision of health care is one of the

When I heard that Kevin was ill, I was shocked. I was shocked to

Please stay here whenever You're

I definitely

b

issues in

modern society. In some countries the

you like.

provision of health care is c of use. d

left my wallet on the table.

I'm h

In recent years it has become that

at the point this

means that people who visit the doctor, or have

Don't bother It's

going to see the new Larry]otter

film.

to go into hospital, do not hand over money to the people who treat them. Instead, the system is e by central government, and paid out of revenues (taxes)

Now I know you believe me, I'm happy. It

collected from everyone. In some health systems everyone is treated free, regardless of their ability to pay, while in other systems, patients pay a standard charge, even for

f

Unit 27

1 Underline

all the words which are appropriate.

is h

a

It was a quite / rather / fairly good film I suppose, but I didn't think it was as good as you said. b The students walked out quite / rather / fairly unenthusiastically to start the race in the pouring rain.

c d

Sorry, but I can't quite / rather / fairly see what you're getting at. That was a quite / rather / fairly horrible thing to say! Thanks a lot!

e

That's quite / rather / fairly the most enjoyable I've ever hadl

f

Be careful when you go in the pool because the water is quite / rather / fairly deep. I don 't agree with this article at all. I think it's quite / rather / fairly inaccurate too.

g

drug treatments, while those who are g

pay receive free treatment.

meal

to

In other countries the system

and everyone has to pay for their treatment. this means that patients either have to pay for

their own insurance, which will pay for their bills when they are ill, or pay bills from their own pockets. In many countries it is j

for both systems to exist side

by side, with the state providing k

services, and

the better off, naturally, paying for services of a higher quality. This is sometimes known as a 'two-tier system.

Unit 28

1

c No film on release at the moment is longer. ITS ONE

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, beginning as shown.

a I've never read a better book than this one. This ...i'i'>..QI\~.Q±.lh~.Q~$l

..QQPk'i'>..Ily~ ..C?ed, ...

d H's increasingly hard to understand the plot of films like this. HARDERAND

b Staying at home watching television is less interesting than go ing out dancing. H's ..

e The special effects in the last film were not sa impressive. MUCH MORE

c lane felt honified rather than shocked. Jane didn't ..

f d The end of the universe is a very abstract concept and

But I was scared out of my wits, rather than shocked, by same parts. SHOCKED AS

sa it is hard to explain. The end of the universe is too .. g I haven't seen a more entertaining film this year. EASILYTHE

e No film this year was as good as Alien Descent. Alien Descent was by.. .... f I can't revise any more than I have.

. h In same ways the last film in the series was funnier. FUNNY AS

I've revised just .. g We've never had worse weather in June than this. This is ..

But it is just as worth seeing this film.

EVERYBIT

h I thought it was easier to speak French. H's not Gary's last album was much better than the new one.

You enjoy this film more if you watch it more. THEMORE

Gary's new album is nowhere .. If you keep teasing the dog, it will get more angry. The more ..

2

Unit 30

Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the word in capitals.

Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the words in capitals.

a David's novel is still unfinished.

YET

P0\1id.'~0~l\I±:fiV\J~h~clhi~l\Q\I~IIj~±, a I liked this film but the previous films in this series are better. ISN'T NEARLY ....I..'ik~d ..lhi$ ..-fiIM ..Qll± ..i± .. ..0'i'> ..

lh~..pr~y iQll'i'>...±illli'i'>

i$I\I±..I\~er1tj.0. s ..qQQd 11\ ..

b We waited for a bus for half an hOUI,but eventually we gave up. END

...

lhi'i'> ..$~ri~'i'> ....

b The best performance in the film is given by Johnny Depp. GIVES BY

c Nick got to the airport too late to catch his piane home. TIME

d I won't be here after any more after Friday.

UNTlL

e 1'11talk to you when the lesson is over.

AFTER

g Mr Wilkins has decided to give up his job at the company. RESlGN

h Take a seat, and 1'11ask someone to help you. ATTEND

f

The trains here are very comfortable but they always run latel ON

The runaway bus hit a parked car at the bottom of the hill. COLLIDED

g We'l1 send you the certificate when we have received the fee. ONCE

h I shouldn't be there later than 11.00.

This ice-cream rea11yhas a strawberry taste.

TASTES

BY

Unit 32

Peter could he ar loud howling noises a11night long. THROUGHOUT

Choose the best phrase, A, B or C, to complete the sentence.

a This isC: .... the worse novel I have ever read! A

for a change

b Are you yom stay?

A

a Luckily the fire officer managed to rescue the cat from the top of the tree. SUCCEEDED

b Can I talk to you about this problem?

.

A

e DISCUSS

satisfied with

C

(ree (rom

only with the legal aspects of the

is concerned

is absorbed

B

by force

out of reach

B

C

is interested

f

out of order

C

, although you broke the rules, we will accept yom application. A Without exception C On average

c My parents think some of my friends are unsuitable. APPROVE

without doubt

d For more and more familie s, expensive holidays abroad are

...k4.<::..k;lIj ..lh.l:. ....fiCl:. ..Q.f.fi<::.l:.c.S4<::.<::.l:.l:.Jl:.Jit\ ...Cl:.S<',4it\q ..+Qp ..Q.f ..+h~ ..lc~~

B

c This inquiry case.

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, containing the word in capitals.

C

the service you have received dming

A acquainted with

Unit 31

..lhl:. ..<',el ..fCQM.lhl:.

on purpose

B

BUnder the circumstances

This country is rea11y been before! A

ready for

B packed

with

anywhere I have ever C

dif(erent (rom

g To be honest, l'm not the slightest bit think! d How much you pay will relate to the condition of the vehicle. DEPEND

A

interested in

aware of

B

h Peter wasn't

C pleased

what you

with

getting up so early, and felt tired

a11day as a result. A

e My computer has a problem, but someone is coming to fix it tomorrow. SEE

f

Do you have fire insmance?

B

used to

C

addicted to

The student s were the prospect of having to write their projects a11over again. A

lNSURED

worried about

faced with

B

impatient for

Helen's parents were job, but she had resigned. A

in theory

B

by mistake

C

incapable of

that she was still in the C

under the impression

Unit 33

g The street was fulI of people, most chanting political slogans.

Choose the best option, A, B or C, to complete the sentence.

A

a Julia is considered .J3 .....one of the best actresses in Hollywood. A

that she is

to be

B

C

A A

hand over

to hand over

B

c Have you tried help your back. A

to go

d We expect Friday. A

that we complete

A to take

completing

B

turning of(

C

the cooker, so we'd better go to turn of(

B

to miss

miss

B

C

C

that I turned of(

holding

B

that they would hold

announcing

B

have

hold

C

for which

A

which comes

A

What

B

com ing

C

whatever

B

The reason why

C

Whatever

C

b I won't sell you the house however much you offer me for it. No matter c House prices continue to rise in most areas, but in some areas they have actually started to falI. Whereas

to announce

to walk to work when it's raining.

having

B

C

new measures to combat

announce

I really hate A

C

...c~elltj..hey~..lh~..liM~...

the oral examination on a

The president went on glob al warming. A

a reason why

a I would like to help you, but I don 't really have the time. Much as ..... 1..wQlJ..IJ..lik~.. lQ.h~lr ...tjQlJ..)..I.. dQI1,)l ...

missing

h The school arranged different day. A

B

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, beginning as shown.

etaking

g If we go to the cinema on Wednesday, it means the match on television. A

whatever

anyone would want to

Unit 35

to complete

a taxi to the airport.

B should take

I don't remember back and check. A

which

the deal by the end of business on

e Maria suggested f

C

you do, don't touch the red wire!

go

C

ofthem

Anyone through the door will be filmed by the security camera.

to an osteopath? That should

going

B

the money.

handing over

C

B

h Tina couldn't think of threaten her.

being

b The robbers made the bank clerk

ofwhom

were

I have

d You have not paid the last six monthly instalments, so this contract is at an end. Since

Unit 34 Choose the best word, A, B or C, to complete the sentence.

a This is the area(; being built. A

which

B

the majority of new housing is

that

C

(blank)

B

which

C

taken

B

were taken

I know!

whatever

c lane was one of several injured passengers the local hospitaI. A

C

whose their

B

whose

which was taken

C

for who m their

e Alex Jackson, Wilkinson travelled to the South Pole, also wrote about the trip. A

f

which

B

that

C

(blank)

B

As we wanted to have a snack first, we got to the stadium early. We got to the stadium early so

g I thought I might get cold so I to ok some warm clothes. I to ok some warm clothes in

h The match went ahead despite the rain. Although

with who m

This is not the same painting us the last time we were here. A

f

to

d Can everyone name begins with S stand on that side of the room. A

Even though

in which

b You really are the most annoying person A

e The weather conditions were atrocious but all the runners finished the race.

to which

C

for which

you offered to sell

I think we should hol d the meeting another day as it's too late to start it nowo Seeing that ..

The rapid entrance of the gunmen took the guards by surprise. The gunmen entered sa

Units 37 and 38 The following 37 and 38

exercises practise phrasal verbs from Units

1 Write

a new sentence wit h the same meaning, containing the word in capitals.

Unit 36 Complete the sentence sa that it means the same as the first sentence, using a participle clause ar reduced adverbia I clause.

a I lost my watch, sa I had to borrow my brother's. Having ....IOs.±..l1Alj..welc,h, ..l..heJ ..±Q ..QQ[[9W ....

a Tim is in love with the gid he sits next to in maths. FALLEN ....Til1A..hes. ..±ell~t\ ..±Qr ..±h~ ..qiri ..h~..Sils. .. ...Vl~\(±..±o ..il\ ..l1Ae±hs....

b How are things going in your new school?

GETTING

...l1Alj..Q[()±h~[IS, ....

b If you press this button, you can change the size of the page.

c I agree that you had a bad time, but it was your own fault! BROUGHT

By

c Although it was cheap, the bike was in good condition. Although

d You can't have milk in your tea because we haven't got any! DO

d Sue didn't realize the meeting was in a different place, and went straight home. Not

e The film wasn't as good as I thought it was going to be. COME

e As I wasn't interested in the topic, I left the lecture before the end. Not

f

f

g There's a point I'd like to mention before we finish. BRING

Write your name where you are instructed to do this. Where

Your explanation just doesn't make sense.

ADD

g After he was arrested and charge d with theft, Tony phoned his lawyer. Having

2

h I phoned the company as soon as I received their letter.

a I think it's time you starte d working seriously.

On

Write a new sentence with the same meaning, using a form of a phrasal verb from Units 37 and 38

1.±hil\k ...i±I.$...lil1A~..lj04 ..qQ±.dQwt\.±o . S~[iQ4$WQrk,

..$Ol1A~....

I had to take a taxi as I missed the last bus. Having I've made a lot of new friends since I came to this school. Since

b Sorry, what did you say? I'm falling asleep!

c Tina's name kept coming into aur conversation.

d

In the end, the problem planning.

is a matter

of a lack of proper

Unit 44 Camplete the text using a word fram the list in each gap. Yau can use any ward mare than ance.

e

Feelings of resentment long period.

between

f

Alan can't always explain

g

Helen has thought of a really good way to cut the cost of this project.

h

We found this hotel completely

at all

them grew over a

it

own

very

what

exactly what his ideas are.

by chance.

