Life Upper-Intermediate Complete

GEOGRAPHIC , CENGAGENATIONAL I .. LEARNING , _ Learning UPPER INTERMEDIATE Paul Dummett John Hughes Helen Stephenson - 2 Contents Unit 1Relationships ...

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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC LEARNING

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C ENGAG E

, _ Learning

UPPER INTERMEDIATE

Paul Dummett John Hughes Helen Stephenson

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Contents Unit

Grammar

Vocabulary

Real life (functions)

Pronunciation

1

present tenses review the passive

fr iends nouns and phrasal verbs w ordbuilding forming adjectives from nouns word focus: get

meeting peop le you know

w eak forms in passive verbs expressive intonation

reacting to stories

the letter I contracted negat ive forms linking and assimilation

asking for and offering technical help

/r/ and /t/ in American Eng lish stress in twosyllab le verbs

describing likes and dislikes

w eak form of disappearing sounds

reaching decisions

rhymin g words

Relationships pages 9-20 VID EO: Immigration page 18

2 Storytelling pages 21-32

past simple and present perfect simple past tenses review: past continuous, past simple, past perfect simpl e, past perfect continuous

VIDEO: H i story of film page 30

3 Science and technology

REVIEW page 20

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books and film s wordbuilding: synonyms word focus: keep

REVIEW page 32

future forms review: will, going to, about to, present continuous, present simpl e future continuous and future perfect simple

wordbui lding: prefixes wo rdbu il ding: compound nouns (noun + noun) useful devices word foc us: out of

pages 33-44 VIDEO: Augmented reality page 42

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REVIEW page 44

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expressions of quantity determiners

w ordbuilding: suffixes word focus: coo/

Art and creativity pages 45-56 VIDEO: Urban art page 54

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REVIEW page 56

verb + infinitive or -ing verbs w ith -ing and to + infinitive

Development pages 57-68

VIDEO: Aquarium on Wh eels page 66

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not negative and tag questions

Alternative travel

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features of a city redevelopment w ordbuil ding: adverb + adjective re- verbs wordbuilding : prefix re with verbs and nouns w ord focus: pick REVIEW page 68 phrasal verbs w ith in and out wordbui lding: phrasa l verbs with in and out word focus: mind

pages 69-80 VIDEO: Ea st Timor page 78

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REVIEW page 80

ge ting a'

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-onation in questions ntonation in sentences with o clauses

Listening

Reading

Critical thinking

Speaking

Writing

three people talking about important relationships in their lives a radio extract about animal friendships

an article about changing attitudes in China an article about immigrant fam ilies in New York

identifying the main aspect

your friends the generation gap family influences

text type: an informal email (1) w riting skill greetings and endings

a conversatio n about different accounts of Ayrton Senna's life an interview with a film critic

a true story about dangerous animals an article about the brothers Grimm

close reading

the fi lm of the book a famous w riter or filmmaker narrow escapes storytelling

text type: a story w riting skill: using descriptive w ords

three people making predictions about the future a presentation about overpopulation

an article about augmented reality an article about appropriate technology

balancing arguments

globa l problems overpopulation information age predictions technological solutions

text type: short email requests writing skill being polite

a con versation about two people wh o do artistic things in their free time an extract from a radio programme about what's on in Melbourne an artist's opinion about wh at art is

an articl e about unusual street art an article about the origins of rap

analysing contrasts

participation in the arts an art competition music and values

text type: an online review wri ting skill: personalising your writin g

three speakers talking about different types of development someone talking about redevelopment in their city an interview with a journalist talking about social development in southern India

an article about urban development in Duba i an article about a hydropower dam project in Laos

fact or opinion

changes in your town a happy society sensitive developm ent evaluating a development project

text type: an op inion essay writing skill: linking w ords

someone describing their stay at an ice hotel an interview about volunteer vacations

a blog about holidays at home an extract from a travel magazine about historical hotels

claims and ju stifications

local knowledge plann in g a staycation opin ions about travel ideas for an unusua l hotel

text type: a letter of complaint w riting skill: formal language

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Unit

Grammar

Vocabulary

Real life (functions)

Pronunciation

7

mixed conditional sentences

conservation oil w ordbuilding: collocations related to one word strong fee lings w ord focus: better

making your point

contractions in conditionals sentence stress

reporting w hat you heard

w eak forms in verbs the schw a

describing skills, talents and experience

linking vow els /w/, /j/ and /r/ difficult words

describing traditions

/u:/ and /ju:/ t he letters

getting clarification

contrastive sentence stress linkin g in question forms

negot iat ing

he sounds IJI, /IfI, /- and /ft5/ sentence stress in idiomatic phrases

wish, would rather and if only

Natural resources pages 81-92 VIDEO: Galapagos energy page 90

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REVIEW page 92 photography the feel-good factor w ordbuilding: form ing adjectives from verbs w ord focus: word

reporting verbs passive reporting verbs

The news pages 93-104 ~

VIDEO: Mount Fuji page 102

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REVIEW page 104

articles: the or zero article? relative clauses reduced relative clauses

careers wordbui lding: verb(+ preposition) + noun collocations w ord focus: long

Talented people pages 105-116 ~

VIDEO: Queen of Egypt page 114

10 Customs and behaviour

REVIEW page 116

habitual actions: present tenses, will

raising children: verbs food and eating habits word focus: common w eddings wordbuilding: w ord pairs

used to, usually, be used to and get used to

pages117-128 VIDEO: Eating insects page 126

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REVIEW page 128

could, was able to, manage to and succeed in

learning w ordbuilding: idiomatic expressions word focus: learn

fu tu re in the past

Knowledge and learning pages 129-140 VIDEO: Paraguay shaman page 138

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REVIEW page 140

focus adverbs only, just,

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focus adverbs too, as

The economy

causative have and get

money domestic help w ordbuilding: the+ adjective getting things done word focus: hard

even well, also

pages 141-152 VIDEO: Japan page 150

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REVIEW page 152

COMMU !CATION ACTIVITIES page 153

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GRAMMAR REFERE TCE

age • -

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CRIPTS page 174

Listening

Reading

Critical thinking

Speaking

Writing

an ecologist describing how we can avoid wasting natural resources four people talking about saving water

an article about Ecuador's plan to protect resources an article about Madagascar's unique ecology

emotive language

how we use water conservation wishes

text type: a letter to the press writing skil l: giving vivid examples

a radio news report about the parents of Chinese university freshmen television news report of four good news stories

an article about an iconic image an article about the power of the press

different perspectives

the ethics of taking photographs good news stories reputations

text type: minutes from a meeting w riting skill: impersonal language

a description of a mahout's job two friends discussing an astronaut's extraordinary career an interview about Emerging Explorers

an article about an extraordinary career an article about a w oman who w as king

weighing the evi dence

a career path personal qualities wo men at work

text type: an online profile w riting skill writing in note form

an anthropologist's explanation of the quote 'manners maketh man' an extract from a radio programme about a tribe w ith an unusual diet

an article about the tiger mother approach to parenting an article about body language

sources

typical behaviour food and eating habits customs in your country w edding traditions

text type: an informal email (2) writing skill: elision in informa l writing

a psychologist describing a situation in w hich you have to use your intuition a ta lk by a psycholog ist on memory

an article about an ethnobotanist an article about a parrot

reinforcing ideas

acquiring knowl edge memory tests why you forgot types of learner

text type: an email about a misunderstanding w riting skill: linking contrasting ideas

extract from a radio programme with an economist giving definitions of poverty and wealth an interview with the author of The Servant Economy

an article about Norway's riches an article about an alternative economic model

signposts to key information

the economy in your country getting things done gift giving and exchange

text type: a report writing skill: subheadings and bu llet points

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Unit 1 Immigration The history of immigration in the United States.

Unit 3 Augmented reality Learn about a system that allow s the user to see 3-dimensional images of everyday locations.

A history of film, from its early beginnings in the 19'h century to the Hol lywood blockbusters of today.

A special aquarium that gives its student teachers lessons in life.

, Unit 10 Eating insects

Discover why eating insects could be good for you, and why one man is on a mission to change our tastes .

Unit 7 Galapagos energy Unit 11 Paraguay shaman ~

Find out about the im pact of humans and tourism on the Galapagos Islands. --6

Find o w hy it 's esse ntia l to record plants 'rom th e rain forests of Pa rag ay before th ey disappear.

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Unit 9 Queen of Egypt The history of the most famous Egyptian queen - Cleopatra.

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Unit 6 EastTimor

Unit 8 Mount Fuji



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Find out what Mount Fuji means to the Japanese.

Unit 12 Japan Learn more about the history and traditions of Japan.

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Unit 1 Relationships

FEA T U R ES 10

1 Work in pairs. Look at the photo and the caption. Choose the phrase you think best describes the photo.

Unlikely friends

a faithfu l co mpanion blood relat ives a passin g acqu aintan ce m utual resp ect an od d co upl e t rue fr iend s

Two animals that enjoy each other's company

12 A confused generation

a stron g bond

2 Look at these English sayings about relationships. What do they mean? Do you have a similar saying in your language?

Changing attitudes among China's young generation

1 2 3 4

14 Bloodlines Two accounts of how family has shaped people's lives

Blood is thicker than water A friend in need is a friend indeed Like father, like son No man is an island

3 fl 1.1 Listen to three people talking about important relationships in their lives. Put the number of the speaker (1, 2 or 3) next to the person they are talking about.

18 Immigration A video about how immigrants have helped build America

a husband an old friend

a fiance a brother

a colleague a grandparent

4 Think of a person a) you have been n:i.eaning to contact for ages; and b) you have shared a travel experience with. Tell your partner about these people.

YOUR FRIENDS

THE GENERATION GAP

FAMILY INFLUENCES

MEETING PEOPLE YOU KNOW

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listening animal friendships • grammar present tenses review • vocabulary friends: nouns and phrasal verbs • speaking your friends

1a Unlikely friends

Listening

4 Do you believe animals can have

1 Work in pairs. Look at the photo. Discuss the questions. 1 What are the two animals in the photo? 2 Are they normally working animals, pets, wild animals or something else? 3 Wha t does the photo suggest about these animals' characters?

2 ~ 1.2

ow listen to an extract from a radio programme about an unlikely friendship between these two animals. What things do they do together to enjoy each other's company?

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Grammar present tenses review ..... PRESENT TENSES REVIEW

1.2 Listen again and choose the right word to complete each

statement. 1 Co-operation between animals of different species is not a natural b easy c usual 2 Dogs are usually ···············-·····- . . . . apes. a suspicious of b frightened of c aggressive towards 3 This particular dog and orang-utan behave like _ _ a old friends b children c people 4 Their behaviour has attracted the interest of a lot of . ··········a TV viewers b scientists c psychologists ......... creatures. 5 Orang-utans are very a physical b naughty c kind 6 Their relationship is based on a need in both animals to a share new experiences 10

friendships? Or do they form relationships only for practical reasons? Do you know other examples of sociable animals? Discuss.

b hunt together

c be sociable

Present simple Suriya lives with his keepers. Present continuous The two animals are fulfilling a basic social need in each other. Present perfect simple Suriya has understood that the hound dog is very hungry. Present perfect continuous They have been doing this every day since they first met.

For furth er in formatio n and practice, see page 156.

Unit 1 Relationships

5 Look at the grammar box. Match the tenses (1-4) with their uses (a-d). 1 present simple 2 present continuous 3 present perfect simple 4 present perfect continuous

a highlights a recent activity b describes a situation in progress or happening around now c describes a permanent I usual situation d highlights the present result of a recent past action

Vocabulary friends: nouns and phrasal verbs 8 Work in pairs. What type of friend or person is each person talking about in Exercise 7? Match each sentence w ith a person from the box. acquaintance fair-weather friend fellow student flatmate girlfriend mutual friend old friend travel companion true friend workmate

6 Choose the correct tense to complete this passage about animal friendships. A number of recent videos on YouTube showing unlikely animal friends 1 have started I have been starting a debate about animal friendships . Lately many people 2 have discussed I have been discussing a particularly moving film which shows a dog making friends with an elephant. Elephants often 3 show I are showing concern for their social group, but there is one extraordinary scene w here the elephant becomes distressed w hen the dog gets injured. The dog 4 has recovered I has been recovering now and the two animals have been inseparable. The question scientists 5 ask I are asking is: is such behaviour normal, or do we just want it to be? Some say it happens when animals 6 have lived I have been living close to humans. No one 7 has provided I has been providing a definite answer, but it seems some animals are just naturally sociable. Others, like giant pandas, 8 live I are living more independent and solitary lives.

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9 Find the follow ing phrasal verbs in the sentences in Exercise 7. Which ones contain two prepositions, rather than one? Discuss w hat each verb means. • • • • •

1 verb w ith get 1 verb w ith stand 2 verbs with hang 2 verbs with round 3 verbs with up

10 Choose the correct phrasal verbs to

7 Work in pairs. Explain to each other the use of the verb forms in bold in sentences 1-10 using a-d from Exercise 5.

complete these sentences. 1 We come from d ifferent backgrounds but we ...................................................... really well. 2 We don't have to do anything special, like going to a show. It would just be nice to . . each other for a bit. 3 I made a lot of really good friends at university, but I haven 't ...................................................... w ith many of them. 4 Why don't you __ . . . to m y house for supper tonight? 5 Some friends are great just to have a good time with, but real friends are the ones w ho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . you when you 're in trouble. 6 I'm busy at six o'clock but we could .. later, if you like. Say, eight thirty?

1 We're not close friends - we're just studying French at the same evening class. This sentence describes a situation in progress. 2 I live with Sarah, but each of us has our own group of friends that we hang out with. 3 Olivia and I went on a trip to Peru together ten years ago and we've kept up w ith each other ever since. 4 I wouldn't say we were friends really. We've met a couple of times at parties. 5 Oh, do you know Tom? He's a good friend of mine too. We should all meet up some time. 6 Jacob always hangs around w hen he's bored, but he never comes round when he 's got something better to do. Speaking 7 Kate has always stood by me in times of difficulty. If ever I'm in trouble, I know I can rely on her for help. 11 Work in pairs. Think about three of your 8 Colin and I have been teaching at the same school for friends . What kind of friend are they? years. We get on very well, even though we never really Choose from the types in Exercise 8. see each other socially. I think I've been round to his Think also about how often you see house once. these people and what things you do 9 Barney and I have known each other since we were at together. Discuss if your friendships are school. It doesn't matter if we haven't seen each other similar in any way. for a while; we just seem to pick up where we left off. 10 Jessica and I are going to go for a medieval-style wedding. Themed weddings are becoming very fashionable.

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THE GENERATION GAP

FAMILY INFLUENCES

MEETING PEOPLE YOU KNOW

11

reading changing attitudes in China • grammar the passive • pronunciation weak forms in passive verbs • speaking the generation gap

1b A confused generation Reading

Grammar the passive

1 Work in pairs. Look at the photo accompanying

6 Work in pairs. Look at the examples of passive verbs

the article below. Discuss the questions. 1 What does it show? 2 What do you think the matter is w ith the young girl? 3 Is this situation familiar to you?

2 Discuss what effects you think China's recent economic boom has had on the attitudes of the younger generation and the older generation.

3 Read the article and compare your answers. 4 Look back at the article and find examples of the following to show how attitudes are changing in China. • language use • caring for the old • the relationship between parents and children • shopping • know ledge of the world

5 Do Bella's parents seem to accept the changes that are happening in China or not? Do you think the changes are difficult for Bella too? Why? I Why not?

from the passage (1-6). Then look at uses of the passive (a-d) . Which are true and w hich are false? 1 Bella is the name that she has been given by h er English teacher. 2 But at the same time these new values are also being questioned. 3 'Have our lives been made richer by all our new possessions?' 4 Is Chinese culture being supplanted? 5 When they go shopping Bella makes sure that the 'right' western brands are selected. 6 'Our advice is not listened to and it is not wanted,' her mother says. a The person doing the action - the agent - is not the main focus of the sentence. b We use from to introduce the agent in a passive sentence. c The agent is often unimportant or unknow n - it is the action that interests us. d The passive is often used because we want to start a sentence w ith something that has already been mentioned.

Change brings problems. Bella lives with her parents in a brand new apartment in Shanghai. Her real name is Zhou Jiaying - 'Bella' is the name that she has been given by her English teacher. Her parents are representative of a confused generation in a confused time. In modern Chinese society different ideologies are fighting against each other. Enormous material benefits have been brought by China's economic boom, but the debate is not about these; it's about family life and values. Old values - the respect of family and the older generations - are being replaced by new ones which place money as the critical measurement of one's position in society. But at the same time these new values are also being questioned. Have our lives been made richer by all our new possessions? Is Chinese culture being supplanted? As in all changing societies people are trying to find the right balance between the 'new' and 'old'. Recently, Bella's family put their grandfather into a nursing home. It was a painful decision. In traditional China, caring for aged parents has always been an unavoidable duty, but times are changing. Bella's ambition? 'I want one day to put my parents in the best nursing home' - the best that money can buy, she means. 'When she.told us that' Bella's father says, 'I thought - is it selfish to think she wi ll be a dutiful and caring daughter and look after us? We don't want to be a burden on her when we get old. This is something my daughter has taught us. Once it was parents who taught children, but now we learn from them: The family can buy many more things these days, and when they go shopping, Bella makes sure that the'right'western brands are selected. (Pizza Hut is her favourite restaurant.) She also teaches her parents the latest slang. Her parents want to be supportive, but they no longer help with Bella's homework; in spoken English she has surpassed them. She has already learnt much more about the world outside than them. 'Our advice is not listened to and it is not wanted; her mother says. 'When she was little, she agreed with all my opinions. Now she sits there without saying anything, but I know she doesn't agree with me: Bella glares, but says nothing. 'I suppose our child-raising has been a failure: In China there is no concept of the rebellious teenager.

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Unit 1 Relationships

.... THE PASSIVE

8 Pronunciation weak forms in passive verbs

Present simple passive I am given, you/we/they are given, he/she/it is g iven

a '!f 1.3

Work in pairs. Listen again to the passive verbs used in Exercise 7. Which parts of the verb are stressed? Which are not stressed?

Present continuous passive

I am being given, you/we/they are being given, he/she/it is being given Present perfect simple passive

I/you/we/they have been given, he/she/it has been given For further information and practice, see page 157.

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'!f 1.3

Look at the grammar box. Which of the verbs in bold in 1-6 below also sound natural in the passive? Transform the sentences from active to passive. Listen and check. There are many children like Bella in China. They 1 admire western brands. Their parents 2 have spoiled them a little perhaps. Often these children 3 receive a better education than their parents. Their parents 4 send them to private schools and they 5 encourage them to go to university. In China the new economy 6 is raising everyone's hopes.

b

Practise saying these sentences, putting stress on the main verbs and un-stressing the auxiliary verbs. 1 A lot of changes have been introduced in China. 2 As a result, the average Chinese person has been given a better standard of living. 3 Couples are only allowed to have one child. 4 A lot of money is invested in each child's future . 5 But changes in this policy are being discussed. 6 The government has been concerned by the growing number of people over 60.

9 Complete the sentences by putting the verb in the correct tense, active or passive. 1

2 .... WORDBUILDING forming adjectives from nouns There are various endings in English : -fut, -ish, -ent, -ious, -ive, used to form adjectives from nouns. support --+ supportive, rebel - • rebellious

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For further information and practice, see Workbook page 11 .

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'Children _.......................... (grow) up much too quickly today. Girls of twelve . . (dress) as if they are eighteen.' _ (leave) behind by all the new 'We technology they use.' Our grandparents __ . (probably I work) harder than us, but they ................... . . ........................ (not I have) so much fun. ' 'They _ . . (live) longer and longer and we . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (expect) to look after them. It's not fair.' 'Our parents aren't so different to us: they . . (listen) to the same music, for example.' 'In recent years respect for wisdom and knowledge (replace) by respect for money.' 'I rebelled against m y parents. My children feel that they _.................... (expect) to rebel, but in fact they have nothing to complain about or rebel against.' 'We ................................. (often I criticise) for being selfish and having no moral values, but that's our parents' fault: we ................................................... . . (spoil) by them.'

Speaking 10 Work in groups. Discuss w hether it was a young person or an older person that said each of the items in Exercise 9. Which of the statements do you agree w ith?

11 Do you think the 'gap' between your generation and your parents' generation is greater than the one between your generation and the next generation?

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THE GENERATION GAP

FAMILY INFLUENCES

MEETING PEOPLE YOU KNOW

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reading immigrant families • critical thinking identifying the main aspect • speaking family influences

1c Bloodlines Reading 1 Work in pairs. Why do you think people emigrate? What difficulties do you think they face w hen they settle in a new country? Com pare your ideas w ith another pair.

2 Read the article about im migrants in New York. Answer the questions. Then compare your answers with your p artner. 1 What is sp ecial about the area of Queens in ew York? 2 What do Richard and Tanj a's families have in common? 3 What are the differences between Richard 's and Tanj a's stories as immigrants?

3 Are the sentences true (T) or false (F) according to the article? 1 Immigrants in Queens feel attached to their new country. 2 People are much more interested in learning about distant ancestors than recent generations. 3 Some years after immigrating to America, Tomas met his brother in ew York by accident. 4 Richard 's grandmother has kept the fa mily history alive. 5 Tanj a's m other wasn 't able to balance work with looking after her children's education . 6 Tanja and her sister have chosen to have similar careers to their parents.

4 Look at the article and choose the correct explanation of each phrase. 1 a melting pot (p ara 1) a a p lace of conflict b a p lace w here all mix together c a place w hich attracts 2 their ancestral roots (p ara 2) a w here their family came from originally b h ow they got to America c their parents' ch aracter 3 one recurring theme (para 3) a sad fact b common story c unusual quality 4 seeking his fortune (p ara 4) a hoping to get lucky b looking for the right job c looking for a way to get rich 5 a must (para 5) a a good thing b a right c a necessity 14

Critical thinking identifying the main aspect 5 Work in pairs. This article deals w ith different aspects of emigration. Identify the asp ects in each of the first three p aragraphs. Compare your answers w ith an other pair to check you have identified the same themes.

6 Read the personal accounts of the immigrants again. Which of the asp ects do their stories pick up on? Which aspects are not really mentioned again?

1 Discuss what the main asp ect, or message, is of this article. Then ask other pairs if they have reached the same conclusion .

Speaking 8 Look at these phrases from the passage describin g fa mily characteristics or traits and discuss what they mean. 'He was clearly something of a free spirit: 'My parents have a strong work ethic: 'We've both inherited that desire to get ahead .'

9 Look at the questions below and note down your answers. Then ask your partner about their answers. Does family have a similarly strong influence in your lives?

HOW DOES FAMILY SHAPE YOU? Would you say you are a close family? How much time do you spend with fa mily: out of a sense of du ty? because you choose to? Is family a consideration for you in choosing where to live? How conscious are you of your family's history? Is there a strong family trait? Have you inherited it? Is there a 'head of the famil y'? How important is it to have this person's approval? Is there someone in the family you particular ly admire? \!\Thy? Has your family influenced the career path that you have chosen' \\Then eekina ad\ ice, are you more likely to turn to friends or famiJy 7 Ho\,. in\ ortant i it to you that your family approves of your partner? \ \Ould _-au say your family members have the same attitude to: • moneY. • ill !Zin up children?

America itself is well-known for being a melting pot of different ethnic groups and cultures, but now here is this diversity more pronounced than in Queens, New York. Here, second-generation Puerto Ricans live alongside third-generation Greeks and firstgeneration Koreans, all united by a common feeling of pride in their American identity. However, they are also proud and curious about their ancestral roots. National Geographic's Genographic Project, known also as the Human Family Tree, set out to trace the origins and common ancestry of the various immigrants in this community by examining their genetic makeup using a simple DNA test. The study was well supported by local residents, but often what was of more immedia te interest to people was something which intrigues us all: the history of our recent ancestry. In other words, how their grandparents and great-grandparents arrived in America, and what brought them there in the first place. One recurring theme among immigrants seems to be the hard work and sacrifices that went in to building a new life and how their descendants now feel a duty to honour their efforts by working hard too. Here are two Queens residents' stories.

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YOUR FRIENDS

AN INFORMAL EMAIL

THE GENERATION GAP

Richard, 38 My great-grandfather Tomas came to America from Poland when he was fifteen . His mother had become ill and died, and his father remarried to be able to take care of his seven children. Tomas didn't like his stepmother, so he ran away to Belgium, where he boarded a ship to America - without a ticket. He was clearly something of a free spirit. Arriving in America with nothing, he got a job on the railroads in Ca lifornia . Then one day he saw an announcement in a newspaper that was read by immigrants. It was from his brother in New York who was also seeking his fortune in America and was looking for him. Tomas got in touch and they had an emotional reunion in New York, where Tomas subsequently settled. This is the story that my grandmother has passed down to us, to my parents and all my aunts and uncles. She is an amazing woman and the head of the family, I suppose; the one who holds us all together. She's actually quite forgetful now, but she never forgets family details. What that has meant is that all of us - brothers, aunts, cousins - have a strong family bond and a strong sense of belonging to a group that has struggled and fought together to succeed here. Tanja, 29 I'm a first generation American. Both my parents came here from Jamaica, where getting a good education is a must. My mother always says that people may take everything away from you, but they can never take away your education. My father was a nurse in Jama ica, but he had an ambition to be a doctor in the US; when he first came here, he studied during the day and went to wo rk at night. My parents have a strong work ethic. My mum has always worked as a nurse, but at the same time has al ways been very involved in our lives also, helping with our studies and following our careers with interest. Both my sister and I have follo wed them into the medical profession and now I'm wo rking as a doctor at the Mount Sinai hospital in Queens. I don't know if that kind of dedication is genetic or just something that you learn from your parents, but that desire to get ahead ... we've certainly both inherited it. The great thing about America is that it gives you the opportunity to live those dreams too.

IJ>. FAMILY INFLUENCES

MEETING PEOPLE YOU KNOW

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real life meeting people you know • pronunciation expressive intonation

1d A face from the past 5 Pronunciation expressive intonation

Real life meeting people you know

a 'i 1.5

Emotion (surprise, excitement, etc.) is often conveyed by expressive or exaggerated intonation. Flat intonation often suggests a lack of emotion or interest. Listen to these phrases and say if the intonation is expressive (E) or flat (F).

1 Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 When was the last time you bumped into someone that you hadn't seen for ages? 2 What did you talk about? 3 Had they changed a lot?

E 1 2 3 4 5 6

2 4' 1.4 Listen to a conversation between two people, Tim and Greta, who meet by accident in the street. Answer the questions. 1 What h ave they been doing since they last met? 2 What future arrangement do they make?

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box the speakers use.

4 Find the ticked expression that matches sentences 1-6. 1 how Greta expresses her surprise at meeting Tim 2 how Greta asks Tim for his news 3 what Tim says about Greta's appearance 4 how Greta describes her business 5 what Greta says about Amanda, their other friend 6 how Greta says she can't carry on the conversation

b

Hello. Fancy seeing you here. Oh, busy as ever. How's it all going? Sorry, I'm in a bit of a hurry. Do you see much of Amanda? You're looking well.

Work in groups. Choose a phrase from the box and say it either with expressive intonation or with fla t intonation. Ask the others in the group to say w hich intonation you used.

6 Imagine you are in a large shopping centre during your lunch break from work. Walk around and 'bump into' other people that you have met before. Find out what each person has been doing, and make a future arrangement. Then move on until you bump into someone else. Use the box to help you.

Fa ncy meeting I bumping into I seeing yo u here! What a (nice) surprise! How are things? What have you been up to? How's it all going? Busy as ever. I've been completely snowed under. It has its ups and downs. You're looking we ll . It obviously suits yo u. Do yo u see much of Amanda ? How's Amanda getting on? She was ask ing after you the other day. Do give her my rega rds . Say hello to her from me. Well, I should probably go and .. . Sorry, I've got to rush./ I'm in a bit of a hurry. I don't mean to be rude, but I need to ... It w as rea lly nice to see you . I Great to see you . Good luck wit h ...

16

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YOUR FRIENDS

AN INFORMAL EMAIL

THE GENERATION GAP

F

FAMILY INFLUENCES

IJ> MEETING PEOPLE YOU KNOW

writing an informal email • writing skill greetings and endings • word focus get

Unit 1 Relationships

1e N ews from home Writing an informal email

4 Writing skill greetings and endings Which of these other phrases for greeting and end ing would be appropriate in an inform al em ail to a friend or relative?

1

H ow often do you send news to friends and family? Do you commtm.icate b y letter, em ail, text message?

2

Read the email below from Ben to his friend, Fergu s. Where is Ben an d w h at is h e d oing there? H ow would you su mmarise the contents of each of the three p aragraphs?

All my love Best wi shes Dear Mr Franks Dea r Sir or Madam Hello Hi John Kind regards Love Rega rds Warm regards Yours Yours faithfully Yours sincerely

5 Word focus get

Dea r Fergus I hope all 's well with you. I've been mea ning to write for ages, but my journal takes up a lot of my time. Please don 't think it's because I haven't been th inking about you all - I have and I' m getting quite homesick. But I have to remind myse lf of why I am here, which is to try and get establi shed as a freelance journalist and photographer.

a

The verb get is used often in spoken or informal written En glish. Find fi ve phrases I sen tences in the letter w h ere it is used . What d oes it m ean in each case? Think of a synon ym for get in each case.

b

Read the sentences. Match the uses of get to a word w ith a similar m eaning in the box.

I'm now in Sri La nka visitin g so me tea plantations and talking to people about how their lives have chan ged in the last 20 years or so. The countryside here is amazing. At the moment I' m in the hil ls just outside Kandy which are so lush and green, you wou ldn 't beli eve it. I'm trying to get an interview with one of the plantation owners th at I ca n make into a feature for a magazine. Fingers crossed 1

be (in passive sentences) catch persuade reach rece ive

1 Did you get m y last letter? 2 H ow h ave you been getting on in your n ew job? 3 I got a virus which kep t m e in bed for two weeks. 4 We got d elayed for four h ou rs a t the border. 5 I'm going to try to get him to com e w ith me. 6 I'll call you w h en I get to London.

So, my plan is to stay here until the end of Septembe r and then get a plane back to the UK to see if I can find someone who will pu bl ish some of this stuff. It wou ld be great to get together with you th en. How is the fam ily? Is Sarah still working for th at horribl e estate agent/ Do give th em all my love. I' ll write again soon .

C Write three senten ces of you r own w ith get giving recent news ab out you rself. Work in sm all grou p s and read th em to each oth er.

Al l the best, Ben

3

do I manage

J

6 Imagine you h ave been away fro m h om e for some time. Write an em ail (200 words) to a friend or family member to ask them for n ews fro m home and to give them your n ews. Try to use the verb get at least twice.

What fea tures of the lan guage in this letter tell you that it is in an inform al style?

7

Work in pairs. Exchange letters. Check for the following: • • •

Is the u se of tenses correct? Is the style not too formal? Did they u se the correct greeting and ending?

-

1f Immigration

Fleeing economic and political hardships, many millions left their homelands in Europe and Asia in search of a better life.

1

rI

)i

Unit 1 Relationships

Bef0 re you watch

5 Watch the >ernnd pa;t of the video (02.31 to the

-

end). Answer these questions.

1 Work in groups. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. 1 Where are the people in the photo? 2 What do you think they are doing? 3 What does the caption tell us about the people?

2 Work in pairs. Write down five images you think you will see in the video.

A.1.i. . i1.1111.1.igrq.tio110Jfi.c::.?r._ch?<;ki11g. .th?ci.Qc::itm?.11.t_?. OfP . . . P?t?o11 grriv.i11gJ11Jh? IJ$ bJL!J.oqL _

While you watch

1 How many legal immigrants arrive in the US each year? 2 What particular challenge is there along the US-Mexico border? 3 What have foreign-born citizens brought with them to the US? 4 How is the US economy affected by immigration? 5 What do immigrants usually share with people already living in the US?

3 Watch the video and check your ideas from Exercise 2.

6 How does this help the immigrants?

4 Watch the first part of the video (to 02.30). Find and underline eleven errors. Write the correct information below the text.

After you watch

Large numbers of immigrants have come to the United States since the early 17th century. Europeans settled mainly in the western half of the country. Immigrants from Asia and from Mexico settled mostly in the east and the northwest. Between 1892 and 1954, Ellis Island in Los Angeles Harbour admitted seventeen million immigrants. In 1907, as many as eleven thousand people a week were processed. And today, four out of every five Americans can trace part of their family history directly back to Ellis Island. Many of these immigrants settled on the Upper East side of Manhattan. The Tenement Museum shows how harsh their living conditions could be. Families of eleven people lived in small apartments with just tw o rooms. On the other side of the country, families arrived at Devil's Island in California, where conditions were more relaxed for Asians.

6 Roleplay arriving at Ellis Island

1 2 3 4

5

6 7 8 9 10 11

contend with (v) /bn 'tend w10/ deal with a difficult situation discrimination (n) /d1 skr1m1 'ne1f;m/ treating a group of people in an unfair way diverse (adj) /dar 'v3: s/ varied flee (v) /fli:/ escape from hardship (n) /'ha:dfrp/ something that makes life difficult

Work in pairs. Student A: Imagine you are an immigrant to the US arriving at Ellis Island. Read the information below and make notes. Student B: Imagine you are an immigration officer at Ellis Island. Student A wants to enter the country as an immigrant. Read the information below and prepare questions to ask the immigrant. • where you come from • your journey • why you want to come to the US Act out the interview, then change roles and act out the interview again.

7 Lavinia Limon says, 'We're in a much better position because we have maintained our immigration flows. ' What do you think she means? Do you agree w ith her?

8 Work in groups and discuss these questions. 1 What kind of problems do you think immigrants faced when they arrived in the United States in the 1920s? 2 Do you think immigrants face similar problems today? 3 Do you think immigrants should try to keep the customs and values of their home countries, or adopt those of their new country? harsh (adj) /ha:f/ unpleasant and difficult to live in leap (n) /li:p/ jump partition (v) /pa: 'trf;m/ divide shore (n) /f :i:/ coast tenement (n) /'ten;im;:mt/ a large building divided into apartments in a poor area of a city

19

UN IT 1 REVIEW Grammar

Vocabulary

1 Read the article below about families.

4 Read each definition and then put in the correct word.

Answer the questions. 1 What is the differen ce between a nuclear and an exten ded family? 2 What are the ben efits of an extended family?

2 Underline the right present tense fo rm to comp lete the text. Then check your an swers with your partner.

3 Work in p airs. Make a list of other advantages and d isadvantages of living in an extended family. Then compare your answers with another p air.

1 Someone w ho is also studying, like you = a . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . student 2 Someone you go on a trip with = a ........ ___ comp anion 3 Someone who you can really depend on = a ..... friend 4 Som eone you and another friend both know = a . . .. . . . . . friend 5 Someone you share an ap artment with= a _ 6 Someone you know bu t is not really a frien d = an . . 7 Som eone you are related to by birth= a . . . . . relative

5 Work in p airs. Give details about one of the p eople in Exercise 4: • w ho you hang out with regularly • wh o you haven 't kept up w ith • whose house you go round to regularly ICAN describe diffe re nt types of fr ien ds and acq uainta nces use phrasal verbs that de sc rib e rel atio nshi ps

Real life 6 Put the sentences below into the right order to complete the conversation between Karen (K) an d Jim 0). When talking about family, a distinction 1 is making I is made between extended family and nuclea r family. The nuclear family is the basic family unit of parents and children. The extended family is all the other members who 2 are related I have been related by blood and by marriage: aunts, uncles, grandparents, nieces, nephews, inlaws, etc. In the West, the importance of extended family 3 has decreased I has been decreased greatly in the last SO years. But the extended family has many economic benefits. Grandparents 4 help I are helped with childcare and in turn they 5 are loo ked after I have been looked after when they are old by younger members of the family. Also, when houses and domestic chores 6 are sharing I are being shared by many, living costs are naturally lower. But in recent years more and mo re young people 7 are choosing I have been choosing to live in nuclear families and so the economics 8 ha ve changed I have been changing . The older generation say that traditional family values 9 are losing I are being lost; but the more serious economic issue is that everyone's network of support 10 has been taking I has been taken away. ICAN use present tenses tal k abo ut eve nts in present tim e usi ng act ive and passive form s

20

K: H ello Jim. Fancy bump ing into you here. 1 K: Great. Well, I should probably go. I'm in a bit of a hurry to get to the bank. K: Of course I will. We should get together some time. K: You know- busy as ever. H e's working fo r BP now in London . K: You too. Good luck with the work in ew York. K: ot bad, thanks. What h ave you been up to? K: Have you? That's sounds exciting. You 're looking well. J: Thanks. You too. H ow's David getting on these days? J: Well, do give him my regards. J: Yes, that would be nice. I'll get in touch w hen I'm back next m onth. J: Well, it was great to see you. J: I've been working in ew York for the p ast month. J: Oh h ello, Karen. What a nice surprise! H ow are things?

7 Work in p airs. Imagine you meet each other in the street by accident. Act out a similar conversation . ICAN have a conversatio n wi t h som eo ne I ha ve n't seen for some t ime

Speaking 8 Work in pairs. Tell each other about a relationship with a family member or friend that is important in your life.

Unit 2 Storytelling

FEATURES 22

The film of the book

do you know about this man? Listen to a conversation about different accounts of his life. Answer the questions.

When is a good book also a good film?

1 What facts about his life do the speakers mention? 2 How are the film and book different?

24 A close shave Two reporters have a scary encounter

26

Once upon a time ... The brothers Grimm: master storytellers

30

1 "' 1.6 Work in pairs. Look at the photo and the caption. What

History of film A video about how filmmaking has developed

2 'ii 1.6 What are the opposites of these adjectives? Which ones did the speakers use to describe the documentary and the biography about Senna? Listen again and check. accurate truthful

biased

fair

objective

partia l

sympathetic

3 Match the adjectives (1-5) with the genres (a- e). 1 sentimental, touching 2 creepy, scary 3 fast-moving, gripping 4 original, thought-provoking 5 powerful, authentic

a b c d e

thriller historical drama science fic tion romantic comedy horror

4 Describe to your partner a book or film you have enjoyed recently. Would you like to see the film or read the book your partner has described?