I think we should keep going until we get to the top of the hill.

Are you entering year?

for the Advanced

French Test this

The French Impressionists c1860-1889, a0lh0:± k

Sony to be so late, but I was delayed in my last meeting.

...............•. interested the Impressionists wasan

emphasis on everyday subjects. b avoid thetraditions

was to

of studio painting that they painted

in the open air. At first the public was not intereste~in them c . In fact, the d Things have certainly promoted.

been improving

since I was

name 'Impressionist'

making fun of Monet's painting Impression, Sunnse. e

m Sue promised show up.

was given to them in an article

to come and help me but she didn't

they were also concerned with was

the way light changes, and how this shows the pi:1ssin~r oftime. They were not f interested in reproducing a detailed photographic 'reality'. In fact, was the g

...d

...

Instead, h n

Don't tell Helen about our plans, or she'll be jealous.

was important.

thing they wanted to avoid. was the overall effect which

i........................

they wer:e tryingto

create was a different way of seeing things, using pure" colours. Colours were created by looking at the painting. )hey did oot use black, for example, because they o

Little Johnny sweets.

admitted

that he had taken Paula's

believed there was no black j

in nature.

k they wanted to avoid were the carefully mixed colours and hidden brushstrokes of academic artists, which they did not use in their paintings.

Wordlist Red words based on Macmillan School Dictionary ***most common and basic words **very common word s * fairly common word s Unit 1

achieve vb*** antibiotics (n) argue (vb)*** cause (n)*** fatality (n) hairstyle (n)* in line with interruption (n)* measure (n)*** nuisance (n)* over-confident (adj) overtake (vb)* recent (adj)*** reckless (n) return (n) scheme (n)*** set about (phrasal verb) settle in (phrasal verb) target (n) te ar up (v)** to tell you the truth tough (adj)*** Unit 2

acid (n)*** adapt (vb)** burglar (n)* calm down (phrasal verb) complaint (n)*** course (n)*** creep (vb)* depend on (vb)*** expense (n)*** fatigue (n)* fee (n)*** full-time (adj)** guard dog (n) inquiry (n)*** lose your temper (phrase) parrot (n)* point out (phrasal verb) psychiatrist (n)* publish (vb)*** redecorate (vb) rottweiler (n) section (n)*** strain (n)** stuff (n)*** track (n)*** tuition (n)*

undergraduate (n) wreckage (n)* Unit

3

ceasefire (n)* check-in desk (n) harsh (adj)** merchant (n) mili tary (adj)* negotiate (vb)** outrage (n)* racing (adj) realm (n) * recruit (vb)** sacrifice (vb)* sign (vb) *** supply (n)*** treaty (n) ** U-boat (n) Unit 4

abroad (adv)*** alien (n)** archaeologist (n)* benefit (n) *** come up with compulsory (adj) ** controversial (adj)** define (vb)*** delay (vb) ** disturbing (adj)* labour (n) *** pension (n) *** perform (vb)*** portrait (n)** psychologist (n)** retirement (n) * social security (n) * squid (n) trend (n) *** Unit 5

admission (n)** at this rate (phrase) breakdown (n)** circumstance (n)*** construction (n)*** flame (n)** fortune (n)** global warming (n)* insist (vb)*** investment (n)*** prediction (n)** riot (n)** slip my mind (phrase) source (n)*** Unit 6 accelerate (vb)* alp in e (adj) altitude (n)* ambitious (adj) ** baby boom (n) barge(man) (n) barrier (n)**

bits and pieces (phrase) chase (vb)** concentration (n)*** copper (n) ** critic (n)*** currently (adv)*** cycle (n)** dealer (n) *** disassemble (vb) dock (n) ** downswing (n) dramatic (adj)*** dub (vb)* emission (n)** explosion (n)** feat (n) feature (n)*** freight (n)* get hold of (phrase) greenhouse gas (n) heavy goods vehicle (n) invasion (n)*** life expectancy (n) link (n)** marine (adj) * mud (n)** neighbourhood (n)** outspoken (adj) * pointless (adj) referendum (n)** seize (vb)** shed (n)** shilling (n) solar (adj)** split (vb)** steadily (adv) strip off (phrasal verb) trade (n)*** upswing (n) Unit 7

accommodate (vb)* assess (vb)** beat (vb)*** blaze (n)* block (n)*** campaign (n)*** cave in (phrasal verb) coalition (n)** coal miner(n) counterfeit (adj) crumbly (adj) deforestation (n) desertification (n) disruption (n)* drain (n)* explosion (n)** fault (n)*** (film) set (n)*** foot the bill (phrase) gallery (n)** gutted (adj) inhalation (n) inspiration (n)**

investigate (vb)*** issue (n)*** mobilize (vb) moisture (n) MP (n) **

nutrition (n)* nutty (adj) opposition (n)*** out set (n)* refreshing (adj)* seal (vb)** shoot (vb)*** soak (vb)* source (n)*** stage (n)*** staple (n)* sustainable (adj) unclear (adj)* unconscious (adj)* Unit

8

actual (adj) *** along similar lines (phrase) anaesthetic (n) baptism (n) beech (n) colonial (adj)** cut (n)*** extraction (n) focus (vb)*** fortification (n) guess (n) ** informed (adj) matter (n)*** merger (n)* meteor (n) parish (n)** performer (n)* phenomenon (n)** pit (n)** plague (n) playwright (n) purga tory (n) register (n)** sequence (n)*** sharply (adv)** transfusion (n) undecided (adj) Unit 9

alter (vb)** amputate (vb) bar (n)*** central heating (n) dry cleaner's (n) hip (n)** install (vb)** lock (n)** power tool (n) surgeon (n)**

Unit 10

what on earth (phrase) armed Unit 16 forces blush notorious eommunity (adj)* service (n) boast clown dealer eolumn (vb)* (n)*** (n) (n)*** eompensate eriminal bloodstained battery mountain adjust Unit attempt 14 (vb)** (n)** (n) (adj)*** range *** (vb)** (adj) (n)(n) eonquer eompulsory (vb)* (adj)** offender (n)** wire sunbloek crew ladder sentenee (n)** (n)*** (n)** (n) (n)*** format tra waste seream stressed ck (n)*** (n)** (vb)** (adj) profit proposal navigation paw rivalry firefighter keen (n)* on (n) (adj)*** (n)*** (n) (n)* on market insulting pile irritating shorteoming the (n)** way (n)*** (adj) (adj)* out (n) (phrase) biological justiee Unit aware eampaign eomposition 20 23 24 (adj)*** (n)*** warfare (vb)*** (n)** 19 waste erime broadeast (n)** laek eleetion out refuse eheat reeommendation set (n)*** (vb)* (n) (n)* (n)*** baffle eourtier eoast eontribution earn award evidenee raid rent (vb)** (n)*** (n)*** (vb) (vb)*** (n) (n)*** (n)*** (n)* type tower wireless loeal treatment reeeption eneouragement eonclude outlaw eonsume genetieally faetor mild deeoration commentator harsh eivil war (vb)*** servant (adj)*** (adj)** (n)** (adj)** (n)*** (n) (adj)* (n) (vb)** (vb)*** (n)** (n)*** modified *(n) (n) (n)** (n)** (adj) piteh previous infeetious double avenge strike enthusiastie pay epidemie projeetor rampart flexibility attention (n)** (n)*** (adj)*** (vb) (adj) (n) (n)** (adj)* (adj)** (phrase) *** plain homeless migrate life laptop temperature scenery legendary aecording enemy inspeetion eapture personal legend poverty daring daylight grate genetie style (vb) (n) (adj) (n)** (n)*** (adj)** (vb)** (n)* (vb)* (n)** (adj)* trainer (adj)* to (adj) (n)** (n)*** (prep)*** (n)(n)** eonsumption (n)** postpone (vb)* warrior (n) state (vb)*** site task (n)** (n) *** invade limit risk refleet fort outbreak solution reeommend treat war tubereulosis tank (n)*** (n)* zone (n)*** (vb)*** (vb)* (n)*** (n)* (vb)*** reviewer rhythm traffie trigger searee field sprinkle(vb struggle trip jam (adj)* (n)* (n)** (vb)** (n) (n) )* loeation pandemie ironing wrapper ready-made support wiring operation (n) board (vb)*** (n) (n)*** (n) (adj) (n) threat defend 15 (n)*** (vb)*** lush mining (adj) (n)* * Unit 18 peak abandon (n)** (vb) ** amount to (phrasal verb) Unit 22

troupe (n) Unit 21(vb)*** dynasty (n) resign offenee eonsume (vb)** set fire to(n)*** (phrase) surroundings (n)**

genetie (adj)**

Unit 25

manufacture (vb)** steel suitable (n)** (adj)*** colonist album conductor (n)** (n) (n)* burst council corroborate association blindness circumference accused conduet cabinet (vb)** tax (n)*** (the) (vb)*** (n) (n)*** (n) (vb) (n) (n) digital conscript auto clubbing anonymous degeneration grap (adj)** h(vb) (n) (vb) (n) (adj)* Unit 31 challenging controversial 30 (adj) (adj)** 32 33 34 haven stem celI halt isolate nuisance stream tissue deter scout (vb)* (vb) (n)* (n)** (vb)* (n)* trial fan he ad oven (vb)*** support roundabout monsoon shriek well-off immense inevitable implant bravery philanthropist manned predator sphere stagger vast therapy suitable riverbank stereotype accurate ash cubic firm hooligan launch amorous expansion rear set (adj)* (n)** (n)** (adj)*** (adj) (n) (n)** (vb)* (n) (vb)*** (adj) (adj)*** (n) (adj) (n)** (adj) (n) (adj)** (n) (adj)** (n)* (n)** (n)* (n) evidence heal (vb)** purchase promote uneventful swelling link solely pond estimate hay warning block brake lawyer pass require feature fit land theory outcast mental innate manners face suspicion (someone run-down casualty chat senseless confine discomfort slip eruption heresy demolish converse faint paramedic devastate dulI episode excavation solar receipt report slaughter (vb)*** fever (vb)*** to (n)*** (adj)** room (vb)*** system (adj)** (n)** (n)*** (adv)** (vb)*** (adj) face (n)*** (n) (n)** (vb)*** (adj)*** (n) (n)** (vb)* (vb)*** (n)*** (vb) (n)** (vb)* (n)** likes (adj) (n) (n) (adj) (adv) (n)* the) sound naval (adj)** parachute soaked pester precarious press perceive inquiry filthy grey inferior distant dwindle pull catastrophe civilian clergy originate partner justify (a matter (n)*** (adj)* (vb) (man) (vb)** muscle) (adj) (adj)** (n)*** (adj)* (vb)** (vb)** (n) (adj) (n) (n)** (vb)*** analyse navy capacity (n)** (vb)** (n)*** genetic complacency inappropriate outbreak engineering (n) (adj)** (n) vineyard warehouse (n) (n)** rat safe severe race (n)* (adj)*** range respect shortage short-sighted (n)*** (n)** (adj) stuck psychiatrie waste surrender (adj) (vb)** (n)* (adj)* urgent state vitally weapon (n)*** (adv) (adj) (n)*** weld (phrase) (vb) tell unwilling ap art (phrasal (adj)* verb) Unit 37 35 36

embryo (n) crash (n)** skating (n)* (of their own shelter (vb)* sketch process (n)* (vb)** shepherd (n) voice)

in mind *** downfall (n)to ol (n) liver core (n)** (n)* generator

bandwidth potentially (adv) ** of aUnit shadow of his former 20 bIur leave (vb) (n) ** astronom launch service flannel 21 (vb) (vb) (n) er (n) *** Review atmosphere manned ultraviolet fresh physique preparatory pugnacity fragile self observatory shiny (phrase) complexion (adj) (adj) (adj) (n) (n) (adj) *(n) *school ** sale) (n) point equally revenue of (adv) use (n) (see *** point assumption clumsy better charge prejudice Unit 41 oft (n) (adj) (adj) *** (n) *** ** provision 44 43 21 overwhelm (vb)* brushstroke maintenance avoid (vb) (n)** motion breach excess flame flash heat tsunami asset bear consideration modification Bunsen combustion observation coUide offence consult crew float sleeve oar hurricane screech survive deceive fault (n) something (n)* flood (n)*** (n) (n) (n) (adj) (n)** (vb)* bumer (vb)*** (n)*** (vb) (vb)** (vb)* *** (n) *** ** ** (n) *** (n)*** (n) (n)*** (n) mast vertical lure plug make overall pip plain emphasis low-Iying longing agent amphibian open ing (vb) (vb)* air (n) fun (n) (adj) (n) ** (n) of (adj) (n) *** (phrase) *** blatant brandish creak gradually pebble pendulum intense stigmatize treat pure Unit neglect downpour organism diverse pest groan intensity reproduce wax collapse 42 (n) (adj) (vb) (vb) (vb)* (adj)** (adj) (n)* *(n)** (vb) (n) *** (n)** (adv) *** (vb) (n) ** *** parade regain (phrase) (vb)** (n)* jewel justify (n)* point (n)*** disconnect election resistance dweller hardware artefact coincidence (n)* (n) (n)*** (vb) (n)* wind turbine (n) rubber reassure (n)** (vb)** toumament suit well-being idealize selection substantially (vb)*** (vb) (n)*** (n)** (adv)** prefabricate public(adj) oblige (vb) mass mobility appoint hosepipe unified variety epidemic obesity shortage innovative spring production (n)*** (n)*** (adj) (vb)*** (n)* (n)** (n) (adj)* (n) pace (n)** geniu s (n)* slum Unit 3 (n) software (n)*** scan speck staggering (vb)** (n) (adj) Unit 27 barley (n)

II

tier standard shave(n) * *** prove (vb)(adj) *** will (n)***

Grammar index 96, 100 24

a / an about to

adjectives .. adverbial clauses.. adverbs .. agent ..

.

118, 124, 150 162, 166 . 128, 136 . 34 . 142 . 96, 100 132 65

ago..

articles as be able to

65, 68, 72 46

can / could causative have

clauses, defining and non-defining .... ....158 comparisons .. ... 132 compound nouns ..111 concession.. 184 conditionals.. . 50, 56, 198 connectors .. . 184, 188 contrast ..... . 162, 184 countable nouns.... . 104 degree ellipsis .. emphasis ..

129, 184 192 204 188 104 20, 142, 146, 150

.

except ((ar)

(ew..

.

(ar

fronting .. future continuous24

.. 198

future perfect get ..

..

going to had better ...

24

65 46

have something dane have to ..

64 . ... 24

hope.. .

indirect (reported) speech infinitives, after verbs -ing form .. instead (of)

intensifiers intransitive inversion..

i( it

24 46

82 154

.....

154 .. . 188 128 verbs ..... ... 170 198 5~ 5~ 78 114, 204

Zittle .....

..132 ..104

may / might ...

..68, 72

like ..

modals ability certainty criticism ..

64 68 ..64

obligation .. offers ..

.

.. ..64 72

permission .. . recommendation

72 64

requests uncertainty

72 68 . 184

moreover much / many must

104

purpose .. quantity questions indirect .. reported .. tags reason relative pronouns repetition .... reported (indirect) speech report verbs requests resuIt .. . sequences..

64, 69 10

shaLl . should

.

need

65, 73

since ..

.

noun

110

state verbs .. substitution..

narrative ..

one, ones otherwise..

.

..

114, 192 56 69 166

ought

participle phrases partitives 111 passive formation and use34 hearsay reporting ..40 verbs with two objects 34 past continuous.. . 16 past perfect 16 past simple .. 16 phrasal verbs.. . ...170, 174, 178 possessive apostrophe ('s).. . 110 possessive o( 110 prefer 78 prepositions after verbs .. .. 146 for movement 136 for place .. time

.

with adjectives with nouns ..

136 142 .. 150 150

present continuous present perfect continuous

6, 10 20

present perfect simple present simple .. . pronouns.. ..

20 6, 10 114, 192

.

such as

.

summarizing superlatives .. tell .

tense contrasts the there ..

.

162 104 ....92 . 92 . 82 92 162, 184 .. 158 204

82, 88 88 ..72 162, 184 .. 188 24, 72 64, 68 20, 142 .. 6 . .. 192 188 .. 188 .. 132 . 82, 88 30 96, 100 114 142 34 104 56 .. 16 204 166 158 .. 166 .

time words transitive verbs uncountable nouns unIess...

.

used to do what-clause when..

.

which / that while .. will

conditionals .. future.. .

.. 50 24

promises wishes ... .

72 60

wouId

17,60,78 142 96, 100

yet

zero article

.

e Stop shouting, the teacher's coming.

Answer key

f Somebody is knocking at the door.

Unit 1

g Some people believe [that] UFOs have landed on Earth. h It's getting hotter in here. I love skiing. j Peter is always losing his homework.

Ex 1

Ex 7

i

a contain b are slowly beginning to understand c do you think d don't realize e are imagining f are having g I'm taking h appears is considering j Does this wallet belong Ex 2

i

a I'm having g I'm settling I is knocking

b - c I imagine d - e - f don 't mean hI seem j - k I'm aiso thinking m is having n I expect o I'm considering

i

Ex 3 a is going down b are stil! trying cis improving d believe e show f agree g means h is increasing i looks j interprets k remains I is becoming m cost n is pursuing o are currently facing p are having q have r suggest s behave t say u seems V cause w are introducing x are concentrating

Unit 2 Ex 1 a 1/ b smells c 1/ d do you do e H's costing g 1/ h I'm thinking we 're beginning j 1/ Ex 2

i

a is knocking b cook c is forever losing e is reading f kicks g don't understand i is getting j hear Ex 3

f

1/

dcomes h is leaving

a are you doing b contains C visits d is beginning e is seeing f don't know g is taking h measures is happening j suppose

i

Ex4 a go b is rapidly becoming c causes d seems e are taking f simply weigh g carry h actually gives (9 and h could be: are carrying / is actually giving, to emphasise that this is a current trend) simply don't realize j is happening kare stil! examining I do not believe m involves n expect o are working p hope (n and p could be: are expecting, are hoping, to emphasize current activity) q realize t are checking r depend s understand Ex 5 a b c d e f 9 h

Does this car belong to you, sir? This perfume smells nice. There seems to be a mistake. I don't see what you mean. What do you think? At birth a baby elephant weighs about 90 kg. Does the price matter? How much does this model cost? This book looks interesting j What does the box contain?

i

Ex 6 a b c d

They say Harry is a very good card player. I don't understand this maths problem. I agree with you. She's working in the garden.

a tries

b is walking

c hears d is watching e turns h hears i sees j is sitting m says n laughs o replies

f doesn't see g creeps k asks I answers p is standing Ex 8 a are spending

b pay

c means

d is taking

e works

f does g am finding h admits i am trying j am managing kunderstand I know m am going n q u x

are helping / help o am leaming p am experiencing points out r are taking s do not really know t want are developing v are appearing w are spend ing think y are going

Unit 3 Ex 1 a b c e f g h

would go / used to go would sometimes com e / used to come used to enjoy d used to speak would wake up / used to wake up would often play / used to play used to own used to believe would usually go / usually used to go j used to live

i

Ex 2 A

a needed b set up c had become e had run / ran f had risen / rose h had been closed / were closing

i

B

d were sinking g had hardly risen j had run out

k did not believe I had starte d m did not even think n had lost o did not really understand p had been q had simply agreed r had forced s refused t looked Ex 3 a b c d e f g h

i

j

went, had put, realized, had lost was waiting, saw, were staring heard, knew, was trying didn't remember, had not been driving, had almost stopped arrived, had already put out, were carrying were you doing, did you run away, told was painting, felI off, didn't break didn't tum up, got, had aIready closed hadn't forgotten, had fired, was taking was having, decided, had helped

Unit4 Ex 1 a has written b spent c studied d has written e won f have been g received h also won has always been j have accused k (has) pointed out I wrote

i

Ex 2 a have been trying b have been c came up d gave e found f performed g used h called i has found j have leamed

Ex 3 a have been here for b the first time I've seen e has gone d have been working here / have worked here e hasn't arrived f haven't met 9 has eaten h have been waiting in this queue / have been queuing haven't been here for j have been married for

Ex 2 a is happening b appears e do not alI agree d argue e are warming f believe 9 has taken place h will be i say j said k concluded I is m have caused n will probably be o are telling Ex 3

i

Ex4 a e e h

alO k 12

has been rising b have given has been expanding d has been has been increasing f have had 9 raised i ended j have also encouraged introduced

ie

j

A, B,

e

k B

e e

a is going b are e belong d will produce e will be i were f has declined 9 will represent h introduced jare k will be I has been m affects n has increased o will continue p willlive / will be living

e It's going to burst h are you going to

Ex 6 f A, e

9 e

h B,

e

IA

receive b reach e will begin, proves improves, will not risk e will appear, sign will contact, have 9 will then assess, decide reach, will be

Ex4 a The 12th English Teaching eonference is to take place on S-12 June. b The president is due to arrive here at 9.30. e Everyone was about to leave when the fire alarm went off. d He will play very loud music late at night! e So, what are we going to do? f Jane is going to have a baby. 9 I was going to phone you last night, but it slipped my mind. h 1'11be driving to Leeds anyway on Tuesday, so why don 't I give you a lift? / I'll give you a lift. i That'll be my new credit card. j The police will have caught the thief by nowo Ex S a e e 9

will still be living b will have finished will have found d will probably be going out I'll have made f will have been running will almost certainly have become h I'll be driving i will be j will have found k will still be searching I will still be talking m will have changed n will be trying O will be using p will have run out q will be travelling r will be walking S will have solved t will have come