A FAMOUS WRITER OR FILMMAKER

NARROW ESCAPES

STORYTELLING

YOUR REACTIONS TO STORIES

21

vocabulary books and films • speaking and listening the film of the book • grammar past simple and present perfect simple • pronunciation the letter I • writing and speaking a famous writer or filmmaker

2a The film of the book Vocabulary books and films 1 Work in pairs. Look at the photo below. What kind of film do you think this was a location for?

2 Do the words in the box relate to books, films

~ WORDBUILDING synonyms There are often words w hich are close in meaning but not exactly the same. Or they have the same meaning but differ in use. author and screenwriter For further information and pract ice, see Workbook page 19.

or both? Put them into three categories. audience author best-seller blockbuster box office cast chapter characters director location plot portrayal producer publisher readers scene screenwriter script setting storyline theme trilogy

3 Match words from the books list and the films list to make pairs of w ords that are related. What is the difference between the words in each pair? Compare your list with another pair. Example: author and screenwriter - the author is the writer of a book, a screenwriter writes the script of n film

Speaking and listening 4 Work in pairs. Ask each other the questions. 1 Do you like to see film adaptations of books you have read? 2 Do you sometimes read a book because you have seen the film?

5 4' 1. 7 What do you think is the secret of making a good film adaptation of a book? Tell your partner if you agree with a, b or c. Then listen to an interview with a film critic and say which answer he gives. a to remain completely faithful to the details of the story and the characters in the book b to remain faithful to the spirit and main themes of the book c to create a story that works on film, even if it is not faithful to the book

t

Unit 2 Storytelling

6 ti 1. 7 Answer the questions. Then listen again and

.... PAST SIMPLE and PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

check.

Past simple

I visited I He visited ...

1 What do people generally think are the ingredients for a box office success? 2 What does the critic say about the success of film adaptations of books? 3 What are Sense nnd Sensibility and The Shining examples of, according to the critic? 4 What does the critic compare making a good film from a book to? 5 What is the central theme of The Lord of tile

Rings? 6 Why was it difficult to reproduce the world J.R.R. Tolkien created? 7 How did director Peter Jackson compensate for leaving out elements of the story in the book?

I didn't visit .. .

Did you visit ... ? Present perfect simple

I have visited I She has visited ... I have not visited .. . Have you visited ... ? For further information and practice, see page 158.

9 Look at the grammar box. Then put each verb in these pairs of sentences into the correct form, past simple or present perfect simple. I first . ····-··-··-······· (read) The Hobbit when I wa s twelve years old. What about you? No, I __ _............ (never I read) The Hobbit, but I know a guy w ho ....................................................... (read) it 24 times . He never gets tired of it.

7 Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 1 Have you seen any good film adaptations of books? And any bad ones? 2 What made them good and bad? 3 Were the reasons similar to the ones described by the critic?

Grammar past simple and present perfect simple

2

3

8 Work in pairs. Ma tch each sentence from the listening text (1- 5) to one of the uses of the past simple (a- e).

-

4

······-·····-······ (be) a lot of film adaptations There of Stephen King books over the years . Yes, I know. There _ _ (be) a great adaptation of The Green Mile a few years ago. ___ __ ............ yo u ever ......................................... (write) a play or a screenplay? No, but my great grandfather ........ (write) a play for radio. .......................................... yo u ......................................................... (see) 2001: A Space Odyssey on TV last night? No, but I ...... .... __ _ (see) it before . It's amazing, isn't it?

1 Some film adaptations have worked, others have flopped. 2 'What is the secret?' That was the question I put 10 Pronunciation the letter I earlier to Mark Mow lam. a ~ 1.8 Listen to three words which contain the 3 He has followed the progress of many book-toletter l. Notice how l is pronounced in three ways. film adaptations in his time. Listen again and repeat. 4 The author, Tolkien, created a magical world. 5 It has become one of the most successful films of 1 as a clear l before a vowel sound location all time. 2 a dark l before a consonant sound film 3 silent l would a When the action is clearly linked to a specific time in the past we use the past simple. b ~ 1.9 Listen to these words and say which l b When the experience is more important than sound you hear (1, 2 or 3). Compare your answers the time and the time is not stated we use the with yom partner. Then practise saying each word. present perfect. c We use the present perfect to talk about people's details faithful to best-seller calm child life experiences. felt half loyal plot screenplay d If the person is dead we must use the past should told trilogy walk simple to talk about their lives. e When we talk about a period of time that is not finished we use the present perfect (e.g. over the Writing and speaking past few weeks, this year) even if the action itself 11 Think about a living writer or filmmaker. Make is finished. notes about their life and work. Then describe this person's work to your partner. Ask questions.

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~ A FAMOUS WRITER OR FILMMAKER

ASTORY

NARROW ESCAPES

STORYTELLING

YOUR REACTIONS TO STORIES

23

reading a true story • grammar past ~ e speaking narrow escapes

-

- -

contracted negative forms •

2b A close sha e Reading

- =.:.. .;.: tl1ree encounters

3

er had w ith

1 Work in p airs. Discuss h ow you would react if faced w ith the following d an gerous situations. What d o you think w ould be the right thin g to do? • a sn ake showing its teeth at you • a sh ark swimming near you • a bear approaching ,,vhen you are eating a picnic

2 H ave you had any 'close shaves' w ith dangerous animals? What happened? Tell the class.

4 Look at the eiah hiahli hted verbs in the article and gue their meaning from the context. Then check in a dictionary to see if you were right.

5 What effect does the use of these verbs have on the story?

National Park in India is home to two of the world's most endangered species: the tiger and the single-horned rhino . Photographer Steve Winter and writer Doug las Chadwick had only been work ing there a few days when they had a rather frightening close shave with some rhinos. They were driving into the park to start filming, when their guide stopped the jeep to move a turtle from the middle of the road just ahead of them . Winter, Chadwick and their guard got out to stretch their legs and watch . But when Chadwick turned to look up the road, he saw something terrible. About 50 metres away, a rhino was charging at them . Rhinos can sprint at more than 40 kilometres an hour, so there was no time to leap back in the car. Instinctively, the guard fired a shot into the ground just in front of the rhino . The crack of the rifle and the dirt that the bullet kicked up was enough to distract their attacker and he veered off into the grass seconds before reach ing them. Shaken, but relieved the incident had not been worse, they drove on . As they were entering the forest area on a raised section of road, three young rhinos climbed onto the road in front of them . The jeep stopped hurriedly, but this time the animals seemed uninterested and disappeared into the forest. Just then, however, the mother of the three, who had been keep ing an eye on her young, came crashing through the trees from their left. No time to shoot this time . The female rhino slammed into the side of the jeep and started to wrestle it off the road. Indian rhinos don't use their horns in a fight; instead they bite and this female's teeth were gouging deep into the side of the jeep. The guide had laid down a ru le for his guests at Kaziranga - 'No one is allowed to be sca red .' But his guests were breaking the rule, praying the driver could get them out of there . With the engine screaming, at last the vehicle skidded free . Even then the rhino came after them and it was only 150 metres later that she gave up the chase.

Unit 2 Storytelling

Grammar past tenses review

b

to each other. Say how many syllables each contracted negative form has. Listen and check.

6 Look at the gram mar box. Match the tenses (1-4) w ith their uses (a-d). Th en find other examples of the tenses in the article. 1 2 3 4

past continuous past simple past perfect simple past p erfect continuous

~ 1.11 Work in p airs. Read these other p hrases

1 2 3 4

I haven't been to Ind ia. It isn't far. You aren't allowed. It doesn't matter.

5 6 7 8

-

I hadn 't noticed . Th ey weren't late. She hasn 't called . We didn't care.

9 Complete these reports of lucky escapes by p utting each verb in the most appropriate past tense. Use contracted forms where p ossible.

a to describe the main events in sequence, i.e. one after an other b to refer to an action that happened earlier i.e. not in the main sequence of events c to describe a (background) event in progress around the time of the main event d to describe an action in progress before or up to the main event(s) in the past

E rM[E I 1 ......................................................... (mountain-bike) w ith a friend in Wales and w e 2 _ __ ....... (just I fin ish) a long off-road cl im b out of the Dysynni Valley. It 3 _ .................... (rain) earl ier but now the sun _................................. (shine) and w e 5 ........•....... (feel) qu ite w arm. Since th e rest of the route w as dow nh ill on tarmac roads, I 6 ... (t ake) off my bike helmet and 7 ... (set) off. Suddenly the road 8 .... (become) very steep and the bike 9 ... (pick) up speed quickl y. There w as a turn ahead in the road and I knew I w as going to crash . The bike 10 ................................................... (go) stra ight into a w all, but luckil y I .. .

.... PAST TENSES REVIEW Past continuous Th ey were driving into the park to start filming, when their guide stopped th e jeep. Past simple Winter, Chadwick and their guard got out to stretch th eir legs and watch. Past perfect simple Shaken, but relieved th e incident had not been worse, they dro ve on. Past perfect continuous Winter and Chadwick had only been working there a fe w days when they ha d a very close sha ve.

Mr Charles Everson and hi s w ife Linda ................................... (dri ve) home from church ............................................ (fall) one Sunda y w hen a co w 12 from the sky and 13 .................... _ ... (land) on the bonnet of their van . The cow, w hich 14 ....................................... (escape) from a breeding farm, 15 __ _ (g raze) too cl ose to the edge of a cliff next to t he road and 16 ....... ....................... (slip) and plunged 200 f eet . Whe n the eme rgen cy servi ces 17 .............................................. (arrive) at the scene they ... 11

For further information a nd pra cti ce, see page 158.

7 Complete the summary of Winter and Chadw ick's story using the p ast tense of the verbs given. Use contracted forms where possible. Steve Winte r and Do ug las Chadw ick, w ho _ (w or k) in Kaz iranga National Par k, ....................... (have) three close encounters w ith rhinos all on the same day. Before entering the park, their guide 3 ...................................•............... (tell) them not to be afraid, so they 4 .................................................... (be I not) especially w orried, but clearl y the incidents 5 ..... (shock) them . They 6 __ . ................................. (know ) that f ilming in the Park w as dangerous w ork, but they ..... (n ot I expect) to meet danger quite so soon or so freque ntly. But it 8 ________ _ (n ot I stop) the m car ryi ng on !

8 Pronunciation contracted negative forms

a

~ 1.10 Listen to the summary in Exercise 7 and

circle the verbs where the sp eaker uses contracted forms. H ow m any syllables does each contracted form contain?

[email protected]!(fJ:Miii

mm

A FAMOUS WRITER OR FILMMAKER

ASTORY

11>-

10

~ 1.12 Complete the last sentence of each story. Then listen to the stories and check your answers to Exercise 9. Comp are your endings w ith what you hear.

Speaking 11 Prepare a description of a time that you had a near miss or lucky escape. Choose one of the following themes. Use each tense at least once. Then tell your story to your p artner. When you come near to the end, stop and ask your p artner wh at they think happened next. • escaping inj ury or physical accident • a scary incident w hen something unexpected happened • getting away with something you did wrong

NARROW ESCAPES

STORYTELLING

YOUR REACTIONS TO STORIES

25

reading the brothers Grimm • critical thinking close reading • word focus keep • writing and speaking storytelling

2c Once upon a time

•••

Reading

Critical thinking close reading

1 Work in pairs. What were your favourite stories

6 What conclusions can you draw about the brothers

as a child? Tell your partner what they were about and why you still remember them.

2 Look at these titles of fairy tales by the brothers Grimm. Discuss the questions. Cinde rella Litt le Red Riding Hood Sleeping Beauty Snow White The Elves and t he Shoema ker The Frog Prince 1 Which of these fairy tales is depicted in the

photo on page 27? 2 vVhich of them are well known in your cow1try? 3 What is the name for them in your language? Is the name similar or very different?

3 Where did the stories in Exercise 2 come from originally and what did the brothers Grimm do to them? Read the article and find out.

4 Look back at the article and find significant (or surprising) facts about the following: 1

2 3 4 5

the popularity of the Grimms' fairy tales now the popularity of the Grimms' fairy tales at the time Germany at the time the brothers were writing the stories of Little Red Riding Hood and Snow White the attitude of parents to the stories

5 The writer uses various words and expressions associated with fairy tales. Find these words and expressions and match them with the definitions below. 1 a long time ago (para 1)

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

the opposite of a hero (para 1) clever and knowledgeable (para 1) distant countries (para 1) the lesson to be learnt (para 5) a woman (often bad) who does magic (para 6) the opposite of kind (para 6) for the rest of time (para 7)

Grimm from reading this article? According to the text, are these statements true (T) or false (F)? Or is there not enough information ( ) to say if the statements are true or false? 1 They were very motivated young men. 2 The brothers had an academic interest in these stories. 3 Their aim vvas to write down stories that had previously been told orally. 4 They were interested in the stories themselves, not the social message behind them. 5 Wilhelm disliked the cruelty and violence in the stories. 6 In the end the stories reached the mass audience that the brothers had wished them to.

7 Work in pairs. Summarise the brothers Grimms' achievement, according to the writer.

Word focus keep 8 Work in pairs. Find three phrases with the word keep in the passage. Discuss w hat each one means. Then do the same with the phrases in these sentences. 1 Please keep an eye on the time. We mustn't leave any later than ten thirty. 2 Try to keep your chin up. I know you must be frustrated with the lack of progress, but I'm sure things will get better. 3 I wouldn't tell him your news just yet, if I were you. He's not very good at keeping a secret. 4 Technology is moving so fast these days. It's difficult to keep track of all the changes. 5 Sorry, I don't want to keep you. I just need to ask you a quick question. 6 I always think it's a good idea to keep a diary when you are travelling - to look back on later.

Writing and speaking 9 Think of a traditional story or fa iry tale you know well. Make notes on the main elements of the story. Use a dictionary if necessary.

10 Work in pairs. Tell each other your story as you remember it, or tell the same story but in a modern setting. When you have each other's stories, change partner and tell om new partner the story yo u were told .

26

Unit 2 Storytelling

Once Once upon a time there lived in Germany two brothers who loved a good story - one with magic and danger, royalty and villains. At school they met a vvise man who led them to a treasure - a library of old books with tales more enchanting than any they had ever heard . Inspired, the brothers began collecting their own stories, listening to th e folktales people told them. Soon th ey produced their own treasure - a book of faily tales that would charm millions in faraway lands for generations to come. The brothers Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm, named their story collection Children's and Household Tales and published it in Germany in 1812. The collection has been translated into more than 160 languages, from Inupiat in the Arctic to Swahili in Africa. As a world publishing phenomenon it competes with the Bible. The stories and their characters continue to feature in virtually eve1y media: theatre, opera, comic books, movies, paintings, rock music, advertising, fashion. The Japanese have built two theme parks devoted to the tales. In the United States the Grimms' collection helped launch Disney as a media giant. Such fame would have shocked the humble Grimms. During th eir lifetimes the collection sold few copies in Germany. The early ed itions were not even ainwd at children . They had no illus trations, and scholarly fo otnotes took up almost as much space as the tales themselves. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm viewed themselves as patriotic students of folklore . They began their work at a time when Germany had been occupied by the French under Napoleon. The n ew rulers suppressed local culture. As young scholars, the brothers Grimm began work on the fai1y tale collection in order to save the endangered oral storytelling tradition of Germany.

-

retold stories to her that th ey themselves had read in a collection written by Charles Perrault in 1697, Tales of

My Mother Goose. Alth ough the brothers in1plied that they were just keepil1g records of tales, Will1elm continued to polish and reshape the stories up to the final edition of 1857. In an effort to make them more acceptable to children and their parents, he stressed the moral of each tale, and emphasised gender roles. According to the Grim.ms, the collection served as 'a manual of manners.' To this day, parents read them to their children because th ey approve of the lessons in the stories: keep your promises, don't talk to strangers, work h ard, obey your parents. Yet despite all Wilhelm's additions, the core of these stories was left untouched, in all their medieval coarseness. The cruel treatment of children (the children H ansel and Gretel are put in a cage by a witch and then fattened ready for eating), th e violent punishments handed out to the stories' villains (in the original Snow White the evil stepmother is forced to dance in red-hot iron shoes until she falls down dead), are too much fo r some parents. So what accounts for their popularity? Some have suggested it is because the characters are always strivil1g for happiness. But the truth probably lies in their origin. Grim.ms tales w ere born out of a storytelling tradition without boundaries of age or culture. The brothers' skill was to translate these il1to a universal style of writing that seems to mirror whatever moods or interests we bring to our reading of them . And so it was that the Grim.ms' fairy tales lived happily ever after.

Long before the Grimms' time, storytelling thrived in inns, barns and the h omes of peasant women. During win ter nights, as they sat spurnin g wool, women kept each other company and entertained themselves with tales of advenhire, romance and magic. Altogeth er, 40 such storytellers delivered tales to the Grimms, many of them coming to their house in Kassel. One of them, 'Marie', was credited with narrating many of the nwst fam ous tales: Little Red Riding Hood, Snow White and Sleeping Beauty. But these were not fron1 the German oral tradition. Marie had had French nannies who coarseness (n) /'b:.sn;is/ bei ng rough and dow n-to-earth; a

lack of sop histi cat ion or refinement folklo re (n) /'fauk ,b:r/ the trad it iona l songs, stories, proverbs,

legends of a society nanny (n) /'nreni/ a woman paid to look after young chil dren spin (v) /sp m/ to make natura l fibre (l ike woo l) into t hread

lf+!l:"!:{•!iii

mm

A FA MOUS WRITER OR FI LMMA KER

ASTORY

NARROW ESCAPES

....

liieJ;[email protected]@j

YOUR REACTIONS TO STORIES

27

real life reacting to stories • pronunciation linking and assimilation

2d What a disaster! Real life reacting to stories

4 Pronunciation linking and assimilation

1 Work in pairs. What kind of things do you

a

find often go wrong day-to-day: computers, transport, things in the house, forgetting things?

2 Ii 1.13 Look at these extracts from six personal accounts of things that went wrong. Discuss what you think happened next. Then listen and check. 1 The bus broke down on the motorway, so we were all left stranded until help could arrive. 2 My trousers got caught on the door handle and as I walked away they tore. 3 I bent the key trying to force it into the door lock and when I tried to straighten the key it snapped. 4 The lift got stuck between floors 25 storeys up and two of the occupants were completely panic-stricken. 5 The tyres on my bicycle were badly worn and when I hit a bump in the road one of them burst. 6 My computer froze without any reason while I was working.

3

~ 1.13 Look at the responses below. Can you

remember which ones were used in each of the conversations in Exercise 2? Tell your partner. Then listen again and check your answers. liJI. REACTING TO STORIES

~ 1.14 Listen to these short responses. Notice how

the underlined sounds are either linked as in been a or assimilated as in what did, where the t of what disappears and is replaced by the d of did. Repeat each phrase. That must have been a relief. So what__slid you do?

b ,,., 1.15

Work in pairs. Underline the sounds in these sentences that you think are linked or assimila ted. Then listen and check. Practise saying the sentences.

Linked 1 What a nightmare! 2 Oh, that's awful. Poor you! 3 How embarrassing! 4 Really? That's odd.

Assimilated 5 That was good thinking. 6 A similar thing happened to me.

5 Work in a groups. Choose one of the following topics each and prepare to tell a short story about something that happened to you . Those listening to the story should react. • • • • •

a time you were lost or stranded something embarrassing that happened to you a minor accident you had a computer problem a situation when someone you were with panicked • a situation where something broke or got stuck

Sympathising when something bad has happened Oh, that's awful. How embarrassing! What a disaster ! Oh, that's really awkwa rd. Poor you ! What a nightmare ! Really? That's odd. Rea lly? How st range ! Comment ing on a good outcome to a bad situation Phew !

That Th at That That That

m ust have been a relief. w as clever. was good thinking. was lucky. was a stroke of luck.

Talking about similar experiences I ca n sympat h ise w it h t hat.

Yea h, I think I would have done the same thi ng . Yeah, a similar thing happened to me once. Yea h, I once had th e sa me experie nce ...

28

1£.!!jM•mi

l!iiiil

A FAMOUS WRITER OR FILMMAKER

ASTORY

NARROW ESCAPES

STORYTELLI NG

~

YOUR REACTIONS TO STORIES

writing a story • writing skill using descriptive words

Unit 2 Storytelling

2e A real-life drama Writing a story 1 Read the opening paragraph from a story about two men walking in the Amazon rain forest in Peru. Answer the questions. 1 What happened to Rowan? 2 How are the two characters in the story feeling?

2 Work in pairs. Identify the events and actions in the story. Put them in chronological order. 'I CC!vt,'t V1AOVe,' E LL..~ ?.! Rov;e
b

Look at the words in bold in these sentences. Try to work out their meaning from the context. Then check in a dictionary to see if you were right. Speaking 1 'Help', she screamed, 'that man, running away. He's just stolen m y wallet.' 2 They continued on their way, but Jake could tell that Jess was unhappy, because she kept muttering under her breath. 3 He mumbled something about it being unfair, but I couldn't catch his exact words. 4 'Ok. Let's try your way then', she said wearily. She had lost the energy to argue. 5 'I'll go first, ' he said bravely, but she could see that he was scared. Moving 6 We edged our way along the narrow path, conscious of the steep drop to our left. 7 When he heard the car arrive, he leapt to his feet and ran to the door. 8 She stumbled on a rock and almost fell, but then regained her balance. 9 We walked briskly for the next hour but then reverted to a more usual pace. 10 She turned apprehensively towards the door, wondering whether she should enter.

C Do you know any other verbs that describe a particular

way of speaking or moving? Tell the class.

5 Write the ending of the story (at least five sentences). 3 Why does the writer choose to start the story at the point when Rowan cries out?

4 Writing skill using descriptive words

a

Look at the highlighted expressions in the story. Which describe movement and which a way of speaking? Discuss the exact meaning of each expression.

Try to use some descriptive verbs and adverbs, but don't overuse them!

6 Exchange your ending w ith your partner. Use these questions to check your partner's story. • Have they used the different past tenses correctly? • Have they included some descriptive verbs and adverbs?

7 Then read other students' stories. Decide which ending you like best.

-

Unit 2 Storytell ing

Before you watch 1 Work in groups. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. 1 What d o you think the man in the photo is doing? 2 When do you think the photo w as taken ? 3 Why do you think the photo is made up of several images?

2 You are going to w atch a video about the history of film. Tick the things and people you think you w ill see in the video. actors arriving at an awards ceremony the Arctic Charlie Chapl in an earthqua ke a documentary filmmaker an old fi lm projector an Osca r statue a scene from an animated film a scene from a melodrama

While you watch 3 Watch the video and check your answers from Exercise 2. Which other early actor is mentioned in the video?

4 Wa tch the first part of the video (to 01.36). N umber the events in the order they happened. a The projector w as developed . b People wa tched films in arcades. c H ollyvvood became the centre of the studio system. d Melodramas became popular. e Actors became part of a new American aristocracy. f Edison and Dickson invented the kinetoscop e.

5 Watch the second part of the video (01.37 to the end). Answer the questions. 1 What has fil m allowed us to d o outside of H ollywood?

2 Name four events that the video shows being covered by ea rly newsmen.

3 Name two unusual activities you see as examples of how documentary filmmakers have used the camera in new ways.

4 H ow have studio blockbusters influenced documentaries?

6 Watch the video again. Complete the phrases w ith the missing time exp ressions. 1

2

3

4 5

6

_ __ , film has captured the imagination of audiences all over the w orld. ................................. , inventors realised they could create the illusion of m otion by p resenting a quick succession of pictures. _ _ , projection allowed large audiences to view the spectacle at the local cinema or nickelodeon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , the emerging film studio system was centred in Hollyw ood, California. ..................................... , newsmen carried cameras looking for real spectacles and history in the making. ... .. . .. , documentary filmmakers have learned to borrow from the studio blockbusters.

After you watch 7 Roleplay an interview with an actor or actress Work in p airs. Student A: Imagine you are a famous H ollywood actor or actress. Choose wh o you want to be. Read the inform ation below and make notes. Student B: You are going to interview a famous H ollyvvood actor or actress. Read the information below and prep are questions. • backgrom1d • ca reer to date (films and other w ork) • how H ollyw ood has changed over the years Act out the interview, then change roles and act out the interview again. Student B should choose a different actor or actress.

8 Work in groups and discuss these questions. 1 What kind of films do you prefer watching? 2 Do you enjoy watching documentaries? Why? I Why not? 3 H ow important is the film industry in your country? arcad e (n) /a: 'ke1d/ a passage w ith a roof and shops on both sides entra nci ng (adj) /1n 'tra :ns11:i/ fa scinating flickeri ng (adj) / 'fl 1bn1J/ quick- moving and not very clear landmark (n) / 'lre ndma:k/ an importa nt historica l moment loop (n) /lu:p/ a circle melod rama (n) /'mel::idra:m::i/ an old style of drama that has exagg erated emotion and action nickelodeon (n) /ni b l'::iudj ::in/ an o ld type of cinema peep (v) /pi:p/ look at something w ith difficulty projecti on (n) /pr::i'ci;5ekJ::in/ show ing f il m on a screen t inselt own (n) /'trn s::ilt aun/ another name for Hollywood t rain (v) /t re1n/ point a camera lens at something vaudev ille (n) / 'v:i:d::i vil/ a t ype of va riety show

31

UNIT 2 REVIEW Grammar

Vocabulary

1 Complete the story below about a narrow

3 Ch oose the correct words.

escape told by wildlife p hotographer eil Brampton . Put each verb into the correct tense: present perfect simple, p ast simple, p ast continuous, past perfect simple or p ast perfect continuous.

1 A documentary should be biased I impartial and factually

accurate I authentic. 2 The author I publisher of a book must m ake sure the characters I cast are believable. 3 I'm reading a thriller. The script I plot is very gripping I

touching. 4 The film gives the audience I cast a very realistic scene I portrayal of life in nineteenth-century England. 5 The film was a best-seller I blockbuster based on a science fiction book with some very thought-provoking I sympathetic id eas.

4 Work in p airs. Describe a film of a book you have read . Was it a su ccessful ad aptation? H ow faithful was it to the book? ICAN describe f il ms and books tal k abo ut the different eleme nts of a film or book

I 1 _______ (film) lions a lot - ever since I was 25 years old - and I 2 -·---·-···- (never I have) serious problems with them . Strangely, 1 3 ____ (feel) most at danger when lions 4 .... _ (want) to play. I remember an expedition a few years ago in Tanzania . I 5 _____ (s it) in my tent reading just after sunset. One of our guides 6 ···············-···· (call) out 'Lion!' That 7 ___ (not I be) particularly unusual, so I 8 (not I take) much notice. But when the guide 9 --·--·-·· (call) out again I looked out and saw that two lions 10 ..... _ _ _ (slowly I approach) our camp. We 11 ............................ {park) our car some distance away and it was too far to reach. So 1 12 ............... (run) back to the tent and quickly 13 --·--····· (zip) it up. I could hear a lot of noise coming from the kitchen, so I 14 .. (assume) the guides 15 .......... (go) back there to make a noise to scare the lions off. I 16 _ . (wait) ten minutes and when the noise 17 ...... (die) down a bit, I 18 ....... (look) out again. The two gu ides 19 __ --···- (lock) themse lves in the car. The lions themse lves were gone but where they 20 -····-···-···-···-· {play) in the kitchen, there was an incredible mess of pots and pans and sp illed food .

Real life S Match the piece of news (1- 6) with a response (a-f). 1 My p en leaked an d ink went all over m y jacket and m y shirt, b u t it came ou t in the wash . 2 The garden was OK because we had asked a neighbour to water it w hile we were away. 3 When I got h ome at midnight all the lights in the house were on, but no one was there. 4 I went all the way to Lond on to get my new passport, only to find the office is closed on Mondays. 5 H e asked me for my h onest opinion, so I gave it. 6 I picked up the ph one and started read ing the messages and then I realised it was m y boss's p hone. a b c d e f

Poor you! Yes, I think I would have done the same thing. Really? That's odd. That must have been a relief. H ow embarrassing! That was good thinking.

6 Work in pairs. Tell each other about something bad (embarrassing, annoying, a n arrow escape, etc.) w hich happened to you recently. ICAN react t o sto ries in a nat ural w ay

2 Work in p airs. Answer these questions. 1 Where did Neil hide from the lions? 2 What d id Neil think the guid es had d one to save the situation ? 3 What had actually happened ?

32

Speaking 7 Work in small groups. Use the first and last lines below to m ake your own fairy tale. When you are ready each person should tell the story to a member of another group.

I CAN""""'........,..,. talk about past experience (present perfect and past simple)

There were once two neig hbours, one very lazy and the other very hard-working ...

use narrative t enses t o tell a sto ry or give an account of events

... And so it was that these two, who had been enem ies for so long, beca me the greatest of fr iends.

Unit 3 Science and technology

n --------------. FEATURES 34

1 How much do you depend on technology in your day-to-day life and work? How affected are you if you lose your phone or if your computer crashes?

Is technology the answer?

2 Work in pairs. Look at the photo and read the caption. Now look at the w ords below. In which of the areas is the technological breakthrough in the photo? In which area do you think the main breakthrough of the next 50 years will come?

Solving the problem of overpopulation

36

Revealed world The smart technology of the future

38

One size doesn't

3 'i 1.16 You are going to listen to three people making

fit a II The use of technology in the developing w orld

42

artificial intelligence communications energy use medicine space exploration transport

predictions about the future . Read their predictions. What justification do you think they w ill make for their prediction? Listen and check. 1 I expect that most of m y generation w ill live to be around 100 years old. 2 I think in future people w ill be interacting w ith intelligent machines even more than they do now. 3 I don't think global warming is going to be the problem that everyone says it is.

Augmented reality A video about future applications fo r 3G technology

4 Which of the predictions do you think w ill come true? Tell your partner.

OVERPOPULATION

PREDICTIONS

TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS

TECHNICAL HELP

33

Speaking 1 Work in groups. Look at the photo. Which of these following problems does it illustrate? congestion epidemic overpopulation pollution poverty starvation

2 Which of these problems could have a technological solution?

Listening 3

~ 1.17 Read the opinions (1-3). Then listen to the presentation about overpopulation. Match the opinion with the people (a-c).

1 Whenever the population is too big, a disaster happens and reduces it. 2 Many people will die because there is not enough food for the growing population. 3 Science and technology will find a solution to the problem of overpopulation. a the speaker b Thomas Malthus c Paul Ehrlich

4 ~ 1.17 Listen again. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? 1 The speaker has some ideas for action which can immediately solve the problem of overpopulation. 2 Paul Ehrlich thought that we should control the number of babies being born. 3 There will be seven billion people in the world by the middle of the century. 4 anotechnology has saved the w orld from mass starvation. 5 There is not enough space on the Earth for nine billion people. 6 The growth in the 'global middle class' w ill put big pressure on resources. 7 According to the speaker, people are basically lazy. They will only act when they have to.

5 What is the meaning of each underlined prefix in these words from the passage? Match the prefix (1-6) to the meaning (a-f) . 1 2 3 4 5 6

biofuels nanotechnology megacities microphone semi-retired ultra-cautious

very small very big extremely of life or living things half xl O-9

.... WORDBUILDING prefixes There are many prefixes in English taken from Latin and Greek, each of which have a particular meaning. microphone, megacity For further information and practice, see W ork book page 27 .

6 Do you share the speaker 's faith in science and technology? Why? I Why not?

34

a b c d e f

Unit 3 Science and technology

7 Pronunciation Ir/ and /t/ in American English

a

9 Underline the correct future forms in this

~ 1.18 The speaker of the passage is American.

Listen to these words from the passage. What can you say about how she pronounces the letter r? And the letter t? answer better birth eating heart megacities part rate

first world

b 'i 1.19

Now listen to these phrases said by an American speaker. Write in the missing words. How do you think a British speaker would pronounce Ir/ and It / in these phrases?

1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . metres 2 an ..................................... site 3 a .............................. bar

4 a 5 a 6 a

letter birthday . . beater

C ~ 1.20 Listen and check.

.... FUTURE FORMS REVIEW

will

One moment, I'll just adjust my microphone. It will be a bad thing for the planet if all those people start eating meat and driving big cars. The population will probably peak at around 9 billion by the middle of the century. going to I'm not going to speak for too long. Those of you who have come here looking for answers are going to be disappointed. about to Science is about to step in again with nanotechnology solutions. Present continuous

I'm speaking to a government committee tomorrow. Present simple

Oh, by the way, one more thing: the necessity train arrives in half an hour. For further information and practice, see page 159.

(1- 5) with their uses (a-i). Some verb forms have more than one use. 4 present continuous 5 present simple

a scheduled or timetabled event a future event in an if or when clause a prediction a confident prediction based on present information e a decision made at the time of speaking f an intention or previously made decision g a formal arrangement h a simple statement of fact an event in the immediate future a b c d

1

mm

OVERPOPULATION

EMAIL REQUESTS

PREDICTIONS

overpopulation using an appropriate future form. Then listen and check. .................................... (meet) in Geneva 1 World leaders tomorrow to discuss the issue of overpopulation. 2 In the next few weeks, the government . (introduce) a fee for each child that couples have after their first two children. 3 Scientists say that space colonies . . . .. (be) the only solution for overpopulation in the medium term. 4 Doctors have said that in future they _......................... (not I spend) so much effort keeping the old alive. 5 The government _ (launch) a new education programme later today to encourage women to have fewer children. 6 People ........................................................ (have to) change their lifestyles if they _ ........................ (want) the w orld's resources to support the growing population in the coming years.

11 Work in pairs. Underline all the time expressions in

8 Look at the grammar box. Match the verb forms

iil!li i:i1liil ..

I think 1 we wait I we'll wait a few moments until everyone 2 arrives I will arrive ... OK, 3 I am beginning I I'll begin now. Hello everyone and thank you for coming to hear my presentation about appropriate technology. I am 4 about to I going to speak for about 30 minutes and then I 5 will take I am taking your questions. If there 6 is I is going to be anything that you don't understand, please ask me then rather than during the presentation . My colleague, Liesel Babel, 7 talks I is talking this afternoon in the green seminar room, if people would like to learn more about appropriate technology. I think her session 8 starts I is starting at two o'clock. She 9 is speaking I will speak about her experience in the field, working on various development projects in Africa . OK 10 I am going to show I I'll show you a short film now, so could someone at the back please turn the lights down?

10 '!ii 1.21 Complete the radio news headlines about

Grammar future forms review

1 will 2 going to 3 about to

presentation. Sometimes there is more than one possibility.

the sentences in Exercise 10. Then put them in order of the nearest to the most distant future. Compare your answers with another pair.

Speaking 12 Work in groups. Decide which of the ideas in Exercise 10, or one of your own, are the best course of action for dealing with overpopulation. Then explain your plan and the reasons for it to the rest of the class.

TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS

TECHNICAL HELP

35

speaking information age • reading augmented reality • grammar future continuous and future perfect simple • speaking predictions

3b Revealed world Speaking

Reading

1 Work in pairs. What information

2 Work in pairs. Look at the picture and the labels. Which information

(news, travel advice, maps, a grammar rule, etc.) do you get through printed media and what through digital media? .... WORDBUILDING compound nouns (noun + noun) We can use two nouns together to mean one thing. information overload, computer graphics For further information and practice, see Workbook page 27.

REV EA LE D W 0 R L D

would you find useful or interesting if you were a visitor in Washington D.C.? What other information might you want?

3 Read the article about augmented reality and complete the table. Other terms for augmented reality : Examp les of augmented reality already in use: The kind of information we wi ll be able to access: Devices we wil l use to see the augmented reality world : Future applications for augmented reality technology:

1 ··-·-----·········=A ~=R.,......................................................... · 2 -- --·· . 3 . 4 ...rl!.?fCIYtCl!1tJ!':l!.!1Y? . a.1'l4.Pti.(l!.e. .

5 ·································-······-·······

7

s . . _J=Qorepqirf11_?tu1fU<21'l:? 9

By Tim Folger

The regular world presented to us by our five senses -you could call it reality 1.0 - is not always the most user-friendly of places. We get lost in unfamiliar cities; we meet people whose language we don't understand. So why not try the improved version: augmented rea lity (AR) or reality 2.0? AR technology superimposes computer-generated images on the real world, via a mobile phone camera or special video glasses. Ea rly forms of AR are already here. With the right downloads, smart phones can deliver information about nearby ATMs and restaurants and other points of interest. But that's just the beginning. A few years from now the quantity of information available will have increased enormously. You wi ll not only see that there's a Chinese restaurant on the next block, you wi ll be able to see the menu and prices, read reviews of it and even find out how busy it is at the time. This is where the next revolution in computing will take place: not in ever-more sophisticated games that exist in a virtual reality world, but rather in the interface between the real world and the information brought to us via the Internet. Imagine bubbles floating before your eyes, filled with cool information

about anything and everything that you see in front of you. Information overload? Perhaps not. Let's jump ahead to ten years from now. A person trying to fix their car won't be looking at a repair manual on line or a book with illustrations; they will be wearing a device that projects animated 3-D computer graphics onto the equipment under repair, labelling parts and giving step-by-step guidance. Such technology is already being used by tra inee mechanics in the US marines. The window onto the AR world can be a smart phone or special video glasses that look like wraparound sunglasses. But in ten years' time these will have been replaced by contact lenses etched with tiny LEDs, which display text and images at a readable distance in front of the eye. So a deaf person wearing these inconspicuous lenses wil l be able to see a real-time transcript of what people are saying as they speak. The question is: while we are all absorbed in our new augmented reality worlds, how wi ll we be interacting with each other?

Unit 3 Science and technology

4 Discuss the questions. Then tell the class what you think. Which of the AR applications described in the article do you think w ill be really useful? 2 Can you think of any other possible applications? 3 What do you think is the answer to the author's final question? 1

n

Grammar future continuous and future perfect simple 5 Look at the sentences (a-e) from the article and the verbs in bold. Answer the questions. 1 Which sentences describe an action in progress at a certain time in the future? 2 Which sentences describe an action completed before a certain point of time in the future? a A few years from now the quantity of information available will have increased enormously. b Ten years from now a person trying to fix their car won't be looking at a repair manual. c They will be wearing a device that projects animated 3-D computer graphics onto the equipment under repair. d In ten years time this device will have been replaced by contact lenses etched w ith LEDs. e But in our new augmented reality worlds, how will we be interacting with each other? ~ FUTURE CONTINUOUS and FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE Future continuous We will be using ... We won't (will not) be using ... Will we be using ... ? Future perfect simple We will have used ... We won't (will not) have used ... Will we have used ... ? For further information and practice, see page 160.