Ex 6 aB

j4

b had stole n e lives d told e had gone 9 were disassembling h assumed i had asked j drove off kare investigating I have issued Ex S

Ex 3 a d f h

i14

a got

Ex 2 a A, B b B e A, B d A, B, e

h3

f noticed

Ex 1

i

911

Ex4

Unit 5 a 1'11have b will I know, will receive d 1'11be cleaning e I'm working f will almost certainly rise 9 begins won't know j we 'lI be holding

b7 e8 dIS e9 f6 12m S n 13 o 1

a b e d e f g h i

We are having a party on Friday I haven't been to Siberia before. What exactly do you do? Karen used to have short hair. I'm just leaving, so I can't talk nowo I haven't been to the theatre for a long time. When did the Romans invade Britain? I don't think it will rai n tomorrow. Does this suitcase belong to you? j When I have saved enough money, 1'm going to buy a new computer. Ex 7 a searched for b did not do e waited d went e crawled f interviewed 9 works h went i learned j has been k work I carry m falIs n pick it up o I have ever seen p gets hold q throws r has chased s saw t were repairing u was coming v stripped off wdived x seized y sold

Unit 7 Ex 1 a b e d e f 9 h

The rubbish is being collected on Tuesday this week. Both of the suspects have already been arrested. It has been decided that yom contract will not be renewed. My bike was stolen last week. The fish was perfectly cooked. A decision will be reached next week. The building was completed at the end of last month. All our products are delivered to your door. i Pauline has been asked to take over the job until the end ofJune. j While the film was being made, the money ran out. Ex 2

be

eB

dA

eB

f B gB

he

ie

je

Unit 6

a are produced b are named e were first developed d is now mad e e takes f comes 9 is based h became i was first produced j is soaked k lost is prized

Ex 1

Ex 3

a did you do b will have started e are you staying d has not won e will be f haven't been waiting g had sent h will be i feels j was going to be kare always criticizing me I have been meaning

a has been closed b is estimated e are expected d is housed e has been forced f is carried out / is being carried out 9 was being constructed h was being built i have been told j has been done / is being don e k have been accommodated I have not been affected / are not affected mwas only completed

J

Ex4 a Dora was examined by a number of trainee doctors. b Everyone has been surprised by the extent of the flood-damage. c The security door was opened with a counterfeit key. d Many would-be shoppers we re put off by the freezing conditions. e The window was smashed with a brick. t Some families are being hit hard by the high cost of gas and electricity. g The windows on nearby buildings were blown in by the force of the explosion. ~ Several buildings were damaged by the high winds. I The security guard was hit on the head with a blunt instrument. j The sea wall was washed away by the unusually high tide. Ex 5 a was awarded b was praised (had been cut down d had been left e has been copied t has been transformed g has be en arrested h was beaten was elected j was appointed

i

Ex 6 a I was promised a pay rise ... b was sent to me by courier the next day. c is being taken over by a multi-national firm. d The man trying to climb in the window was noticed ... e was awarded a medal for bravery. t was made to take the exam again. g was given the paintings by an elderly aunt. h The case is going to be looked into ... rescue attempts were considered pointless. j was elected president for a second term.

i

carry messages from a worshipper to Zeus, the father of the gods. c In ancient Egypt, bats' blood was thought to cure blindness. d In Aztec mythology, the Sun was believed to be the home of the god Quetzalcoatl. e In Norse mythology, the bravest warriors were thought to live after death in the hall of Valhalla. t In ancient Egypt, the scarab, or beetle, was believed to carry the Sun across the sky. Ex 2 a The company's European division is said to be having a good year. b In contrast, the Far East division is said to have been suffering from rising costs. c The company is believed to have been talking to a competitor about a possible merger. d Some directors are known to have been thinking on these lines for some time. e The CEO, Carl Graham, is believed to be ma king an attempt to focus the business more sharply in some areas. t He is also said to be looking at the possibility of job cuts. g The company is thought to be holding a top-Ievel meeting about these matters next week. Ex 3 a b c d e

t

g h

Ex 7

i

a According to a statement from Pinewood Studios, the James Bond stage, which was destroyed by fire at the weekend, will be rebuilt. b The cause of the blaze at Iver Heath, Buckinghamshire, in which the celebrated stage was left completely gutted, has not yet been confirmed. c A spokesperson explained that shooting of the latest production had been completed and the film sets were being removed. d The full effects of this incident have not yet been assessed, but the financial performance of the company will not be affected. e Buckinghamshire Fire Brigade was called at 1118 BSTon Sunday. t The blaze was tackled by eight fire engines, and the smoke was visible from ten mile s away. g The roof covering the stage caved in through fire damage and special equipment was required to reach it. h lt is the second time the stage, originally built for the 1977 Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me, has been destroyed by fire. The building was previously rebuilt following a fire in 1984 after which six people were treated for bums, smoke inhalation, and shock. j Since its reopening, when it was christened The Albert R Broccoli 007 Stage after the long-time producer of the series, it has been used in five James Bond films.

j

Unit

8

Ex 1 a In Irish mythology, a meteor was said to be a soul passing from purgatory to heaven. b In Greek mythology, the beech tree was believed to be able to

thought to be the site of buried treasure. said to be in a place called 'the money pit'. thought to have buried the treasure centuries ago. reported to have fallen in to a hole at the foot of a large tree. believed to have discovered traces of treasure in the hole. said to have found a treasure chest in later excavations. said to have flooded in. believed to have searched for the treasure. thought to have found old pieces of metal in the hole. reported to be a natura l phenomenon, or the remains of old colonial fortifications.

Ex4 a b c d e

I appreciate being taken to the station. I enjoyed being shown around the school. I don't remember being arrested! He said he liked being taken seriously. Tina denied having be en paid to appear in the play. t I don 't remember being given the anaesthetic. g I appreciate being given another chance. Ex 5 a The hat sold yesterday at the auction is said to have been wom by Napoleon during the invasion of Russia in 1812. b The earthquake in the North Sea is thought to have been caused by a release in pressure after oil and gas extraction. c Harriet the tortoise, who has just died aged 176, is believed to have been owned by Charles Darwin. d Three patients are now known to have been infected with the disease through blood transfusions. e More than a hundred football supporters are thought to have been involved in the riot after the match. t The recent forest fires in Califomia are believed to have been started deliberately. g Three other religiaus leaders are naw knawn ta have been arrested at the same time. h The helicopter which crashed yesterday killing eighteen service personnel is believed to have been shot down.

Ex 6 a Two suspects are thought to have been arrested. b The pIane is believed to have crashed into the sea near a small island. c The minister is said to be considering changing the laws on smoking in public. d Yesterday the situation is reported to have improved. e Whales are said to have been seen in the area for the first time. f The fire is believed to have broken out at 3 am. g Last year the company is reported to have recorded rising profits. h The number of unemployed is thought to have fallen by 10%. Ex 7 Suggested answers: He is thought to have been bom on 23 April, 1564. He is believed to have started his education at the age of seven / in 1571. He is thought to have jOined a company of actors between 1585 and 1592. He is thought to have been both a playwright and a performer. He is believed to have written his first play in 1589-1590. He is thought to have written the poem Venus and Adonis while London theatres were closed because of the plague. He is believed to have written AMidsummer Night's Dream for a wedding in 1595. He is thought to have written Romeo and Juliet in the same year. He is believed to have written Hamlet in 1600-1601.

Unit 9 Ex 1 a We have had the outside of our house painted. b Martin had his hair cut yesterday. c We are having a new central heating system in stalle d at our house tomorrow. d I am going to have my eyes examined this aftemoon. e Tom had his nose altered last year. f I had my leather coat dry-cleaned specially. g We have had our paintings valued. h Maria had the car looked at before she bought it. i We had the windows in our house rep lace d last year. j Julia is going to have two of her teeth taken out.

Ex2 a b c d e f g h

i

j

Katie had her car stole n by one of her friends. We are going to have our photograph taken. ean you come quickly? I have had my house broken into. Laura is going to have her portrait painted by Tracey Emin, the well-known British artist. They had their house designed by a well-known architect. I have all my suits made by a local tailor. Dave had his bike repaired at a shop in the High Street. I am having my hip rep laced next week. Tony had one of his fingers broken while he was playing cricket. Maria is going to have her fiat redecorated by a local firm.

Ex 3 a b c d e f g

One of the players got his leg broken. Andy wants to have his nose altered. Anna got arrested as she was leaving the shop. The patient had his leg amputated after the accident. I usually have my shoes repaired in the shop on the comer. I got Tom to check all the windows before he left. Jim says he'll be late because he is getting his hair cut.

h Have you got your work starte d yet? Sue has had her car stolen.

i

Ex4 a had b have c had d done g having h got i had j have

e didn't f got k having I get

Unit 10 Ex 1 a ... you press that button on the keyboard, you'lllose what you've written b lose your work if you make a back-up copy. c have virus protection you'll have problems with your computer. d ... back and arms will ach e if you sit tOGlong at the computer. e ... could have problems if you tum off the computer before closing all programs. f ... you don't save your work before closing the wordprocessing program, you'lllose it. g ... you leam the keyboard short cuts, you can save a lot of time. h ... probably crash if you run tOGmany programs at the same time.

Ex2 aA

bB

cA

dA

eB

bB

cA

d A eB

fe

gB

he

je

jA

Ex 3 a e

fe

ge

he

Ex4 a disappeared b would begin c polluted d would soon become e were f would soon begin g would tak e h competed j would benefit j caught k would eventually increase l vanished m would not necessarily recover n would have o took p poisoned q would go by r disappeared s ceased t would not absorb u landed v would find

Ex 5 Suggested answers: a stopped, would always be b melt, will rise or melted, would rise c recycle, will be d fell, would happen e don 't stop, will eventually grind f will happen, run out g finally start, will need or finally starte d, would need h wasn't, would the world be j don't stop, will become j jumped, would be

Ex6 a If Mrs Allen's neighbour hadn't searched his garden shed, he wouldn't have found the missing cat inside. b If one of them hadn't had her mobile phone with her, the hikers wouldn't have been rescued quickly. c If the boy hadn't been wearing a life jacket, he wouldn't have survived. d If Mr Anderson hadn't woken up because he heard the smoke alarm, the family wouldn't have managed to escape the fire. e If rescue workers had searched the car properly they would have noticed the injured man. f If most of the staff hadn't left the room, more than one person would have been injured. g If the goalkeeper hadn't made a mistake, United would have won. h If a police officer hadn't stopped Pratt for drink-driving, and taken a DNA sample, Pratt would not have been charged with the previously unsolved murder of Mrs Jones.

Ex 7

Ex4

a c e g

a would h could

would have happened b had missed would have continued d would probably not exist would be f would not have been able would have developed h would have grown existed j would not have changed k would look I had not collided m would probably not be n would not have stood

i

cC

dA

eC

fB

gB

hC

iA

jB

Ex 3 a We will only refund your booking fee if you cancel 48 hours in advance. b If only you'd told me about the cheap flights to Italy. c If it hadn't been for the skill of the surgeon, the child would not have survived. d If you should have second thoughts, let us know. e But for your help, I would have made a complete mess of this. f If I might take your coat? g Even if you offer me more money, I still won't sell the house to you! h Let me get a word in edgeways, and I'll tell you what I discovered. If you were to change your mind about the job, we'd be interes ted in hearing from you. j UnIe ss we are delayed, we'll be there by six.