6 Look at the grammar box. Complete predictions (1-10) for mobile technology made by various industry experts by putting the verb in the future continuous or future perfect simple. Ten years from now ... 1 ... very few people in the developed world . . (use) credit cards because mobile phone payment .................................................. (replace) them. 2 ... it is predicted that people _. . . . (sit) in front of traditional computers much less than they do now. 3 ... data security __ (become) a huge issue because mobile devices will store so much personal information. 4 ... advertisers ........................................................ (put) their adverts on mobile devices rather than on traditional media like TV, magazines, etc. _. . . . . . (get) accustomed to 5 ... we advertisements which target us directly w ith personalised messages. 6 ... body sensors connected to our mobile devices ...................................................... (provide) us with real-time information about our health. 7 ... the problem of short battery life in phones _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (disappear) because phones and mobile devices _................ (use) more sophisticated power sources, like kinetic energy. 8 ... mobile phones .......................................... (become) very sophisticated, so that as well as being your diary, address book and music player, you _ (also I use) them as your secretary, accountant and lawyer. 9 ... everyone _ ........................... (use) universal translators in their mobile phones, which w ill make language learning less necessary. 10 ... it is unlikely that we . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (find) a way to use technology to know exactly where people are, because legally it is so difficult.

Speaking 7 Work in groups. Discuss the predictions for mobile technology in Exercise 6 and decide w hich ones you think will come true and which not. Then make two more predictions of your own.

-

reading appropriate technology • critical thinking balancing arguments • vocabulary useful devices • speaking technological solutions

3c One size doesn't fit all Reading

Vocabulary useful devices

1 What d oes the term 'one size fits all' mean w hen

8 Look at the expressions in bold in definitions 1- 7.

used to describe a product? What products could it be applied to?

2 Read the article once quickly. Are the facts about

Complete the definitions with these adjectives. appropriate renewable

easy useful

efficient

long-term

old

appropriate technology true (T) or false (F)? 1 It's simple technology. 2 It's u sed in developing countries. 3 It improves p eople's lives.

3 Find a phrase in the article that defines wh at 'appropria te technology' means these days. Wh at d oes the author say about this?

4 Work in pairs. Discuss w hat each of these devices is. Read the article again. What does the author use each as an example of? a central heating system a device for shelling corn a sewing machine a solar-powered lamp

a water purifier an efficient cooking stove

5 Look at these phrases in bold from the article.

1 It's a very neat solution: both clever an d

.. . . . P.pprqpri1:1:te. 2 It's a time-consuming process. We need to find a solution that's more .... 3 We d on't just want a quick fix; we want a __ solution. 4 It's a handy gadget, much more . . than an average penknife. 5 It's n ot cutting-edge technology, but often the ·············-····-··-· ways are the best. 6 It's essentially a labour-saving device; it makes cutting up wood very ........................ . _ 7 It's an environmentally-friendly product becau se it's made from ... . . . . . . .... . .. ... . . . .... . . . . . . . . materials.

9 Work in pairs. Tell your partner about your favo urite device or gadget in the home. Use one of the exp ressions in Exercise 8.

Then choose the correct definition of th e sentence. 1 in a way that empowered them (para 1) gave them more energi; I control 2 intermediate technology solutions (p ara 2) temporary I not too complicated solutions 3 has its place in the developed world (p ara 3) can also be useful I be found in 4 a way to harness the energy (p ara 4) a way to convert I make use of the energy 5 they valued the time (para 5) they appreciated I calculated the time 6 gas-guzzling cars (p ara 6) cars that consume a lot of petrol I little petrol

Critical thinking balancing arguments 6 What are the potential risks and benefits associated with approp riate technology? Find the arguments in th e article and m ake notes.

7 Work in p airs. Compare your answers. Is the author in favo ur of app ropriate technology or not?

38

Speaking 10 Work in p airs. Complete the sentences (1-8) using these phrases. Discuss w hat you think each product is. 6 hou rs 6 people light and a little heat only £1.90 only 2 kilos put up in a few minutes solar power strong nylon

Product 1 1 It can hold up to .. . 2 It's m ade of .. . 3 It can be .. . 4 It weighs .. .

Product 2 5 It runs on .. . 6 It lasts up to ... 7 It costs ... 8 It provides .. .

11 Work in groups. You are going to take p art in a competition : 'Best appropriate technology p roduct of the year'. Your group w ill have to p resent one of the p roducts shown below. Look at the instructions on page 153.



one SIZe jo n't fit Even if the term 'appropriate technology' is a relatively new one, the concept certainly isn't. In the 1930s Mahatma Gandhi claimed that the advanced technology used by western industrialised nations did not represent the right route to progress for his homeland, India . His favourite machines were the sewing machine, a device invented 'out of love', he said, and the bicycle, a means of transport that he used all his life. He wanted the poor villagers of India to use technology in a way that empowered them and helped them to become self-reliant.

For example, a Swedish state-owned company, Jernhuset, has found a way to harness the energy produced by the 250,000 bodies rushing through Stockholm's central train station each day. The body heat is absorbed by the building's ventilation system, then used to warm up water that is pumped through pipes over to the new office building nearby. It's old technology - a system of pipes, water and pumps but used in a new way. It is expected to bring down central heating costs in the building by up to twenty per cent.

This was also the philosophy promoted by E.F. Schumacher in his famous book Small is Beautiful, published in the 1970s, which called for 'intermediate technology' solutions. Do not start with technology and see what it can do for people, he argued. Instead, 'find out what people are doing and then help them to do it better'. According to Schumacher, it did not matter whether the technological answers to people's needs were simple or sophisticated . What was important was that solutions were long-term, practical and above all firmly in the hands of the people who used them .

Wherever it is deployed, there is no guarantee, however, that so-called 'appropriate technology' will in fact be appropriate. After some visiting engineers observed how labour-intensive and slow it was for the women of a Guatemalan village to shell corn by hand, they designed a simple mechanical device to do the job more quickly. The new device certainly saved time, but after a few weeks the women returned to the old manual method . Why? Because they valued the time they spent hand-shelling : it enabled them to chat and exchange news with each other.

More recently the term 'appropriate technology' has come to mean not just technology which is suited to the needs and capabilities of the user, but technology that takes particular account of environmental, ethical and cultural considerations. That is clearly a much more difficult t hing to achieve. Often it is found in rural communities in developing or less industrialised countries. For example, solar-powered lamps that bring light to areas with no electricity and water purifiers that work simply by the action of sucking through a straw. But the principle of appropriate technology does not only apply to developing countries. It also has its place in the developed world .

In another case, in Malawi, a local entrepreneur was encouraged to manufacture super-efficient woodburning stoves under licence to sell to local villagers . Burning wood in a traditional open fire, which is a common method of cooking food in the developing world, is responsible for 10-20% of all global C0 2 emissions, so this seemed to be an excellent scheme. However the local entrepreneur was so successful that he went out and bought himself a whole fleet of gas-guzzling cars. 'We haven't worked out the C0 2 implications of that yet,' said a spokesman from the organisation that promoted the scheme.

TAL~.'A.-BOUli ~ OVERPOPULATION ~ PREDICTIONS WRITE '··· ~ EMAILREQUESTS

TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS

~ TECHNICAL HELP

-

real life asking for and offering technical help • pronunciation stress in two-syllab le verbs

3d Computer problems Real life asking for and offering technical help

5 Pronunciation stress in two-syllable verbs

a

1 Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions.

~ 1.23 Work in pairs. Listen to

these phrases and note how the stress in the two-syllable verbs falls on the second syllable. Then practise saying them with. your partner.

1 How are your computer skills? 2 Do you feel confident that you can use the following applications proficiently? • a search engine (e.g. Google) • spreadsheets (e.g. Excel) • a presentation slide show (e.g. PowerPoint) • photo editing (e.g. Photoshop) • word processing (e.g. Microsoft Word)

What do you suggest? What does that involve? It won't allow me to copy it. First select the picture, .. . What are you trying to achieve? What solution do you propose? Did you attach the document?

2

Where do you turn for help if you can' t do something on the computer? Do people tum to you for help?

3

~ 1.22 Listen to a conversation about a computer problem. What is

b Think of two more tvvo-syllable

Ben trying to do? What two possible solutions does Sophie propose?

verbs. Put them into a phrase or sentence. Then tell another pair your words.

~

s

.

8'<1oril'orl<

11 ~

~.,,

-

~s'

>

111 -

i '""'""

\

-

"...-"

,_.

.,_ ~

~

> \

\

f~S'

l

f

~S<

§ ~

o..n...s,

.............

• • •\ \ \

;5

~

........ +

6 Choose one of the tasks below or think of a technical problem that you have had. Then roleplay a conversation similar to the one in Exercise 4. Use the box to help you. Begin like this:

.·-"

..........

\ ·~

.

Can you help me? I'm trying to edit this photo.

4 ~ 1.22 Listen again and complete sentences 1-10.

I'll try. What do you want to do exactly?

IJJ- ASKING FOR AND OFFERING TECHNICAL HELP Person in need of help

Helper

• editing a photo (of a person to leave only the head and shoulders) • sorting a list of names (members of a club you are the secretary of) alphabetically from A-Z • adding your comments to someone else's document (a report written by a colleague) • making your presentation slides more interesting (they are just plain text at the moment) • searching the Internet to get the right information (e.g. up to d a te news about smart technology)

Can you give me a hand? I'm having

tr o u b Ie '-·---·---·--··--·-·-·-··---··· OK. What do you want to do exactly? I'm trying to'----···-·········--··---·-···--· . You could just

3

__ ................................... _

The trouble is• ---··-····--·-···-Let me have a look. What shall I do then? There are two possibilities. You can 5 or ... either ·····-·········-·-·--······ What does that involve? I'll show you. Just 6 .... -... That should do the trick. I see, but 7 ···do you suggest?

............ . What else Have you tried 8 ......... ? If yo u do a search, you might

OK I'll give that a try. Feel free to

40

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OVERPOPULATION

EMAIL REQUESTS

PREDICTIONS

10 __ .. ___ ···-·····--······-·······-··-··

TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS

~

TECHNICAL HELP

writing short email requests • writing skill being polite • word focus out of

Unit 3 Science and technology

3e A technical problem b

Writing short email requests

-

C omple te these o ther expression s w ith out of u sing the word s given.

1 Match the em ails (1-4) w ith the correct reply (A-D) b elow. A n swer the questions. 1 2

blue

W h a t is the rela tionship b etween the co rrespondents in each case? What h elp is offered in resp on se to each request?

H ow polite you are d ep ends on your rela tion ship to yo ur correspond ent and on w h a t you are asking for. U nde rline the phrases u sed to m a ke polite requests in em ails 1-4 and the polite forms u sed to ap ologise in em ails A- D .

b

Now an swer the questions.

hands

luck

order

t ime

1

I'v e d on e all I can to get them to ch an ge their d ecision . It's out of m y __ . n ow. 2 Sh e is still in shock after losing h er job; the news cam e out of the . . 3 I'm afraid that printer is out of . . you 'll h ave to u se the on e in the n ext office . 4 This inform ation is o ut of ........................................... - it's got last year 's figures on it, n ot this year's. 5 I'm sorry we are out of __ . Let's carry on the discu ssion tom orrow. 6 You' re o ut of . there, I'm afraid. We sold the last one an h o ur ago.

2 Writing skill being polite

a

date

1

What word is u sed often for requests in th e m o re formal re lationships? 2 Wh a t is th P. diffP.rP.n cP. b P. tween can ynu ... and

4 Look a t the following situa tion and write a short email requesting h e lp . You bought t wo cartridges for your printer on line, but w hen they arrive you not ice that the best before date on them has already passed. Write and ask for replacements to be sent.

could you .. . ? 3 Is would you mind -ing more or less direct than could you please? 4 What is a m ore formal way of saying I'm sorry? 5 Wha t a u xilia ry verb is u sed to m ean please?

5

3 Word focus out of

Exchange em ails w ith your partner. Use these question s to ch eck yo u r p a rtner ' s e m ail. Th en w rite a reply.

a



Wor k in p airs. Underline the expression s with out of in the emails an d discuss w h at you think they m ean. Th en compare yo ur an swers w ith another pair.

mSorry, I'd love to help, but I'm going on holiday I

D

Three months ago I bought one of your X3000 digital cameras from a shop in Oxford, whi ch has since gone out of business. The camera is fine but I cannot find the user manual. Cou ld you please tell me where I can find one? I've looked on the Internet, but without success. Thank you.

tomorrow for three weeks. Why not take it to Cycle Surgery on the High Street? They're not expensive and they know their stuff.

a

~ought a printer at your store only five weeks ago and the pages are coming out very faint. I am very disappointed and would like to return it and get a new one. Please can you advise me how to go about this7

-

_

_.;

Thanks a lot for the advice with the car, Jim. I changed the air filter and it's going much better now. Just out of interest, do you happen to know what kind of evo-chip I'd need to improve its performance? If so, do drop me a line to let me know.

D

Would you mind popping over and having a look at my bike some time? It's making a strange no ise. I'd be really gratefu l. Please don 't go out of your way though. Anytime in the next week is fine.

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~

OVERPOPULATION

EMAIL REQUESTS

PREDICTIONS



Is the situa tion and the action d eman ded clea r? Is the em ail in the right regis ter (fo rm al o r info rmal) and polite in its request?

I am sorry, but an exchange is out of the question~ It is too long after the original purchase date. However, from wh at you say, my guess is that it is just out of ink. Please check the ink cartridges. If that does not work, contact our technical team for further advi ce.

J j

I mI'm afraid I'm a bit out of my depth there. Try looking at the discussions boards for your particular model on the Internet. I'm sure someone'll know.

I

fiJ

I regret to say that we only supply user manuals with the equipment at the time of purchase. However, you can downl oad one by following the link below.

TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS

__j

TECHNICAL HELP

41

3f

Unit 3 Science and technology

Before you watch

After you watch

1 Work in groups. Look at the picture and discuss

6 Roleplay an interview with Professor Feiner

the questions. 1 2 3 4

What do you know about augmented reality? Where do you think the man in the picture is? What is he wearing? Why? What do you think the caption means?

2 How do you think a headset like this could be used? Work in pairs and write down three things you think you could use it for.

While you watch 3 Watch the video and check your ideas from Exercise 2. Which three groups of people does the video say could benefit from this technology?

4 Watch the video again and correct these sentences. 1 Professor feiner is working w ith a group of biology students. 2 The team wants to develop a virtual world that is separate from the physical world. 3 The virtual world can provide extra information about what you feel. 4 A global positioning system allows the team to use the equipment in the laboratory. 5 The system wouldn't be very useful for people to find their way around places they don't know well. 6 Visitors to the campus can use the system to find the university restaurant. 7 Professor Feiner developed the technology because he has a bad sense of smell.

5 Watch the video again and answer the questions. 1 What is the Columbia University programme trying to do? 2 How could these people use this technology? a firefighters _ -· b pilots . . c tourists .... 3 What do you think a 'situated documentary' is?

-

Work in pairs. Student A: Imagine you are a journalist from the Columbia University newspaper. Look at the information below and prepare a list of questions to ask Professor Feiner. Student B: Imagine you are Professor Feiner. You are going to be interviewed for the Columbia University newspaper. Look at the information below and think about what you are going to say to the journalist. • • • • •

w hen you started the project how many students work with you what the technology could be used for w hat you have to do in the laboratory why you decided to do research on augmented reality • how you think the technology could be taken further in the future

Act out the interview, then change roles and act out the interview again.

7 Work in pairs and discuss these questions. 1 Have you ever seen or used any of the following devices? • simulators for learning to drive • night vision glasses for seeing in the dark • billboard advertisements that speak to pedestrians • Wii rn games • T-shirts w ith moving images 2 How useful do you think they are? 3 What are the advantages and disadvantages of augmented reality technology? asylum (n) h'sa!lam/ a kind of hospital for people w ith mental illnesses blueprints (n) / 'blu:prrnt s/ plans cockpit (n) /'kokp n / place in an aeroplane where the pilot sits handheld (adj) /'hcendheld/ carried in the hand obscure (v) hb'skj ua/ hide overlay (v) huva' le1/ show on top of prototype (n) /'praut ata1p/ an experimental working model superimpose (v) /su:panm 'pauz/ put one image on top of another surroundings (n) /sa'raundiIJz/ the area around something or someone

4 What would visitors to the campus 'see' as well as the library?

43

UNIT 3 REVIEW Grammar

Vocabulary

1 Work in pairs. Can you remember at least

5

three of the global problems mentioned in the unit?

2 Look at the photo. What global problems could these windmills be the answer to?

3 Read the text and answer the questions. 1 What is the problem the author mentions? 2 What should be our target if we w ant to solve the problem? 3 How can we achieve this target? 4 Why are windmills not a solution?

Read the definitions. Complete the words. The first letter has been given for you.

1 2 3 4 5 6

6 Work in small groups and answer these questions. 1 Which of these problems do you think we w ill find technological solutions to? Why? epidemics

4 Choose the correct option. Of all the problems facing the world, finding a technological solution to the problem of co2 emissions is perhaps the biggest. If we 1 won't reduce I don't reduce our emissions to almost zero, global temperatures 2 will continue I are continuing to rise. At the current rate, temperatures 3 will be increasing I will have increased by three or four degrees by 2050. C0 2 emissions 4 will come I are about to come down if one of three things 5 happens I will happen . Firstly, if we change our lifestyles and stop using electricity; secondly, if the gadgets we use don't need energy; or thirdly, if we find a way to generate electricity that doesn't produce C0 2 • Well, it is clear that people 6 are not stopping I are not going to stop using electricity. If anything, in 30 years' time, they 7 will be using I will have used more. Perhaps in the future gadgets 8 will consume I will be consuming less energy, but certainly not zero energy. That leaves only one possibility. Scientists 9 are having I will have to find a way to generate large amounts of C0 2-free electricity. Wind and solar are only intermittent energy sources. What miracle invention 10 will be generating I will have generated our electricity in 2050? No one knows, but the miracle will need to happen soon.

too much information= information o a big advance in science= a technological b technology suited to its context = a . technology a clever answer to a problem= an . . solution a useful device = a h . gadget a fast, easy solution to a problem = a quick-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

overpopulation

pollution

starvation

2 In what area will new technology most change people's lives in the next 50 years? ICAN talk about global problems and solutions talk about new technolog y: devices and gadgets

Real life 7 Match each statement or question (1-5) w ith the correct response (a-e). 1 Can you give me a hand?

2 3 4 5

What do you want to do exactly? If you restart the computer, that should do the trick. What else do you suggest? The trouble is the computer won't allow me to copy it.

a b c d e

Have you tried looking for another type of map? Thanks. I'll give that a try. Sure. I'll be w ith you in a second. Let me have a look. I'm trying to paste this map into a document.

8 Work in pairs. Act out a conversation asking for help with a computer problem. ICAN ask for and gi ve technical help talk about computing tasks

Speaking 9 Work in pairs. Tell each other your predictions for your life (education, job, where you live, travel, relationships, transport, etc.). Use the future continuous and future perfect simple with transport:

ICAN t alk about future events, intentions and arrangements using a variety of future forms make predictions using the future continuous and future perfect simple

44

• a year from now • three years from now • ten years from now

10 Change parh1ers and tell each other your original partner's predictions.

Unit 4 Art and creativity

FEATURES 46

1 Work in pairs. Match the type of artist or performer with what and where they perform. How many combinations can you make?

All about Melbourne

Example: a dance company+ a pe1formance + n theatre Who: a band, a comedian, a dance company, a circus act, a drama company, an orchestra, an artist What: a gig, a show, an exhibition, a classical concert, a play, a musical, a performance Where: a concert hall, a live music venue, a theatre, a gallery, a club, the street

Art and culture in Australia's second city

48

Reverse graffiti Art that carries a message

50

Hip-hop planet Music and values

54

Urban art

2 Look at the photo and caption. Which words from Exercise 1 can describe what is happening? Have you seen anything like this in your country?

A video about innovative art

forms in Washington D.C.

3

~ 1.24 Listen to a conversation about two people who do

artistic things in their free time. Answer the questions. 1 What does each person do as a day job? 2 What is each person's creative outlet?

4 Have you ever been surprised to find out how someone you know expresses themselves creatively? Tell your partner.

PARTICIPATION IN THE ARTS

AN ART COMPETITION

MUSIC AND VALUES

LIKES AND DISLIKES

45

Listening 1 Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1 What art forms are p opular in your city or country: theatre, dance, music, cinema, art (painting, sculpture, etc.)? 2 Which of the arts have you practised yourself? 3 Which of the arts do you particularly like to follow? 4 Can you describe an exhibition or performance that you've enjoyed recently?

2 Discuss w hat type of activities and opportunities Australia offers visitors and tourists.

3

~ 1.25 Listen to an extract from The Travel Show,

a weekly radio programme, about Melbourne and answer the questions. 1 What is the essential difference between Melbourne and Sydney? 2 What does Melbourne offer visitors? 3 What does it offer local people? What do they enjoy in their free time?

4 ~ 1.25 Listen again and say if the statements about Melbourne are true (T) or false (F). 1 Melbourne has great weather and many places of natural beauty. 2 It is known as the architectural capital of Australia. 3 The arts are enjoyed by a small number of art lovers. 4 The summer is a good time for festivals in Melbourne. 5 Melbourne's Formula One motor race and tennis tournament are world famous. 6 Not many visitors know about the local sports.

5 Would you like to visit Melbourne after hearing this guide? v\That would you do there?

Grammar expressions of quantity 6 Turn to the audioscript on page 176. Find the examples of the items below. Make a note of which expressions ha ve of after them and which don' t. Then compare your list with your partner. • 6 expressions in the script that mean 'many or much' • 3 expressions that mean 'not m any or much' • 3 expressions that mean 'some'

46

Unit 4 Art and creativity

9 Pronunciation weak form of

..... EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY +plural countable noun (not) many, (a) few, a (small) number of, several + uncountable noun (not) much, (a) little, a bit of, an (large) amount of

a

~ 1.26 Listen and note how

of is pronounced in

these phrases. a a a a

+ plural countable or uncountable noun

a lot of, lots of, plenty of, loads of, lack of, (almost) no, (not/hardly) any, some, enough

bit of relaxation time huge amount of support huge number of galleries lack of natural attractions

a lot of information lots of people

For further information and practice, see page 161.

b Work in pairs. Practise saying these phrases where of is a weak form.

7 Look at the grammar box. Then read the pairs of sentences and answer the questions. 1 Which expression means 'some' and which means 'only a small number of'? a Few people will be familiar with the sports the Melburnians follow. b Melbourne may have a few grey days. 2 Can you use the same expression in both sentences? a In fact there are hardly any forms of artistic expression that are not represented. b In fact there are almost no forms of artistic expression that are not represented. 3 Which expression is used more often in affirmative sentences? a Lots of people around the world know the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. b But there aren't many people who know Australian Rules football. 4 Which expression is used with countable nouns? a Australian Rules football and cricket enjoy an enormous amount of support. b There are a huge number of smaller art spaces and venues. 5 Which expression is used in negative sentences? a There is a lot of information on what to do in Melbourne on the website. b There isn't much information about where to eat on the website.

8 Choose the correct option to complete each

as a matter of fact first of all in spite of that instead of me

10 Work in pairs. Look at the charts on page 153 showing the results of a survey on Australians' participation in the arts. Complete the sentences describing what they show. Use one word in each space. 1 Overall quite a lot of Australians take an interest in the arts, but only a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . participate creatively. 2 It seems that ·-· of Australians read literature and a surprising ·········-············ of them also write creatively. 3 There is certainly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lack of interest in the visual arts, w ith half of the population being involved in some way. 4 Australians attend concerts or musicals and . . . . . anyone said they did not listen to music at all. 5 The main reason for not participating is not having . . _ _. . . time. But the ......................... of money it costs to be involved and a .................. of opportunities are also important factors.

Speaking 11 Work in groups. Research your classmates'

sentence. 1 A visit to the opera can cost much I a lot of money. 2 A reasonable number I amount of the winter festivals are free. 3 There is almost no I any rain in Melbourne at Christmas time. 4 There are few I a few tickets for the Australian Open Tennis available at the gate for those who haven't booked in advance. 5 We saw several I some interesting street art at the Sweet Streets festival. 6 Almost I Hardly anyone attended the afternoon performance. 7 Visitors show a little I little interest in AR football. 8 There aren't as many I much differences between Melbourne and Sydney as people say.

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PARTICIPATION IN THE ARTS

AN ONLINE REVIEW

just the two of us most of the ti.me of course that's kind of you

AN ART COMPETITION

participation in the arts and then report your findings. Follow these steps: • Each group must research ONE of the following: visual arts and crafts, theatre and dance, reading and writing, music. • Make a list of four or five questions to find out how people participate (creatively or receptively) and reasons for non-participation. • Circulate around the class asking and answering questions. • Come back together, pool your results and make conclusions, using expressions of quantity. • Present your findings to the class.

MUSIC AND VALUES

LIKES AND DISLIKES

47

listening works of art • reading unusual street art • grammar determiners • speaking an art competition

4b Reverse graffiti 3 Work in p airs. Discuss what each of these

Listening 1

types of artvvork is.

~ 1.27 Look at the statements about art. Do you

graffiti sketch

agree w ith any of them? Listen to an artist's opinion and w rite down w hat he says about each one. 1 2 3 4

Art should be pleasing to the view er. Art should involve effort on the part of the artist. Art should involve technical skill. Art should have a social message or make a political point.

v

E

R

s

E

When is cleaning walls a crime? When you're doing it to create art, obviously. A number of street artists aro und the world have started expressing themselves through a practice known as reverse graffiti. Inspired by the 'clean me' messages that you see written on the back of some trucks, they find dirty surfaces and inscribe them with images or messages using cleaning brushes or pressure hoses. Either way, it's the same principle: the image is made by cleaning away the dirt. Each artist has their own individual style but all artists share a common aim: to draw attention to the pollution in our cities. The UK's Paul Curtis, better known as Moose, operates around Leeds and London and has been commissioned by a number of companies to make reverse graffiti advertisements. Brazilian artist, Alexandre Orion, turned one of Sao Paulo's transport tunnels into an amazing mural in 2006 by scraping away the dirt. Made up of a series of white skulls, the mural reminds drivers of the effect their pollution is having on the planet. 'Every motorist sits in the comfort of their car, but they don't give any consideration to the price their comfort has for the environment and consequently for themselves; says Orion.

sculpture

Some noun suffixes have no clear meaning (-ment, -tion, etc.) . Others like -scape have a particular meaning. cityscape, landscape, seascape, moonscape For further information and practice, see Workbook page 35.

and a viewer according to the speaker?

E

landscape

..... WORDBUILDING suffixes

2 ,., 1.27 Listen again. What are the roles of an artist

R

installation

G

R

A

F

F

T

The anti-pollution message of the reverse graffiti artists confuses city authorities since the main argument against graffiti is that it spoils the appearance of both types of property: public and private. TI1is was what Leeds City Council said about Moose's work: 'Leeds residents want to live in clean and attractive neighbourhoods. \Ale view this kind of advertising as environmental damage and will take strong action against an)' advertisers carrying out such campaigns.' It seems that no action was taken against the advertisers - no fines nor any other punishment - but Moose himself was ordered to 'clean up his act'. How was he supposed to do this: by making all property he had cleaned dirty again? As for the Brazilian artist's work, the authorities were annoyed but could find nothing to charge him with. They had no other option but to clean the tunnel - but only the parts Alexandre had already cleaned. The artist merely continued his campaign on the other side. The city officials then decided to take drastic action. They not only cleaned the whole tunnel but also every tunnel in Sao Paulo.

Unit 4 Art and creativity

1 0 Choose the correct option. Sometimes there is

Reading

more than one possibility.

4 What do you think about graffiti in cities? Do you think it improves or spoils the appearance of the urban l andscape?

5 What do you think reverse graffiti is? Read the article and check.

6 Use the information in the article to complete these sentences. Use one word per space. 1 Reverse graffiti works by cleaning away the . on walls. 2 The aim of the reverse graffiti artists is to highlight the problem of _ 3 Some reverse graffiti artists are paid to make images that act as . . 4 Orion made his message for __ ··············- as they passed through a transport tunnel in Sao Paulo. 5 The local authorities in Leeds were __ _ by this new type of graffiti. 6 In Sao Paulo the response of the authorities was to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . every tunnel.

7 Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Do you like this kind of graffiti? 2 If you were a city authority, how would you deal w ith reverse graffiti in your city?

-

'Every I All I Each chjld is an artist. The problem is how to remain an artist once he grows up.' Pablo Pirnsso, artist 'Every I All I Each art is an imHation of nature. ' Senern, philosopher and writer

'Drawing is the honesty of the art. There is any I no possibility of cheating. It is either good or bad.' Salvador Dali, artist

'As an artist you want it both I either I every ways. You want it to have an immediate impact, and you want it to have deep mearungs as well.' Damien Hirst, artist 'Some days I produce something, other days nothing. Each I Every I Either way, I feel it's time spent well. ' A11011y111011s, artist

'Science and art belong to all I the whole I every world, and before them varush the barriers of nationality. ' Goethe, writer 'Let each I every I all man exercise the art he knows.' Aristophanes, dramatist 'Do not fear mistakes; there aren't no I any.' Miles Davis, nwsician

11 Discuss the quotations. How do they fit with the definitions of art that you discussed earlier?

12 Complete the rules for the Turner Art Prize, held

Grammar determiners

in Britain each year, with a determiner.

8 Work in pairs. Look at the highlighted words in

1

the article and decide if the nouns that come after each are singular, plural or uncountable.

2

~ DETERMINERS

3

each, every, either, the whole+ singular noun all, both+ plural noun any, no+ singular or plural noun all, any, no+ uncountable noun

4 5 6

For further information and practice, see page 161.

9 Look at the grammar box. Answer the questions. 1 Which determiner emphasises the individual? a Every artist has their own individual style. b Each artist has their own individual style. c All artists have their own individual style. 2 Which determiner(s) talk about two things? a Every way: it's the same principle. b Either way: it's the same principle. c Both ways: it's the same principle. 3 Which sentence(s) about the action taken against advertisers are negative? a They took no action against them. b They didn't take any action against them. c Did they take any action against them?

7

__________ candidates are chosen for an exhibition they have given in the last year. Candidates are nominated by the public or by the Turner Prize jury. _ way, the jury has the final say in the four who are shortlisted. The aim of the prize is to celebrate ____ _ innovation and young talent. -------·-- candidate is invited to display examples of their work at the Turner show. ________ artist over 50 years can enter. The artists can use _ _ ____ medium they like; painting, sculpture, film, etc. The winner receives £25,000. _ other shortlisted candidates get £5,000.

Speaking 13 Your city would like to commission an artwork that would a) improve the appearance of an area in the city centre; b) be fun; and c) attract visitors. Work in small groups and: • discuss what kind of thing you would like to have and who you would like to make it • make a list of criteria or rules for the competition

14 Exchange your rules with another group. Then submit an idea for an artwork to them for evaluation.

PARTICIPATION IN THE ARTS AN ONLINE REVIEW

~ AN ART COMPETITION

MUSIC AND VALUES

LIKES AND DISLIKES

49

reading the origins of rap • critical thinking analysing contrasts • word focus cool • speaking music and values

4c Hip-hop planet Reading

Critical thinking analysing contrasts

1 Work in pairs. Look at the different

5 This article is all about what hip-hop is and isn't. Find and

music genres in the box. Discuss the questions. 1 How often do you listen to each type of music? 2 When you listen, do you pay much attention to the lyrics? 3 Do you identify strongly with this type of music? blues classical country hip-hop jazz pop reggae rock soul traditional I folk

2 Discuss what themes or attitudes you associate with hip-hop and rap music. Who do you think listens to this music? Then read the article and compare your answers with what the author says.

3 Read the article again quickly. Answer the questions. 1 What was the theme of the first rap song the author heard? 2 Apart from music, what are the other artistic expressions of hiphop culture? 3 What do the DJs do to create hip-hop's individual sound? 4 What is the appeal of hip-hop to middle-class children? 5 Why does Assane say that rap belongs to his country? 6 What does the author not like about hip-hop music?

4 Explain these phrases from the article. 1 It sounded like a broken record (para 1) 2 the way you step over a crack in the pavement (para 2) 3 life on the other side of the tracks (para 4) 4 its macho pose (para 6) 5 the empty moral cupboard that we have left for our children (para 7)

underline sentences that tell you: 1 a what the author thought of rap music 26 years ago b what he thinks now 2 a the environment in which rap music originated b where it thrives now 3 a the message conveyed by the early rappers b the message conveyed by successful hip-hop artists now 4 a that hip-hop culture can seem selfish b that this selfishness in young people is not their fault

6 Work in pairs. Compare your answers and discuss if you feel more positively about hip-hop after reading this article. ow write a short summary of the values of hip-hop culture, according to the author.

Word focus cool 7 Cool has three basic meanings in English: 1) not w arm; 2) stylish and fashionable; 3) calm. Which meaning does it have in the article (para 5) and in sentences 1-6? 1 I don't know what I've done to offend Liz. She was really cool with me when I spoke to her earlier. 2 It's not cool to arrive early to a party like that. 3 James lost his cool completely when his boss told him he had to work at the weekend as well. 4 That's a really cool jacket. Where did you get it? 5 I think she did very well to keep her cool with that customer. I would have got very angry with them. 6 Wait for the frying pan to cool down before you add more oil.

Speaking 8 Work in pairs. Look at the lyrics below from a country song and a rock song. What themes and attitudes to life can you identify in each genre? Country song

Rock song

When you ain't got a friend to lean on

Ooh, be true to yourself

There are folks you can depend on

Don't let anyone put you down

Home, that's where you turn to

If you feel you're getting tied

Family won't turn their back on you

Then ride right on out of town

Yeah, it's all right there in your own backyard

Don't be nobody's slave Live yo ur life - that's what I say

They'll be wa itin' when times are hard

9 Look at the genres in Exercise 1 and discuss the questions. 1 What values does each genre project? 2 Do you have to believe these values to like the music?

50

Unit 4 Art and creativity

I first heard rap at a party in Harlem in 1980. It sounded li ke a broken record . It was a version of an old hit record called Good Times, the same four bars looped over and over. And on top of this loop, a kid chanted a rhyme about how he was the best disc jockey in the world . It

w as called Rapper's Delight. I thought it was the most ri diculous thing I'd ever heard. For the next 26 years, I avoided rap music the way you step over a crack in the pavement. I heard it booming out of cars and alleyways from Paris to Abidjan, but I never listened . In doing so, I missed the most important cu ltural event in my lifetime. No American music has exploded across the w orld with such force since swing jazz in th e 1930s. This defiant culture of song, graffiti and dance, collectively known as hip-hop, has permeated almost every society.

They describe a child who is born and grows up in the ghetto, hating the world for his situation and all the things that he cannot have. These days most commercial rappers in America brag about their lives of crime and the things that fame and money have brought them, among which women seem to be just another material possession. For those from poor backgrounds the life of a successful rapper has become an asp iration, for richer suburban kids it is a symbol of something cool.

HIP-

In poor urban communities around the globe, rap music is a universal expression of outrage at the injustice of the distribution of wealth. Its macho pose has been borrowed from commercial hip-hop in the US, but for most the music represents an old dream : a better life. 'We want money to help our parents,' Assane, Hi p-hop began in the mid-1970s, in an a nineteen-year-old budding DJ from almost bankrupt New York City. The Dakar in Senegal tells me. 'We watch bored kids of the South Bron x and Harlem our mothers boil water to cook and ca me up with a new entertainment. This BY JAMES MCBRIDE have nothing to put in the pot. Rap is how it worked: one guy, the DJ, played doesn't belong to American culture,' records on two turntables. Another guy - or girl - served he says . 'It belongs here . It has always existed here, as master of ceremonies, or MC. The DJs learnt to move because of our pain and our hardships and our suffering.' t he record back and forth under the needle to create a That is why, after 26 years, I have come to embrace scratch, or to drop the needle on the record and play a this music I tried so hard to ignore. Much of hip-hop, break over and over to keep people dancing. The MCs particularly the commercial side, I hate. Yet I love the rapped over the music to keep the party going . One MC good of it . Even if some of it embraces vio lence, hip-hop so ught to out-chat the other. Dance styles were created. is a music that exposes the empty moral cupboa rd that we Graffiti artists also emphas ised the I because the music have left fo r our children. They can hear it and understand w as all about identity: I am the best. it. The question is: can w e? Initially hip-hop artists produced socially-conscious songs hat described life on the other side of the tracks, where people are denied the same opportunities as the rich . The lyri cs of Grandmaster Flash's 1982 hit The Message are a pe rfect example.

brag (v) /brreg/ speak proudl y about yo ur achieve ments defiant (adj) /d 1'fa1;:int / challenging or opposing another's authority looped (adj) /lu :pt/ repeated w ithout a break out-chat (v) /,aut '!fret / chat longer or better than another

-

Real life describing likes and dislikes 1 Do you like musicals? Which ones have you seen? Did you see them live or on film? Tell your partner.

2

~ 1.28 Listen to a conversation in which Tom and

his friend Jake talk about the musical, The Lion King. For each item below put a tick next to it if one of them likes it and a cross if one of them dislikes it. cost of tickets for musicals Disney comic characters Elton John musicals in general

the music in musicals the visual effects this production of

4 Pronunciation disappearing sounds

a

~ 1.29 Listen to these words from the

conversation. Underline the disappearing sound, the part of the w ord that is not pronounced. different

everyone

generally

b '!j, 1.30

Underline the disappearing sound in each of these words and then say them aloud. Listen and check if you were right. beautifully interesting

chocolate medicine

comfortable ordinary secretary

The Lion King

5 Work in pairs. Look at these sentences and say which words most naturally go in each space.

3 'i 1.28 Look at the box. Tell your partner which of the phrases Tom and Jake used to express each like and dislike. Then listen again and check.

IJl.

DESCRIBING LIKES AND DISLIKES

Likes

Dislikes

I love ...

I can't bear ...

I'm a big fan of .. .

I'm not generally a fan of ...

I' m really into .. .

I'm not very keen on ...