Unit 13 Ex 1

Ex 3 a better take an umbrella. b have to go to school on Saturday morning in your country? c to hand in a typed copy of their first lab report. d needn't have changed ... e think you ought ... f shouldn't have left the windows open while it was raining. g didn't have to pay. h don't have to ... able to stop the car before it crashed into a wall. j didn't have to connect it to a phone line.

i

Ex4 a should b have c able d had g should h have i been j will m have n better o have

a unless b will c were d would e provided g otherwise h not i Supposing j would

f even

Unit 14 aA

bB

3 b8 Ex 3 a

Ex 1 a had b had listened c would e didn't leave f had not bought paid j wish Ex 2

i

cA

d A eB

d would stop g had spent h knew

f B gC

a b c d e

f hB

iC

cC

dA

eC

f C gC

hB

iC

jA

1 f 5 g6 h2

i9

j4

Ex 2

Unit 12

jC

Ex 3 a ... if more and more young people will go into higher education in future. b ... their children studied a useful subject leading to a good job.

their parents would let them make their own choices. they had chosen their courses more carefully. not to choose a subject simply because they think they are good at it. f ... I were you, I'd think about what kind of work I want / wanted to do in the future. g if they were only interested in having a good time. h they had worked harder. if they will never repay their student loans . ... time that universities paid more attention to students' financial problems.

i

e had f have k should I ought

Ex 1

Ex4

c d e

g drove

Ex 2 a have b must c have d better e should f are g could h should i had j need

a provided b Supposing c but for d otherwise e were to f if you hap pen to be g even if h as long as i unless j If it hadn't been for Ex 2

a C bA

f were

i

Ex 1

bB

d it e made k as I were

a mustn't b did not have to read c we'd better not d I didn't need to have e shouldn't have told me f should not g shouldn't h should not have attempted mustn't j don't have to be

Unit 11

aC

b were c time j would

i were

g h

c

7 d 10

e

could / might have an accident. can't be safe. must have kicked a balI against it. can be a dangerous place. must be safe to touch these wires now. might / could have told me that piece of metal was hot! should have arrived by now. can't have cleaned this bowl properly.

Ex4 a 4 b 5 c 10 d 2 e 7 f 8 g 6 h 9

i1

j3

Unit 15 Ex 1 a couldn't b shall c shouldn't d needs e can't might j couldn't f could g could h I'll do it

i

Ex 2 Suggested answers: a can't be b shall we do c might just d might have known e could you f Could g needs h can't be

Ex 3

Unit 16

Suggested answers: a Thanks, but you really shouldn't have brought me flowers! b Shall I carry those books for you? c You can't be serious! d You might be taller than me, but you're not better at basketball! e Could I open the window, please? f I couldn't care less what you say!

Ex 1

Ex4 a 8

b S c 3 d 10 e 1 f 7 g 9 h 6

i4

j 2

Ex 5 a b c d e

f g h i j

Could Itry that shot again? Before we start playing, the net needs adjusting. Shall I hold the flag whHe you take your shot? Try as I may, I can't skate properly. I won't let the team down. I couldn't care less whether you run in this race or not. You never know, United might just win all their matches! No member of the club shall use insulting language to any other member. Now the weather has improved, things couldn't be better. That's kind of you, but you needn't have bought my ticket.

Ex 6 aC

bB

cA

dB

eA

f C gA

hB

iB

jB

Ex 7 a Do we have to take the final test? b You shouldn't have put so much lemon in the cake. c Tim's computer crashed, but he was able to save the pages he was working on. d Passengers are not to pass beyond this point. e I think you had better see an eye specialist about this problem. f Paula starte d the class immediately, as she didn't have to take an entrance test. g We didn't have to pay for our tickets. h Dave had to leave before the end of the performance. i We needn't have bought a second tin of paint. j Kate should have taken her umbrella.

Ex8 a By the time they leave school, most students should have understood the importance of regular exercise. b When they start a job, or higher studies, some people can forget that time needs to be set aside for this. c Those who don't find the time for exercise, are bound to regret this in the future. d When they feel tired or over-stressed, for example, they think this must have happened because they have been working too hardo e They don't realize that this might also be the resuit of failing to keep fit. f When they do have any free time, they feel they might as well relax in front of the television, as in the gym or on the running tra ck. g Perhaps they think that the people who find time for exercise must be taking time away from do ing their job properly. h However, research shows that this couldn't be further from the truth Most people could easily find the time to keep fit if they organized their time more effectively. In the end, we have to / must remember that someone who feels fit and well must be able to work more easily and with more energy.

a 6

b 3 c 9 d 1 e 4 f 7 g 10 h S

i8

j 2

Ex2 a b c d e f g h

Would it be all right if I left now? The computer wouldn't work properly. You would say the wrong thing! It would be really great to see you again. Would you min d opening the door for me? What I did then would tum out to be a mistake. Would you like still or sparkling water? If you would follow me, 1'11take you to the meeting room. We would hope to deliver the finished product in six weeks' time. j I wouldn't worry about the results. Ex 3 a would len d b does c refused d 1'11be e used to work f wouldn't be g will h would I do i prefer j would you help

i

Ex4 a would g would m- n -

b would c - d would e would f would h wouldn't i - j wouldn't k would o would P - q would r - s would t would

I-

Unit 17 Ex 1 a had already left b was c was d would e didn't know f crashed g was h had been waiting i wouldn't j is / was (both acceptable) Ex 2 a b c d e

f g h

i

j

he wouldn't lend his car to just anyone. he wasn't very satisfied with his job. she wasn't going to worry about the money until she heard from the bank. she didn't know where Bill was living at that moment. to Id me she hadn't had her operation yet. if I ate too much, I'd feel Hl. they would be writing to her later that week. the prices wouldn't rise before the end of the year. the police had noticed J ack's car, they would have arrested him. ... she would let me know if she had any more problems.

Ex 3 a 'Aeroplanes are interesting toys, but do not have any military value' 8 b 'Whatever young Einstein does, he will amount to nothing.' 4 c 'It will be years, and not in my lifetime, before a woman will become British prime minister.' S d 'I think there is a world market for perhaps five computers.' 7 e 'Television won't stay popular for more than six months, because people will soon get tired of staring at a wooden box every night.' 2 f 'We don't like your sound, and guitar music is on the way out.' 3 g 'The telephone has too many shortcomings and is of no value to us.' 6 h 'The horse is here to stay, but the car is only anovelty.' 1

Ex4 a b c d

how long it took to get to the city centre. if I had visited the National Museum. what she thought of the hotel food. if I would be travelling by train.

e f g h

i

if she knew the way to the Opera House. how much I had paid to stay in the student ho steL whether / if she was thinking of changing hoteis. whether / if I had to Ieave at 10.00. to go with me to the station / if she would go with me to the station.

Ex 5 aB

bA

cC

dA

eB

f C gB

hA

Ex 6 a say b asked c was d him e what f me g knew had j me k if I would m would n not o to h said

i

f Good heavens, it isn't really 8.00 already, is it? g You understand the second example, don't you? h You haven't seen Chris, by any chance, have you? Ex 4 a b c d e

No, they don't. They call it Republika e Shqiperise. No, it doesn't. It lies between France and Spain. Yes, that's right. No, it isn't. Canberra is the capitaL o, it isn't. Dominica is a small island rep ub lic, but the Dominican Republic is the eastern half of the island of Hispaniola, so they are not the same. f Yes,they do. Indians make up about 38% of the population. g No, it didn't. It used to be called Basutoland.

Unit 18

Ex 5

Ex 1

a don't g Don't

b are c haven't d what h there i we j for

a congratulated b denied c confessed dremind e regretted f apologized g volunteered h pointed out i assmed j warned

Unit 20

Ex 2

Ex 1

a B, C b A c C d B, C e A f C g B, C h A, C

i

C

jA

a the, -, - b the, the, - c - , -, the d the, the, the, the e the, the, the f -, -, -, - g -, the, -, the h the, the, - ,the the, the, the, - j -, Ex 2

i

Ex 3 a on b me c that d entering e me of j her k to g out h if / whether

i

f if / whether I to

Ex4 a e f h

f Don't

e don't

pointed out that b of faiIing c situation on a d.y that high blood pressme that they should make / to make g.y coneluded that j.y added that smoking

i

Ex 5 a invited b announced c thanked d begged e reminded f agreed g pointed out h persuaded i volunteered j swore k decided I ordered

Unit 19

i-

a The b an c the d - e the f the g the h j - k the I the m a n - o a p a q a r the s the t a u the v the w a x a y a z a 1 - 2 - 3 the 4 the 5 a 6 a 7 the 8 - 9 the 10 - 11 the Ex 3 a the, an, the b a, a, the c the, a, a d the, a, a e a, a, the, a, the, a f the, the, the, a, the g the, a, the, the, the h the, the, the, the the, an, a j the, a, the, the

i

Ex4

i

a a b - c a d - e The f - g the h the the j a k a I - m the n a o - p - q the / - r the s u - v - w a x a y - z a 1 - 2 the 3 the 4 the

t-

Ex 1

Unit 21

a they should give him b her piane arrives c isn't it d Hasn't she? e He is, isn't he? f what exactly are you waiting for g where the Astoria Hotel is h There isn't, is there? i You won't be long, will you? j when the next train leaves

a The, a, the, the b the, a, the, a ,the c - , -, a, the, the d the / -, the, -, the, the, the e -, -, an f -, a, the, the, - g the, a, a, the h The, -, - an, the, -

Ex 2

Ex 2

a b c d e

f g h

really love to know how old she iso you tell me how much this shirt costs? suppose you know where the projector iso not elear which room is which. wonder what time the lecture finishes. not sme where I have to go. you explain how this works? they told you how long we have to wait?

Ex 3 a b c d e

Can't you finish yom work on time? What are we waiting for? Do you know what her first nam e is? This isn't yom seat, is it? Could you tell me the time? Could you tell me what the time is?