It is very inspiring

.. . doesn't really do anything for me.

It sounds right up my street. I have a lot of time for ... I could watch I read I listen to ... all day.

I never feel particularly inspired by ... It doesn't really sound like my kind of thing . gets on my nerves I get a bit tired of ...

52

lffll!f,;j:{e!iii

miJ

PARTICIPATION IN THE ARTS

AN ONLINE REVIEW

AN ART COMPETITION

1 I'm not . .................. keen on romantic comedies. 2 I get . . tired of reality TV shows. 3 I never feel _. . . . inspired by science fiction books. 4 I'm not . . . . . .............................................. a fan of musicals. 5 Jazz music doesn't . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do anything for me. 6 I'm afraid opera gets on m y nerves

6 N ow work in groups. Each person think of a musical, play, film, concert, TV programme or exhibition they have enjoyed recently. Describe your choice to the group and compare and discuss your likes and dislikes. Use the box to help you.

MUSIC AND VALUES

~

LIKES AND DISLIKES

,,

Unit 4 Art and creativity

writing an online review • writing skill personalising your writing

4e You've got to see this Writing an online review

000

GB

http://www.travelreviews.com

1 Read the online review of an exhibition by a recent visitor to London. Would you follow their recommendation? Why? I Why n ot?

2 Answer the questions. Then compare your answers in p airs. 1 H ow are the following themes organised in the review? Put them in order (1-5) . • the author 's recomrnenda ti on • an introduction • the content of the exhibition • the occasion of the visit • the details of where and w hen it is on 2 What informa tion about the event does she inclu de? 3 Would you describe the tone of the review as personal or imperson al?

3 Writing skill personalising your writing Work in pairs. Look at the following features of p ersonal and imperson al writing. Then find examples of the personal forms in the revie\v. Personal tone • use p ron ouns • use active verbs • use contracted forms • use phrasal verbs • add p ersonal details • use conversational linking phrases (e.g. what's more) • share your feelings Impersonal tone • use p ronouns • u se p assive verbs • use uncontracted forms • use formal verbs • avoid p ersonal information • use formal linking phrases (e.g. furthermore) • be objective in your judgements

PARTICIPATION IN THE ARTS

AN ONLINE REVIEW

I find that it's always w orth check in g out the parks when you visit a foreign city: as w ell as providing a w elcome break, they can contain some very interesting surprises. Last w eek, absolutely exhausted from visiting two museums and too tired even to think about shopping anymore, my boyfriend and I took a walk in Kensington Gardens. I w as so glad w e did, because otherwi se w e'd have missed Anish Kapoor's mirror sculptures. There are four of them and rather than look out of place as so many modern scu lptures can do, they really complemented their surroundings. The sky mirror, as its name suggests, is placed at an angle to reflect the changing sky. Another, Red Mirror, is also directed at the sky, so that you see the sky's reflection, but this time with a red tint. The one I liked best w as the C-curve, a con vex mirror that makes you see everything upside down. It w as so funny to watch dogs and children approach it, trying to w ork out wh at they w ere looking at. The secret of this exhibition's success is that it makes you appreciate what is already a reall y delightful park even more. It wil l be on until 30th March and, if you are in London, I'd definitely recommend taking the time to go and see it for yourself. And by the w ay, it's free 1

4 Write a brief p ersonalised review of something you have seen and enj oyed for a What 's on website. Then exchange your review with another p erson in the class.

5 Read your p artner's review. Check the points below. Then fee dback to the reviewer. • Does the review make you want to go and see this event? • Does the review include all the items described in Exercise 2 in their correct order? • Does it feel like a friendly and personal recommendation ? • What features h as the writer used from Exercise 3 to give this impression ? AN ART COMPETITION

MUSIC AND VALUES

LIKES AND DISLIKES

53

4f Urban art

Unit 4 Art and creativity

Before you watch

7 Watch the last part of the video again (03.20 to

1 Work in groups. Look at the photo and discuss the

03.36). Use these words and phrases to complete what Don Kimes says about urban art.

questions. 1

Where are the people?

2 What is unusual about the exhibition? 3 What do you know about graffiti?

2 Apart from graffiti, what other kinds of urban art can you think of? What kinds of art do you think you are going to see in this video?

While you watch 3 Watch the video and check your answers from Exercise 2.

4 Watch the video again and put these things in the order you first see them . a b c d e f g

It's about sort of taking what it is that you 1 2 ........................................................ , what you ...................... from, 3 ························-······· for you and pushing it w hat's ___ ___ . . . . . . . . . . of its 5 .... .. . ..... - ....................... , to the edge of its 6 .......................................... , its limits and taking

After you watch 8 Roleplay interviewing an urban artist Work in pairs.

a painting of a Japanese woman a train an art gallery a CD cover a shopping trolley paint can s a trumpet

Student A: Imagine you are an urban artist. Choose a medium (visual or sound). Invent information about the following:

5 Complete the table with the correct information (a-h). Nick Posada

authentic boundaries come from emerge envelope one more step to the edge

Jafar Barron

• your life (for example, where you grew up, what your parents do, where you live now) • your art (for example, what you do, why you do it, what your inspiration is) • your aspirations (for example, what you would like to happen, where you see your work in five years' time) Student B: Imagine you are a local journalist. Interview the urban artist about his or her life, art and aspirations.

a He is a trumpeter. b He is a graffiti artist. c He grew up in a neighbourhood north of Philadelphia. d He has a record deal. e He grew up in Washington D.C. f His parents are jazz musicians. g His first exhibition was in Georgetown. h He plays in clubs w here he grew up.

Act out the interview, then chan ge roles and act out the conversation again. Student B should choose a different medium.

9 Work in groups and discuss these questions. 1 What type of art do you like? 2 Does the type of art you like differ from art in your parents' generation? In what ways? 3 Is innovation in art a good thing?

6 Answer the questions. 1 In what ways is urban art about innovation? Give three examples. 2 Why is Nick Posada disappointed when he visits the wall of fame? 3 What does

ick think real graffiti artists know?

4 Why does Chris Murray like graffiti art? 5 What is Jafar Barron's music a mix of? 6 What does Jafar think are his influences?

authentic (adj) l:i:'0ent1k/ gen uine, real caution (v) /'k::J:J;:m/ warn someone about a problem or danger collector (n) /k;:i'lektJ/ a person w ho buys art exposure (n) 1Iks'p;:iu3;:i/ gi ving someone a particular experience highlight (v) /'hadan / draw people's attention to something innovative (adj) / 'rn;:ive1t1v/ new and original inventive (adj) /r n' ven t1 v/ creative uninhibited (adj) 1Amn 'h1b1t1d/ saying and doing anything you w ant vilify (v) /'v1 lrfa1/ say bad things about someone or something

55

UN IT 4 REVIEW Grammar

Vocabulary

1 Work in pairs. What arts festivals are famous in

4 Put these words into three categories: music, art and theatre (four words per category).

your country? What happens at them?

2 Read the article. What is the Edinburgh Fringe

a play a show a band a gig a musical a sketch an installation drama company folk landscape lyrics sculpture

Festival famous for?

3 Choose the correct option to complete the article. Sometimes m ore than one option is correct.

5

Work in small groups. Answer the questions . 1 Do you have a favourite work of art? What art or copies of art (e.g. prints, posters) do you have at home? Describe them and w h y you chose them. 2 What was the most memorable concert you ever saw? 3 How often do you go to the theatre? What is the best thing you have seen there? ICAN

describe different art forms, performers and ven ues talk about different kinds of art

Real life 6 Put these phrases (a-f) into two groups: like and dislike. The Edinburgh Fringe Festival is the world's largest arts festival. It takes place 1 all ! every I each year in August and for the 2 all! every I whole month the city is taken over by actors, street performers, comedians, artists, musicians, etc. There is 3 some ! little I enough variety to please everyone. The festival attracts a huge 4 number I amount I lack of visitors from all over the world . There are over 2,000 different shows and during the festival up to two million tickets are sold. The tickets don't cost 5 a lot I much I plenty- £10 or £15 typically- but since most people try to see 6 a lot I many I plenty of shows over three or four days, the costs can add up. 7 Few I Little I A few artists just come to perform for the fun of it, but in 8 many I enough I plenty cases they are young performers hoping that this will be their chance to be noticed by the critics and producers. The Edinburgh Fringe Festival is perhaps best known for its comedy and has launched the careers of 9 some I several I any notable British comedians, including John Cleese of Fawlty Towers fame. But the festival is 10 no I any I not any respecter of reputations. 11 All I Both I Either unknown and wellknown artists compete for attention and 12 a// I each I every have an equal chance of success or faiiure.

use expressions of quantity use determiners

56

a b c d e f

7

I can't bear .. . I'm not very keen on ... .. . don' t really do anything for me. I'm a big fan of ... ... get on m y nerves. I have a lot of time for .. .

Work in groups. Use the phrases in Exercise 6 to tell each other about the kind of TV programmes that you like and dislike. ICAN

describe my own personal tastes in music, art, film and theatre

Speaking 8 Work in groups. Tell each other about the arts in your city or country: • •

how many people do what how expensive each activity is (e.g. there's no charge for visiting museums) • how the government views the arts

Unit 5 Development

-41

-

-

:....

FEATURES 58

1 Work in pairs. Look at the photo and the six typ es of development in the box. What kind of development is represented here?

From reality to fantasy

econom ic urban

The building of Dubai

60 The Kerala model

66

Aquarium on Wheels A video about an unusual educational programme in Baltimore

social

susta inable

types of development in Exercise l. Then listen to the three speakers and say which one each is talking about.

Sustainable development? A hyd ropower dam project in Laos

product

2 'i 1.31 Match the examp les of development below with the

Social development in southern India

62

persona l

a new housing project a new rail w ay line a new smart phone

3

a new university a zero energy house learning a language

~ 1.31 Listen again. What advantages does each speaker

mention? Comp are you r answers with your partner.

4 Describe examples of two types of development from your own experience. Were they positive developments? I went on a public speaking course. I don 't really need it for my work, but I just thought it would be good for my own personal development. It was a really interesting experience: it made me feel much more confident.

CHANGES IN YOUR TOWN AN OPINION ESSAY

A HAPPY SOCIETY

SENSITIVE DEVELOPMENT

REACHING A DECISION

57

reading urban development • grammar verb+ infinitive or -ing • listening and vocabulary redevelopment • speaking changes in your town

Sa From reality to fantasy 2

Reading 1

1

Work in pairs. The photo was taken in Dubai. Discuss the questions. 1 2 3

Where was it taken from? What can y ou see below? What do y ou know about Dubai? For example, where it is, its famous landmarks, who goes there?

FROM

TO There once was a sheikh with big dreams. His land was a sleepy village occupied by pearl divers, fishermen and traders who docked their boats along a small creek through the town. It was here that Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed al Maktoum imagined creating a gateway to the world . It was a dream he could not afford to realise. So in 1959 he asked a neighbour to lend him many millions of dollars. He made the creek wider, built roads, schools and homes. With his young son , Mohammed, by his side, he walked along the empty waterfront and painted his dream with words. And some years later, it was as he had said. He built it, and they came. Then it was his son's turn to carry on developing his father's vision. Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al Maktoum

Read the article and answer the questions.

2 3

3

What was Dubai like 50 y ears ago and how has it changed? According to the author, what are the attractions for visitors and residents? What do other countries feel about this change?

Would you like to visit Dubai? Why?

I

Why not?

transformed Dubai into an air-conditioned fantasy world of 1.5 million people. No project seemed to be too ambitious for him. He built the world 's tallest high-rise building , the 828 metre Burj Khalifa, the world's biggest shopping mall and the world's largest motorway intersection. He helped Little Dubai become the shopping capital of the Middle East. In the last five years, it has attracted more tourists than India. Its most famous landmark, the Palm Jumeirah, an artificial island built in the shape of a palm tree, provides holiday villas for the rich and famous. But the financial crisis in 2008 made people think again and Dubai failed to sell many of its new luxury apartments. Up to then property in Dubai had been increasing in value and it had been easy to get people to invest. These days, investors risk losing money. The rest of the world looks on with a mixture of wonder and suspicion. Is this a capitalist model that people want to copy or do they feel that Dubai has decided to abandon its true heritage and become instead the Las Vegas of the Middle East? creek (n) /kri: k/ a small stream that flows into a river (often they dry up in summer) dock (v) /dok/ to 'park' a boat in a harbour or at a sea port pearl (n) /p3:1/ a round white jewe l found in the sea (in oyster shells)

Unit 5 Development

Grammar verb + infinitive . or -1ng 4 Complete the sentences from the article. 1 Sheikh Rashid imagined _ ... . . . . .... .. a gateway to the world. 2 It was a dream Sheikh Rashid could not afford 3 In 1959 he asked _ _ _. . . ___ him some money. _ _ _ ___ . . .. the shopping capital 4 He helped of the world.

Listening and vocabulary 7 Work in pairs. Make urban fea tures by combining

-

words in A and B.

Cl

a

green high-rise leisure motorway pedestrianised waterfront

luxury shopping

apartment bui lding centre development intersection mall zone

spaces

5 Read the article again quickly and find: 1 two more verbs followed by the -ing form 2 four more verbs followed by to + infinitive 3 one more verb followed by somebody+ to + infinitive 4 one more verb followed by the infinitive w ithout to .... VERB + INFINITIVE

VERB + -ING

Verb + to + infinitive He couldn't afford to build a new harbour.

Verb+ -ing He imagined building an amazing city.

Verb + someone + to + infinitive He asked a friend to lend him some money. Verb + someone + infinitive He helped Dubai become a great city.

For further information and practice, see page 162.

6 Look at the grammar box. Then put the verbs in the right form. 1 The population of Dubai grew from half a million in 1990 to 1.5 million in 2008 and has kept on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (grow) to this day. 2 Sheikh al Maktoum decided (make) Dubai the region's most important financial centre. 3 Attracting foreign banks and companies ........................... (reduce) taxes for involved companies and individuals. 4 The expansion of the airport allowed . . . (Dubai I become) the fourth busiest international airport in the world. 5 If you enjoy ....................................................... (shop), Dubai has over 70 shopping malls to choose from. 6 By planting 10,000 trees each year for the past four years, the city planners have managed . . . . (create) many green spaces. 7 The banking crisis made ... . .. (construction I slow) down. 8 But it seems that Dubai can't help . . (build) more property and tourist attractions.

8 'i 1.32 Listen to someone describing a redevelopment that took place in their own city in the 1960s. Answer the questions. 1 What was redeveloped and why? 2 Was it successful?

9 'i 1.32 Work in pairs. Complete the sentences with the missing verbs. Then listen again and check your answers. 1 In the 1960s the local authority decided to . . the area as a shopping district. __ _all the houses and 2 This involved making way for huge car parks. 3 Even the residents seemed to accept that the area had to be . . 4 If you proposed _ _ houses into shops on such a big scale today, I don't think you would be allowed to do it. 5 The result was that they . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . the character of the city centre. 6 Now 50 years later the local authority wants to ................ it into a mixed area again.

10 Replace the underlined words in the questions (1-6) with words from Exercise 9 that mean the same thing. 1 Have any old factories been turned into flats or houses? 2 Is there an area of the town that has been changed completely in your lifetime? 3 Is there an area of the town that has been damaged by new development? 4 Do you have a transport system that needs to be brought up to date? 5 What buildings were you sorry to see knocked down? 6 Is there a run-down area of the city that you would like to see rebuilt? How?

Speaking 11 Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in Exercise 10 for your own town or city centre.

~

-

..... ..........

CHANGES IN YOUR TOWN

AN OPINION ESSAY

A HAPPY SOCIETY

SENSITIVE DEVELOPMENT

REACHING A DECISION

59

listening social development in southern India • pronunciation rhyming words • grammar verbs with -ing and to + infinitive • speaking a happy society

Sb The Kerala model

Listening

... WORDBUILDING adverb + adjective Adverbs and adjectives can be combined to describe people and things . politically engaged, highly cultured

1 Look at the tvvo photos taken in the Indian state of Kerala. Which of these adjectives could you use to describe each place shown?

For further information and practice, see Workbook page 43.

exotic fertile gorgeous hectic tranquil prosperous remarkable

2

~ 1.33 Listen to an interview with a journalist

who has recently been in Kerala. What is surprising about the level of social development in Kerala?

3

1 What do you think is the main reason for Kerala's success as a society? 2 Could this kind of society work anywhere?

'i 1.33

Listen again. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?

1 The journalist went to Kerala to w rite an article. 2 The state of Kerala has a lot of people in a small area. 3 One of the signs of Kerala 's social development is people's high level of education. 4 Women have a superior social position to men. 5 People in Trivandrum are too busy to be involved in politics. 6 One of the secrets of Kerala 's success is the open-minded attitude of its people.

4 Convert these definitions to adjectives. Check your answers in the audioscript on page 177. H aving ... 1 a good rate of literacy = Jitt?rlA:t.?.. 2 a good standard of living = _ 3 4 5 6

a good education= . . good health = _ a high level of culture= . . strong interest in politics = .

7 tolerance of differences = . . 60

5 Work in pairs. Answer the questions.

6 Pronunciation: rhyming words

a 'fil 1.34

Work in pairs. Words that rhyme end w ith the same sound. Match the words from the listening (1-9) with the word that rhymes (a-i). Listen and check. Then practise saying them.

1 state 2 poor

3 low head 5 course 6 main 7 stopped 8 none 9 waste 4

a b c d e f

faced plane opt though weight force O' fun 0 h law said

b Look at these words. Can you think of a word that rhymes with each but has a different spelling? break

foot

height

signed

walk

word

Unit 5 Development

Grammar: verbs with -ing and to + infinitive

9 Complete this interview w ith a sociologist about the Kerala model of society. Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

-

7 Match each verb in bold to the correct meaning (a orb). 1 Have you tried visiting India? 2 I'm trying to show how remarkable Kerala is. a a ttempting something b experimenting w ith something

Interview

3 I was intending to go on to tour other parts. 4 The students went on protesting for four days. a continuing an action b a change of situation

\VHAT INTERE STED YO U IN KER ALA IN THE fl RST PLAC E?

Well, I remember 1 ....................................................... (read) an interesting article about it about fifteen years ago and I meant 2 ............................... (visit) and see for myself, but I only managed to do that last year.

5 It was meant to be a holiday. 6 Usually that would mean people having a fairly poor quality of life. a describing intentions b describing what is involved

mm

7 I don' t regret changing m y plans. 8 N o land is wasted, w hich I regret to say is not always the case in some developing countries. a apologising for w hat you are about to say b saying you are sorry about a past event 9 I remember going there in the 1990s. 10 Please remember to send me a copy. a describing memories b talking about things that need to be done 11 12

AN D WHAT DID YO U FIN O? \VAS IT THE PERFECT MO DEL TH.AT MAN Y PEO PLE HAV E SA ID IT JS?

Ithink what they have achieved is amazing. The government implemented a number of measures to try 3 ..................................................... (improve) people's quality of life and on the whole these have succeeded. FO R EXAM PLE?

The most important is land reforms. In the 1960s they stopped 4 ............................... (al low) landlords to charge rent to tenant farmers. This meant 5 ........................................................ (give) the land back to the people, mostly peasants, who worked on it.

We stopped to visit an Indian journalist I know. Keralites never stop debating. a ending something b the reason for stopping

SO POO R PE OPLE BE N EFITTE D? ..... VERBS WITH -ING AND TO+ INFINITIVE

Certainly. At the same time, the government also started 6 ...................................................... (invest) heavily in the education systems, so poor people not only became better off, they also became better educated.

Verbs with two meanings remember, go on, stop, mean, try, regret+ -ing and to + infinitive Verbs with no change in meaning prefer, continue, hate, like, love, start+ -ing and to+ infinitive

AN D WHAT ARE THE NEG ATI VE EFFE CTS O F .ALL THI S? THERE MUST BE SOJ\ IE.

For further information and practice, see page 163.

8

Look at the grammar box. Then choose the correct form in these other sentences. 1 No one knows how long Kerala w ill be able to go on to maintain I maintaining this model society. 2 This is the journalist's impression of Kerala. You would have to try to live I living there yourself to see if it was the reality. 3 I regret to tell I telling you that getting there b y plane is quite expensive. 4 If you stopped to see I seeing some other places in India on the way, it would make it more worthw hile. 5 But that would also mean to plan I planning your trip more carefully. 6 The other man remembers to visit I visiting beautiful beaches and lagoons.

No system is perfect, I regret 7 .... (say). The problem in Kera la is that the economy is stil l largely based on agriculture. And someone who leaves school with a good education probably doesn't want to go on (work) in the fields. So even though they prefer 9 ........................................................ (live) in Kera la, they often move to another more industrially developed state in India or even abroad to get a decent job.

Speaking 10 Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions on page 155 to find out how happy your society is. Then compare your answer with another pair. Were people's answers very different? If so, why?

. CHANGES IN YOUR TOWN AN OPINION ESSAY

~

A HAPPY SOCIETY

SENSITIVE DEVELOPMENT

REACHING A DECISION

61

reading a hyd ropower dam proj ect in Laos • vocabulary re- verbs • critical th inkin g fa ct or opi nion • word focus pick • speaking sensit ive devel opment

Sc Sustainable development? Reading

Critical thinking fact or opinion

1 Work in pairs. Look at the photo on page 63 of the

6 Work in pairs. This article contains a mixture of

Mekong River in Laos before a hydroelectric dam project. How do you think the dam affected the lives of the people living near the river?

2 Read the article quickly and check your answers from Exercise l. In what other ways did the dam affect peoples' lives?

3 Read the article again more carefully and answer the questions. 1 Who helped to finance the project? 2 Why was this surprising? 3 How much electricity will it generate? 4 Who will use the electricity? 5 How many local people are affected? 6 What will happen to the local people? 7 Who says life is better for local people after the dam? 8 Why do environmentalists think life for local people could be worse?

'

4 Find words in the article to complete these statements. 1 The dam flooded a big area and created a huge _ . . . . . . .. . (para 1) 2 The World Bank would like the project to be a ....... that everyone can admire. (para 2) 3 The people from the flooded area should have better ......... in future. (para 5) 4 Because their farmland has disappeared, locals will have to find new ways to ........ a (para 5) 5 The people now have . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . that they didn't have before, like electricity, sanitation and clean water. (para 8) 6 Changing the environment so dramatically has a big effect on the local _ and . . . . . ............... . . (para 10) mm

Vocabulary re-verbs 5 Underline all the words in the article beginning with re-. Then circle the verbs that mean 'to do something again'. Form the nouns from these words. ..... WORDBUILDING prefix re- with verbs and nouns verb: redevelop noun : redevelopment For further information and practice, see Workbook page 43.

62

facts and opinions about the benefits of the am Theun 2 hydropower project. List the facts and opinions about the projects: • economic benefits • effects on local people • effects on the environment

7 Look back at the article. What told you when an opinion was being given rather than a fact? Tell your partner.

8 Compare your answers with another pair. Do you think that the dam has brought more benefits than disadvantages to Laos?

Word focus pick 9 Work in pairs. Find three phrases in the article using the word pick and discuss w hat they mean. Then do the same for the phrases in bold below. 1 I think it's easy to pick holes in the World Bank plan, but at least they are trying to do the right thing. 2 Can I pick your brains for a moment? I'm writing something about Laos and I'm not sure my facts are right. 3 Sales of electricity to Thailand were slow at first but they're picking up now. 4 He feels that he is being picked on. The choice of location wasn't only his; it was the responsibility of the whole team. 5 I asked him to pick me up from the airport because taxis into the centre are so expensive. 6 We have a range of services - from basic banking to business advice. You can pick and choose which you want.

Speaking 10 Work in pairs. What is the impact on people and the environment in the following development projects? How do you deal with this sensitively? Discuss and make lists. • helping a city damaged by a hurricane • building a high-speed railway line between two cities • moving people from a poor and depressed area in a city to a new town

Unit 5 Development

ai Kensavaong will never again walk along the mudd y lanes of Sop On, the village in southern Laos where she was born. Her old home now lies at the bottom of a reservoir of brown water created to feed a hydroelectric power plant, the first to be funded by the a rid Bank for over twenty years. TU never forget that p lace,' says the 41-year-old villager. 'It was m y home. I ? icked m y first bamboo stalks there. '

The power company has promised to double their living standards w ithin five years. According to the World Bank, 87 per cent of those resettled believe life is much better than before as they now have electricity, sanitation, clean water, new roads and greater access to schools and health care.

The World Bank stopped financing h ydroelectric dam ? rojects in developing countries twenty years ago because of criticism that such projects were harming local communities and the environment. But Nam Theun 2 - a 39-metre high dam on the Mekong River that generates over 1,000 megawatts of electricity- is the showpiece for the bank's new policy of supporting sustainable hydropower projects. For Laos it is part of a longer-term strategy to revitalise the economy and become the battery of South-East Asia.

But the old criticisms have not gone away. Environmental and human rights groups warn that the dam will have a negative impact on water quality and fish and that the local people who were relocated after the area was flooded may not be able to support themselves economically in future.

The bank says that lessons have been learnt from the projects oi the sixties and seventies when people were forced to resettle and whole areas of forest or agricultural land were Hooded. When it comes to clean sources of energy, the bank dlinks h ydropower is the pick of the bunch, offering the best solution in a world where 1.5 billion people have no access to electricity. 1n 2010 the dam brought $5.6 million in sales of electricity and it is estimated that during the next 25 years Nam Theun 2 will generate around $2 billion in revenue to Laos, one of Asia 's poorest countries, since most of the electricity will ::.e exported to its power-hungry neighbour, Thailand. The goYernment has promised that this money will be spent on ~ed ucing poverty and both renewing and improving the -ountry's infrastructure.

'In the old village things just weren't convenient,' said Tiea, 25, one of the relocated villagers. 'It w asn't a pretty place, the houses weren't very nice and we didn't have power. In the new village we have electricity, we can see better.'

'People are happy with these new amenities, but the real problem is how to restore sustainable livelihoods for communities who used to rely on the natural resources forests, fish and grazing lands for their animals - now that they've lost these,' says lkuko Matsumoto, programme director for the environmental group, International Rivers. As well as the 6,200 villagers already rehoused, activists also point out that there are over 110,000 people in riverside villages downstream from the dam whose lives will have to change because of the new river ecosystem. They claim that these people will have to deal with issues like flooding, decline of the fish population and poor water quality. How quickly they will pick up new skills is uncertain. But the World Bank says it is responsive to these problems. A 4,100-square kilometre protected area has been established around the dam to safeguard flora and fauna. It admits though that rebuilding the liv es of the villagers is not a short-term process and everyone is trying to learn and readjust as they go along.

Se\·enteen villages in the flooded area ha ve now been rebuilt .md the 6,200 people - mostly farmers - who lived in them ia\·e been retrained to make a living from the reservoir.

0 MENT?

-

1

I

real life reaching decisions • speaking evaluating a development project

Sd Evaluating a project Real life reaching decisions

4

1 Work in pairs. What kind of development w ould

'i 1.35

Complete the sentences in the box with the phrases the speakers use to give their opinions and to agree and disagree. Then listen and check.

most improve your town? Choose three items and number them (1- 3) in order of importance.

.... REACHING DECISIONS What do you think we should do? What's your view?

a new arts centre (theatre, music, film, fine art) a new leisure centre a new shopping mall better local shops better public transport fewer cars (pedestrianised zones, cycle tracks) more (affordable) housing more green spaces

If you 1 __ ... , that's completely wrong . Personally, I think that's absurd. I don't think we 2 _____________________ -·----·--·· give them another penny. I find it amazing I ridiculous that he said that. I think we should I w e ought to give them the benefit of the doubt. .... __ be too hasty. I We shouldn't be too hasty. We need 4 .. · ·······------·-------------- _______ whether they are in the spirit of the original aims of the project . That really 5 ...... the opinion of the local residents . .......... see it, it's probably a good thing . The 6 ______________________ with that. I'd 7

2 '!ii 1.35

The National Development Bank gives loans to local businesses and public authorities for projects that will improve towns and help the local economy. Listen to a meeting of some bank employees who are discussing a project they have funded and complete the notes. 1 Amount of loan

The bank lent the local authority

2 Purpose of loan

To help redevelop a ..................................... in the city.

3 Aims of project

To give local residents a nicer park and some ················ ---facilities.

4 Progress so far

They have cleaned the area up, ·-·--------------·----·-- ------·· ---··---- , Iaid new p Ianted _. . . . . . They have also bu iIt the ·-- -----·· · · · ----·---··----··---··----·---·· ·--·-·- and the children's

5 Other work

£ ..

.................................. .

They have built a and bought a sculpture for £ ..................

6 Needs

-

A new loan of £250,000 to courts and course.

3 Ii

That's right . I agree. Is everyone OK I happy with that? Exactly.

_ golf

1.35 Listen again. What do the bank employees decide to do about the new loan? Do they all agree?

Are we all 8 .................................... that? That 9 ______________________ to me.

Speaking 5

Work in pairs. Read the report on page 153 about another project w hich the bank is financing and consider these points. • • • • • •

name of project date started original aims action taken and money spent results (positive and negative) next steps and money needed

Then decide together if you think the bank should lend more money for this project. Discuss your decision with another pair and try to come to an agreement with them.

Unit 5 Deve lopment

writing an opini on essay • writing skill linking w ords

Se Big cities, big problems Writing an opinion essay

-

4 Does this opinion essay follow the standard format?

1

Work in pairs. Why do you think people want to live in big cities? Make a list of the reasons. Do you think their lives are better there?

2 The chart shows the percentage of the world 's

Introduction - >Arguments for - >Arguments against --> Conclusion

5 The introduction can take different forms. Which of these does the writer choose?

population living in cities. What problems do you think this creates?

• giving a dramatic example of the problem • telling a story about the problem from the writer's own experience • giving some statistics that illustrate the seriousness of the problem • quoting w hat someone famous has said about this problem

3 Look at the title of the opinion essay and then read the answer. What is the opinion of the writer?

% of w orld populati on living in cities

6 Writing skill linking words

80 "
60

t-

40

• --,__1

20

0 1800 ~;; ~:!~-·-.:..~...::-.:,.")9.~{1;

1900

~

1950

t--

tt-

t--

t-

,__.._,

tt-

t--

2008

a

2050?

'-"'0¥--''-..,..._,.:;.:P..i-'-'t' ~ . .0. :;:-.~,;-•_- _., ~ :.·-:..-~-'.J .i.._, _~- ~'-.':'.6-~-· :-,·~·..:-· -.-_ ~ o ,...,,,

.--:.~-~~_;,·; . -.-,:-.·.

~·::..,.''•-~--·.:.·:·

_o,.·,:_·.;:.:..:.~---.-

~-

In 1800 only two per cent of the world 's population lived in cities. Over the last twenty years more and more people have moved to cities looking for work and a better life. As a result, more than half the world 's population now live in cities and that number is expected to grow. Cities are monuments to the amazing organising abilities of human beings. However, in some cases, they also have many social , economic and environmental problems. The question is: do the problems they create outweigh their benefits? Cities exist because they are more convenient places to live. Jobs, schools, hospitals are all close to people's homes. There is a wide choice of people to socialise with and good possibilities for entertainment and leisure. On the other hand, there also seems to be more crime, more poverty and more pollution and often these problems are found in a pai1icular area of a town, making them seem even worse. But thi s is not so s1:1rprising, if you think about it. The same problems exist in the countryside or in smaller towns, but they are not so concentrated. Because of this, they are noticed less. As long as the population of cities does not grow more quickly than the services available for it, cities can solve a lot of our problems. They stop the population spreading into areas of the countryside. In addition, they provide jobs and a more interesting life. The problem with cities is not how big they are, but how well managed they are.

-

CHANGES IN Y OU R TOWN

~ AN OPINION ESSAY

Ad din g an argument

Introducing a co ntrasti ng fact

Explaining the consequen ces

Furthermore, As we ll as this,

Then again,

Consequent ly,

; ~- ·-:-:-;:• ;~ ~----~ ;_:<'_!~-::__ -,~'!.

{: Our cities have become too big. [he problems ~ ·'· 2;they. create outweigh the benefits. Discuss. · • :,· ·· __. ., ·-·_ -:_c, ' - --: ~:::.-•_-:.?,

Look at the linking phrases below. Then underline other examples of each type in the essay. Compare your answers with your partner.

A HAPPY SOCIETY

b

Choose an appropriate linking phrase to complete the sentences. 1 Certain cities in the world have become

especially popular. .......................... ....................... ... . , we have seen the emergence of what are called megacities: cities w ith over ten million inhabitants. 2 A lot of people find a better standard of living in big cities . . . ................................................ , you can also find very poor people living in them. 3 . ... . . . . . . ........................ . . . . . . . . being very convenient for the residents, cities are also very convenient for business.

7 Write an opinion essay about the statement below. Then compare your answer with your partner. Did you use the same arguments?

In our modern urban lifestyles, we have lost our sense

of community. We need to return to a simpler way of life. Discuss.

8 Read your partner 's essay and check the following: • Do you find the arguments convincing? • Is it organised in clear paragraphs? • Does it follow the format suggested in Exercise 4? • Does it use one of the introduction techniques suggested in Exercise 5?

SENSITIVE DEVELOP MENT

REACHIN G A D ECI SIO N

65

Unit 5 Development

Before you watch

After you watch

1 Work in groups. Look at the title of this video and

6 Roleplay an interview with Martha Schaum

the photo and discuss the questions. 1 Why do you think the video is called 'Aquarium on Wheels'? 2 Do you think aquariums can teach children about more than just fish in the sea? 3 What might the programme teach young people?

2 Work in pairs. Tick the things you think you w ill see in the video. a boy dressed as a monkey a computer a crocodile a diver a fish tank a frog a necklace seashells a tiger a toy snake

While you watch 3 Watch the video and check your answers from Exercise 2.

4 Watch the first part of the video (to 02.17). Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. 1 The students in the video are: a employees of the Aquarium on Wheels programme. b visitors to the National Aquarium. 2 The students want to help their audience to understand: a recycling. b conservation. 3 The students perform a play about: a snakes. b monkeys. 4 The children laugh because the actor says that: a fighting is going to make his hair look tm.tidy. b he doesn't have any leaves to eat. 5 Aquarium administrators want to give students: a training in marine biology. b lessons for life.

5 Watch the second part of the video (02.18 to the end). Answer the questions.

Work in pairs. Student A: Imagine you work for a local newspaper. Use the information below to prepare questions to ask Martha Schaum about the Aquarium on Wheels programme. Student B: Imagine you are Martha Schaum. A reporter from a local newspaper is going to interview you about the Aquarium on Wheels programme. Look at the information below and think about what you are going to say to the reporter. • the overall objectives of the Aquarium on Wheels programme • who is involved with the programme • what the student employees have been doing this year • what the programme gives the student employees • what Martha gets out of the programme personally Act out the interview, then change roles and act out the interview again.

7 At the end of the video, the narrator says: 'The Aquarium on Wheels programme is having a powerful impact on more than just the rain forests.' What does he mean? Why do you think the programme is so successful?

8 Work in groups and discuss these questions. 1 What kind of education about the environment do young children in your country receive? Is it effective? 2 The overall goal of the Aquarium on Wheels programme is to entertain and educate. Do you think these tvvo aims are compatible? Can you think of examples that meet both aims successfully?

1 What kind of skills do the students need? 2 What do these students want to do that other people in their family haven't done? 3 What does DejaNe Jones say is the most important thing the programme has taught her? 4 What did the students learn from performing the play?

advantageous (adj) /redv;in'te1qps/ having a good effect camouflage (n) /'krem;iflo::Y something an animal uses to make it difficult to see major (v) /'me1d;);i/ take a university degree in mess up (v) /mes 'A p/ make something look untidy overall (adj) /;iuv;i'r:i:l/ general poison dart (n) /p:i1zn 'do:t/ a small arrow covered with poison at one end which is fired from a long tube by blowing

5 What does George Faulk want to be? 6 Why is the programme personally important for Martha Schaum?

67

UN IT 5 REVIEW 5 Work in pairs. Use a different verb in each space to

Grammar

complete these statements.

1 Work in pairs. What is the main industry in your tow n or city? How has this affected the character of the city?

2 Read the interview with a resident of Berlin. Answer the questions. 1 What is the main new industry of Berlin? 2 How does this resident feel about it?

3 Complete the interview with the correct form of the verb: -ing, to+ infinitive or infinitive without to. I = Interviewer; R = Resident I: So, are you enjoying 1 _ (live) here again after a fifteen-year absence? Has Berlin changed a lot since you were last here? R: Of course. There has been a huge amount of development. They have kept on 2 _ ___ (build) and 3 _______ (redevelop) since the early nineties. And in many ways that is great for the city, but I regret 4 ....................•....- (say) that its character has changed .. . and not for the better. I: What do you mean by that? R: Well, there are so many tourists here now people say as many as nine million a year. It's as if the city authorities have decided 5 (turn) Berlin into a tourist park. I: But surely tourists are a good thing? If they stopped 6 _____ (come), the city would lose a lot of jobs and income. I heard that tourism will help 7 _______ (create) 50,000 new jobs here in the next few years. R: I'm not anti-tourist. I understand that tourism means 8 ..................... (earn) useful income, but a lot of this money goes straight to private companies. I think the city should ask tourists and tourism companies 9 __ (pay) a tax for visiting Berlin. Then this money could be invested in real jobs for Berliners.

1 Green spaces can really _ .. a built-up part of a city. 2 In the 1970s and 1980s there was a fashion for . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . older buildings in city centres and replacing them with high-rise buildings. 3 It's a good idea to _____ _the city centre into a pedestrianised zone. 4 People complain that the character of many famous cities like London, ew York and Paris has been ______ . By ______ them with luxury apartments and expensive shops, developers have forced out ordinary working people.