Ex 1

i

a The b - c the d the e a f - g the h the a k The I the m the n a o - p the q the r The s the t the u the v the w the x the y the z a 1 - 2 an 3 a 4 - 5-

j -

Ex 3 a The, the, - b a, the, the c - the, a d The, a, the, e a, a, - f the, the, the g - an, - h The, - , the i -, the, a, the j -, the, a Ex 4 a the the q the x the

i

b a c the d the e - f the g the h The j the k - I The m the n the o - p the r The s - t The u the v - w The y - z - 1 The 2 - 3 - 4 the 5 - 6-

Unit 22

Ex 5

Ex 1

Hamlet's father the King of Denmark has died, and his mother has married his father's brother, Claudius. Denmark is under threat of invasion by a foreign prince's army. Two soldiers on duty on the ramparts of the castle see Hamlet's father's ghost. Later, the ghost speaks to Hamlet and describes his brother's method of murdering him. Hamlet promises to avenge his murder, but pretends to be mad to escape his unele's suspicions. Claudius asks Hamlet's friends to find out the reasons for his strange behaviour. Claudius's / Claudius' adviser, Polonius, the father of Hamlet's girlfriend Ophelia, suggests that his madness is caused by love. Hamlet's friends invite a troupe of actors to try to make Hamlet less unhappy. Hamlet asks them to put on a play he has written in which his father's murder will be acted. His unele's guilt becomes elear when he stops the play and leaves with his courtiers. Hamlet kills Polonius in error and is sent to England with his friends as part of the king's attempt to kill Hamlet.

a hardly any b enough c lots of d very few e only a little f not enough g a few h a lot of Too many j tOGmuch k as much as I enough Ex 2

i

aB

bA

k B

lA

cA

dC

eC

fA

gB

hC

iC

jA

Ex 3 a many h quite

b much c of d less e hardly i how j amount k much

f lot

g as

Ex4 a b c d e f g

There's not enough time to finish now. None of my answers was / were wrong. There is no money in your wallet. There were very few customers this morning. There were fewer crimes last year. The green one costs twice as much as the red one. There was a large number of people queuing at the front entrance. h There is more than enough food for six people. i There isn't any paper in the cupboard. j There was hardly any snow last night.

Ex 2

Ex 5

aB

a b c d e f g h I j

Ex 3

is too much traffic today. tOGmuch sugar in this coffee. twice as much as that one. amount of money has been spent on this project. than enough money to buy the tickets. many as a thousand football fans were arrested. few taxis at this time of night. very few people know about it. of the paintings was / we re damaged. is no wat er in the tank.

Ex 6 a of b many c every d large e as f times g few h many i very j large k lots I no m every / each n as Ex 7 a 2

b 12 c S d 6 e 11 f 1 g 8 h 3

14

i 10

Unit 23

a anything b each c myself d either f else g the other ones h themselves bC

cA

dB

eC

f B gB

e anywhere

i each other

hA

a The people who picked the correct number won ESOO each. b Some children in the elass we re throwing pieces of paper at one another. c I've looked everywhere else. d Have you hurt yourself? e I blame myself for what happened. f It doesn't matter if you can't get here by eight. g Enjoy yourselves at the beach, children! h A lot of people we re driving too fast, but I was the one the police stopped.

Ex4 a It, there b It, there c There, it d It, there e There, it f It, it, it g There, There h There, it i There, it j It, it a C bA c A dB eC j C jB kB lA mC

fA

gB

hA

Unit 25 Ex 1

a is b surroundings g trousers h stairs Ex 2

c is d cards i is jare

e have

f is

a customs b manner c damage d works e expenses f custom g glass h damages manners j work k glasses I expense

i

Ex 3 c eloud d team item j gang

i

e pack

f shower

Ex 4 a e h j

Ex 1

Ex 5

j9 k7

Ex 1

a crowd b flash g piece h bunch

Unit 24

seat belt b bookshelf cwater softener d coffee pot toothbrush f shop window g mountain climbing office equipment j pencii sharpener computer network

a bad b two-hour c sleeping d soaking e lost f large g complete h freshly baked i heavy j worried Ex 2 a - b very c - d very e very f - g - h - i very j - k very I very Ex 3 a winter elothes b silk shirts c torch batteries d spring sales e a leather overcoat f office equipment g football supporters h a glass bowl summer holidays j computer software k a silver bracelet I autumn leaves

i

Ex4

Unit 27

a c e g i k

Ex 1

a neglected masterpiece b the elosing headlines freezing temperatures d an unlocked door mixed feelings f an arranged marriage a respected author h adamaging attack an unsolved crime j a leaking roof the opening scene I an acquired taste

Ex 5 a d g j

Halian speaking b freshly baked c fast-fiowing newly married e open-min ded f windswept earth-shattering h chocolate-coated heartbreaking tree-covered k time-saving I newly discovered

i

Ex 6 aB bA k A Ie

ce

dB

ee

fA

ge

hB

ie

jB

Ex 7 a light g wide

b open h fine

c heavy

i great

d long e smalI f short j high k narrow I low

Ex 8 a d g k

home-produced b much-reduced c freshly prepared ready-mad e e time-saving f hard-working so-calIed h home-cooked i far-reaching j localIy grown traffic-elogged Ilarge-scale

a soon b particularly c quite / realIy d hard e TechnicalIy / Apparently f quite / realIy g completely h early i truly j Luckily / Fortunately Ex 2 a realIy b incredibly c widely d completely, utterly e completely, perfectly, realIy f awfulIy, terribly, very g entirely h greatly i especialIy, particularly j totalIy, utterly Ex 3 a b c d e f g h i j

I quite understand how you feel. Unfortunately, nobody came to the party. I found the match rather unexciting. The decision was financialIy disastrous. This result was entirely unexpected. Mrs Bums has kindly agreed to provide sandwiches. This printer is completely useless. I can hardly see the end of the road. The answer is perfectly obvious. LogicalIy, the missing money must be in this room.

Ex4 aB

le

bA

cA

de

eB

f B gA

hB

ie

jB

Unit 26

Unit 28

Ex 1

Ex 1

a to help b to find out c to leave d that you wanted e to understand f to see g getting h to go i to understand j to find out

a the b as c probably d tOG e tOG f than g more and more h every bit i a lot j like k a lot more I the best

Ex 2

Ex 2

a b c d e

H's odd (that) you should be here at the same time. H makes me angry that you should talk to me like that. H right (that) Maria should win first prize. H's unfair (that) we should have to work until 1O.30! I'm determined (that) there should be no repetition of today's unfortunate events. f H's alarming (that) there should be no security at alI in the building! g H's only naturai (that) the employees should feel badly treated. h H's strange (that) you should have the same initials as me. Ex 3

a most

f about

b enough c better d as e probably / easily g bit h them i away j lot k as I away

Ex 3 a as b enough c like d too e like h as i like j like k tOG I enough c e

dB

e B f B ge

Ex 1

Ex4

Ex 5 a impossible b unusual c surprised d elear possible e unwilling f unwise g aware h be able j hopeful

i

he

iA

jB

Unit 29 a at b down c to d towards h up on i along j at

H's best to put on plenty of sun-cream before you go out. I was sorry to hear your bad news. This bad weather makes me feel miserable. H's obvious that something will have to be done. I'm busy revising for my exams at the moment. H was wonderful to meet David Bowie. I feIt terrible lying to her. I am determined that this should not happen again. H's good of you to give me a lift.

f as g enough

Ex4 a e bB k e Ie

a obvious b essential c pointless d better e aware f make g important h careful i impossible j vital a b c d e f g h i

kA

e on

f to g within

Ex 2 a b c d e f g h

i

j

Jim put a sheet over his head and pretended to be a ghost. Anna walked across the street. I wish I were far away from here. When do you think Alan will be back? The dog was running round and round and barking furiously. I first visited Moscow over forty years ago. The temperature is below average for this time of the year. The elephant was coming towards Peter at high speed. When he's away from his friends, David stop s showing oft. We paid under €200,000 for this fiat.

Ex 3

Unit 32

a out b through c away g Among h backwards

d abroad

f ashore

e by

Ex 1 a from b of c with of j for

i

Ex4 a in b on c Under / In j at j On hunder Ex 5 a down e down j under

d in

f on

e at

g in

b through / above c over / across d through f between g along h in j backwards k between I ahead

Ex 6 a in to b through c On d along e to f ahead g on h at i through j in k through l between m far Ex 7 a out b fro h abroad

c up

d round

e on

f far g backwards

Ex 8 a in India b in danger c through the region d on the plains e below average f under construction g on the island h along the western side i between j along the route

Unit 30

d about

a already b later g Once h during Ex 2

c by d on time e once f until i At the end j next Saturday

h in

Ex 2 a purpose b effect g person h room Ex 3

c practice d chance j fault

e detail

i time

f date

a In business b aware of (wrong about d by mistake e different fram f annoyed by g an effect on h at fault j better at j without exception

Ex4 a b ( d e f g h

I was unaware of the problem. The drinks machin e is out of order. You damaged this chair on purpose! David was absorbed in his work. Mr Gordon has a good relationship with his employees. Many people in the crowd were in tears. Send in your application without delay. Harry is addicted to computer games. j We don't have this book in sto ck, but we can order one. j Robert is an authority on genetic engineering. Ex 5 a aware b risk c responsible f addicted g theory h used

Ex 1

e of f of g for

d faced

i room

e control j average

Unit 33 Ex 1

a until 5.30 b During the night c for weeks d at last e in half an hour f by now g In the end h ever since i in time j at once

a to kick b worrying (to open d pick up e banging f appearing g to stand up h cleaning j wondering j to think

Ex 3

Ex 2

a ago b before f During g by Ex 4 a for h by

b later

i finally

c already d at last / finally e For h Since in / during j until

i

bA

cC

i

d avoid

e risk

f imagine

j bear

Ex 3 c in d already j since

f yet

e since

g once

Ex 5 aC

a involve b mind c deny consider g stop h regret

dE

eE

fA

gA

hE

iC

jE

Suggested answers: a spent b begin / start c considered d meant / involved e persuaded / encouraged / advised f continued g appears / seems hallowed j involved j tried / attempted k gone

Ex4 Unit 31 Ex 1 a of b at h between

C j

to d in on

e with

f with

g from

Ex 2 a on b against h for i from

(with

d to

e on

f on

g from

Ex 3 aC

bA

(c

dE

eA

f C gC

hE

iA

jC

Ex4 a concentrate b provide (boast d blame e tamper f refer g specialize h benefit i apply j advise Ex 5 a involved b distinguished c differed d approve e specialize f insist g resuIte d h forced i relied / depended j objected k associated

a It appears that the match will be cancelled. b The burglars jumped out of the window to avoid being caught. c Ulysses is considered to be Joyce's greatest work. d They are planning to reach the mountains by the end of the week. e I prefer not to waste time watching television. f Do you fancy going skating on Friday? g We can't go on ignoring this problem. h My parents didn't let me stay out late. Ex 5 a continued to b stopped c decided to d involved e expected f seemed to g persuade h warned i urged j forced k regretted l dem and

Unit 34

Unit 36

Ex 1 a which b What g what h which

Ex 1 c who d which which j who

i

f I asked for

e who

Ex 2 a whose b whose c who d which e whom f whom g which / that h which / that i which j where Ex 3 a which b - c which h which that j that o they p which

i

d who e which f What gkwhich I that m who n where

Ex4 a ... the man who jumped over the counter and took the money. b up late, which wasn't unusual. c many people, some of whom gave us good descriptions of the robber. d the house where my aunt and uncle live. e who meets Angela likes her. f of whom we re half an hom late. g found a shepherd's hut where we sheltered from the rain. h which was extremely crowded, stopped at every station. i isn't the building [that] I thought the bus stopped outside. Ex 5 a whose b who c whose d which e whom f which g what h which / that i - j - k who I which mwhat n what o - p - q who r whose