6 Discuss with your partner if any of the items in Exercise 5 are features of your city. Do you agree with the statements? Why? I Why not? ICAN talk about the different features of a city describe changes in a city

Real life 7 Work in pairs. Put a verb in each space to complete these sentences expressing opinions. _ _ _ of the idea to restore the 1 What do you city centre to how it was 200 years ago? 2 I _______ it amazing that no one has thought of doing it before. 3 If you __ __ me, it's not a good idea. 4 o, that doesn't _________ right to me either. You have to look forwards not backwards. 5 The way I _ _ _it, if it's good for the local economy, then it's a good thing. 6 I think it __ on w hether local people actually want it to be restored. ___ along with that. 7 Yes, I' d

8 Work in small group s. Decide if it is better to

ICAN use verbs which take the gerund and infinitive after them use verbs which take both the gerund and infinitive after them, but with different meanings

restore old buildings or to knock them down and start again. ICAN reach a decision by expressing opinions and agreeing or disagreeing

Vocabulary 4 Match the words (1- 6) with their meaning (a-£). 1 convert 2 spoil 3 modernise 4 demolish 5 transform 6 redevelop

'i :I

a b c d e f

bring up to date change completely rebuild damage turn into knock down

Speaking 9 Work in pairs. Tell each other about a large development project you know about (transport, regeneration of an area, new town, sports or leisure complex, etc.). CO\·er these points: • the benefits that the de\·elopment brings / w ill bring • whether it is sustainable or not • w ho supports the project; who opposes it

• your opinion

68

Unit 6 Alternative travel The Hotel de Glace, Quebec, Canada; the only ice hotel in North America .

,

-

Photograph by Ralph Lee Hopkins

FEATURES 70

Staycations People who holiday at home

I

1 Look at the photo. What do you think there is to do in this hotel? Would you like to stay here? Wh y? I Why not?

I

2 ~ 1.36 Listen to someone describing her stay there. What did she like about her stay? What didn't she like as much?

3 Work in pairs. Choose the correct option. Then ask each other 72

I ~

74

Vol untourism

the questions.

Working holidays around the world

1 How much holiday I days off do you get from work each year? 2 Do you like to stay in hotels or do you prefer self-catering I self-service accommodation? 3 When you book into a hotel, do you usually ask for a room with a sight I view? 4 Do you generally take a lot of suitcase I luggage when you travel or do you prefer to travel light? 5 Wha t is your favourite kind of scenery I countryside: the coast, forest, mow1tains or desert? 6 Do you generally enj oy the travel I journey as much as actually getting there? 7 Which aeroplane I airline do you prefer to fly w ith? 8 When you last went on holiday, how long did it take/ last to get to your destination?

Unusual places to stay Hotels w ith a difference

78

East Timor A video about tourism in one of the w orld's richest diving areas

PLANNING A STAYCATION A LETTER OF COMPLAINT

TRAVEL

AN UNUSUAL HOTEL

GETTING AROUND

69

I

speaking local knowledge • reading holidays at home • vocabulary phrasal ve rbs w it h in and out • grammar not • speaking planning a st aycat ion

6a Staycations Speaking

Reading

1 Work in pairs. How well do you know your own

3

capital city and its attractions? Ask each other these questions to find out.

1 Can you name five important tourist attractions in your capital city? 2 How many of these have you visited? 3 Have you ever been on a bus tour or walking tour of the city? 4 Have you ever been to a famous street market in the city? 5 How often do you v isit the city's main museums or galleries? 6 Do you know the name of a good, reasonablypriced hotel in the city?

2 Are there parts of your local area that you haven't ever visited or feel that you don't know? Would you consider taking a holiday there? Why? I Why not?

Read the blog. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?

1 Staycationers always sleep at home. 2 Staycationers go out and do different activities during their staycation. 3 Staycations have all the stresses of normal travel. 4 Staycations simulate traditional holidays. •

4 Now use the information in the blog to complete the statements.

1 People first started having staycations because of ... 2 Staycations are good for the local economy because ... 3 Some people think that visiting local attractions isn't as exciting as ... 4 Without leaving ew York, Karen Ash was able to have a ...

S TAYCATIONS You probably don't like the term 'staycation'. Me neither. But you mustn't be put off. As a concept, it is quite attractive. Perhaps you've already had one, but weren't aware that's what it was called. Staycations don't just mean staying in doing things around the house or just relaxing at home. They involve getting out more by taking day trips from your home to see local sights. If you don't want to stay at home, you can holiday locally - for example, camping at a local campsite. Staycations originally became popular after the financial crisis of 2008, when people vvere looking for ways to cut back on their spending. Apart from the savings, let's not ignore the other benefits: you don't have any of the problems associated with travel, such as packing, long drives, delays at airports and so on; and you bring money to the local economy, by eating out, for example. The only people who hope this kind of holiday won't catch on are the holiday companies themselves.



Some staycationers who base themselves at home like to follow a set of rules, such as setting a start and end date, planning their activities ahead of time and avoiding routine. You don't have to do these things, but it helps to create the feel of a traditional vacation. Others, aware that an extra barbecue and a visit to the local zoo may not match the thrill of foreign travel, take it a step further. A recent example was Karen Ash, whose story appeared in the Wall Street Journal.

II

I

A resident of New York, Karen Ash decided not to go to Japan, as she had originally planned, but instead took a weeklong Japanese vacation in her own city. This included buying postcards and souvenirs at a Japanese market, admiring bonsai plants, eating ramen (and even speaking Japanese when ordering), all without leaving New York. Her itinerary also involved joining in at a traditional Japanese tea ceremony, attending a taiko drumming concert and watching Japanese soap operas on DVD. I don't think many people would want to take this much trouble to create their staycation, but you get the idea! 70

Unit 6 Alternative travel

Vocabulary phrasal verbs with in and out

... NOT Negative infinitive It's cheaper not to go abroad. They advised us not to stay at that hotel.

5 Work in pairs. Find two phrasal verbs in the article with in and two with out. Discuss w hat they mean.

want I didn 't want to stay in . . .

6 Complete the sentences using in and out. 1 I'd like to try ___ that new restaurant in the centre of town. I've heard it's excellent. tonight? We've got loads of 2 Shall we eat __ food. 3 Can you drop _____ at the supermarket on your way home and pick up some milk? 4 All I seem to do is work and sleep these days. I need to get _____ more. 5 My daughter stayed _ until 3 a.m. last night. I was really worried. 6 Can you just fill _ this form with your name, address and passport number?

mustn't and don't have to You mustn't book a holiday without comparing prices first. You don't have to spend a lot of money to enjoy your \4'.JJ ffl"
9 Look at the grammar box. Then make each sentence express the opposite idea using negatives .

Some verbs can be used with both in and out. Sometimes they give opposite meanings and sometimes they give different meanings. Other verbs may only be used w ith either in or out. eat in, eat out; drop in, drop out; join in, jcirt-ettt

1 2 3 4 5

the correct option.

1 Do you feel you get out enough? If not, what would you like to do more of? 2 How often do you eat out? 3 What do you usually do in the evenings, if you are staying in? 4 If you saw some people in the park playing volleyball, would you wa tch or join in? 5 How late were you allowed to stay out when you were fifteen years old? 6 Do you like to try out new types of food?

Grammar not 8 Underline these examples in the article and comment on the position of not in each case: a negative infinitive (para 4) a negative sentence using want (para 1) the negative form of must (para 1) the opposite of must (para 3) a negative sentence using hope (para 2) a negative sentence using think (para 4) a negative sentence using let (para 2)

Let's spend a lot of money on a foreign holiday. I want to stay in a big modern hotel. I th.ink staycations can replace foreign holidays. I hope the accommodation is all booked up. I told them to wait until the last moment before booking their holiday. 6 We must go swimming - if you want to, that is.

10 Look at these tips from a travel magazine. Choose

7 Ask each other the following questions.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

I b•aflted Rot to stay in ...

.... WORDBUILDING phrasal verbs with in and out

For further information and practice, see Workbook page51.

-

Let's' don't forget I not forgetthat the main reason for choosing a staycation is to save money. So you really 2 mustn't spend I don't have to spend the same amount as you would have if you had gone abroad. For example, if you 3 don't want to spend I want not to spend a lot on eating out, just take a picnic with you w hen you go on a day trip. It 4 mustn't be I doesn't have to be a cheap picnic - you can still treat yourself to a few luxuries. Try 5 to not choose I not to choose only activities that cost money. One idea is to plan a two or three day wa lk and take a tent w ith you. If you 6 don't think you'll enjoy I think you won't enjoy camping, then look up some youth hostels you cou ld stay in instead. The most important thing is to be adventurous. Th e fun of any holiday is discovering new places and there is no reason why a staycation should be any different. I 7 hope it isn't I don't hope it's a disappointment!

Speaking 11 Work in small groups. Plan a five-day staycation in your own area or the area you are studying in. Try to give the staycation a theme, as in the article, e.g. a sporting theme, or a foreign theme. Make a short itinerary of at least five activities.

12 Work with another group. Compare your staycation ideas. Have a class vote on which staycation sounds the most fun and practical. PLANNING A STAYCATION A LETTER OF COMPLAINT

TRAVEL

AN UNUSUAL HOTEL

GETTING AROUND

71

listening volunteer vacations • grammar negative and tag questions • pronunciation intonation in questions • speaking travel

6b Voluntourism Listening 1 Work in pairs. What do you think the English saying below means? Do you have a similar saying in your language? Do you think it's true? A change is as good as a rest.

2 ~ 1.37 Voluntourism is when people travel to a foreign location to work for free. Look at the photo. What sort of volunteering do you think people do here? Listen to the interview and check if you were right.

3 Which of the statements best summarises Katie Samuel's opinion of what a good volunteer vacation should be? a a working holiday where you learn practical and useful skills b a cultural experience where both the visitor and the host benefit c an enjoyable way to help others less fortunate than yourself

4 ~ 1.37 Listen again and complete these sentences with one word per space. Then discuss w hat each expression means. 1 You probably thought that sort of vacation was for eighteen year olds on their __________ year. 2 For most of us, who only get a few weeks . -·--·- . . . . a year, wouldn't they prefer a more relaxin g option? 3 This should be a __ travel experience, not just a work 4 In return the locals take them for _ _ walks, which are like mini-safaris. 5 They have to pay for their flight, their ·-··-·······-·----··· expenses and something to cover the organisation costs. 6 The CRTP helps to restore cultural ·------sites around the world.

5 Work in groups. Discuss the questions. Then tell the class. 1 What do you think of this type of vacation? 2 Is it right that people have to pay to be a volunteer? 3 What other ways can you think of to get close to local people on a vacation?

Grammar negative and tag questions 6 There are various ways of phrasing a question. Look at these examples (1-4) from the interview and match each one to the answer the speaker wants (a-c). 1 Have you ever thought of doing a bit of building work during your holidays? 2 You probably thought that sort of vacation was for eighteen-year-olds, didn't you ? 3 Wouldn't most people prefer a more relaxing option? 4 It's not really a holiday as we know it, is it? a Doesn't expect a particular answer (yes or no) b Wants the answer to be yes c Wants the answer to be no

7 Work in pairs. Find four more examples of questions that expect a particular answer in the audioscript on page 177.

Unit 6 Alternative travel

~,NEGATIVE and TAG QUESTIONS Open questions (no confirmation of opin ion demanded) Do you like visiting new places? Yes, now and again.

-

Negative questions Don 't you like visiting new places? No, not at all. Tag questions You like visiting new places, don't you? Yes, I love it. You don't like visiting new places, do you? No, you're right. I don't.

10 '-"ii 1.40 The Great Continental Divide is a cycling

For further information and practice, see page 164.

8 Look at the grammar box. Convert these open questions into negative or tag questions that fit the answer given . 1 Do you like the idea of volunteer vacations? (tag question) .?

Yes, that's right ... very much 2 Do you think it's an interesting idea? (negative question) ······ ?

No, I don' t. 3 H ave you been on a volunteer vaca tion? (tag question) - --

?

Yes, two years ago. 4 Did it seem strange to pay money in order to work? (negative question) ?

o, not really. 5 Will you be going again this year? (tag question) ?

o. We're having a staycation this year.

9 Pronunciation intonation in questions a ~ 1.38 Look at the grammar box. Listen to the sentences and answer the questions. 1 Does the speaker 's intonation rise or fall at the end of an open question? 2 Does the speaker 's intonation rise or fall at the end of a negative question? 3 Does the speaker 's intonation rise or fall at the end of each tag question?

b ~ 1.39 Work in pairs. Practise saying the

and hiking trail that crosses North America from Mexico to Canada. Read this telephone conversation between Mike (M), a volunteer, and Jeff (J), from the Great Continental Divide Alliance. Convert the sentences in bold into either negative or tag questions. Then listen and check your answers. M: Hi, I'm interested in helping out on the Great Continental Divide this summer. My friend did four days last summer. 1 . . . . (I I can I work I for I just a few days) J: Absolutely. Anything from two days to two months. M: That's great. I have about a week in June. How much does it cost to take part? J: It's free . M: Sorry? 2 (I I have to I pay I for I my accommodation) J: No, it's completely free. You just have to register by filling out a form and sending it to us. M: 3 .................................................... (I I can I do I that I online) J: Sure, you can. It's on our website. -1 ..................................................•. (you I have I visited I our website) M: Yes, I've had a quick look. And where on the trail can I work? J: New Mexico, Montana, Wyoming ... M: 5 ..................................................... (you I have I something I in Colorado) That's where I live. J: Yes, we do. We have spaces in Winfield and a few in Mount Elbert. M: 6 . __ ....... (and I you I give I training I first) J: It's on the job training, unless it's very specific. We 're looking for a chef at the moment. 7 ............................................... (you I want I to be I a chef) M: No. I just want to help build some trails ...

Speaking 11 Ask negative or tag questions to try to persuade

sentences in Exercise 8 with the correct intonation. Then listen and check your pronunciation.

others of your opinions about these aspects of travel. Speak to as many people as possible. • beach holidays • experiencing local culture • travelling alone

PLANNING A STAYCATION A LEITER OF COMPLAINT

~

[email protected]

AN UNUSUAL HOTEL

GETIING AROUND

• trying out local food • voltmteer vacations • working abroad

73

reading historical hotels • critical thinking claims and justifications • word focus mind • speaking and writing an unusual hotel

Ge Unusual places to stay Reading 1 Work in pairs. Make a list of what you look for in a place to stay on holiday (comfort, a beautiful setting, modern facilities, etc.). Then compare your list w ith another pair.

2 Read the extract from a travel magazine's

Critical thinking claims and justifications 6 Each of these hotels claims to offer an authentic experience. For each hotel say what the experience is, which facts support this claim, and which facts, if any, don't support it.

guide to unusual places. Answer the questions. 1 Which seem like comfortable places to stay? 2 Which seem to have the most disadvantages?

3 Read the article again. Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. 1 Karosta's own description of its hotel:

a is surprising. b is not truthful. 2 The writer thinks the cost of a night in prison: a is too high. b is about right. 3 For a long time after the gold rush Virginia City: a was uninhabited. b was a rich tow n. 4 The cabins at the Nevada City Hotel are: a all new ly built. b a mix of old and new. 5 The caves of Sassi di Matera have always been: a lived in. b used to store things. 6 The new owners have tried to keep the original: a furniture . b feel of the caves. 7 In a lot of art hotels the art is not: b very prominent. a very good. 8 The different rooms at the Propeller Island City Lodge are decorated : a in a dramatic way. b in a similar way.

4 All these words describe parts of a building. Find them in the article and discuss their meaning with your partner. Use a dictionary if necessary. balcony balustrade earth roofs saloon

5

74

corridor vaulted ceilings

Which of these places would you prefer to stay in? What are your reasons? Tell your partner.

Hotel

Claims to be ...

Supporting facts

Contradictory facts

7 Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Does it matter that some of the claims the hotels make are not alw ays justified? 2 Does it m ake you less likely to trust them ? 3 Does it make you less likely to stay there?

Word focus mind 8 Work in pairs. In each paragraph there is an expression w ith the word mind. Discuss if it is a noun or a verb, and w hat it means. Then work out what these other expressions w ith mind mean. 1 I am in two minds about whether to stay at a hotel or drive back home that night. 2 Mind how you go in the city. It can get dangerous there at night. 3 If you change your mind about corning w ith me, let m e know before Friday. 4 I'm sure you can think of a solution if you put your mind to it. 5 Sorry I haven 't got back to you about the weekend. I've had a lot on my mind lately. 6 Sorry, I know I've heard his name before but m y mind's gone blank.

9 Write three sentences w ith different phrases w ith mind, but leave a blank w here the phrase should be. Exchange sentences with another pair and fill in the blanks.

Speaking and writing 10 Work in small groups. Create your own idea for an unusual place to stay. Discuss: • • • •

w here the hotel is how your hotel is different w hether it should be luxuriou or basic w hat facilities y ou can offer that fit with the the m e

11 Write a short description of it. Then present your idea to the class. Vote for which one ounds the most interesting.

Unit 6 Alternative travel

PRISON HOTELS

Built in 1905, Karosta naval jail in Latvia was originally home to mutinous Russian sailors. In the 1970s it housed political prisoners. According to their website this is 'an opportunity to stay overnight on real pri soners' benches and mattresses'. In direct contrast to most hotel publicity, the website goes on to describe Karosta proudly as 'unfriendly, unheated and uncomfortable'. They are not lying. This is more a reality jail experience than a hotel. 'Reception' is a dark corridor where a former prison guard explains the rules to you (no luggage except a toothbrush, no attempts to escape), and then fires his gun in the air to show you he is serious. After a meal of bread and sweet Russian tea, 'guests' are given five minutes to wash before making up their own bed from a wooden bench and thin mattress. Sound unpleasant? It is. Mind you, for $12 per night, what do you expect?

-

PERIOD HOTELS Would you like to experience life in America's Wild West 150 years ago?Virginia City in Montana, a former gold-rush town, was a ghost town until it began to be restored in the 1950s for tourism. Owned la rgely by the state government, the town operates now as a large open-air museum. Nearby is the Nevada City Hotel and cabins where you can hang up your Stetson hat and enjoy life as a cowboy. The rooms feature period Victorian furniture and downstairs the saloon has a true Wild West feel. The cabins look extremely rustic and basic from the outside - two even have their original earth roofs - but inside they have large double beds and private bathrooms. Bear in mind that if you book in the week, you might be disappointed because the city only comes to life at weekends, when actors walk around in period costumes, such as sheriffs, cowboys and gold prospectors.

CAVE HOTELS If you had more primitive accommodation in mind, why not try the caves of Sassi di Matera on the toe of Italy, which have been inhabited since the Bronze Age? During the Renai ssance they developed into more sophisticated rooms with stone walls, vaulted ceilings and ba lustrades. But in recent history they are best known as the poor homes of the peasants who lived there with their animals until as late as 1952. Now, however, they have been renovated to provide hospitality in a historical setting. Although visitors to Le Grotte Della Civita must do without television or fridges, the rooms are comfortably furni shed with antique furniture and period terracotta tiles. The owners wanted the caves to still feel as authentic as possible, so they have built the furniture into the walls of the caves and left in place the iron rings where peasants tied up their animals. Prices start at $300 per night.

ART HOTELS

A modern art gallery is a place where you can lose yourself in an artist's vision of the world. A hotel is essentially a place where you can spend the night, in either more or less comfort according to your budget. As its advertising promises, Propeller Island City Lodge in Berlin manages to combine the two. Housed in a former apartment block, the hotel is a collection of individually designed rooms - the upside-down room , the all-orange room, the mirror-filled room - which are often so extreme that you have no choice except to get into the spirit of it. In some art hotels, you could forget the art and simply enjoy the comfort of your surroundings. That's not the case with Propeller Island. However, the rooms can be small and claustrophobic (although some have balconies) and often you have to share a bathroom with other guests. But if you don't mind that, it may be the next best thing to spending the night in a gallery.

PLANNING A STAYCATION A LEITER OF COMPLAINT

TRAVEL

11>-

AN UNUSUAL HOTEL

GEITING AROUND

75

real life getting around • pronunciation intonation in sentences with two clauses

Gd Couch surfing Real life getting around

5 Pronunciation intonation in sentences with two clauses

1 Work in p airs. Take one minute to rea d this description of couch surfing. Then discuss how couch surfing works. Is it somethin g you would d o? Why? I Why not?

a

Totice h ow the speaker's intonation rises at the end of the firs t clause, indicating that they have not finished sp eaking.

2 You are going to listen to a conversa tion between a

I wanted to pick you up, but my car 's at the garage that d ay. You could just get a taxi, but it's about eleven kilometres from the centre.

couch surfer and a host. Look at the box . Who d o you think says each expression ?

3 '§I 1.41 Listen to the conversa ti on . Check your answers from Exercise 2.

b

4 ~ 1.41 Listen again. Complete the expressions. .... GETTING AROUND I'm coming in by 1 ............................................. I w an t ed t o pi ck yo u up, but 2 .................................................... Th at 's 3 ............................ , but I can make my own w ay. ................. _ ? How do I get t o 4 ... Yo u cou ld j ust get 5 ............... . ...• A lternativel y, yo u ca n hop o n 6 ............................................... . Look out fo r the 7 ....................................................... on you r rig ht. It's only a t w enty-m in ute 8 ....................................................... . The eas iest thin g is to 9 I'll co me out and 10 ....................................... . If I get held up, I'll 11 .................•................ . But othe rw ise, expect a call arou nd six thirty.

~ 1.42 Listen to these two sentences w ith but .

Practise saying these sentences using the same intonation. 1 I'll try to get home by six, but I can't promise I will. 2 Normally it's a ten-minu te d rive, but the road works have made it longer. 3 I can 't make it today, but I'll p op over tom orrow. 4 It's kind of you to offer, but we can make our own way. 5 The bus is cheap, but the train is m uch quicker.

6 Work in p airs. Take turns to p lay the roles of couch surfer and host. As the guest, imagin e you come from another country and are touring the h ost's country. Telephone your host and ask about the best way to get to his/ her home from another city.

Originally the idea of a New Hampshire student w ho emailed 1,500 students at the University of Iceland ask ing if he could sleep the night on the ir couches, couch surfing is now an establ ished worldwide practice. This is how it works. When you have made your t ravel plans, you contact people on th e couch su rfing netw ork by email, t o find out if they can offer you a bed for the night in t he places you are going t o visit. There's no f ee. The only obligat ion on your part is to be able too er a place to stay at your ho e · hen someone asks in · he • re. Apart from being free, -he e efit is that you meet pe e :. ·: local knowledge. If , som e might even g-term friends .

76

[email protected]:{e}iii

m:iiiiJ

PLANNING A STAYCATION

A LETTER OF COMPLAINT

TRAVEL

AN UNUSUAL HOTEL

~

GETIING AROUND

Unit 6 Alternative travel

writing a letter of complaint • writing skill formal language

6e A disappointed customer Writing a letter of complaint

4 Writing skill formal language

1 Have you ever had a bad experience on holiday

a

that caused you to complain? What happened and w hat was the outcome?

2 Read this complaint from a guest about a stay in a hotel and answer the questions. 1 Why is the customer unhappy? 2 What does she want the hotel to do about it? 3 Does her complaint seem justified? 44 Ascot Street Oxford OX4 1EP Sweet Hotel Group 54 Pembroke Road London W86NX Dear Sir I Madam I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with my stay at the Victoria Arms Hotel on 12th April. I made a reservation through another website which was offering one night for two people with an evening meal and breakfast for £110. However, when we arrived at 5.30 p .m. we were informed that there was no table available in the restaurant and that we could either dine at 6.00 p.m. or find another restaurant in the town . We had the strong impression that because it was a discounted offer, we did not receive the same level of hospitality as regular, full -paying guests. The situation was both embarrassing and inconvenient. After some discussion with the staff, we opted to dine in the restaurant, but much later than we wished - at 9.30 p.m. No one apologised for this. Given the circumstances, compensation is not my principal concern. Rather, I would ask you to investigate the matter thoroughly to ensure this does not arise in future with other guests.

-I

I

Find the formal words or phrases in the letter that say the following: 1 say I was unhappy 2 we were told ;) " 4 5 6

a cheap deal get after we talked to chose to eat

7 wanted 8 what worries me most 9 look into 10 make sure

b Convert the phrases in bold in these sentences into more formal language. Use the letter to help you. 1 We want to tell you how unhappy we were with the standard of the food on the cruise ship Golden Dawn. Example: We wislz to express our dissatisfaction with the standard of the food on the cruise ship Golden Dawn. 2 I told the receptionist that I had booked the room for two nights, not one. 3 After I'd talked to the manager, she said she was sorry and promised to look into the problem w ith the shower. But no action was taken. 4 I would have expected that the safety of the guests was what the staff were most worried about. 5 Given the trouble this caused us, we expected to get some money back. 6 The manager said no other rooms were free, but if the opportunity came up, she'd move us.

5 Read the situation and then write a letter of complaint to the hotel. You recently stayed at a small hotel in the centre of Oxford in the UK. During the night you were woken up by some noisy people trying to climb a wa ll into

Yours faithfully

the hotel courtyard. You went down to reception

AD

to tell a member of the hotel staff but no one was there. You are angry and upset that no staff were on

\.__;

Ann Dunhill

duty during the night.

6 Exchange letters and read your partner 's letter. Use these questions to check their letter.

3 Work in pairs. Formal letters follow certain conventions. Answer the questions. 1 What is the correct position for each address? 2 When do we write Yours faithfu lly and when do we write Yours sincerely? 3 Where is the reason for writing mentioned? 4 Where is the request to the recipient of the letter for action?

it~ili·! :Iellii

mm . .

PLANNING A STAYCATION

A LETTER OF COMPLAINT

TRAVEL

• Does it begin with the reason for writing? • Does it end with what action is expected? • Does it use rhetorical or other types of question to be persuasive?

AN UNUSUAL HOTEL

GETTING AROUND

77

6f East Timor

East Timor ... for the intrepid few, an emerging tourism destination w ith unspoiled natural beauty.

Unit 6 Alternative travel

Before you watch

6 Wa tch the whole video again. Number the extracts in the order you hear them.

1 Work in groups. Look at the photo of East Timor and discuss the questions.

1 What do you know about East Timor? 2 Why do you think the caption says that East Timar is 'for the intrepid few '? What does this suggest about the cow1try?

2 Only two of these scenes appear in the video you are going to watch. Tick the tvvo scenes. a a person sunbathing on a tropical beach b builders renovating a damaged building c a group of people pulling in fishing nets from the sea d tourists having drinks in a hotel bar

While you watch 3 Watch the video and check your answers from Exercise 2.

4 Watch the first part of the video (to 00.45). Complete the conversation between a journalist (J) and Ann Turner (A).

J:

Hi Ann, where do you work?

A:

i ....................

J: Why did you first come to East Timor? A: z ........................ ··················-····-··· ········

-··-·········-··

J:

And when did you decide that you wanted to stay?

A:

3

·-······

J: What four things would you say impressed you most? A:

J:

A:

.i ··············-· ·····························- ············-···· ....... ·················-····--·-·-·-- ····················-·····-····-·············

How many fish species are there? 5

················································ ........... ...................................

.. .......................... .

J: Why is there such a huge diversity of fish species here? A:

6 ...................... .

5 Watch the second part of the video (00.46 to the end). Answer the questions. 1 What is the main p roblem on East Timor?

2 How long has East Timor been independent? 3 What happened after people in East Timor voted for independence? 4 What is the government worried about? 5 What policies is the government working on? 6 What should people who want to start a tourism business in East Timor do?

a The subsequent recovery effort has been painfully slow. b Welcome to East Timor, one of the world's newest cow1tries. c It faces an age-old predicament: how to make the most of its natural assets without destroying them. d East Timor is a former war zone. e We are still developing policies and regulations.

After you watch 7 Roleplay talking about a new project Work in pairs. Student A: Imagine you are an expatriate, living on East Timor. You want to build a small beach hotel. Look at the ideas below. Think about what you are going to say to a government official. • w hat you hope to do • how you will ensure the environment is protected • how your hotel w ill benefit the local economy Student B: Imagine you are an East Timor government official. Look at the information below. Think about what you are going to say to an expatriate business person. • You are interested in attracting tourism to your country but you also want to protect the environment. • Find out how the beach hotel project will do both. Act out the conversation. Then change roles and act out the conversation again with a new business. Decide whether the business is a good idea or not.

8 Work in groups and discuss these questions. 1 Which areas of your country attract tourists? 2 How does tourism contribute to the economy of your country? 3 What impact does it have on natural assets? 4 Do you think the government does enough to protect the natural assets of your country? asset (n) / ''if.set/ a va luable possession emerging (adj) /J' m3:cJ.31IJ/ in the process of being formed expatriate (n) /eks'p'iI:.tri;:it/ someone who lives in a foreign country infrastructure (n) / 'mfr;:istrAk!f;:i/ basic services that are necessary for a community to fu nction intrepid (adj) /m 'treprd/ brave, wi ll ing to take risks meagre (adj) / 'mi:g;:i/ small militia (n) /m;:i'hf;:i/ an armed group rampage (v) /r'if:.m'pe1d.3/ behave in a w ild and violent way ru in (v) /'ru:m/ destroy unspoiled (adj) IAn'sp:)lld/ in the natura l state

79

-

UNIT 6 REVIEW Grammar

Vocabulary

1 Work in pairs. Look at the photo. What kind of

5 Put in the correct preposition to complete these

tourist attraction do you think this is?

2 Read the conversation and see if you were right. 3 What is Pauline's idea for her next holiday? Why has she decided this?

4 Complete the conversation using a phrase w ith not in each space.

questions about holidays. 1 Do you prefer to cater for yourself or do you generally eat ___ when you 're on holiday? 2 Do you like to try ___ new food when you're on holiday or do you prefer to play safe? 3 Do you generally join __ _ with group activities and organised excursions or do you prefer to do things alone? 4 If you had two weeks __ __ work, how far would you consider travelling on holiday? 5 Before you can enter the cotmtry, you have to fill . ·····-- an immigration form. 6 Try not to stay __ _too late, we have an early start tomorrow.

6 Work in pairs. Ask each other the questions in Exercise 5. ICAN use phrasal verbs with in and out talk about holidays and travel

Real life 7 Work in pairs. Find the correct ending from list B for each phrase in list A.

M =Marina; P =Pauline M: You're planning to go to Mexico for your holidays, 1 P: That was the plan, but I've 2 _________ (decide / go) now. I thought to m yself, 'You're always _ (find) travelling to exotic places. Why 3 out something about your own country for a change?' M: That's interesting. That's called a staycation, .i You'll certainly save a lot of money. P: Well, I hope so. But I 5 ......... (want I stay) at home. I'm going to travel around the north of France. Giverny, the garden w here Monet painted his water lilies, is one place I'd really like to go. I 6 _ ...... (hope I rain) a lot. M: Where are you going to stay? Or have 7 .... (decide) yet? P: I'll take a tent with me, but I 8 _______ (think / I will use) it all the time. Let's 9 _______ (be) too ambitious! I'll stay in guest houses sometimes. M: Well, I think it sounds like a great idea. It means you 10 --········· (must I worry) about visas and changing money and vaccinations and all that sort of thing. ICAN use not correctly with hope, think, want, let, must and in the infinitive make negative questions and negative tag questions

80

A

B

I'm coming in The easiest thing is to hop I'll pick you up I'll call if I get held up Look out for the Hoover building I can easily make It's only a ten-minute How do I get

in traffic. my own way. ride. to your house? by train. on a bus. on your right. from the station.

8 Tell your partner how to get to a well-known meeting point in your town when they have arrived by public transport. ICAN describe the best way to get to one place from another ask for directions and travel advice

Speaking 9 Work in pairs. What do you look for when choosing where to go on holiday? Tell each other w hich of these things are more important to you and why: • the comfort OR the experience • the journey OR the destination itself • familiarity with the place OR not knowing anything about it • relaxation OR beina active

Unit 7 Natural resources ...

1'~

~, . , I ~ I ' · .. ~ .r1 I

FEATURES

1f'

.

1 Work in pairs. Look at the photo. How many natural resources can you identify?

82

Water conservation air animals plants+ fruits

How conscious are we of the need to save water?

84 The minister for no oil

2 Match the words (1-5) to their definitions (a-e) . Then discuss which words apply to the natural resources in Exercise 1.

Ecuador 's plan to protect natural resources

86

90

1 abundant 2 exhaustible 3 inexhaustible

A world of its own

4 renewable 5 scarce

The fight to save Madagascar's unique ecology

3

Galapagos energy A video about controlling pollution in the Galapagos Islands

CONSERVATION A LETTER TO THE PRESS

WISHES

fossil fuels (e .g. coal, oil, gas) minerals soi l sunlight trees w ater w ind

a b c d e

nature can replace what is used in plentiful supply can be used up difficult to find will never be used up

~ 2.1 You are going to listen to an ecologist describe the three 'R's approach to saving natural resources. Discuss what these three words beginning with 'R' could be. Then listen and check.

4 'i 2.1 Listen again. What examples does she give for each of the three 'R's? Do you do any of these things yourself?

STRONG FEELINGS

CLIMATE CHANGE

81

l

speaking how we use water • listening saving w ater • grammar mixed conditiona l senten ces • pronunciation contractions in condit ionals • vocabulary and speaking conservation

7a Water conservation 4 ~ 2.2 Listen again and answer the questions.

Speaking 1 Work in pairs. Why do people talk about the need to save water when over 70 per cent of the Earth's surface is covered by water? Read the article and see if your answer was similar.

So what if peop le waste a lot of water - we've got enoug h, haven't we? WeiI, we may have a lot of sea water, but we are using fresh water faster than nature can rep lace it. So instead we are forced to recycle waste water, cl ean ing it and t hen pi pi ng it into people's homes. That process requires a lot of energy - running a tap for five minutes uses the same energy as burning a 60 watt light bu lb for fourteen hours and a lot of money. Also, when underground natural water reservoirs (or aquifers) get low on water, they can become co nta minated with high co ncentrations of natural minerals like arsen ic, or man-made chemica ls from t he ground. To prevent thi s, we need to keep t hese reservoirs well-stocked. So conserve water and you will save money and the planet. A six minute shower

55 litres

A hamburger

2500 Iitres*

A serving of goat meat

42 litres

A 50g bar of chocolate

1410 litres

A serving of chicken

580 litres*

A cup of coffee

135 litres

Flushing the toilet

8 litres

500 sheets of paper

22,500 litres

A slice of bread

40 litres

Y2 kilo of clean wool

85,000 litres

in the case of the farm animals only a few litres were drunk by the animals or used in processing; the majority of the water went into the grain they were fed during their lives

2 Look at the facts about the water needed for various everyday things. Answer the questions. 1 Are you surprised by any of the facts? Why? 2 Can you draw any conclusions from them about the best ways to save water?

Listening 3

~ 2.2 Listen to four people from different

countries (the United Kingdom, United Arab Emirates, the United States and Mexico) talking about water. What does each say about: 1 their own attitude to water use? 2 what they think will happen if water is not conserved?

Speaker 1 1 How does Liam describe Manchester? 2 What does he do when he brushes his teeth? Speaker 2 3 What is the problem with desalinating water? 4 What is Gemal researching? Speaker 3 5 How has the Colorado Delta changed in the last 100 years? 6 What is the river water used for? Speaker 4 7 What practical water saving measures does Carmen take in the home? 8 \!\That does she suggest about other people's attitudes to water use?

5 Are any of the situations the speakers described similar to that of your country?

Grammar mixed conditional sentences 6 Work in pairs. Look at the if sentences (1-6). Answer the questions (a- c) . a v\Thich sentences describe present situations and present consequences? b Which describe past situations and past consequences? c Which are a mixture of the two? 1 If we had known the facts, we would not have wasted so much water in the past. Example:

We didn't know the facts , so we wasted a lot of water in the past. 2 If I had been brought up in Saharan Africa, I would be a lot more conscious of water conservation. 3 If we all used less water, the w ater companies wouldn't have to use so much energy treating water. 4 If desalination methods didn't exist, this country would not have been able to develop in the way it has. 5 If you had visited the area arotmd the old delta in Mexico 100 years ago, you w ould be shocked to see it now. 6 If more people thought and acted like me, things would not haYe come to this point.

Unit 7 Natural Resources ..•

9

.... MIXED CONDITIONAL SENTENCES First conditional (for present or future situations)

If+ present simple, ... will+ infinitive (without to) ...

Look at these facts about the use of nahiral resources around the world . Then make hypotheses based on them. Use one of the conditional forms in the grammar box.

-

Second conditional

If+ past simple, ... would+ infinitive (without to) ...

1 The Aral Sea in central Asia (a huge freshwater lake) is now one-tenth of the size it was in the 1960s because water has been used by farmers to irrigate their fields. 2 As a desert town, Las Vegas has to import a lot of water. But a lot of it goes on watering green spaces, particularly the 60 golf courses that have been built around the city. 3 Sixteen million tourists visit Greece each year, causing shortages of water on many of its islands. 4 In the 1970s Britain found a lot of gas in the orth Sea. But rather than use it carefully, they used it immediately. Now more than 50 per cent of Britain's gas is imported.

Third conditional If+ past perfect, ... would have+ past participle Mixed second and third conditional If+ past simple, ... would have+ past participle Mixed third and second conditional If+ past perfect, ... would+ infinitive (without to) ... For further information and practice, see page 165.

7 Look at the grammar box. Then make conditional sentences based on the information in these situations. 1 We bought a cheap dishwasher that wasn't very efficient. As a result, we use a lot more water than \Ve need to. 2 I don't use the dishwasher much, because no one told me that you use more water washing dishes by hand. 3 You wasted a lot of water in the past because you washed your car by hand instead of using a car wash. 4 Automatic carw ashes are really expensive. As a result, I haven't used them very often. 5 Our water use is way above the average because we built a big swimming pool in the garden. So much of the w ater just evaporates away! 6 We water the garden when the temperature is cool, so that the water doesn't just evaporate away. 7 The United States has a shortage of w ater because they have tried to cultivate areas w ith a desert climate. 8 We changed our habits after we saw a shocking TV programme about how much water is wasted.

Vocabulary and speaking 10 Work in pairs. Match each verb in A with as many nouns in B as you can. Then tell each other if you do any of these actions or support others who do.

rJ

8 Pronunciation contractions in conditionals ~ 2.3 Listen to the contracted forms in these

conserve consume preserve protect run out of save spend waste

sentences and repeat. 1 If we hadn't built desalination plants, we'd still be fetching water from the well. 2 If you'd visited this area twenty years ago, you'd've seen a very different river. 3 If they don't act now, maybe it'll be too late. 4 If people'd been more careful, things wouldn't've come to this point. 5 If there's no rain, the river 'll dry up.

[email protected]·!:i•liii .., ««•U413;VZ·Sit1UI

mmII

A LEITER TO THE PRESS

WISHES

[ ] animals energy

food petrol

forests land time water

money

11 Think about how your country has saved or

STRONG FEELINGS

wasted resources and write conditional sentences about them. Then mingle with the other students and tell each other your ideas. Choose the best idea and tell the class.

CLIMATE CHANGE

83

vocabulary oil • reading Ecuador's plan to protect natural resources • grammar wish, would rather and if only • speaking wishes

7 b The minister for no oil

One thing you do not expect an oil minister to do is to block the development of his own country's oil fields. But that is exactly what Alberto Acosta did when he was appointed Ecuador's Oil Minister in 2007. For a relatively poor country whose main income is from oil exports, this proposal seemed like madness. But if Ecuador is not rich by economic standards, in terms of biodiversity, it is one of the richest places on Earth. \Nhen scientists studied trees in the Yasuni ational Park in Ecuador's unspoiled rain forest, they found over 650 different species of tree in just one hectare - more than the total number in all of the US and Canada combined.

Mr Acosta said he would rather the oil companies did not destroy these natural riches. His innovative idea was to leave the oil reserves beneath Yasuni Park untouched, in return for compensation of half their value. The oil is worth more than $7 billion, so Ecuador asked the international community to pay $3.6 billion not to extract it. But the plan has met with problems, both from within Ecuador and from outside. The state oil company, Petroecuador, opposes the scheme and many suspect that President Correa now wishes he had never supported it. At the same time only a few countries have shown interest, with only Germany promising $800 million over thi rteen years.

Vocabulary oil

Reading

1 How many of these expressions do you know?

3 Look at the sentences (a-c). Then read the article

Which is shown in the photo above? oil field oil slick

oil refinery oil reserves oil tanker oil well

and choose the sentence that best summarises Acosta's idea. oil rig

~ WORDBUILDING collocations related to one word.

There are some nouns that have many wo rds that collocate with them. oil well, oil tanker, oil field For further information and practice, see Workbook page 59.

2 Work in pairs. Discu ss the questions. 1 How much is a litre of petrol in your country? 2 Are people more careful these days about how they conserve oil or petrol? 84

Ecuador is not the only country trying to get richer nations to pay for not exploiting their forests. Both Nigeria and Guatemala are hoping they will be able to make similar deals. A spokesperson for local environmental groups explained, 'This is a fantastic initiative. If only people in developed countries appreciated that these forests absorb a lot of the CO, that their industries produce. I just wish- they would take a longer-term view of this problem. If we don't do something to protect biodiversity and prevent climate change, we will all be losers - with consequences I'd rather not even think abo ut:

a for Ecuador to use money from oil exports to protect its forests b for Ecuador to be paid not to extract its oil c for Ecuador to keep the oil underground until it really needs the money

4 Answer the questions. 1 Why did Acosta's propo eem like madness? 2 In w hat way was the price Acosta asked other countries to pay a fair one. 3 What has been the reac ·on of the international community to the plan. 4 What has been the rea ·o. of local environmental grou_ - .

Unit 7 Natural Resources

7 Look at the grammar box. Look at these sentences from the article. Then choose the option that describes the actual situation. 1 Mr Acosta said he would rather the oil companies did not destroy these natural riches. The oil companies destroy I don't destroy these natural riches. 2 President Correa now wishes he had never supported it. President Correa supported I didn 't support it. 3 If only people in developed countries appreciated that these forests absorb a lot of the co?that their industries produce. People -in developed countries appreciate I don't appreciate that these forests absorb a lot of the co2that their industries produce. 4 I just wish they would take a longer-term view of this problem. They will I won't take a longer-term view of this problem.

5 Complete these statements using words from the article. Use one word per space. 1 Ecuador's riches are in its . . 2 In Yasuni park, Ecuador has oil . . .. worth $7 billion. 3 The main opposition to the plan in Ecuador comes from 4 There are other countries who would like to be paid not to ............................ their natural resources. 5 People in the developed world don't ............. the part played by the forests in preventing climate change. 6 People need to think about w hat w ill happen in the

6 Work in pairs. What do you think of Acosta's idea? Is it helpful for Ecuador? Is it unrealistic?

Grammar wish, would rather and if only ~ WISH, WOULD RATHER and IF ONLY Wish about a present situation wish+ noun/pronoun +past simple

Strong wishes about a present or past situation Use if only in place of I wish Stating what you would prefer to do would rather+ infin itive Stating what you would prefer someone else to do would rather+ object+ past simple For further informat ion and practice, see page 166.

CONSERVATION

A LETTER TO THE PRESS

~

lt.flf1!i\i

1 I wish people stopped I would stop complaining about the price of petrol these days. 2 I wish they didn 't cut down I hadn't cut down those trees in the park to make a playground. 3 Would you rather walk I walked or would you prefer we go I went in the car? 4 Most oil companies wish they had I would have the freedom to extract oil from wherever they wanted. 5 If only we didn 't have /wouldn't have to rely on our cars so much, but that's the problem with living in the countryside. 6 If only I could speak I would speak better Spanish. Then I might try to get a job in Ecuador. 7 Sophie wishes that she had taken I would take a job with BP when she had the chance. She'd much rather work I worked for them than her present company. 8 I wish people woke up I would wake up to the problems of climate change.

9 Look at these situations and make two sentences

Wish for someone to do something about a present situation wish + noun/pronoun + would NB subject of wish and noun/pronoun cannot be the same

1£.Uj-!;{.jiii

sentences below.

Speaking

Wish about a past situation wish + noun/pronoun + past perfect

miJ

8 Choose the correct form to complete the

STRONG FEELINGS

for each one with wish, if only or would rather. Then read your sentences to your partner. 1 Your car is old and uses a lot of petrol. You don't have enough money to buy a new one. 2 You would like to travel more, but the company you work for only gives you three weeks holiday a year. 3 Your journey to work takes you one hour by train each day. As a result you never get home before seven in the evening. You never have time to do any exercise, which you would love to do. CLIMATE CHANGE

BS

reading Madagascar's unique ecology • critical thinking emotive language • vocabulary strong feelings

-

7c A world of its own Reading 1 Work in pairs. Look at the facts on page 87 about the island of Madagascar for two minutes and then cover the page. Get your partner to ask you three questions about these facts. Then get them to cover their books and ask them three other questions.

2 Read the article. Answer the questions. 1 Which of Madagascar's natural resources is the author most worried about? 2 How is this resource collected and where does it go from there? 3 What examples of sustainable ways of making money from these natural resources are mentioned?

3 Choose the correct option (a-c) to complete the sentences. 1 Madagascar has unusual ___ a trees b animals c plants and animals 2 The Madagascan people are _ a very poor b very anxious c very practical 3 Cultivating crops meant ............. _ a clearing the forest carefully b setting fire to forest c getting government permission 4 Former President Marc Ravalomanana was a more ecologically-minded b an inexperienced politician c popular with the military 5 The new government passed a law allowing people to . . . . . .......................... a cut down hardwood trees b export hardwood to China c sell wood from fallen hardwood trees 6 For many Madagascans cutting down hardwood trees is . ................................................... . a an easy way to make money b necessary to make furniture c against their beliefs 7 Other types of tree are cut down to a build boats for Madagascans b make medicines c transport the hardwoods 8 The forest offers locals other ways to make money, such as · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ···a developing new medicines b taking tourists on guided walks c exporting flowers 86

Critical thinking emotive language 4 Often, when writers feel very strongly about an issue, they w ill use strong or emotive language to try to make the reader have similar feelings. Find the key words in bold in sentences 1-6 in the article. Then find the emotive words or phrases that convey: 1 how individual Madagascar is (para 1) 2 how hard the lives of the local people are (para 2 and 5) 3 how strongly ecologists feel about the situation (para 3) 4 how inconsiderate the loggers are (para 4) 5 how impressive and special these hardwood trees are (para 4) 6 how hopeless the situation is (para 7)

5 Do you think that by using such language, the writer helps his argument? Or would it be better to give a more balanced argument? What facts or information would you include to do this?

Vocabulary strong feelings 6 Replace the words in bold with words from the article to make these sentences more emotive. 1 A lot of efforts are being made to preserve this individual place. (para 1) 2 You could tell that she was anxious to get the job. (para 2) 3 Everyone disapproves of this use of force by the government against its own people. (para 3) 4 A number of oil companies now want to take oil from the Arctic. (para 4) 5 It is a beautiful view, with the tall and elegant mountains in the background (para 4) 6 Archaeology is much more physical and tiring work than most people think. (para 5) 7 With no prospect of a job, the future fo r many young people looks hopeless. (para 7) 8 All environmentalists seem very interested in climate change. (p ara 7)

7 Work in pairs. Think of a place that is very special and should be protected (e.o. a local green space, a traditional community). \\"rite a short description of it (100-150 words) usino emoti,·e language. Then read your description to the class. Vote on which description is the mo persuasive.

Unit 7 Natural Resources

.\lladagascar is an island - the world's fo urth largest, at over 225 ,000 square miles - but an island nevertheless. Although all islands have their own unique ecosystems, nature has blessed Madagascar with exceptional riches. Roughly 90 per cent of its flora and fauna is fo und nowhere else on the planet. The spectacle of its carrot-shaped baobab trees and ghostly lemurs make even the most well-travelled visitors wide-eyed with amazement and delight. But its rare beauty hides the desperate situation of its people. The typical Madagascan lives on about a dollar a day, even though you would not guess this from the attitude of the ~1 alagasy, the island's main ethnic group, who are a heerful and optimistic race. ince the firs t humans arrived in Madagascar some 2,300 years ago, loggers and developers have destroyed nearly 90 Qer cent of the island's ori%inal forest hahi.tat..., harvesting it for timber or burning it down to create room for crops and, more recently, cattle. Considering that Madagascar's population is growing by three per cent a year, this tension between rich land and poor residents is increasing day by day. Alarmed ecologists have named Madagascar a biodiversity hot spot, deploring the practice of slash-and- burn agriculture. In 2002 the global environmental community rejoiced when green friendly Marc Ravalomanana was elected president. But only even years later, in the spring of 2009, the military replaced Ravalomanana with a former radio disc jockey who seemed to have little interest in protecting the environment. . .eeding money, the new government reversed a ban on the export of precious hardwoods, making it legal to sell wood fro m trees which had already been cut down or had fallen duri ng the cyclones that regularly hit the island. Yet in reality they did little to control the loggers who continued to rob the fo rests of new wood. The main ta rgets of this environmental rime are the rosewood tree and the ebony tree. The wood

from these majestic trees is in high demand: in China it is used to make exotic imperial-style furniture for the new middle class; in Europe and America it is a valued material in the manufac ture of expensive musical instruments. The locals are caught in a trap. Poverty and the high value of rosewood - at $3,000 per cubic metre it is ten times as valuable as oak - have driven them to cut down trees that are traditionally believed to be sacred. It is dangerous and backbreaking work. Using hand axes, in a few hours they bring down a tree that has stood tall for many centuries. Then they cut the trees into two-metre logs and drag these several kilometres to the nearest river. The rare hardwood trees are not the only casualties. In order to transport the heavy rosewood logs downriver, rafts must be built from other wood. For each raft the loggers cut down four or five lighter trees from near t'ne r'tvers'tae, causing the earth to erode and silt up the rivers. At the same time animals' natural habitat has been disturbed, putting their survival at risk. In this bleak landscape what can bring hope? One man's work may offer a possible ro ute out of the darkness. Olivier Behra who firs t came to Madagascar from France in 1987 believes that the only solution is to give local people economic alternatives. Almost single-handedly, he has stopped deforestation in the Vohimana forest by encouraging the locals instead to collect medicinal plants, which they never imagined had any monetary value, and sell them overseas to companies like Chanel. The village lemur hunter has been retrained to act as a guide for tourists obsessed with lemurs. The same tourists also pay to visit the wild orchid conservatory that Behra has set up. Can small-scale and sensitive initiatives like this compete with the rosewood mafia of Madagascar? Only time will tell.

4TH LARGEST isl and in the w orld

after Greenland, New Guinea and

Borneo 90 % of its flora and fauna is found

nowhere else on Earth Number 1 produce r of vanil la in the

w orld 22 MILLION : population of

Madagascar

70 diffe rent species of lemur live only on Madagasca r 18 different ethnic groups of Asian and African origin 300 YEARS : the time it takes a

rosewood tree to reach maturity 24,560 TONNES of ebony and

rosewood exported in 2009, much of it illegally

-

real life making your point • pronunciation sentence stress

-

7d The climate change debate Real life making your point 1 Work in pairs. What causes climate change? Is it man-made or a natural phenomenon? Use the expressions below to help you.

col emissions fossil fu els global warming

natural weather cycle the greenhouse effect

2 'l'j 2.4 Listen to four people discussing climate

3

4 ~ 2.4 Discuss which of the techniques (a-e) each speaker used to make their point. Then listen and check. a b c d e

humour challenging the question itself speaking clearly and slowly illustrating with examples / stories anticipating counter-arguments

5 Which technique did you find most effective? Which technique do you prefer yourself? Tell your partner.

change and indicate whether each thinks it is man-made 0 or not IBJ .

6 Pronunication sentence stress

Speaker 1: Erika D Speaker 2: Andy D

a ,,, 2.5 When making their point, each speaker

Speaker 3: Jane D Speaker 4: Ralph D

~ 2.4 Listen again. Complete the expressions in

the box (1-6) that the speakers use to make their points. .... MAKING YOUR POINT

Imagine

·····--·····-·····-····--··-····-···

hair .. .

Stressing a point The point is that .. . I, for one, 2 _____..________..________ in how I pollute ... Look, there's no doubt that To be honest w ith yo u, ...

I don' t know and I'm not sure anyone knows for sure. (2 words)

b 'l'j 2.6 Underline the words which you think are

Giving examples Take ... , for example .. . Let me give you an example ... 1

uses word stress to emphasise the important words. Listen to this example.

3 ......- ..... _ .............._____ • • .

Rejecting an argument I don't accept that. I used to believe 4 ... ............................ , but .. . Yeah, but that's not the point. I (don't) believe it simpl y because 5 .................- .............. . Challenging the question itself The w hole starting point for th is debate is w rong. We're approaching this debate all wrong by saying ..........................._..___ ...... problem .

most stressed. Then listen and check. 1 We don' t know that we're causing it, but some people say we might be. (2 words) 2 ... scraping ice off the inside of m y w indows rather than the outside. (2 words) 3 Regional temperatures may be lower, but average global temperatures carry on rising. (2 words) 4 Because it's not just an environmental problem. It's an economic problem, a social problem, even an ethical problem. (4 words)

7 Work in pairs. Choose one of the solutions to climate change given below. Work out arguments in favour of this solution. Think about the techniques you will use to make your point and the examples you could give. Then get together with another pair who have chosen a different solution and have a debate. The solution to climate change is: • forcing people to use less energy by increasing the price of fuel • paying poor countries to protect their forests • finding a technological solution to cool the Earth (e.g. putting millions of tiny mirrors in space to reflect the sun' ray ) • trying to get all countrie to ign an international agreement to limit co2emissions

writing a letter to the press • word focus better • writing skill giving vivid examples

Unit 7 Natural Resources

7e Waste of energy Writing a letter to the press

the fun ctions (a-d) to each p aragraph. Discuss whether these elements could be organised differently.

local or n ational? Do you enjoy reading these? Have you ever written a letter to the press yourself?

a b c d

Read the letter. Answer the questions. 1 Who wrote the letter? 2 Why did they write it? 3 Do you find it persu asive? Why? I Why not?

Financial News

Underline all the phrases using the word better. Then match each one w ith one of the definitions (a-e) below. Compare your answers with your partner.

From Mr V. Dupeyrat.

In the morning I walk down the high street past shops w hose doo rs are wide open, blowi ng hot air into the street. At night I wal k home past fully-lit office buildings, when the workers have already left; past enormous flashing screens where advertisers try to go one better than their competitors. At the supermarket I take my frozen vegetables from a cooling cabinet that is completely open . My children leave the ir computers on when they go out and their phone chargers plugged in w ith no phone on the other end (though of course they should know better than that) . All th is waste illustrates two simple facts. Firstly, that energy is too cheap and we had better increase its pri ce substantially to make people more energy-conscious. Secondly, that no one really cons iders the public interest anymore. Just as it is in the public interest that there are speed lim its on our roads - though some people may not like it - so we would all be better off if we were forced by our governments to conserve energy.

~ Dupeyrat

CONSERVATION

A LETTER TO THE PRESS

not be so stupid in an improved (often economic) situa tion more useful or desirable improve on the effort of another really ought to

5 Writing skills giving vivid examples

a

What does the writer say ab out lights and towels to illustrate his argument?

b

Find fo ur m ore examples of illustrations of en ergy waste in the second paragraph.

6 Look at this list of things that annoy p eople about m odern life. Expand three of them to explain what is annoying about it, as in the example. Then compare w ith your partner. Exa mple: m agazines that ... are full of news about celebrities trains w hich ... m obile phones that ... TV sh ows ab out ... supermarket food that ... computer programs which ...

7 Write a short letter (150 words) to the press, talking ab out one of the item s in Exercise 6. Make su re you include the same elements as in the example letter. Then exch an ge letters with your p artner. Do they agree with the way you feel? to check their letter. Is it correctly organised and ending with a summary?

Head of Energy services DEF energy, London

mm ~

a b c d e

8 Read your p artner's letter. Use these questions

V.

1t.!li·!:l1liii

Examples that illustrate the problem A recommendation or call to action Th e reason for w riting A summary of the problem

4 Word focus better

Published: 20 Mar 2012

Sir, James Anderson (Travel section, 15 March) writes about the waste of energy in hotels: overheated rooms, lights that are left on all night, towels that are used once and then sent to be washed . He is right, but w hy stop with hotels? Would it not be better to mention all the other mindless waste that characterises modern life?

I

3 Work in pairs. H ow is the letter organised? Match

1 Do you ever read the letters page of newspapers,

2

_,

• Does it use enough examples? • Is it persuasiv e?

WISHES

STRONG FEELINGS

CLIMATE CHANGE

89

7f

Unit 7 Natural Resources

Before you watch 1 Work in groups. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. 1 What do you know about the Galapagos Islands? Make notes about: a their location. c what the islands b the population. are famous for. 2 What do you think Darwin meant when he called the Galapagos 'a little w orld within itself'?

2 Complete the video summary w ith words from the glossary below. Use the correct form where necessary. The Galapagos Islands are home to many unique species of plants and animals. How ever, recently human beings have invaded this tropical 1 2 .... ... ___ and workers . Tourism has 3 from the .. ..................................... have followed. This has created pollution from vehicle 4 ......................................... , the energy people use and the rubbish they produce, which harms the islands. N ow, 5 corporations and the government are working to minimise human impact.

While you watch 3 Watch the video and check your answ ers from Exercises 1 and 2.

4 Watch the first part of the video (to 02.41) and answer the questions. 1 Why did the animals on the Galapagos evolve into unique species? 2 What do people always say about the Galapagos?

6

Watch the second part again and answ er the questions. 1 What is the goal of the programme that international organisations and the Ecuadorian government are working on? 2 What four examples of conservation projects does the video show? a b c d

After you watch 7 Roleplay an interview with Leopoldo Bocheri More Work in pairs. Student A: Imagine you are going to interview Leopoldo Bocheri More. Read the information below and prepare a list of questions. Student B: Imagine you are Leopoldo Bocheri More. A journalist is going to interview you. Look at the information below and think about what you are going to say to the journalist. • the problems the Galapagos have • what the government is doing • what other help is needed Act out the interview. Then change roles and act out the interview again.

8 Work in groups and discuss these questions. 1 Are there any natural areas in your country that have been adversely affected by human activity? 2 Wha t can be done to protect such places?

3 What do the volcanic eruptions tell scientists? 4 How long have humans been living on the islands? 5 How much has the human population of the Galapagos increased since the 1980s? 6 What is one positive aspect of tourism?

7 What happened after the recent oil spill?

5 Watch the second part of the video (02.42 to the end). Tick the things you see. a a a a

bicycle a bird with a blue beak bird with a red beak black sandals blue dress boats a bus a motorbike pink T-shirt a recycling bin a seal a turtle

conservationist (n) /kons;i've1J;im st / a person who works to preserve nature contaminant (n) /bn 'tremm;mt/ something that pollutes emissions (n) II 'm1J;inz/ smoke and gas from machines haven (n) /'he1 v;in/ a place where people or animals can escape to leak (n) /li :k/ liquid or gas that escapes through a hole mainland (n) /'memlrend/ a large area of land that is not an island oil spill (n) /':HI spll/ when oil accidentally escapes from the place it is stored old-timer (n) /;iuld-'taim;i/ a person or animal who has lived in a place for a long time pristine (adj) / 'pnsti:n/ in perfect condition relic (n) / 'rehk/ something left over from the past revenue (n) /'rev;inju:/ money earned run aground (v) Ir An ;i'graund/ hit rocks or the bottom of the sea skyrocket (v) / 'sk a1rok1t/ to go up very quickly wake-up call (n) / 'we1k "-P b :I/ a w arning to pay attention

91

UNIT 7 REVIEW Grammar

Vocabulary

1 Work in pairs. Do you think that young people

4 Work in pairs. Find the odd one out in each group of

are more or less aware of the need to conserve resources than their parents' generation?

2 Read the extract from a blog discussing young people's attitude to resources. What kind of things are they aware of? And not aware of?

3 Choose the correct form of the verbs to complete the extract.

words. Explain why it doesn't fit. 1 2 3 4 5

conserve, waste, save, preserve natural, abundant, scarce, inexhaustible oil refinery, oil slick, oil rig, oil tanker sunlight, minerals, air, wind majestic, tall, obsessed, desperate

5 Work in small groups. Think of two natural resources that are scarce. Discuss what w e can do to protect these. • ICAN talk about natural resources use nouns, verbs and adjectives to do with using and conserving natural resources

Real life 6 Work in pairs. Which speakers (1-5) agree with this sentence and which disagree?

We should fo rce developing countries to consume resources more carefu lly.

The funny thing about the younger generation is that on the one hand they seem very aware of global problems with natural resources. If you ask them about the rain forests, for example, they 1 will say I would say. 'Oh, I wish people 2 stopped I would stop cutting down the rain forests . They are destroying the planet.' But on a personal level, they don't seem be so aware. For example, it seems they would rather 3 leave I left the TV on standby than 4 switch I switched it off. If the central heating was on too high, they s would be I would have been more likely to open a window than turn it down! We parents are partly to blame for this . If we 6 were I had been stricter with our children when they were young, they 7 would know I would have known how to act now. I wish also that they 8 had I had had more energy-saving education when they were at school. As parents, we'd all rather schools 9 teach I taught these things because when we try our children just think we are nagging!

1 'Look, I can't do anything about how people in developing countries consume resources. I have enough trouble remembering to switch the light off! ' 2 'The point is that the developed nations have used resources as they w anted to. So why shouldn' t developing countries do the same?' 3 'Imagine a rich person in China wants to own four cars and a mansion; who am I to say he can't? ' 4 'I know you'll say that it's everyone's duty, including people in developing countries, not to w aste resources. But I don't accept that.' 5 'We're approaching this all wrong. It's not about what's fair; it's about what's necessary to conserve resources. We all need to be more careful.'

7 Which technique (a-e) does each speaker use to make their point? a c e

humour b challenging the question itself using emphasis d using examples / stories anticipating counter-arguments

8 Choose one of the techniques in Exercise 7 and make your own point about the n eed to conserve resources. ICAN=-- use different techniques to ma ke my poin in a debate

Speaking ICAN hypothesise about present and past situations using mixed second and third conditionals express wishes and preferences about the past and future with wish, if only, would rather

92

9 Work in small groups. ff cuss ,_ e following issues. a regret you h ave abou' .... ~~,,~~ the en vironment a consequence of no • _ :ec:i your area • an action to h elp co - ~-e :aatural resource

• •

Unit 8 The news

FEATURES 94

1 Match the two halves of each sentence to complete these English sayings about news. What sayings about news do you have in your language?

A life revealed

1 Good news .. . 2 Bad new s .. . 3 No news .. .

The power of the image

96 And finally ... Good news stories

2 ~ 2.7 Work in p airs. Look at the photo and caption . Answer the questions. Then listen to a radio news report and check your answers.

98 From hero to zero The story of pilot Peter Burkill

1 Why did these Chinese parents stay overnight at the university? 2 Why did they sleep on the gym floor?

102 Mount Fuji A video about Japan 's most iconic m ountain

3 Does this story fall into the category of hard news (serious and urgent) or soft news (less serious and not urgent)? Wh at about the following? Discuss. • • • • • •

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THE ETHICS OF TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS

MINUTES FROM A MEETING

. .. is good news. . .. doesn 't sell. .. . travels fast.

a column w ith celebrity gossip a local n ews story about a new housing development an editorial about a p olitical scan dal business news about interest rates a travel fea ture about Egypt a science news story about a cure for Alzheimer 's disease

GOOD NEWS STORIES

REPUTATIONS

WHAT YOU HEARD

93

vocabulary photography • reading the power of the image • grammar reporting verbs • speaking the ethics of taking photographs

Sa A life revealed 1 Read the quotations. Find the following: • 3 w ords that mean a photograph • 2 words for parts of a camera • 3 verbs that describe what a camera does with an image

2 Which is your favourite quotation? Why?

Reading 3 Work in pairs. Look at the two photos and discuss the questions. Then read the article and check your answers. 1 Have you seen either of these photos before? 2 Where are these people from? 3 How old are they? 4 \A/hat is the relationship between them?

A

picture is worth a thousand words. ' Fred R. Barnard 'What you have caught on fi lm is captured forever ... it remembers little things, long after you have forgotten everything.' Aaron Siskind 'There is one thing the photograph must contain, the humanity of the moment. ' Robert Frank 'Look and think before opening the shutter. The heart and mind are the true lens of the camera.' Yousuf Karsh 'I see no reason to record the obvious.' Edward Weston 'A great photographer takes 100 shots and keeps just one.' Anon 'Seeing and composing the beauty is what separates the snapshot from the photograph.' Matt Hardy 'A

Vocabulary photography

L

4 Complete these sentences by finding the contrasting facts in the article. 1 Sharbat Gula let McCurry take her picture, even though ... 2 The picture became world famous, even though ... 3 McCurry recognised 29-year-old Gula immediately, even though ... 4 Gula does not complain about her life, even though ...

F E

R E V E A L E D

She remembers the moment the photographer took her picture. The man was a stranger, but he asked if he could and she agreed to let him take it. She had never been photographed before and until they met a second time seventeen years later, she was not photographed again. The photographer, Steve McCurry, remembers the moment too. It was 1984 and he was recording the lives of Afghan refugees in a camp in Pakistan. She was staring out of the school tent and he admits thinking at the time that the picture would be nothing special. Yet the 'Afghan girl', as the portrait is now known, became one of the most iconic images of our time. McCurry used her intense expression, so untypical of an average, carefree twelve-year-old girl, to warn us not to ignore the victims of war, especially its young victims. In 2002 National Geographic persuaded McCurry to return to Pakistan to look for the girl. After showing her photo around the refugee camp, he fo und a man who had known her as a child and knew where to find her. He offered to fetch her from her home in the Tora Bora mountains and after three days returned with Sharbat Gula, a woman perhaps 29 years old. McCurry knew at once that this was her. Time and hardship had erased her youth. Her skin wa weathered. Yet her eyes still burned with the same intensity. Her brother explaine the tory of their lives, blaming the war for forci ng them and many other .~ohan out of their homeland. When Sharbat was six years old, they fl ed o ountains, hiding he married in caves and begging people to give them food and bl ·e when she was sixteen and now her time is occupied ,i-· children, cooking, cleaning and caring for them. Ye- _ not complain about having a hard life. More amazingly, she i no- \ ·ar o: the impact that the photo of the young Sharbat with her sea-green e:-.s · .: o e world. iconic (adj) /a1'kon ,1k/ well-known and adm ired e e

• - '°'-=

Unit 8 The news

5

I'll also introduce you to m y friend , w ho is a wildlife photographer. She .. . ......... . (promised) 6 In fact, I' m sorry I haven't introduced you to him sooner. She . . . ......... . (apologised) 7 Also you really should enter that photo competition in National Geographic. She .................................... ...................... . (urge) 8 I can lend you m y camera, if you don' t think yours is good enough. She . . . (offered)

Grammar reporting verbs 5 Look back at the article and complete these sente n ces using re porting verbs. N ote the form

that follows the reporting verb in each case. 1 She agreed . . . him take her picture. 2 He admits . . ...... at the time that the picture would be nothing special. 3 McCurry used her intense expression to warn us . the victims of war. 4 In 2002 National Geographic persuaded McCurry ........................................... to Pakistan. 5 He offered .. .................... her from her home in the Tora Bora mountains. 6 Her brother blamed the war . . .. them out of their homeland. 7 . They begged p eople . .... them food and blankets. 8 She does not complain . . a h ard life.

6

Work in pairs. What is being reported in Exercise 5? Discuss what the person actually said at the time. Then compare your answ ers with another pair. 1 She agreed to let him take her picture.

Yes, you cnn take 111y picture.

lill-

Complete the article about the ethics of taking photos of other people. Put the verbs in the correct form . In some cases you will also need to put a preposition before the verb. Photographers who take pictures without their subject's knowledge are accused 1 ...... (be) sneaky or even unethical. A photographer who takes a picture of someone in their living room at home with a telephoto lens cannot deny . . . (do) wrong - they have invaded someone's privacy. Newspaper journalists are often criticised 3 ............................• (do) this kind of thing not that it stops them. But is there a difference between this kind of photojournalism and taking a picture of a stranger without them knowing? This person hasn't invited you 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (take) their picture. Perhaps they would feel uncomfortable if you asked them ............... ........... (pose) for a shot; they might even ·········-··-·· (let) you do it. refuse 6

REPORTING VERBS

Verb + to + infinitive She agreed to let him take her picture. Verb + sb + to + infinitive National Geographic persuaded Mccurry to return to Pakistan. Verb+ -ing He admits thinking at the time that the picture would be nothing special. Verb + preposition + -ing She does not complain about having a hard life. Verb + someone + preposition + -ing Her brother blamed war for forcing them out of their homeland. For further information and practice, see page 167.

7

8

A lot of photographers insist

7

••..

_

(be) invisib le so that the shots they get are more natural. They object 8 ...•• ______________ (ask) their subject for permission first because this would spoil 'the moment'. But I d isagree. I always advise photographers 9 • -······-···-·---- (talk) to their subjects first. In fact I strongly recommend 10 _____ ·····- .•. (get) to know their subjects' story, because in that way the shots they get will have more meaning .

Look at the grammar box. Use the verb given to report each of these statements.

Speaking

1 You 've taken some amazing photos! She ____ __ ...................... _ ___ .......... . (complimented) 2 You should think seriously about doing this professionally. She ........................................................................................................ . (encouraged) 3 You are far too modest about your own talents. She . . . . . . . .. . . ........................ . .. . . . . . .......... . (accused) 4 Why don' t you go on a proper photography course? She ..................................................................................................... . (suggested)

9 Work in small groups and discuss your

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THE ETHICS OF TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS

MINUTES FROM A MEETING

-

experiences of taking photos of other people and of being photographed by others. 1 Do you like having your photo taken? Why? I Why not? 2 What is the best way to get a good photo of someone? 3 Do you ever take photos of people you don' t know ? How do you approach this? 4 Have you ever felt uncomfortable about taking a photo of someone you didn' t know?

GOOD NEWS STORIES

REPUTATIONS

WHAT YOU HEARD

95

vocabulary the feel-good factor • listening and finally ... • grammar passive reporting verbs • pronunciation weak forms in verbs • writing and speaking good news stories

Sb And finally

• • •

Vocabulary the feel-good factor

Listening

1

3 "" 2.8 Listen to four good news stories from the

ews programmes often like to end w ith a good news story. Look at the adjectives that describe how this type of story can make people feel and match each one to a definition. amusing inspiring

appealing optimistic

charming quirky

encouraging

1 An ........................................ or ...................................... story makes you feel hopeful. 2 An _story makes you smile or laugh. 3 An . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . story shows you how much people can achieve. 4 A ....................................... story shows you how strange people or things can be. or ......................................... story delights or 5 An pleases you. .... WORDBUILDING forming adjectives from verbs We can add -ing to many verbs to form adjectives.

amuse ..... amusing, encourage

-+

TV news and make notes. Compare your notes with two other students and fill in any missing details.

4

~ 2.8 Listen again and complete these summaries.

1 People thought that the . . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , but they were wrong because ................. . As a result in the future we will see 2 Researchers believe they have found ..... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . When people took _ , the result was that

3 The world's largest say they have invented . . . . . . . . . . . But doctors say ........................................ 4 Costa Rica is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . because it has ......................................... Countries like . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . on the other hands

5 Work with a student from another group and retell the stories to each other. Which story did you find the most optimistic? Quirky? Inspiring?

encouraging

For further information and practice, see Workbook page 67.

2 Work in pairs. Think of an example of a good news story you have heard recently. Tell your partner. Use one of the adjectives in Exercise 1.

Grammar passive reporting verbs 6 Look at these two examples of passive reporting verbs from the listening passage and answer the questions. It was thought that the large blue butterfly was

I saw a really inspiring local news story on TV about a five-year-old boy who raised money for his sick sister by cycling round the park near ...

extinct. It is estimated that 20,000 large blue butterflies will

be seen this summer. 1 What do / did people actually say or think? 2 When do / did they say or think this? .... PASSIVE REPORTING VERBS Typical reporting verbs

say, think, believe, report, consider, kno w, estimate, expect, claim It+ is + passive reporting verb + that+ sentence ... It is thought that people eat more healthily these days. (present report of present event)

It is thought that people ate Jess healthily in the past. (present report of past event)

It is thought that people will eat m ore healthily in the future. (present report of fut ure eve ) It+ was+ passive reporting verb + that+ sentence .. . It was thought that the bu erfly "'3S extinct. (report and event at same time in past)

It was thought tha t the b ,e a/ . ad disappeared. (past event before past re port)

It was thought tha t the b ..cr.y .-rould not return. (past report of a future eve •)

I

Unit 8 The news

7 Work in pairs. Look at the grammar box. Then look 10 Look at these other news items and facts and make at the audioscript on page 179 and underline seven n:t0re sentences w ith p assiv e re porting v erbs. For

each one decide: • when the reporting happened • when the reported event happened

8 Pronunciation weak forms in verbs

a ~ 2.9 Look at these two sentences and underline the parts of the verbs (italicised) that you would expect to be stressed. Then listen and check. What rule can you make? It was said that none of the previous studies had given a clear answer. It is believed that 100,000 chocolate bars have been sold in the first week.

b

Then practise saying these sentences with your partner. 1 It was claimed that they had found a cure for the common cold. 2 It is known that developed countries ha ve a bigger ecological footprint. 3 It was thought that large blue butterflies had disappeared in the UK. 4 It is known that chocolate doesn't act as a health food . 5 In 2009 it was estimated that Denmark had the happiest citizens.

9 Transform these sentences into passive reporting sentences using it. 1 People report: 'Large blue butterflies are everywhere now.' Example: It is reported that large blue butterflies are

sentences using the passive reporting verbs given. Tell your partner whether you think each one is true or not. Then check your answers on page 155.

-

1 It I believe I that chewing gum when you peel onions I prevent I you from crying. 2 It I say I Google's name originally I come I from 'Googol', meaning a number with 100 zeros. 3 It I know I that laughing regularly I increase I life expectancy by up to ten years. 4 In 2008 it I report I that air pollution in the US I fall I by 40 per cent since 1980. 5 It I claim I recently that scientists studying the Zebra fish I discover I a way for the human heart to heal itself. 6 In 2011 it I report I that a man whose house had been crushed by a huge rock in the New Zealand earthquake / sell I the rock for $10,000.

Writing and speaking 11 Work in groups of three and prepare a good news story. Choose a theme of your own or one from the list below. Then write the story together, using at least tvvo passive reporting verbs. When you have finished, practise reading it aloud. Then each person should join a new group of three and read their stories to the other students. • a person rescued by an animal • the discovery of a valuable painting or antique • a ten-year-old child that has been compared to Shakespeare • the invention of a new clothing fabric • a couple who are celebrating their 90th wedding anniversary • a dentist that people actually enjoy visiting

everywlzere now. 2 30 years ago people said: 'The large blue butterfly is a common species.' 3 People said: 'Hunters caused the butterfly to die out. ' 4 In the past people thought: 'Costa Rica is a poor country.' 5 Scientists claim: 'Taking zinc helps if you have a cold.' 6 They said: 'None of the previous experiments has been conclusive.' 7 Experts claimed: 'Eating the new chocolate will improve your health.' 8 But people know: 'Eating too much chocolate is actually bad for you.'

it-!iiM•mi TH E ETHICS O F TAKIN G PHOTOGRA PHS EDI MI N UTES FROM A ME ETING

Ill> GOOD NEWS STORIES

REPUTATIONS

W HAT Y OU HEARD

97

reading the power of the press • critical thinking different perspectives • word focus word • speaking reputations

Sc From hero to zero Reading 1 Work in pairs. Look at the headlines below, in the order they appeared in the newspapers over several months. Discuss what you think happened. HERO BA PILOT PETER BURKILL SPEAKS: I THOUGHT WE'D DIE IN HEATHROW CRASH

'I AM NOT A HERO'

Critical thinking different perspectives 5 Each participant has a different perspective and a different motivation for acting as they did after the accident. Make notes to complete the table. People involved

Their view of Burkill's role

Peter Burkill

he did what any

to clear his name

pilot would have

and keep his job

SAYS BA CRASH PILOT CAPTAIN PETER BURKILL

Motivations for their actions

done

REAL HERO OF BA FLIGHT 38 IS CO-PILOT JOHN COWARD

HERO PILOT 'FORCED OUT OF BA'

BA management AAIB*

FALLEN HERO: THAT DAY CHANGED MY LIFE FOREVER

the newspapers

OFFICIAL REPORT SAYS ICE FAULT

*Air Accidents Investigation Branch

CAUSED BA AIRPORT CRASH 2 Read the story quickly. Then check the sequence of key events w ith your partner. How did the story differ from your answ er in Exercise 1?