Unit 35 Ex 1 a even though b Seeing that c the way d in case e Much as f The moment g No matter what h although i Everywhere j Considering that Ex 2 a b c d e f g

Suggested answers: a ~ b After I had left the room, the telephone rang. c As I had lost my money, the conductor wouldn't give me a ticket. d While I was falling asleep, there was a loud knock at the front door. e ~ f ~ g When I opened the box, it turned out to be empty. h~ i After I had been asked for my name, I was taken to meet the prime minister. j When I arrived at the station, the train had already left. Ex 2 a Although b Being c Without d It e While f Abandoned g Though h There i If j By Ex 3 Suggested answers: a Located b discovered / found c shown / illustrated d being / becoming e Having f caught / captmed g facing h Visited i being j Realizing / Discovering / Pinding k protected Ex4 a It being a public holiday, there was a lot of traffic on the roads. b On opening the letter, I realized it was from Professor Alton. c Though destroyed by fire dming the war, the palace was later reconstructed. dCaroI walked from the room, tears streaming from her eyes. e In trying to remove the memory card, I broke the camera. f Since using Glosso shampoo, my hair has become soft and shining. g Jan was taken to hospital after being knocked down by a car. h Having been shown to his room, George lay down on the bed and slept. Ex 5

Whenever you're in the area, drop in and see us. As soon as I saw you, I knew I liked you! Piona starting training as a ballet dancer when she was six. I won't leave / 1'11stay until you come back. You can park yom car anywhere you like outside. Now you're here, you'd better sit down. Once the exams are out of the way we can start learning something new. h The memorial shows where the pIane crashed.

aC

Ex 3

Ex 2

a Although

b Considering c As d until i case

e After / Once

f way g so h When Ex4 a b c d e

It sounds as if they are having a good time. This isn't the way you are supposed to be doing this. He looked as if he was carrying something. I took up jogging, as you suggested. He behaved as though he owned the place. f The meat tasted as if it hadn't been cooked properly. g Peter didn't conduct the experiment the way he was instructed to / to Id to. Ex 5 aB

bC

cC

dA

eA

f B gA

hC

iC

jB

aA

bA

cB

dA

eC

f B gA

hC

iB

cC

dC

eA

f B gB

hC

iA

Unit 37 Ex 1 bA

jC

a6 blO c4 d9 e3 fI 95 h8 i7 j2 Ex 3 a break out b come off c come about d fali back on e break off f get off g com e into h come out i do away with j bring round Ex4 a b c d e

It's getting on for 8.00, so you'd better get ready to leave. I couldn't really understand what she was getting at. I don't think we can count on Johnson to support us. There's an important point I think I should bring up. In 1939, Jim was called up. f The director is drawing up a list of suitable candidates for the job. g The statement of the accused was borne out by other witnesses. h Carol has come up with a really good solution to the problem.

The stranger offered to sell Harry the Eiffel Tower, and Harry fell for it. A lack of marketing expertise eventually brought about the downfall of the entire motor industry.

Unit 38 Ex 1 aB

bA

eC

dA

eA

f C gA

hB

iC

blO

e2

d4

e9

fI

hS

i7

jB

Ex 2 a6

g8

j3

Ex 3 a look into

b go round

e give out

f point out g make up for h keep to

d play up e pack in go about j give away

i

Ex4 a The government expects the economy to pick up in the later part of the year. b You've missed out the question mark at the end of the line. e There are a lot of people hanging around in the street outside our house. d I think it's time we paid him back for all the awful things he has done! e Ann was supposed to look after my dog, but she let me down. f What on earth is going on here? g Frankie neariy won both races but just missed out. h I didn't like the film at first, but then it started to growon me. j Don't let on that I put that notice on the door! j Tony made up a story about meeting Bob Dylan in a cafe.

Unit 39 Ex 1 aAbA

eC

dC

eA

f C gA

hC

jB jC

Ex 2 a6

b2

elO

d4

e8

fI

g9

h3

i7

jS

Ex 3 a put down b track down e set about d put out e set out f step up g work out h turn down j stand for j see off Ex4 a The local planning office has turned down the company's application to build flats on the site. b The lawyers made notes as the judge ran through the details of the case. e The security guard was taken in by the thief's disguise. dCaroi turned up at the party unannounced, much to everyone's surprise. e Harry has very good ideas, but he put them across to an audience. f I don't think you should keep running yourself down. g Someone has to see to the children's lunch at 12.30. h Mr Johnson will be stepping down as company spokesperson at the end of the month. j A group of foreign investors has taken over the company. j Jim was set upon by three muggers in the street. k €SOO for that? I think you've been ripped off. I The report runs to over five hundred pages. Ex 5 a b e d

I can't seem to shake off this pain in my left leg. Tina is really good at taking off the accounts manager. We can put you up for a few days. I think som eon e has slipped up, because 1'm not owed any money. e I think this bad weather has set in for the day.

f The foreign minister promised that his country would stand by the agreement. g David has taken to running up and down the stairs for exercise. h That really sums her up! Ex 6 Suggested answers: a I was worried about the examination and didn't manage to drop off for ages. b That song is growing on me. e The prime minister and the finance minister have fallen out again. d Three young boys carried out the robbery on their way home from school. e We waited for a bus for ages, and we ended up walking. f I can't make out how much this is going to cost. g The Mexican restaurant we tried didn't come up to our expectations. h The spare parts we have be en waiting for have been held up in the post. Helen didn't quite understand / couldn't make out what George was getting at. I don't like the way he talked to you! I wouldn't put up with it, if I were you. k When the teacher asked who had broken the desk, two boys owned up. I Fiona doesn't really go for camping holidays. mI'm going to try out my French when 1'm on holiday. n 1'11try and get round to calling you later on today. Ex 7 a Make sure you hang on to your ticket, as you'll need it later. b Nick says he's going to complain, but I don 't think he'll actually go through with it. e I don't think you should impose your beliefs on people. d I decided to drop in on my old aunt while I was in the area. e The work we had done on our house was carried out by a firm of local builders. f The party finally broke up after the neighbours complained about the noise. g Emily says she'll visit us one day, but I can't pin her down. h Our luxury cruise holiday didn't live up to our expectations. j When the food gave out, the two men were forced to eat insects. j Rita is a strange person, I can't make her out. k George hit it off with his mother-in-Iaw. I I don't think the gunmen will give in without a fight. m1'd like to point out that 1'm not in fact English, but Scottish.

Unit 40 Ex 1 a although b at least e on account of d thus e As a result f Moreover g on the contrary h Accordingly due to j Consequently

i

Ex 2 Suggested answers: a result b respects e Above d extent e owing f Compared g However h account i Furthermore / Moreover Ex 3 a Regular exercise keeps you fit. Furthermore, it gives you a feeling of well-being. b Henderson suffered a serious leg injury in 2005, but despite this she has come back to dominate the 400 m this season. e Pets provide lonely people with company, and, what is more, have been proved to have a beneficial effect on many common medical conditions. / What is more, they have been proved ...

d There has been lower consumer demand. However, the company has increased profits by 6%. e Bicycles are pollution-free and silent. As well as this, they take up very little parking space. f The heater has been tested for safety. Nevertheless, it must be used according to the instructions. g I don't really like the design of this sofa. Besides, it won't fit into the living room.

Ex4 a To same extent b However c As well as d in same respects e Above aU f as a result of g Furthermore h However consequently j as a result

i

Unit 41 Ex 1 a First of all b As far as snakes are concerned c such as d Alternatively e utterly f simply g instead h from In a way jakind of Ex 2

i

a

la

bs

c

2 d6

e

4 fl

g 3 h9

i8

j 7

Ex 3 a concerned b such c kind d sa h respects / ways literally jApart

i

e for f ie g say k as I sheer

Ex6 a b c d e

There is no problem as far as money is concerned. In a way, I think you're absolutely correct. Everyone was there apart from limo These are my cards and those are yours. In conclusion, I would like to thank the organizers of this conference. f This country has high youth unemployment in comparison with other European countries. g Tom has been absent from college due to illness. h Tony thinks it was a terrible film, and sa do L United played badly, but at least they won the match. j The tennis tournament has be en postponed owing to bad weather. k 'Will you be he re next year?' 'I don't think sa.' I The scheme has been successful to a certain extent. mAs a result of the earthquake, many roads in the area have been closed. n The twa artists appear to be different but are similar in some respects. O She was forced to give up driving on account of her poor eyesight. p Instead of taking the bus, I went on foot. q First of all, write down a list of your ideas. r Many animals, such as bears, sleep for much of the winter. s No artefact which is alien, that is to say not from our planet, has ever been discovered.

i

Ex 7

Ex4 f sheer

a sheer b sim pl Y c mere d literally e utterly g sheer / utter h utter j simply j utterly

aC kA

bA cC lA mC

dC

eB

f B gA

hB

iC

jA

Ex 5 a C bA

cA

dC

eB

f B gA

hB

iC

jA

Unit 43 Ex 1

Unit 42 Ex 1 a I haven't dane it yet b neither do my friends c it d tal d her sa e li sa he is f more sa g do ing sa h sa i this is the most expensive one j hers

Ex 2 a one b very much c it is d ones e hers g neither / nor can Brian h sa i not j sa Ex 3 a C bA

cB

dC

eA

f did sa

f B gA

Ex4 a I don't have a bike naw but I used to have one. b - c ... and he likes playing computer games. d but my friends aren't worried about it. e but she doesn't make her own clothes any more. f - g ... but Theresa hasn't been there. h ... but he didn't say who he would bring to the party. j - j I've dane the shopping and I've cleaned the house.

Ex 5 a 'Do you think you'll be late tonight?' 'I don't suppose sa' b Bond starte d to disconnect the red wire, but as he did so, something told him he had made a mistake. C If you wanted to stay at horn e, why didn't you say sa? d Sue tried to reach the top shelf but couldn't do sa / it. e I can't stand folk music, and neither / nor can David. f Helen left her bike outside the cinema, but she didn't remember doing sa. g The robbery was committed by twa people, or so we believe.

a Rarely b Should c Never have I seen d What he is talking about e managed f Strange as it may seem g when h into the room ran i Had we known j could k Little I Were

Ex 2 aC

bB

k C

lA

cA

de

eA

f B gC

hB

jC

jB

Ex 3 a Were we to take no action, the situation would only become worse. b Rarely does a member of the government admit to making a serious mistake. c Under no circumstances are you to leave this room. d Only later did the police reveal the true identity of the thief. e Try as Andrew might, he couldn't pass his driving test. f Had you consulted me at the outset, I could have given you the right advice. g Were you to offer me a high er salary, I would take the job. h Should the weather worsen, the match will probably be cancelled. Only after checking the accounts did they realize money was missing. In no way has the breach of security affected the examination results.