3 Read the article again. Are the statements true (T) or false (F)? 1 Burkill's co-pilot w as at the controls w hen the engines failed. 2 Some passengers w ere badly hurt during evacuation. 3 At the time of the accident, Bur kill was a single man w ho liked to enjoy himself. 4 Burkill's crew read BA's internal report. 5 Burkill w as praised in the AAIB report. 6 He was too loyal to BA to work for another airline.

4 Complete the sentences with words from the article. 1 Burkill went from being a hero to being a (opposite of hero) yil/qin . (para 1) 2 When the plane crash landed, (incredibly) ............................ it stayed upright and no one was hurt. (para 2) 3 Perhaps his colleagues believed he was (no good at his job) ............................ . (para 3) 4 The press portrayed Burkill as irresponsible: he (failed) .... ........... the people he was supposed to be responsible for. (para 4) 5 Burkill felt (completely unsupported) . ... . . . .... . . . . . . . . by his colleagues and the company. (para 5) 6 After the official report was published, Bur kill was (given as a prize) . . .. . a medal for his actions. (para 7) 98

BA staff

6 Which of the people do you believe? Who do you think the newspaper 's readers believed?

Word focus word 7 Find four expressions in the article with word. Match each one with the definitions below. 1 to be the one who is able to make the final point in an argument and win it 2 news or a rumour starts to circulate 3 there is no evidence other than w hat two people claim to be true 4 there is no new s about something

8 Work in pairs. What do these other expressions with word mean? 1 'The new gallery is amazing. But don't take my word for it: go and see for ·our elf.' 2 'When my husband handed me the keys to a new car for m y birthday, I was lost for w ords. ' 3 'The hotel doesn't advertise a all. It just relies on word of mouth to get ne\\· om ers. ' 4 'I can't believe the council are d osing the library. They gave their word that :hey w ouldn't.

Speaking 9 Work in groups. D"

cus- '"'e .._, ·a in your country. 1 How respectful are ·o ::71.alis_ tow ards politicians? 2 How balanced · '" e _ r _ · of p ublic scandals?

3

Are people in

~

private li\·e o - ~

- _reading a bout the

~?CO~

le.

Unit 8 The news

FROM

HERO ZERO In January 2008, hours after savi ng his plane from crashing at Heathrow Airport, flight captain Peter Burkill was being praised as a hero. Only days later, when reports appeared in the press accusing him of freezing at the controls, he became a villain. How did this extraordinary transformation come about? Peter Burki II was the pilot on flight 38 from Hong Kong and ultimately responsible for the lives of its 152 passengers. But 35 seconds from landing, two of the plane's engines failed. With the plane losing height fast, Burkill let his co-pilot John Coward take the controls while he himself adjusted the wing flaps to help the plane reach the runway. It was a risky decision, but it worked. The plane just missed some houses and landed heavily on the grass just short of the runway. After skidding for a few hundred metres, it miraculously came to a stop without turning over. The passengers escaped without serious injury. As far as Burkill was concerned, he had done what any captain would have done and the rest was luck. However, this was not the version of events that began to circulate among BA's staff in the following days. Whether they just liked to gossip or felt Burki II was incompetent, word went around that rather than taking control of the plane, he had frozen . Worse than that, it was reported that he had failed to issue a mayday call and had not evacuated the passengers correctly. Some newspapers, sensing a chance to sell more copies, picked up the story, claiming that John Coward was the real hero. They published details of Burkill's colourful past, painting a picture of a well-paid pilot, who had lived the life of a playboy, but - when it mattered - had let down his crew and passengers. Worse still for Burkill, it wasn't even his word against theirs. British Airways banned him from speaking about the events until the full investigation by Air Accidents Investigations Branch (AAIB) was complete.

mayday call (n) /1me1de1 'b:l/ a call for help in an emergency ru nway (n) /'r11 nw e1/ the part of an airport where planes land and take off skid (v) /ski d/ (of a car, bicycle, plane, etc.) to slide without any control v oluntary redundancy (n) / ,v okrntri

n 'd 11 nd;rn si/ to agree to leave your job in exchange for payment of money

Overnight Burkill's life changed. Before the accident, he had had everything: a great job, a beautiful home, a loving family and the respect of his colleagues. Now he felt betrayed and desperate. The stress put enormous pressure on his family. In the weeks that followed, he spent more time at home helping his wife, Maria, to look after their young children. But he became depressed. He begged the company to issue a statement to clear his name, but they refused, clearly anxious not to receive bad publicity in case the official investigation found Burkill guilty of a mistake. Even when they published their own internal report in May 2008, which cleared him of any wrongdoing, it was only read by the senior management. No word of it reached his close colleagues and rumours circulated that crew members were afraid to fly with him. He wrote to BA's chief executive asking for help, but got no reply. The official AAIB report, the result of a completely independent enquiry, was finally published in February 2009. It concluded that ice had formed in the fuel system during the approach to Heathrow, cutting the fuel supply to the engines. The actions of the crew had saved the lives of all on board, it said, in particular Captain Burkill's split-second decision to reduce the flap setting. The pilots and thirteen cabin crew were awarded the British Airways Safety Medal and the story of Peter Burkill the hero once again made the headlines. But the damage had been done. In August 2009, Peter Burkill took voluntary redundancy from the company he had served for 25 years. He began applying for jobs with other airlines, but he was not invited to a single interview. So did his critics win? No. Burki II himself had the last word. BA said that he was and always had been welcome in the company and in September 201 O invited him to come back and fly Boeing 777s for them . Burkhill accepted their invitation.

-

real life reporting what you heard • pronunciation the schwa

8d Spreading the news Real life reporting what you heard 1 "' 2.10 Listen to two neighbours discussing a traffic incident that took place in their street. Choose the picture that best illustrates what happened.

2 'i 2.10 Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. Then listen again and check. 1 Why didn't Phil see the incident? 2 Who did Jess learn about the incident from? 3 How could the argument between the drivers have been avoided? 4 Who was one of the drivers identified as? 5 What happened in the end? 6 What is Phil's opinion of Tara and Chris as sources of information?

3

~ 2.10 Look at the box. Complete the phrases Jess (J) uses to report what someone said and Phil (P) uses to say how reliable this source was. Then listen and check.

1 J: ··--------···· that it was an argument between two car drivers and ··--·· it got quite heated. 2 J: .... both drivers got out of their cars and started shouting at each other. 3 P: I'd take what Tara says with ..·-----··· She tends to ··-·---..- - . things __ .. that if the police hadn't arrived, there would have been a fight. 5 J: Someone -·--···-··-..·-- they had seen one of the drivers before. -····-·--···· , he is a local politician. 6 P: I think I'd take . . ; he's not the type to ___ · ·--·7 J: · -- . ... .... ____ Chris, they took them both away. 4 J: She

.... REPORTING WHAT YOU HEARD I heard that ... Someone said that .. . They reckon that .. . According to (somebody) ... , It seems that .. . Apparently, .. . Supposedly, .. . Expressing belief and disbelief I'd take his/her word for it. He/She generally gets his/her facts right. He's not the type t o spread gossip. Ta ke no notice of what he/she says. It's been blown out of proportion . I'd take that with a pinch of salt.

100

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THE ETHICS OF TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS

MINUTES FROM A MEETING

4 Pronunciation the schwa

a ~ 2.11

Unstressed syllables often produce the schwa sound fa/. Listen to these examples and repeat. The stressed syllable is underlined.

I-di I-di ap}2.filently

I'd! supposedly

b «,if 2.12

Underline the stressed syllable and circle the schwa sound in these words. Then listen and check. according proportion

generally ha ppened reckon surprising ly

information

C Work in pairs. Practise saying the words .

5 You are going to spread ne\\· around the class. Follow these steps: • Tell your partner hvo fa one true, one false) about yourself or ome you did. • Mingle with other tuden in the class and tell them the facts you heard. ( peak to at least three people.) • Return to your partr.er and report the facts you heard. • Discuss which on - ·0 are true or not. Use the expr 1



-



Tell the das wha- ·ou -

were right. GOOD NEWS STORIES

REP

WHAT YOU HEARD

Unit 8 The news

writing minutes from a meeting • writing skill impersonal language

Se A residents' meeting Writing minutes from a meeting

a

street w here a traffic incident occurred. Answer the questions. 1 What three ideas were reported to avoid confrontations between drivers? 2 Which one did they decide was the best idea and w h y?

Essex Street residents' association From : Sian Taylor Re: Residents meeting about road rage incident Thanks to all of you who wrote and apologised for not being able to attend on Tuesday evening. Here are the minutes from the meeting. We met to discuss what to do about traffic in our street following the incident that took place two weeks ago. Various ideas were discussed about how we could prevent drivers from getting into these angry confrontations. One proposal was to ask the council to make Essex Street a one-way street, but most people thought that this wou ldn 't be good for residents. Another suggestion was to reduce the number of parking spaces to allow more places for cars to pass each other in the street. The objection to this was that it wou ld force residents to park in neighbouring streets and just move the problem to another street. In the end, it was agreed that the best thing would be to put some signs at each end of the road asking drivers to drive with care and consideration. Terry Miles offered to write a letter to the local council to ask if this wou ld be possible. A draft copy of the letter wi ll be posted here next week so that people can comment on it before it is sent.

report? In w hat order do they appear? • the aim of the meeting • what action was decided • who said w hat • who attended the meeting • follow-up action

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THE ETHICS OF TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS

mm ~ MINUTES FROM A MEETING

I

3 Writing skill impersonal language

1 Read this report of a meeting of residents in a

2 Which of these elements are included in the

-I

Underline the phrases that the writer uses to avoid naming people directly when reporting what was said. Why does she do this? Compare your answers with your partner and discuss .

b Rewrite the sentences from a meeting report. Use the words given to make them less personal and direct. 1 Hannah suggested that we should put speed bumps along the street. One _.................. . (suggestion) 2 Everyone thought this was a terrible idea. It _...... . (decided I good) 3 Dan thought the speed limit should be reduced to 15mph. Another .................................................................. . (idea) 4 But several people said that probably no one would keep to this speed limit. It _...... . (agreed) 5 Harry proposed having a sign with arrows giving priority to d rivers from one direction. Another . . __ ............................. . (proposal) 6 Sophie argued that this would be impossible to enforce. The . . . . (objection I difficult)

4 Read the description of a local problem. Discuss with your partner possible solutions to it. Look at the suggestions on page 153. Write a report of a meeting at w hich these solutions were discussed. Say w hich one was chosen and describe the follow-up action. The city's university has recently bought four houses in your street to accommodate students, because they don't have enough accommodation at their main site. The students are making a lot of noise at night, playing loud music and shouting in the street. This is a problem for local res idents, many of whom have young children.

5 Exchange your reports with another pair. Answer these questions. Then report your findings to them. • Did they choose the same solution as you? • Does their report seem too personal or direct? • Does it follow the structure of the model in Exercise 1? • Is any important information missing from it?

GOOD NEWS STORIES

REPUTATIONS

WHAT YOU HEARD

101

Sf

Climbing Mount Fuji is a mind exercise. It's mind over matter more than anything .

Unit 8 The news

Before you watch 1 Work in groups. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. 1 Where are the people in the photo? 2 Why do you think they are there? 3 What do you think the caption tells us about the people in the photo?

2 Tick the things you think you are going to see in this video. a bear a bulldozer clouds drums an elephant food vendors a rol lercoaster sunflowers a sunrise snow umbrellas

6 Watch the second part of the video (02.08 to the end). Make notes about these things. Then compare your notes with a partner. 1 How Karen feels w hen she gets to the top.

2 How Mount Fuji was different in the past.

3 Managing Mount Fuji.

4 What happens at the end of the climbing season.

While you watch

After you watch

3 Watch the video and check your answers from

7 Roleplay interviewing a National Geographic photographer

Exercise 2.

4 Watch the video again and describe these things. 1 Mount Fuji

2 the 'fire and water' festivals

3 the weather when Karen Kasmauski climbs the mountain

5 Wa tch the first part of the video (to 02.07). Are these sentences true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false sentences. 1 Karen Kasmauski is enjoying perfect weather for her photographic shoot. 2 Karen thinks Japanese people worship Mount Fuji because it is so beautiful. 3 Mount Fuji is worshipped with fire and wa ter festivals. 4 Karen starts her photographic shoot in the forest at the base of the mountain. 5 You can buy lots of biscuits and cakes at Mount Fuji. 6 Climbing Mount Fuji is seen mostly as something tourists have to do.

appease (v) /;i'pi:z/ keep a person or a thing calm bento box (n) / 'bentw boks/ a w ooden or metal box, divided

into compartments, used in Japan for storing separate food dishes for a meal bonding (n) /'bond11J/ the process of becomi ng emoti onally close to other people bulldozer (n) /'buld;iuz;i/ a large machine t hat moves earth conical (adj) /'komk;il/ shaped like a cone

Work in pairs. Student A: Imagine you are a photographer for National Geographic. You are going to be interviewed by an amateur photographer. Make notes about the areas below. Student B: Imagine you are an amateur photographer. You are going to interview a photographer for National Geographic. Prepare questions to ask the photographer about these areas. • lifestyle of a photographer • the advantages and disadvantages of the job Act out the interview, then change roles and act out the interview again.

8 Karen Kasmauski says that climbing Mount Fuji is 'a national bonding experience'. What do you think she means? Are there any symbols of na tional unity in your country?

9 Work in groups and discuss these questions. 1 Are there any special places in your country where people like to go and take photographs? 2 What makes an interesting photograph for you: the place, the people or what is taking p lace? 3 Is there any famous place in the world you would like to go to take pictures? Why would you choose that particular place? gorgeous (adj) / 'g:i:d3;is/ very beautiful pilgrimage (n) / 'p1lgnmu:l;)/ a jou rney to a holy place purification (n) /pju;inf1'ke1J;in/ the process of ma ki ng

something clean typhoon (n) /ta1 'fu :n/ a very strong tropical storm vending machine (n) /'vend rl) m;iJi: n/ a machine that se lls

things, for example, drinks or food

103

UN IT 8 REVIEW Grammar

Vocabulary

1 Work in pairs. Look at the photo of a new d evelopment

4 Work in pairs. Find the odd one out in each group of words. Explain the reason for your choice.

n ear Singapore's financial district. What you think the designers are trying to create?

1 film, photo, snapshot, picture 2 column, feature, scandal, editorial 3 inspiring, amusing, optimistic, encouraging 4 lens, shutter, flash, camera 5 urge, promise, encourage, persuade 6 objection, su ggestion, proposal, recommendation

5

Work in p airs. Describe a news photo that had a big impact on you. What was the story behind the picture? ICAN

talk about ph otography relate good news stories

Real life 2 Read the news article b elow and see if you were right.

3 Complete the article w ith the correct form of the verbs. Use prepositions where necessary. Big cities are often criticised 1 ........ (be) big polluters. But it is generally considered that Singapore 2 ........................... (be) an exception to this rule. For a long time the gove rnment has encouraged developers and conservationists 3 . (think) of ways to increase the island's green spaces. Recently green groups suggested 4 ............. (turn) the old KTM railway corridor into a nature trail. But perhaps the most striking project is Gardens by the Bay, a futuristic park near the city's financial centre w hich includes eighteen Supertrees. When it is complete it is said that each of the eighteen trees 5 ................. (be covered) in more that 200 varieties of plant. The government invited various companies 6 ....... (submit) ideas for the project and this was chosen as the most exciting . A spokesman for the government complimented the designers 7 __ (come) up with a 'truly innovative' design . The Supertrees are between 25 and 50 meters tall and mimic the function of real trees, absorbing sunlight through photovoltaic cells and collecting rainwater. The photographer who took this picture admitted 8 ..... (feel) sceptical about the project until he saw it for himself. 'It looks like something from the film Avatar: almost too good to be real!'

6 Put each phrase into the right category: reporting w h at someone said (R), expressing belief (B) or expressing disbelief (D). 1 They reckon that half a million people came to the free festival. 2 I'd take that figure with a pinch of salt. 3 Apparently, a lot more people came than expected. 4 I think the number has been blown out of proportion . 5 According to official reports, around 250,000 attended. 6 It seem s that the organisers w ere only expecting 150,000 maximum. 7 I think we can take the organiser 's word for it. 8 Take no notice of what th e promoters say. They just want publicity.

7 Work in sm all groups. Talk about an event, local or national, people ha\·e been discussing recently. Tell each other what you believe to be the real facts . ICAN

report what I hea rd

Speaking ICAN

report speech with reporting verbs and the correct dependent ve rb form report what it generally said or thought with passive reporting verbs

104

8 Work in p airs. Create a -hort news item about an event in your least two \·er

-s or college. Include at ,,-h at people said.

Unit 9 Talented people

1 Work in pairs. Ma tch the words in the box to the definitions

FEATURES

(a- g) .

106 An ordinary man

background experience qualities skills ta lents

The extraordinary career of an astronaut a b c d e f g

108 Pushing the boundaries National Geographic's Emerging Explorers programme

110 The king herself The story of the pharaoh H atshep sut

114 Queen of Egypt A video about the life of Cleop atra

knowledge

qua lif ications

strong nahiral abilities abilities developed by p ractice the (generally p ositive) characteristics certificates w hich sh ow you have learnt something w hat you've done in your life w hat you kn ow your p ast in general (where you com e from, w here you shidied, etc.)

2 Look at the photo and the caption . What qualities, skills, knowledge, qualification s and experience do you think a mahout needs to do their job well? Discuss.

3

~ 2.13 Listen to a description of a mah out's job. Compare the

description with your answers in Exercise 2.

4 Make short notes on your own background, exp erience, knowled ge, talents, etc. Then ask each other questions.

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WOMEN AT WORK

SKILLS, TA LENTS AND EXPERIENCE

105

listening and reading an extrao rdinary career • vocabulary careers • grammar articles: the or zero article? • pronunciation linking v owels • speaking a career path

. - 9a An ordinary man Listening and reading 1

~ 2.14 Work in pairs. Look at the photo

and discuss who this person is and what the occasion of the photo w as. Then listen to a conversation about it and check.

2 Read the article and say in v\rhat ways Armstrong was an ordinary man and in what w ays he w as extraordinary.

eil Armstrong , the most famous of the astronauts on Apollo 11 , has been called the ultimate professional. He was hired to do a job. He did the job and then he went home and kept quiet about it. In 40 years , he gave two interviews. But how can the man who first set foot on the Moon , a hero to millions of people , remain such a mystery?

N

People like Armstrong often develop their interests at a young age. He followed a career built on a passion for flying that he developed in his childhood in the 1930s. He learnt to fly before he had graduated from high school in Wapakoneta, Ohio. He then did a course in aerospace engineering at Purdue University in Indiana, sponsored by the United States Navy, which meant that Armstrong was obliged to serve as a naval pilot for three years. He saw action almost immediately, flying 78 missions in the war in Korea. He left the Navy in 1952 and two years later got a job with the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory where he flew experimental aircraft. He reached speeds of 6,615 kilometres an hour and altitudes of over 200,000 feet. When he decided to become an astronaut is not clear. Certainly, it was not his ambition to be famous. An extremely talented pilot, his aim was simply to push the boundaries of flight. He was selected for a space plane pilot training programme in 1960 but shortly after news began to circu late that NASA was looking for astronauts for their Apol lo programme . Incredibly excited , he applied for the job and in 1962 was accepted. The rest, as they say, is history. When the astronauts returned from the Apol lo 11 Moon landing of July 1969, Armstrong was a worldwide celebrity and could have done anything he wanted - TV shows, public speaking. Instead, he became a teacher at the University of Cincinnati and at the weekend went flying to get away from all the attention. He subsequently worked for two private avionics firms until he retired in 2002 . In 40 years he only gave two interviews. Why? Certainly he felt fortunate to have had the chance to fu lfi l his dream , but he did not feel any more special than the thousands of people who worked on the Apollo space programme. He was just the pilot.

3 Read the article again. Answer the questions. 1 Why is Armstrong called 'the ultimate professional'? 2 Who paid for his university course and what did they get in return? 3 What motivated Armstrong? 4 What do you think is meant by the phrase 'the rest is history'? 5 What did Armstrong do to avoid publicity after the Apollo 11 mission? 6 According to Armstrong, w ho was responsible for the success of the Apollo 11 mission?

Unit 9 Talented people

7 Find an example in the article of the following:

Vocabulary careers 4 Work in pairs. Find verbs in the article that collocate with each of these nouns. Then identify the different steps in Armstrong's career. 1 to .......................................... a career 2 to .......................................... a school or college 3 to . ..................................... a course 4 to .......................................... in the navy 5 to . ..................................... an astronaut 6 to . ........................................ a firm 7 to . ·································· ' ....................................... a job ~ WORDBUILDING verb(+ preposition)+ noun collocations follow a career graduate from a school/college For further information and practice, see Workbook page 75.

Grammar articles: article? 5

the or zero

Look at how the or zero article are used in the first paragraph of the article. Match the words in bold (1-7) with the uses of the and the zero article (a- g). Neil Armstrong, (1) the most famous of (2) the astronauts on Apollo 11, has been called the ultimate professional. He was hired to do a job . He did (3) the job and then he went (4) home and kept quiet about it. In 40 years he gave two interviews. But how can (5) the man who first set foot on (6) the Moon, a hero to (7) millions of people, remain such a mystery?

a b c d e f g

6

to talk about an already mentioned thing to talk about something unique before a superlative adjective to talk about a specific thing or person to talk about specific things or people to talk about things or people in general before certain familiar places (e.g. work, hospital, university, school)

Work in pairs. Find one more example of each use in the rest of the article. ~ ARTICLES: THE or ZERO ARTICLE? definite article the+ singular/plural countable nouns, uncountable nouns= specific things zero article - + plural countable nouns, uncountable nouns= things in general NB We don't use the with most time expressions or place names. However, there are some special cases.

1 zero article with: a) a country b) a subject of study c) a month 2 the with: a) a country b) a professional group c) a period of time

-

8 Complete these sentences b y inserting the where necessary. 1 While flying for ....................................... Navy in Korea, Armstrong had to eject into . sea when one of .................................... w ings on his plane was damaged. 2 Armstrong and Aldrin only spent one day on . . surface of Moon. 3 Armstrong retired from ......................................... NASA in .. 1972, but he helped with . . crash investigations in ................................... later years. 4 .......................................... first investigation was in . .. May 1970 following an explosion on . . . . ................................... Apollo 13. 5 other investigation involved . . space shuttle Challenger, which broke into .................. pieces over . . . . . . . . Florida . Atlantic Ocean near 6 In .................................. nineties Armstrong stopped signing autographs, because . . dealers were selling them for $1,000 a time.

9 Pronunciation linking vowels

a 'fj, 2.15

Words that end with a vowel and words that begin with a vowel are linked by a 'hidden' consonant: /w/, /j/ or Ir/. Listen to these phrases and say which sound links the two words. Then practise saying the sentences with your partner.

1 2 3 4 5 6

the~ultimate professional to do~a job a disaster~involv ing a teacher~at the university he~only gave two~interv iews another hero~of our time

b Make three more phrases with either the /w/, /j / or Ir/ linking sound. Then compare your phrases with another pair.

Speaking 10 Draw a path of your own (or a parent's) career. Begin with your interests as a child. Finish with future ambitions. If it is not an obvious linear progression, show how the direction changed. Then explain the path to your partner.

For further information and practice, see page 168.

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Listening 1

'ii 2.16

Listen to an interview about the National Geographic Emerging Explorers programme and answer the questions.

1 What is the aim of the programme? 2 How does National Geographic help those selected? 3 Wha t sort of fields do Emerging Explorers work in?

2

~ 2.16 Listen again. Are the sentences true (T) or fa lse

(F)?

1 Emerging Explorers are people w ho are not yet fully establish ed in their careers. 2 As well as money, Emerging Explorers get publicity for their work in the magazine. 3 Emergin g Explorers generally have a scientific background. 4 Storytellers are explorers who record traditional stories from different cultures. 5 Alexandra Cousteau's grandfather filmed other Emerging Explorers. 6 Alexandra is interested in how new technology can help to spread the environmental message.

..... RELATIVE CLAUSES Relative pronouns: who (that), which (that), where,

whose Subject: She's the woman who won the award. Object: That's the award which/that the woman

won. OR Th at's the award the woman won. Defining relative clause Thi s clause contains essential information for identifi cat ion.

She's the woman who won an award for her photography. Non-defining relative clause This clause contains extra information, separated by one or t w o commas.

Her husband, who is also a photographer, accompanied her on the trip. that or zero pronoun The article (that) I read about her was very interesting. For further information and practice, see page 169.

4 Look at the grammar box. Then complete these

Grammar relative clauses 3 Work in pairs. Look at the relative clauses in bold from the interview (a-e). Then discuss the questions (1-4). a Each year between eight and fifteen explorers, whose work is really outstanding, are selected. b Emerging Explorers are generally people who are at an early stage of their careers. c National Geographic awards each one of them US$10,000, which is intended to go towards further research. d The magazine is a p lace where other interested people can read about their work. e There are all these people doing important work out there in the various fields that I have described. 1 In which sentence is the relative pronoun the subject of the relative clause? 2 In which sentences does the relative clause explain who or what is being talked about? 3 In which sentences does the relative clause give extra information and how does the punctuation help you know this? 4 In which sentence could the relative pronoun be omitted?

108

sentences about Emerging Explorer Alexandra Cousteau by inserting the correct relative pronoun and any commas that are missing. 1 Alexandra Cousteau . . ·········--·- is a conservationist believes water will be the most important issue of the 21st century. 2 Alexandra Cousteau __ _ __ father was an oceanographer is a great advocate for environmental protection. 3 Cousteau says that the em·ironmental movement uses communication tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . are old-fashioned. 4 She is currently plannina an expedition ... _ aim is to re earch different water ecosystem around the world. 5 She is currently \\·orkina on a book --·····- she ho will teach people how to live on a 'Water Planet'. 6 The problem he says was created .. people can by people i a roblem oaether. only soh·e by \ ·or ·

Grammar reduced relative clauses 5 An alterna tive to a relative clause is a reduced relative clause. Look at the participles in bold in these sentences from the listening passage. Which are active and which are passive? 1 We have so many different types of explorer, chosen from diverse fields. 2 There are all these people doing important work out there in the various fields. 3 That's the skill of the storytellers, communicating important facts about the planet. 4 She works as a conservationist, trying to persuade people to protect resources like water. 5 Alexandra Cousteau, inspired by her grandfather's success as a storytelle1~ is researching ways in which the environmental community can use new media.

Iii> REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES researching She works in Oxford, »Im e sile is researching biology. (active) Past participle

researched It's a subject wltiffi-is researched by only a few people.

6 Look at the grammar box. Then rewrite the reduced relative clauses in Exercise 5 as relative clauses.

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A CAREER PATH

AN ONLINE PROFILE

8 Work in pairs. Circle the eight adjectives in the

9 Which of these people would you most like to meet? Tell your partner.

10 Think of someone you admire for the work

For further information and practice, see page 169.

1£.!!:f-!:{•liii

1 She has been called the real-life Lara Croft by the New York Times. 2 She cycled a distance of 700 miles. 3 They threatened to harm her. 4 He is fascinated by the truly big questions. 5 He plays music to take his mind off problems. 6 He spends his time diving into water caves deep under the ground. 7 The caves have been undisturbed for 3.5 million years. 8 Knowledge is provided by these dark and w onderful places.

Speaking and writing

(passive)

doesn't want to tell travel stories you have already heard. Independent and adaptable, she has travelled across Papua New Guinea on foot and Alaska on a bicycle, 2 ......................................................... . It is not easy trave lling alone as a single woman in remote and dangerous regions. In Mozambique she escaped soldiers ... . But she does not regret such experiences, because she says they have helped her discover her strengths.

Explorers below by inserting the missing information as a reduced relative clause where possible and if not, as a relative clause.

profiles that describe people's strengths and qualities.

Present participle

Kira Salak,

7 Complete the profiles of other Emerging

they do. Write a short description of their achievements and qualities. In groups read your descriptions to each other and ask questions.

Stephon Alexander is a theoretical physicist .... like 'how did space and time begin'? It's an unusual job because you need to be not only analytical and patient but also daring and a risk taker, because to answer such questions you have to make guesses. Often you can be completely wrong. But when you are right, he says, the feeling is amazing. The work can be mentally very tiring, but Alexander is quite an easygoing type. He is also a jazz musician,

~ PERSONAL QUALITIES

WOMEN AT WORK

Kenny Broad is an extreme explorer These caves or 'blue holes; are like time capsules, full of interestin g scientific evidence about the way life on our planet has evolved. The caves are also important reservoirs of fresh water. An articulate and passionate speaker, Broad promotes the idea that by working together, scientists from different backgrounds can benefit from the knowledge 8 ....

SKILLS, TALENTS AND EXPERIENCE

109

reading a pharaoh like no other • critical thinking weighing the evidence • word focus long • speaking women at work

9c The king herself Reading

Critical thinking weighing the evidence

1 Work in pairs. Look at the title of the

5 Find evidence that supports each sentence (1-6). If the sentence

article. What is strange about the words king and herself together?

2 Read the article and put these events about Hatshepsut's life in the correct chronological order. a Her mummy was discovered in a minor tomb . b The monuments she built were destroyed. c Thutmose III became pharaoh. d She ruled Egypt as king for 21 years. e Her mummy was identified and put in the Royal Mummy rooms. f She married Thutmose II. g She was born, the eldest daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose.

3 What were the different roles that Hatshepsut fulfilled (e.g. pharaoh)?

4 Choose the correct option (a-c) to complete the sentences. 1 Hatshepsut's mummy was not identified at first because it: a was badly damaged. b was not in a royal tomb. c had another name w ith it. 2 Hatshepsut was very worried that people would: a realise she was a woman. b not think she was royalty. c not remember her. 3 Thutmose III did not want people to know that Hatshepsut had been: a king. b queen. c related to him. 4 Thutmose II's children consisted of: a one son and one daughter. b one son. c one daughter. 5 According to tradition, the queen regent was supposed to: a make offerings to the gods. b help until the king was ready. c be a politician. 6 In later statues and images, Hatshepsut appears male from : a her body shape. b the way she stands. c her clothes.

is definitely true, write 100%. If there is no evidence, write 0%. Put percentages in between if it is not clear. 1 When Hatshepsut's sarcophagus was first found in 1903, it was empty. 2 The mummy called KV60a was Hatshepsut's body. 3 Hatshepsut wanted to produce a male heir, but failed. 4 Hatshepsut had a greater claim to become pharaoh than Thutmose III. 5 Hatshepsut knew she had broken with tradition and wanted her subjects' approval. 6 The king in waiting, Thutmose III, was angry that Hatshepsut had assumed the role of king.

6 Work in pairs. Compare your scores and the evidence you found.

Word focus long 7 Find these six phrases (1-6) in the article with the word long and match each one to its definition (a-f). 1 2 3 4 5 6

at long last as long as long for long after before long in the long term

a b c d e f

soon over a long period of time after much waiting provided that much, much later desire very much

8 Complete the sentences using phrases with long. 1 Hatshepsut clearly ...................................................... people to remember her. 2 The grand monuments she built ensured she would be remembered ..................................................... . 3 ..................................................... people believed she had a divine right to be pharaoh, H atshepsut felt safe. 4 Hatshepsut died in 1458 BC and . , Thutmose III had destroyed most references to her as king. 5 No one understood the story of Hatshepsu t until experts _. . . . . . . uncovered the truth. in hieroglyphs 6 Thutmose III ruled for another 34 years, _ _........... . Hatshepsut had died.

Speaking 9 Work in small groups. Say who you would expect to find doing these jobs: mostly men, mostl "·omen, or an equal number of men and women. Give reaso cleaner company directo r doctor fl orist IT techn ician lawyer machine operator nurse plumber prime minister secretary senior ci ii servant teacher

10 Look at the UK statistics on paae 1 - !. \ ruch job in Exercise 9 fits in which category? Compare and discuss your answers.

110

Un it 9 ~ffl':tr.or:l~

THE KING Today she is in the Royal Mummy Rooms at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, reunited at long last with her family of fellow pharaohs, with a sign saying she is Hatshepsut, the king herself (1479-1458 BC). But in 1903, when the archaeologist Howard Carter found Hatshepsut's sarcophagus in the Valley of the Kings, it was empty. Had her mummy been stolen or destroyed? The truth only came out a century later when Egyptian scientists positively identified a mummy called KV60a, discovered more than a century earlier in a minor tomb, as that of Hatshepsut. None of the treasures normally found with pharaohs' mummies were with it. It was not even in a coffin. For Hatshepsut, a pharaoh who did not fear death as long as she was remembered, the irony is great. As one of the greatest builders in one of the greatest Egyptian dynasties, she raised numerous temples and shrines. She commissioned hundreds of statues of herself and left accounts in stone of her titles, her history, even her hopes and fears. Inscribed on an obelisk at Karnak are the words: 'Now my heart turns this way and that, as I think what the people will say. Those who see my monuments in years to come, and who shall speak of what I have done: But following her death, her successor and stepson Thutmose III set about erasing her memory, ordering all in1ages of her as king to be removed from monuments and temples. At Deir el Bahri, at the temple designed to be the centre of Hatshepsut's cult, her statues were smashed and thrown into a pit. Images of her as queen were left undisturbed, but wherever she proclaimed herself king, the destruction was careful and precise. Why? Hatshepsut was the eldest daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose. But Thutmose also had a son by another queen, and this son, Thutmose II, became pharaoh when his father died. As was common among Egyptian royalty, Thutmose II married his sister, Hatshepsut. They produced one daughter; another, less important wife, Isis, gave Thutmose II the male heir that he longed for, but Hatshepsut was unable to provide.

Hers el

-

When Thutmose II died not long after from heart disease, his heir, Thutmose III, was still a young boy. As was the custom, Hatshepsut assumed control as the young pharaoh's queen regent. And so began one of the most intriguing periods of ancient Egyptian history. At first, Hatshepsut acted on her stepson's behalf, respecting the convention that the queen should handle political affairs while the young king learnt the ropes. But before long, she began performing kingly functions, like making offerings to the gods. After a few years she assumed the role of 'king' of Egypt, supreme power in the land. Her stepson was relegated to secondin-command and 'the king herself' proceeded to rule for an amazing 21 years. What caused Hatshepsut to break so radically with the traditional role of queen regent? A social or military crisis? A desire for power? A belief that she had the same right to rule as a man? No one really knows. Maybe she felt, as a direct descendant of the pharoah Thutmose I, she had a greater claim to the divine line of pharaohs than Thutmose III. At first she made no secret of her sex - in images her body is unmistakably a woman's - but later she is depicted as a male king, with headdress and beard, standing imposingly with legs apart. Her hieroglyph inscriptions have frequent references to 'my people' which suggest that she knew she had broken with tradition and wanted her subjects' approval. Whatever their opinion was, there is no doubting the frustration of the king in waiting, Thutmose III. After Hapshepsut's death, he took his revenge, wiping his stepmother's reign as pharaoh out of history. But in the long term it is she, the King Herself, who has achieved greater fame. coffi n (n) /'kofm/ a box in which a dead body is placed to be buried commissi on (v) /k;:i'mrJn/ to order and pay fo r something to be made divine (adj) /d1 'va1n/ related to god

real life describing skills, talents and experience • pronunciation difficult words

9d Right for the job

-

Real life describing skills, talents and experience Shelterbox is a charity which sends boxes of essential items needed in an emergency - a tent, tools , cooki ng utensils, a water purification kit - to places where disasters, such as earthquakes and floods , have struck. Boxes are prepared in the USA and delivered immediately by Shelterbox employees to anywhere in the world where they will help to save lives.

1 Read the description of Shelterbox. What kind of

5 Pronunciation difficult words

organisa tion is it and what service do they offer?

2

a

'i 2.17

Listen to someone being interviewed for a job at Shelterbox. Answer the questions.

always a clear indication of its pronunciation. How confident are you that you can pronounce these words from the interview? For very confident put a (./),quite confident put a(?) and unconfident put a (x). Then listen and check.

1 What aspect of their work is the candidate interested in? 2 What is the interviewer concerned about?

3

although business comfortable environment foreign knowledgeable months specialised suited wor ld

~ 2.17 Look at these phrases from the

interview describing the candidate's suitability for a job. ote the prepositions used in each case. Then listen to the interview again and complete each one.

b

.... DESCRIBING SKILLS, TALENTS AND EXPERIENCE

2

Student A: choose one of the jobs below that interests you and think about the skills, talents and experience you have that w ould help you do it. Try to convince Student B why this would be a good job for you. Student B: ask Student A que tio . Then swap roles.

..•.•.••.

I specialised in 3 .....••.............................•. I'm good at coping w ith • .. I think I wou ld be suited to 5 I have quite a lot of experience of

6

..•.........

7

I'm quite good with -···-·--··-··-····-··-·--·---·-·-· • I'm comfortable with all 8 .....•.·-···-···---··-··-··--··-- · I'm serious about wanting to 9 -··-·---··-·····-··I need to become more knowledgeable about 10

4 Work in pairs. Discuss if the candidate did a good job of selling himself to the interviewer.

112

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~ 2.19 Listen to eight more words and try to spell them .

6 Work in pairs.

I'm familiar with your work because I have a friend who I'm very keen on t he idea of

~ 2.18 The spelling of a word in English is not

• a travel guide for a tour o erator taking groups on walking holiday in Italy • a sales assistant in a children' bookshop • a fund-ra iser for a chari - a t helps the homeless • an assistant to a c eraman w ho makes films about plants and ·w i.l

WOMEN AT WORK

...

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SKIU5, TAl.ENi5 ARD EXPERIENCE

writing an online profile • writing skill writing in note form

Unit 9 Talented people

9e Professional networking

-

Writing an online profile Profile

1 Do you use any professional networking sites (e.g. Biznik, Linkedln, Ecademy, Xing)? Why? I Why not?

Barton Mccready Managing Director of Evercready Learning

2 Read the profile and summarise in no more than nine words what this person's main skills and qualities are. How effective was his profile in putting across the key points?

Location: York, UK Industry: Online learning Current: Developing innovative e-learning programme for the car industry

3 Read the tips on how to w rite a profile

Past • Head of development, Faheys Educational responsible for new products

on a professional networking site. Put a tick (-./) next to each tip that has been followed, a cross ( x) next to those which have not and a question mark (?) if the tip has only been partly followed. Tips : 1 Include a personal photo and recommendations from others to show you really exist! 2 Give a heading and summary so that readers can get the main idea quickly. 3 Include your current status i.e . what you're doing now. 4 List all the places you have worked or studied at - someone from the same organisation or school may be looking at your profile! 5 Job titles may mean nothing to others so always describe what you did in each job.