Ex4 a seem

b little

f came / walked k did

I Why

c sooner d Onto e until g Had h Only could j when

i

Ex 5

REVIEW

a b c

Unit 3

the room ran two armed policemen. on a elear day like today can you reaUy enjoy the view. the ship collide with an iceberg, the passengers would be in no danger. d ... though the case may be, such cases are not completely unheard of. e came ! poured the rain. f has a government acted with such blatant dishonesty. g you to ask me again, I would give you the same answer as before. h the matter is I have no idea. i we realized that the hurricane would hit the city, we would have evacuated the residents in advance. ... did anybody suspect that the police inspector was the murderer. k when the accounts were checked was the theft discovered. I had Paula shut the door than she realized she had left her key inside. Ex 6 a do b Only c did d had e have f did h Under i when j but k has I did Ex 7 a B bA

cC

dA

eC

f B gC

hA

g than

iB

jA

a was sitting b had occupied c stood d had reduced e had undergone f were raining g had largely evaporated h had been i looked j had given

Unit 4 a have wondered b have argued c have been searching d have be en trying e have lost f have been looking for g have worked out

Unit 8 a was believed to have been stolen . b was thought to have crashed in the mountains. c '" was known to have rejected the plan. d was reported to have fled to South America. e were thought to have found fingerprints at the scene of the crime. f was believed to have killed over a thousand people. g was known to have visited the murdered man on the afternoon of his death. h ... was reported to have paid the singer $2 million in damages.

Unit 9 a got b get c is having ! is getting d get e had f got g had his hair ! got his hair h get i got j having ! getting

Unit 44 Ex 1 a not the slightest bit b nothing whatsoever c do hope you d the very last moment e who sent f the very thing g to do h Wherever who j at aU

i

Ex 2 aA

bC

cC

dB

eC

f B gB

hC

iA

jB

Ex 3 a The police asked David the same question again and again! over and over b There was no chance at aU of saving the damaged ship. c The house I was looking for was at the very end of the street. d AU I want to do is sleep. e I want my own bike. f It was when I saw smoke coming from under the door that I became alarmed. g Thanks very much indeed for your help. h Whatever can you mean? i It was what Robert did next that took everyone by surprise. j It is your own fault.

Ex4 a own b that c is d own e what it j very k Whatever I What

i

f at

g more

h at

Unit 11 Ex 1 a ]f you happen to have a camera with you at the scene of the accident, you can take some shots of aU the vehieles involved. b Check the weather reports before you leave, otherwise you might take the wrong elothes with you. c ]f it were not for the income from advertising, newspapers would not earn enough money. d Investors will not buy shares unless they have confidence in the market. e We guaran tee to get you talking even if you can't speak a word of English. f Permanent residents can vote provided they are aged 18 or over. g Were I to accept the job, would I be able to work from home some of the time? h Supposing there were a serious outbreak of bird fiu in Europe, what would the EU do? i ]f we don't do something now, the situation will get worse.

Ex 2 a or b if c had h provided

d even

e been

f wouldn't

g were

i

Unit 12 a I wouldn't make any hasty decisions, if I were you. b He behaves as if he were in charge of the office. C I'd sooner you didn't bring the dog with you. d I wish I hadn't sold my old car. e I hope you have a good time at the party! f I'd rather you didn't cali me again. 9 I wish you weren't leaving in the morning. h If I were you I wouldn't drink any more. I wis h I could find the answer to this problem.

i

Unit 14

b the c the d a e - f a g a h - i The k a I the m - / the n - O - P a q a r the s the t - u the v - w a x the y the z A 12 - 3 a 4 the 5 the 6 the 7 the 8 the 9a The

j the

Ex 2 c - d - e a f - g the h the / k - I the m - n a O A P an q a a u - v a w - x A y a Z an

j the / s a h can get

Unit 16 a In the past, surgeons would operate on patients without any kind of anaesthetic. b They would wark as quickly as possible to minimize the patient's suffering. c Such operations would often take place in the patient's own home. d In some countries, religious authorities wouldn't allow surgeons to study anatomy using dead bodies. e Surgeons would often learn about anatomy by treating soldiers in battle. f Doctors would aiso be expected to follow the explanations of ancient writers. 9 When new medical discoveries were made in the Renaissance, traditional doctors wouldn't believe that the old methods were wrong. h Some ancient ideas - such as that of removing blood trom patients (bleeding) - would survive in medical practice until the late nineteenth century.

Unit 18 a b c d e f

'Would you like to stay to lunch?' 'Don't forget to tak e your keys.' 'Why don 't we all meet outside the cinema?' 'I didn't have anything to do with the burglary.' 'I'm sorry I took so long over the phone call.' 'You broke my kitchen windowI / It was you who broke my kitchen window!' g 'No, I won't give you my name!' h 'Would you like (some) tea and cakes?' '1'11 return the money as soon as I can.' j 'I wish I'd studied harder at university.'

i

Unit 19 bC

Unit 21 Ex 1

a A b an

a can't be b must be c might have gone d should have got here e must have left it f she's bound to be g can't have recognized i may as weB j might have told

aA

e Sandy is an Australian. f The sports utility vehicle (SUV)is becoming less popular. g The answer seems to be two and two thirds. hIs there a SteveJenkins here? Do you want to come to the cinema? j The war ended in 1918.

cC

dB

eC

fA

gC

Unit 20 Ex 1 a The b a C the d the e the f the g the h a the j The k the I - m The n - o the p the q - r the s the t the u a v the w the x-

i

Ex 2 a We use a telescope to view distant objects. b The rent for this flat is €500 a month. C I've got a pain in my right arm. d This is a really wonderful meal.

t

i the rA

Unit 23 a Shakespeare was the son of a town official in Stratford on Avon. b Shakespeare's plays were published in a collected edition after his death. c He is usually judged to be England's greatest playwright. d He was a shareholder in an acting company known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men. e He was aiso an actor and the author of narrative poems and sonnets. f He was successful enough to become a property owner. g He died at the age of fifty-two. h Theatre audiences have enjoyed his plays for over four hundred years. His plays are often changed to suit the interests of modern audiences. There are aiso many famous film versions of the plays.

Unit 24 a Someone b both c there d it e both f himself g someone h There there j it k one I there mAnyone n their o There p It q it r everyone

i

Unit 26 a It's hard for me to carry all these bags on my own. b I wasn't aware that I had to hand in my work today. c It makes me nervous to think / when I think about starting my new job. d It's easy to miss the turning if you're not careful. e I was shocked to he ar that Kevin was ill. f You're welcome to stay here whenever you like. g I'm sure I left my wallet on the table. h It's not worth going to see the new Larry Jotter film. It makes me happy to know you believe me.

i

Unit 27 Ex 1 a fairly b rather / fairly c quite d rather / fairly f quite I rather I fairly g quite / rather / fairly h quite / rather / fairly i rather Ex 2 a

8 b1

c

2 d6

e

3 f 4 g 9 h 11

i5

j

e quite

10 k 12

Unit 28

Unit 35

Ex 1 a is one of the best books I've read. b more interesting to go out dancing than to stay at home watching television. C •.. feel so much shocked as horrified. d '" abstract a concept to explain. e far the best film this year. t about as much as I can. g the worst June weather we've ever had. h as easy to speak French as I thought. j near as good as his last one. j you tease the dog, the angrier it will get. Ex 2

a b c

a I liked this film but it isn't nearly as good as the previous films in this series. b Johnny Depp gives by far the best performance in the film. C It's one of the longest films on release at the moment. d It's [getting] harder and harder to understand the plot of films like this. e The special effects of this film are much more impressive (than those of the last film). f But I was not so much shocked as scared out of my wits, by some parts. g This is easily the most entertaining film I've seen this year. h In some ways it's not as funny as the last film in the series. j But this film is every bit as worth seeing. j The more you watch this film the more you enjoy it.

a David hasn't finished his novel yet b We waited for a bus for half an hom, but in the end we gave up. C Nick didn't get to the airport in time to catch his pIane home. d 1'11(only) be here until Friday. e 1'11talk to you after the lesson. f The trains here are very comfortable but they are never on time / they never run on time. g We'l1 send you the certificate once we receive / have received the fee. h 1'11be there by 11.00. Peter could hear loud howling noises throughout the night.

i

Unit 31 a Luckily the fire officer succeeded in rescuing the cat from the top of the tree. b Can I discuss this problem with you? c My parents don't approve of some of my friends. d How much you pay depends on the condition of the vehicle. e My computer has a problem, but someone is coming to see to it tomorrow. t Are you insmed against fire? g Mr Wilkins has decided to resign horn the company. h Take a seat, and 1'11ask someone to attend to you. The runaway bus collided with a parked car at the bottom of the hill. This ice-cream rea11ytastes of strawberries.

i

Unit 32 cA

dB

eB

tc

gA

hB

jA

jC

cB

dC

eC

tA

gC

hB

iC

jB

cA

dB

eC

tA

gA

hB

jB

jC

Unit 33 aB

bA

Unit 34 aC

bA

e

t g h j

Unit 36 a b c d e

t g h j

j

Unit 30

a C bB

d

I would like to help you, I don't rea11yhave the time. how much you offer me for it, I won't se11you the house. house prices continue to rise in most areas, in some areas they have actually started to falI. ... you have not paid the last six monthly instalments, this contra et is at an end. ... the weather conditions were atrocious, all the runners finished the race. we could have a snack first. case I got cold. it was raining, the match went ahead. it's too late to start the meeting now, I think we should hold it another day. ... rapidly that the guards were taken by smprise.

lost my watch, I had to borrow my brother's. pressing this button, you can change the size of the page. cheap, the bike was in good condition. realizing the meeting was in a different place, Sue went straight home. ... being interes ted in the topie, I left the lectme before the end. instructed, write yom name. been arrested and charged with theft, Tony phoned his lawyer. receiving their letter, I phoned the company. missed the last bus, I had to take a taxi. coming to this school, I've made a lot of new friends.

Units 37 and 38 Ex 1 a Tim has fallen for the girl he sits next to in maths. b How are you getting on in yom new school? c I agree that you had a bad time, but you brought it upon yomself! d You'll have to do without milk in yom tea. e The film didn't come up to my expectations. t Yom explanation just doesn't add up. g There's a point 1'd like to bring up before we finish. Ex 2 Suggested answers: a I think it's time you got down to some serious work. b Sorry, what did you say? 1'm dropping oft! C Tina's name kept cropping up / coming up in om conversation. e In the end, the problem comes down to a lack of proper planning. h Feelings of resentment between them built up over a long period. Alan can't always explain exactly what he is getting at. Helen has come up with a really good way to cut the cost of this project. h We hit upon this hotel completely by chance. I think we should push on until we get to the top of the hill. jAre you going in for the Advanced French Test this year? k Sony to be so late, but I was held up in my last meeting. I Things have certainly been looking up since I was promoted. mSue promised to come and help me but she let me down. n Don't let Helen in on ou~ pl ans, or she'll be jealous. o Little Johnny owned up to taking Paula's sweets.

i

Unit 44 a What b It c at all d very h it i What j at all k What

e What I own

f at a11 g very

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