• Commissioning Editor, York Books published Learning in the 21st Century • Director of Business Studies, Carston University Education: Cardiff University Summary Learning is my passion. I specialise in the design and management of on line learning programmes for industry, but I am also a writer, editor, blogger, educator and business consultant. My work has brought me into contact with many companies and I am now skilled at identifying and responding to the learning needs of any business sector, from cosmetics to car-making. If this experience has taught me one thing, it's that learning is the key to improvement for all of us.

C Convert these statements from other profiles into a shorter,

more concise form by deleting the unnecessary words. 1 I worked as a personal assistant to the Marketing Director. 2 I am currently w riting an article for Na tional Geographic magazine. 3 I was in charge of organising corporate social events. 4 I took the official photos for the N ational Basketball Championships. 5 I am working for various charities. 6 I was employed by a local college to raise money for them.

4 Writing skill writing in note form

a

Look at these four extracts from the profile. Which are proper sentences? Which are w ritten in note or shortened form? Why is this? 1 responsible for new products 2 Learning is m y passion. 3 published Learning in the 21st Century 4 Developing innovative e-learning programme for the car industry

b

Insert the necessary words (pronouns, articles, auxiliary verbs) to show w hat the extracts in note form w ould look like as full sentences.

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•• •

S Write your own short professional profile, similar to the one in Exercise 2. Think about the message you would most like the reader to be left w ith. When you have finished exchange profiles w ith another member of the class. Read the profile once quickly and tell each other w hat your main impression was.

6 Read your partner's profile again. Check the following points:

PERSONAL QUALITIES

• Has the profile been laid out correctly? • Have the tips in Exercise 3 been followed ? • Has note form been used in places to make the profile more concise? WOMEN AT WORK

SKILLS, TALENTS AND EXPERIENCE

113

Unit 9 Talented people

Before you watch

After you watch

1 Work in pairs. Make notes about w hat you know

6 Roleplay first meeting with Caesar

about Cleopatra. •

who she was

• when and where she ruled • important events in her life

2 You are going to watch a video about the story of Cleopatra. Write down three kinds of image you think you might see which help to tell this story.

While you watch 3 Watch the video and check your ideas from Exercises 1 and 2.

4 Watch the video again and answer the questions. 1 Why was Cleopatra forced from power by her brother? 2 How did she first meet Julius Caesar? 3 How did Cleopatra's relationship with Caesar help her? 4 Why did Octavian go to war with Antony and Cleopatra? 5 In what battle, and which year, was Mark Antony beaten? 6 How did Mark Antony die?

Work in pairs. Student A: Imagine you are Cleopatra. You arrive in Caesar's court hidden inside a rug. You need to charm Caesar so that he will help you become queen again. Read the information below and make notes. Student B: Imagine you are Caesar. Cleopatra arrives in your court hidden inside a rug. Read the information below and make notes. • • • •

how you feel (surprised, excited, curious, etc.) what you want from the other person how you can help the other person what you decide to do

Act out your meeting, then change roles and act out the meeting again.

7 At the end of the video, the narrator says: 'Cleopatra lives on in history through her personal story of love and tragedy.' Why do you think her story has lasted for so long? Do you think her story teaches us anything about love and power today?

8 Work in groups and discuss these questions. 1 Do you think Cleopatra was an admirable woman? Why? I Why not? 2 Are there any similar characters in the history of your country? 3 Would you like to have lived in Cleopatra's time? Why? I Why not?

7 How did Cleopatra die? charmed (adj) /tfa:md/ fascinated by

5 Match the sentence beginnings (1-7) with the endings (a-g). Then watch the video again to check. 1 Julius Caesar arrived in Alexandria 2 Cleopatra's relationship w ith Caesar kept Rome 3 After Caesar's murder 4 Cleopatra and Antony shared 5 Mark Antony's Roman rival, Octavian 6 Cleopatra spread numerous 7 Antony's followers carried him to Cleopatra a b c d e f g

from taking direct control of Egypt. false rumours of her death. where he died in her arms. in pursuit of a rival Roman general. her position ... became uncertain. went to war against them. a hunger for power.

controversy (n) /'kontra v3:si/ disagreement about something court (n) /b:t / the place where a ruler lives and works distort (v) /d1 sb:t/ change something from its normal shape dynasty (n) /'dmast i/ a family that rules a country for several generations grief (n) /gri: f/ great sadness infuriate (v) /m 'fjurieit / make very angry overjoyed (adj) /;iuva'd;s:i1d/ extremely happy pursuit (n) /pa 'sju:t / the act of chasing someone or something rival (n) / 'ra1 val/ a person or group that competes with another rug (n) /mg/ a small carpet seize (v) /si:zJ take by force

115

UN IT 9 REVIEW Grammar

Vocabulary

1 Complete this text about Em erging Explorer,

4 Complete the sentences w ith these nouns and the correct for m of the verbs.

Constan ce Adams, w ith the w here necessary.

experience background become do do qua Iification follow graduate know ledge quality serve skills

Constance Adams has had an unusual career path . She studied 1 architecture at 2 -----·--- Yale University before working as an arch itect in 3 ..... _ ............ Berlin and 4 _____ Japan . She then j oined 5 ______ ...... Johnson Space ·--· USA, where she helped design Centre in 6 TransHab, a module for 7 ················- International Space St ation . The idea of 8 _module was created to provide 9 --····-· ...• living quarters for 10 _ _ astronauts during their stay in 11 ........................... space. In 12 ________ 2005 she became a National Geographic Emerging Explorer.

1 My m ain academic ........................ is a physics d egree that got w hen I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . from Sussex University. 2 I h ave a lot of . . . . . . . . . . . of organising thin gs. I ............................ in the army fo r four years. 3 I thin k m y m ain · · · · · ·---------·· ----·· is that I'm very conscientiou s. I m ake sure I .. ........... every job p roperly. 4 I have good computer ............................ . I a course in ad vanced computing last year. 5 My ......................... - both m y parents are scientists m ean t scientific research was a n atural career fo r m e to 6 My . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of astroph ysics helped me to _ _ a space scientist.

5 Work in p airs. Use the nouns and verbs to d escribe your ow n skills and experience. ICAN t alk abo ut my experie nce, skill s a nd q ual ifi cat ions describe my ca reer pa t h

2 Complete the text w ith relative p ron ouns in 1- 5 and present and past p articiples in 6-10. Adams explains that the TransHab module was intended to be a habitat for a crew of six astronauts, mission was to reach Mars. The team had to design a module 2 .. would be only 4.3 metres in diameter when it was launched. But once in space, it needed to be three times that size to house the six astronauts 3 .... -·--· lived there. So they made a structure 4 .. could inflate and unfold in space to become a three-level 'house' 5 ... astronauts could eat, sleep and work . _ (compose) The outer shell of the module, 6 .. of over twenty layers of different materials, had to resist the space debris 7 . (hit) the spaceship all the time. This debris can hit the spaceship seven times faster than a bullet, 8 --·----- (cause) great damage. The outer layers were made of a kind of foam 9 •......... (use) in chairs and cushions. The inner shell was made of Kevlar, a material 10 -··-- -----· (wear) by soldiers and police for body protection .

Real life 6

Put the correct prep osition into each space. 1 I'm fa miliar . . . . . . . . m ost kinds of d esign software. 2 I specialised - ------·· ·----·· m echanical en gineering. 3 I think I am well suited _w orking abroad. 4 I'm good --- - - - - - - - - - - · ·- people. 5 I 'm good ····················-······· persuading people.

6 I'm serious . . . . . . . follow ing a career in the automotive industry. 7 I'm not so keen _sitting down all d ay. 8 I am quite knowled geable ___ mechanics.

7 Work in p airs . Tell each other about a job that would be right for you and one that w ouldn't. ICAN describe w hat ki nd of w o rk I am suited to

Speaking 3 Work in p airs. Discuss w h at was sp ecial about the size and shap e of the m odule, and the material used . ICAN use the and zero article use relati ve clauses and reduced relati ve clauses

116

8 Work in sm all group . Descri e the w ork of som eone you admire. Include the e points: • a description of their qualities and talents • w hat they ha\·e achie,-ed

Unit 10 Customs and behaviour

FEATURES

1 Work in pairs. Look at the photo. What is it about the behaviour of the younger tourists tha t surprises the older pair?

118 Cruel to be kind The tiger mother approach to raising children

The strange eating customs of the Nochmani

122 A universal language

126 Eating insects A video about Americans with an Lmusual taste for insects

TYPICAL BEHAVIOUR AN INFORMAL EMAIL

Manners maketh man

Willinm of Wykeham (1324-1404)

3 'ii 2.20 Listen to an anthropologist's explanation and compare

120 A matter of taste

Understanding body language

2 Look at the quotation below. Discuss w hat you think it means.

your answer. Answer the questions. 1 What is the narrow view of good manners, according to the speaker? 2 What is the real meaning of the quotation and its relation to society?

4 'i 2.20 Complete these phrases about manners. Then listen again and check. Discuss whether you think these things are important to teach children. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Don't . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with your mouth full. Don't ....................................... when grown-ups are speaking. Don't or _at people. Don't . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gum. Don' t wear clothes that are . . ................................. or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Be polite, and show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to others.

FOOD AND EATING HABITS

CUSTOMS IN YOUR COU NTRY

WEDD ING TRADITIONS

11 7

reading tiger mothers • vocabulary raising children: verbs • grammar habitual actions : present tenses, will • speaking typical behaviour

1Oa Cruel to be kind 3 Read the article and find out who tiger mothers are.

Reading

What are their attitudes to the first five items in Exercise 2? How do these compare to the attitudes of a typical western mother?

1 Work in pairs. Look at the photo and answer the questions. 1 What is happening in the photo? 2 How would you describe the mother 's attitude: strict, intense, something else? 3 How strict were your parents with you w hen you were young? Are you happy that they were this way or not?

2 Work in small groups. Discuss which of these things you think should be a) controlled strongly by parents; b) controlled a little by parents; or c) left to the child to decide? • • • • • • •

watching TV playing computer games practising a musical instrument going out to play with friends doing homework choosing what subjects to study at high school choosing extracurricular activities

c

R

u

E

L

T

Is there a right way to bring up children? Some parents read gu ides to find an answer, many just follow their instinct. Whatever they do, a doubt always remains: could I have done a better job? A recent contribution to the subject is Amy Chua's controversial book Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother, which describes the approach to child-rearing of an ambitious Chinese parent living in the West. According to Chua, western mothers are far too soft on their children. She says they are always praising their children for every effort they make, even if the result is coming last in a race or playing a piano piece bad ly. These are the kind of parents who will give in to their children's demands to go out and play rather than do their homework, if they protest loud enough. The tiger mother method is very different and the key is total control. Tiger mothers wi ll accept nothing less than 'A' grades in every subject - fai lure to achieve these is just proof that they have not worked hard enough . They will encourage not with praise and reward, but by punish ing and shaming . Chua told her own daughter that she would take her doll's house to a charity shop if she failed to master a difficult piano piece. She even rejected a homemade birthday card from her daughter Sophia because she had drawn it in a hurry.

118

0

4 What does the writer say about the results of the tiger mother approach to child-rearing? Does she approve or not? Do you agree with her?

Vocabulary raising children: verbs 5 Work in pairs. Look at the pairs of verbs below and discuss the difference between them. You w ill find the first verb in each pair in the article. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

bring up and educate children praise and reward good behaviour rebel against and disobey your parents push and discipline yourself give in to and spoil your children nag and pester someone shame and punish someone

B

E

K

I

N

D

But that highlights another difference, says Chua, which is directness and honesty. A tiger mother wi ll not hesitate to tell their child that they are lazy, whereas western parents are always telling their children not to worry, that they will do better next time, even if they think they have been lazy. The constant nagging of the tiger mother, the banning of TV and computer games seems harsh, but perhaps it works. Chua's children have not rebelled, and they don't resent their strict upbringing. They regularly get the top grades at school and are proficient at violin and piano - stereotypical symbols of success, critics would say. By contrast, children with more freedom and more laid-back parents will often lack selfdiscipline and wi ll fail to push themselves to achieve more.

r

Unit 10 Customs and behaviour

Grammar habitual actions: present tenses, will ""' PRESENT s1Nif>LE, PRESENT e:<:>f\J11i\Juousf~~'d :w1rD':;j; FOR REPEATED ACTIONS . . · .•~···."._'" .·.. '' ..;,::_, Present simple Some parents read guides to find an answer. Present continuous with always She says they are always praising their children for every effort they make.

will These are the kind of parents who will give in to their children 's demands. For further information and practice, see page 169.

9 Ii 2.21 Read the anecdotes below by people about children in Mexico, the USA and India. Put the verb in the right form . Then listen and compare your answers.

-

I've seen this situation so many times in Mexico. What happens is children 1 _ (beg) their parents for some sweets. At first the parent 2 _ (say) no. So then the child 3 (pester) and pester until the parent finally gives in -which they always do. It's against all the rules of parenting.

6 Work in pairs. Look at the sentences from the article in the grammar box. Which tense is used to describe: 1 typical behaviour? 2 a habit w hich the speaker finds annoying? 3 a simple fact or general truth?

7 Find and underline: 1 an example of tiger mothers' typical behaviour; an example of typ ical behaviour of western mothers ' children. 2 a simple fact about parents and a simple fact about Chua's children. 3 another thing Chua finds annoying about western mothers.

8 Complete these comments by parents and children by underlining the correct verb forms . Sometimes there is more than one possibility. Then discuss w hich ones you sympathise with and w hich you don't. 1 My parents w ill always tell I are always telling me to practise the piano and it just makes me feel it's a chore not a pleasure. 2 In my experience, children will do I do as little work as they can. So you have to make them do it. 3 Children will want I want to be loved. It's also true that they will pe1form I pe1form much better in a loving and secure environment. 4 Every parent will hope I hopes that their children will be successful, but they won't always admit I aren't always admitting it to their children or even themselves. 5 You have to have a different approach with different children. Some will respond I respond better to gentle encouragement; others will need I need to be pushed and challenged. 6 I don't like parents who will always try I are always trying to be friends w ith their children. There are too many parents w ho will buy I buy their children presents and let them do what they want just to get on their good side.

I teach in a school in San Francisco where we have quite a lot of ethnic Chinese and Japanese kids. By and large they 4 (do) what you tell them. But the other kids 5 ............. (always I misbehave) . You can tell them ten times to sit down before they do. Where I live in India, it is common for young children to work. Kidsstill 6 (depend) on their parents, but they have a different attitude to responsibility. Just as children in every culture 7 ......................................... (play) naturally, so children in India naturally . . (assume) responsibility for working and earning money.

~

Speaking 10 Work in pairs. Discuss the situations in Exercise 9. How familiar is each one to you? Does the behaviour seem right or wrong?

11 Think of three more examples of children's and parents' behaviour in your country: a simple fact about the way children or parents behave; an example of typical behaviour; an example of behaviour that annoys you or seems wrong.

12 Describe your examples to another pair. Are they similar to theirs?

it·!•@:I·liii ..

l!miDI

TYPICAL BEHAVIOUR

AN INFORMAL EMAIL

FOOD AND EATING HABITS

CUSTOMS IN YOUR COUNTRY

WEDDING TRADITIONS

119

Listening 1 What is the strangest thing you have ever eaten? Why did you eat it? What did it taste like?

2 " 2.22 Listen to an extract from a radio programme about a tribe with an unusual diet. Answer the questions. 1 Where is this tribe from? 2 What do they eat mostly? 3 How do they make sure there is enough of this food?

3 Ii 2.22 Listen again and choose the correct word or phrase to complete the statements. 1 We live in an age where people are very . . . ............................................... what they eat. a nervous about b aware of c careless about 2 Most people need ............................................... in order to live. a red meat b animals c mammals 3 In the past it was thought that the icobar Islands contained .............................. a no inhabitants b no fresh w ater c few animals 4 The N ochmani didn't want to eat ................................................. a sweets and cakes b meat c any of the food they were offered 5 Insects have a lot of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in them. a carbohydrate b vitamins c protein 6 The speaker thinks w e could all benefit from eating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................... a less meat b more insects c alternative types of food

4 What do you think of the diet of the Nochmani? Do you think what w e eat is just a matter of habit? Why? / Why not? Can we learn to eat anything if we have to? Or are there some things you could never eat?

120

Grammar used to, usually, be used to and get used to 5 Look at these sentences from the extract (1 - 5) . Match each verb form in bold to the meaning (a-e). 1 We didn't use to think so much about what w e ate. 2 People usually need mammals in order to live. 3 The N ochmani were not used to eating meat. 4 If you are used to a certain type of food, other types may be completely indigestible. 5 If more of us could get used to eating unconventional foods, .. . a refers to something that was strange or abnormal for someone b refers to something that happens regularly or is generally the case c refers to learning to cope with something difficult or unfamiliar d refers to what someone did regularly in the past, but doesn't do anymore e refers to something that is normal and not strange .... USED TO, USUALLY, BE USED TO and GET USED TO Past habits

Present habits

used to+ infinitive I used to eat ... I didn't use to eat ... Did you use to eat?

(not) usua lly + present simple I usua lly eat ... I don't usually eat ...

Familiar (and unfamiliar) habits be used to + noun or -ing form I am used to (eating)

Habits that are becoming famil iar g et used to + noun or -ing form I am getting used to (eating)

Italian food. I am not used to .. . Are you used to ... ?

English foo d. I am not g etting used to .. . Are you getting used to ... ?

Do yo u usually eat?

For further information and practice, see page 170.

Unit 10 Customs and behaviour

6

9 Pronunciation /u:/ and /ju:/

Look at the grammar box and then choose the right fo rm to complete sentences 1-9 in A, B and

a

C. No te that we u se be u sed to and get used to for

rJ In China, people

do not usually finish I used not to finish everything on their plate, because it is a sign that they have not had enough to eat. Visitors from the West find it difficult to 2 be used to I get used to this, because they 3 usually eat I are used to eating everything up to show that they like it. When a Chinese host sees their empty plates, he 4 usually assumes I is used to assuming that they want more. 1

IJ Fifty years ago, people in the USA

~ 2.23 In the words in bold the letter u is

p ron ounced /ju:/. Listen to the sentences and repea t.

things that are not strange or difficult to do.

1 I u sually eat a big breakfast. 2 Did you use to eat a big breakfast? 3 I'm not u sed to eating a lot of m eat.

b

Work in p airs. Practise saying the other words w ith the same sound. consume nutritious useful

got used to sitting I used to sit down for meals with their families each evening . Families nowadays 6 usually eat I are used to eating together only three times a week, because busy lives and TV get in the way. But it is believed that if more families could 7 be used to dining I get used to dining together, it would strengthen family relationships.

cucumber futu re human opportunity produce tuna

5

E31 Eating a traditional English breakfast of eggs, bacon and sausages 8 used to be I was used to being a common thing in the UK. A big breakfast was important because people 9 didn 't use to eat I weren't used to eating so many snacks during the day.

C

Ii 2.24

In these words there is no /j/ sound before the /u:/ sound. Practise saying them. Then listen and check. Which sounds does /u:/ follow in these words? fruit

juice

June

rule

true

Vocabulary and speaking 10 Work in pairs. Place these four items of food into the correct category (a-d). Think of two m ore items for each category. Then comp are your list with another pair. breakfast cereal yoghurt

chocolate bars

rice

7 Put the verb in the most appropriate fo rm to a b c d

complete these sentences. 1 We __ (eat) out a lot, but restaurants are so expensive these days that we don't anym ore. 2 I _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . (have) a tuna and mayonnaise sandwich for my lunch . 3 I . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . (take) su gar in m y coffee, bu t n ow I have a sweetener. It took a little while to _ the taste, but now I can ' t tell the difference. 4 When I was staying w ith my friends in England, we ate at six o'clock in the evening. It was strange, because I .... . (ea t) much later.

11 Complete these sentences by putting in

morn

8 Are any of the sentences in Exercise 7 true for you ? Do you have similar experiences?

i(;[email protected]:teiiii l!mi]J

TYPICAL BEHAVIOUR

AN INFORMAL EMAIL

ll>

dairy products, e.g. m ilk p rocessed foo d, e.g. frozen peas staple foods, e.g. p otatoes snacks, e.g. crisps

FOOD AND EATING HABITS

info rmation about eating habits in your coun try. Go around the class and exchange your inform ation w ith at least three other p eople. Then work with your p artner. Tell each other the tvv o most mem orable statem ents you heard. 1 Wh en I was growing up, a lot of families used to ... 2 Th e m ain staple foo d is ... People aren 't used to eating ... 3 For breakfast, people usu ally ... 4 I think visitors find some of our eating customs strange, because they are not u sed to ... 4 People in m y country don't usually eat ... 5 I think young people find it d ifficult to get used to .. .

CUSTOMS IN YOUR COUNTRY

WEDDING TRADITIONS

121

reading body language • critical thinking sources • word focus common • speaking customs in your country

1Oc A universal language 5 Do you agree with the writer's view about

Reading 1 Work in pairs. Put the actions in the box into the correct category of body language. Then demonstrate the actions to each other. What is the meaning of each? a handshake biting your bottom lip sitting back in your chair smiling

standing with arms crossed waving

posture: gesture: facial expression:

2 Read the article about body language and say which of the sentences best summarises the author's view. a We need to learn how people from different cultures use body language. b The differences in body language between cultures are small but important. c There are more similarities than differences in body language between cultures.

3 According to the writer .. . 1 Making comparisons between cultures can be: a fun . b useful. c dangerous. 2 Standing too close to someone of another culture can: a cause arguments. b cause discomfort. c be a serious insult. 3 A lot of the facts given in guides for travellers are: a very important. c wrong. b not of much practical help. 4 Looking away from the speaker is a sign of: a sadness. b boredom. c both boredom and sadness. 5 To avoid making mistakes in body language w ith other cultures, people need to be: a sensible. b sensitive. c both. 6 Differences in body language between people start at: a an individual level. b a cultural level. c an emotional level.

4 With your partner, demonstrate to each other: • the two gestures described in paragraph 3 • the two greetings mentioned in paragraph 4 • the body language associated w ith boredom and anger described in paragraph 5

122

cross-cultural communication? Is your culture one that generally shows its emotions or not?

Critical thinking sources 6 The article gives a lot of information about body language and customs. But how do we know how reliable this information is? Underline the examples of different cultures' body language and customs in the article.

7 Work in pairs. Find the author 's source for each example. Mark the source according to this scale: 3 = very credible source; 2 = quite credible source; 1 =incredible source and 0 =no source.

Word focus common 8 The word common has two basic meanings Look at these expressions from the article and match the meanings (1-2) with the sentences (a-d). (adj) 1 something usual or normal 2 something that is shared by two or more people

com mon

a It is quite common in European countries to sit w ith your legs crossed. b The things that we all have in common ... c There are also common factors when people are bored. d If we all just apply a little sensitivity and common sense, .. .

9 Now do the same for these expressions. e In a negotiation, always try to find common ground between you and the other party. f It is a common misconception that English people drink only tea, not coffee. g Don't worry about mispronouncing my name it's a common mistake that everyone makes. h It's common knowledge that Chinese people use chopsticks, not knives and forks.

Speaking 10 Work in pairs. Describe the follow ing customs in your country. Then compare your answers with another pair. How similar were they? • • • •

The most common form of greeting Common gestures that visitors are not used to Common eating customs Common misconceptions foreigners have about your country

People love to compare and contrast. In most parts of England, you buy your bus ticket on the bus. In France, you buy it at a metro station. In Australia, you can buy it from a newsagent. We all find this kind of comparison entertaining. Books on cross-cultural communication exploit our curiosity by focussing on differences between people across the 'Norld: in social behaviour, the roles they adopt in society, their attitudes to money, the significance of their body language, etc. Proxemics, the study of different standards of personal space, is one example. How close I stand to someone when I am speaking to them depends not only on my relationship to them, but also on my culture. This is important because if the person I am with is not used to standing as near as I do when we are talking to each other, they might feel uncomfortable. Statistics tell us that the average distance at which two people stand in a social context - neighbours chatting for example - is anything between 1.2 metres and 3.5 metres. In Latin cultures (South America, Italy, etc.) and also in China this distance tends to be smaller, while in Nordic cultures (Sweden, Denmark, etc.) people usually stand further apart. The messages sent by your posture and gestures is another case in point. For example, it is quite common in European countries to sit with your legs crossed and the top foot outstretched. But, as I know from personal experience, people in Arab countries hardly ever sit in this way - because they might show you the bottom of their shoe, which is a serious insult. It is said that in the Philippines, people often greet each other by raising their eyebrows quickly. In the USA, this is a sign of surprise. Such information fills the pages of guides for travellers and international business people. But I would really question the usefulness of what are presented as 'essential' or 'must know' facts. Clearly it is important to know a little about eating customs, tipping and the rules concerning basic greetings - whether you should bow or shake someone's hand. But beneath the surface, we are

not so different. There are many signs that are universal in the emotions that they communicate. Focussing on these similarities - the things that we all have in common - is a much more profitable route than focussing on the differences. Smiling is the best known of these, but not the only one. Behaviourists have proven that all over the world, people show sadness in a similar way. The face 'falls': the mouth becomes downturned and the eyes begin to look glassy. The person will probably look down or away and seem distracted. There are also common factors when people are bored. They will look at other things in a distracted way - their watches, for example. Their feet will begin to move restlessly indicating that they want to escape; they tap their fingers or scratch their heads. Anger can also be read quite easily: the facial muscles tense up, often causing people to frown; the eyes stare, fixing themselves on the target of their anger; blood rushes to the face causing it to become red. If the anger is great, the body will also tense up as if preparing itself for a physical fight. Understanding these universal signals and reacting appropriately is the real key to cross-cultural communication. If we all apply just a little sensitivity and common sense, it is unlikely that we will cause lasting offence by making the wrong gesture or invading a stranger's personal space. Of course some cultures show their emotions more openly and others prefer to keep them more hidden. But isn't that also the case within cultures, from one individual to another? frown (v) /fraun/ to lower your eyebrows, causing lines to appear on your forehead scratch (v) /sknelf/ to move your fingernails backwards and forwards across your skin stare (v) /ste;J/ to look intensely and for a long time at something tap (v) /trep/ to hit something lightly w ith a finger or hand

vocabulary weddings • real life describing traditions • pronunciation the letters • speaking wedding traditions

1Od A pre-wedding ritual Vocabulary weddings

6

the linking words in the box to help you. Then listen again and compare your version to what you hear.

1 What pre-wedding customs or events are traditional for the bride-to-be in your country?

2 Work in pairs. Look at the words related to weddings and answer the questions. bride

groom

hen night

stag night

veil

1 Which word means a pre-wedding party for the man? And for the woman? 2 Which word means the woman on her wedding day? And the man on his? 3 Which word means a piece of fine cloth that covers the woman's face?

IJl. WORDBUILDING word pairs Some wo rds have a natural 'partner' or make a matching pair.

~ 2.27 Retell the events to each other using

7 Pronunciation the letters

a

~ 2.28 Listen to these words and for each one

say if the letter s is pronounced /s/ or /z/. N ote the spellings that produce each sound. custom dress friends symbolise weddings

b

music

suppose

~ 2.29 Work in pairs. Say how s will be

pronounced in the following words. Listen and check. Think of three more words for each sound. Then compare words with another pair.

bride and groom, host and guest

across spends

For further information and practice, see Workbook page 83.

eastern lose surprise

rings

single

Real life describing traditions

Speaking

3 'i 2.25 Listen to the first part of a description of a

8 What special events or customs take place

traditional pre-wedding henna night in eastern Turkey. Who attends the event and how is it celebra ted?

4 Complete the first four phrases in the box below by writing in the details of the henna night.

IJl.

DESCRIBING TRADITIONS

' It takes place 2

3 4

It marks the .....------·-····-·--··-··-.. It is an occasion for .........................____.._

before or after a wedding in your country? Choose one and prepare a description using the box to help you. Think about: • • • •

the timing of the event the sequence of the events its significance any special symbols used

9 Working in small groups, describe these

It symbolises the ....................................................... .

It's traditional I customary for this to be done by ... Typica lly I As a rule I Usually the women from .. .

customs to each other. When each person has finished their description, ask them questions.

Describing the sequence of events The ceremony begins with the ... Then, .. . I After that, ... I Next, ... I Finally, ... Wh ile this is happening I During this part, the guests ... After I Once the bride's head has been ... On the morning of th e wedding, a ...

5 'i 2.26 Listen to the second part. Put the stages of the ceremony in the correct order by numbering each item. a b c d

A child presents the hennaed coin to the groom. The bride's head is covered with a red veil. The guests sing separation songs. The bride's hands and feet are decorated with henna. e A gold coin is put into the remaining henna. f The henna is prepared by the daughter of another couple.

124

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TYPICAL BEHAVIOUR

AN INFORMAL EMAIL

FOOD AND EATING HABITS

CUSTOMS IN YOUR CO UNTRY

~

WEDDING TRADITIONS

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Unit 10

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1Oe Business customs Writing an informal email

4 Writing skill elision in informal writing

1 Imagine you are about to go on a business trip to

a

a country you haven't visited before. What would you want to know about the customs there before you travelled?

2 Read the first email. What is Paul asking for? What is he worried about?

3 Read Dominic's reply. Which pieces of advice should calm Paul's worries?

~i Domi nic

Look at the two emails again. Underline four phrases in the first email and four in the second email where words have been omitted to save time e.g. Good to see you briefly the other day.

b How would you write these sentences or phrases if you were writing a more formal letter? Convert the sentences and phrases by inserting the words that are missing.

Example:

It was good to see you the other day.

Good to see you bri efly t he other day. Forgot to te ll you. I'm going out to Chi na next w eek. Just w ondered w hat to expect. I know you have experience of doing business there. Don 't w ant to put my foot in it wit h any potenti al business partners. Could you let me know anyt hi ng I shoul d be particu larly aw are of? Thanks Pa ul

Hi Pau l

C Now convert these sentences into a more

economical style by removing unnecessary pronouns, auxiliary verbs or the verb be. 1 2 3 4 5 6

I hope we can meet up soon. It was bad luck that you didn't get the job. I'll be back next Tuesday night. This is m y address in New York: ... I w ill look forward to hearing all about it. It wasn ' t a bad result, was it?

5 Write a response to this email that you received in

Glad to hea r you're go in g out to Chin a. I t hink you'll enjoy it. Not Shang hai, is it7 Let me know. Mayb e I ca n fi x you up w ith a couple of contacts. Anyway, my ad vi ce: - Take plenty of business ca rds - Chi nese people will alw ays give you t heirs (make sure you read t hem carefully) and it's emba rrass ing if you don 't have one to give in return. - Keep t he name and address of your hotel w ith you wh en you go out. Vi sitors are always getting into t roub le because they can 't remembe r wh ere t hey' re stayin g. - The Chi nese love their food and are very proud of it. They'll offer you some un usual dishes. Just be adventu rous and be gratefu l! Good luck and spea k soon Do mi nic ./'

your country. Hi t here Wondered if you could help. I'm flyi ng over next w eek to meet some clients. W ill have to take t hem out to di nne r and chat to them a bit social ly. Can you give me so me advi ce about how things are done over there? Eating custo ms, w hat to talk about, etc. Sorry to ask, but very gratefu l for any informat ion you can provide. Best wi shes Sara

6 Work in pairs. Exchange emails. Read your partner 's reply and answer the questions. • • • •

Is it written in an informal style? Has the writer given some useful tips:? Is the content short and to the point? H as the writer used some elision?

~ ~

Unit 10 Customs and behaviour

Before you watch

After you watch

1 Work in groups. Look at the photo and discuss the

7 Roleplay a meal at Larry's restaurant

questions. 1 What do you think a candy man is? 2 How does the photo make you feel? Do you think most people would feel the same as you ? 3 What do you think Larry Peterman's mission is?

2 Work in pairs. Think about the sweets you used to eat when you were a child. What can you remember about them? Describe the sweets to your partner.

3 You are going to watch a video about eating

Work in groups of three. Student A: Imagine you are Larry. Prepare an interesting insect menu. Then give the menu to your customers. Explain what each dish is and answer their questions. Student B: You don't like the idea of eating insects but are prepared to try. Ask Larry about the menu and order your meal. Also ask Larry why he is so interested in promoting insect foods.

insects. Answer these questions.

Student C: You love the idea of eating insects. Order a meal.

1 2 3 4

Act out the conversation, then change roles and act out the conversation again. The student who is Larry should prepare a different menu.

Which countries include insects in their diets? Do you think eating insects is a new habit? Are insects good for you? Is producing insects better for the environment than producing meat?

While you watch 4 Watch the video and check your answers from Exercise 3.

5 Watch the video again. Number the foods in the order you see them. a b c d e f g h

banana, cream and cockroach dessert salt-water taffy lollipop with cricket cricket cocktail mealworm-covered apples stir fry caramels caterpillars

6 Answer the questions. 1 Where is Hotlix? 2 How long has Larry been trying to get Americans to eat insects?

8 At the end of the video, Larry predicts that gourmet insects will have 'snob appeal'. What do you think that means?

9 Do you think Larry will eventually win people over to eating insects. Why? I Why not?

10 Work in groups and discuss these questions. 1 Are there any unusual dishes or foods in your country? 2 What types of foods do people in your country avoid eating generally? Why? 3 Are there any foods you don't like? Why? advocate (n) / 'red v~ bt / a person who supports something brim (v) /brrm/ be f ull of bug (n) lbr.g/ insect candy (n) /'krendi/ (American English) sweets munch (v) /mr.nlf/ eat niche (n) /ni:f/ a specialised business opportunity revolting (adj) /n 'v;mltIIJ/ disgusting snob (n) /snob/ a person who thinks he or she is better than other people swat (v) /swot/ (American English) hit

3 According to Larry, why do most Americans not like eating insects? 4 How many species of insects are eaten around the world? 5 How does Larry compare insects to wine?

127

UNIT 10 REVIEW Grammar

Vocabulary

1 Work in p airs. Look at the photo. Wh at do

4 Work in p airs. Find the odd one out in each group of

you kn ow about the eating habits of the Sp anish: w hen they eat, w hat they like to eat, etc.?

2 Read the extract from a travel guide. What times are Spanish meals?

3 Underline the correct forms to complete the extract.

words and expressions. Explain the reason for your ch oice. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

punish, discipline, nag, sp oil educate, bring up, look after, raise encourage, sh ame, praise, rew ard bread, cheese, rice, pasta sit back, shake hands, wave, p oint interrupt, stare, smile, chew gum well-behaved, offensive, polite, courteou s

5 Tell each other w hat postures, gestures or facial exp ressions you often use an d in what situations. ICAN tal k ab out bri ng ing up chi ld re n t alk abo ut eating habit s t alk about body langu age

Real life 6 Work in p airs. Match the two p arts of the sentences to make sentences about a coming-of-age tradition.

People visit ing Spain for the first time can find it difficult to 1 be used to I get used to the eating customs of t he Span ish . It 's not so much the food itself, but the tim ing of the meals that visitors 2 aren 't used to I don 't get used to . I 3 was used to living I used to live in Cad iz myself for a few yea rs and I actually quite like the way they do things. Breakfast is a light continental affair - just a roll and some coffee usually - eaten between 8 and 9.30 a.m. The main meal of the day is lunch, which peop le 4 are used to eating I usually eat sometime between 1 p.m. and 3.30 p.m. Quite a few of the shops, museums and galleries 5 close I will close around this time, because the locals like to take time over lunch . They 6 are always resting I will rest for a short time afterwards, although the traditional afternoon siesta is not as common as it 7 was used to being I used to be. People eat late in the evening - rarely before 9 p.m. and at the weekend the locals often 8 aren't eating I won't eat before 11 p.m. or even midnight. This is a much lighter meal than lunch - often just a few tapas taken with a drink.

use used to, be used to and get used to co rre ctl y tal k about habits and t ypi cal beh aviour w ith present simple, present conti nu ous and w ill

128

1 2 3 4 5

It m arks It takes p lace It is an occasion It symbolises

It's customary for 6 Typ ically the ceremony 7 Once the child has given their speech

a the moment w hen a child becomes an adult. b the child to stan d up and give a short speech. c begins with the p arent walking into the hall w ith the child. d people in the audience can also say some words. e on the child 's 16th birthday. f fo r celebration. g leaving childish things behind.

7 Tell your p artner about a sp ecial celebration in your coun try and the traditions that surround it. ICAN describe t ra diti ons and cust o ms at specia l events

Speaking 8 Work in small groups. How is children's upbringing these days different from w hen you were a child? Look at the example. Do you agree with this speaker? My parents w ere quite strict. They used to expect us to do jobs around the house. I think children these days have it much easier, although they are al w ays complaining that thei r parents expect a lot of them .

Unit 11 Knowledge and learning

FEATURES

1 Work in pairs. Match each technique of acquiring knowled ge or learning (1-4) to a definition (a-d.). Which technique are the students using in the photo?

130 Knowledge conservation

1 2 3 4

The work of ethnobotanist, Maria Fadiman

132 Memory

2

How would it be to have an am azing mem ory?

exp erimenting using logic judging from w hat you see or hear reading or listening to an expert

~ 2.30 Sometimes we feel we know something intuitively,

1 What situation does he describe? 2 Wh at types of learning are needed in this situation?

3 lj 2.30 Listen again and comp lete the phrases the

Wh at goes on in the mind of an animal?

p sych ologist uses to talk about knowled ge. Discuss w hat each one m eans.

138 Paraguay shaman

1 You have a basic ... . .... . . . . . . .... . . . of car m echanics. 2 You do a bit of research to . . .... . . . . . . .... .. out w hat the best kind of car is and try to ... . . . . . . up some tips from experts. 3 In other words, you . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . the information. 4 In the end you h ave to trust your instinct or ....... . feeling .

A video about the uses of m edicinal p lants

ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE

a b c d

without having to learn it. Listen to a psychologist describing such a situation and answer the questions.

134 Who's a clever bird, then?

mm

by authority by observation by reasoning by trial an d error

WHY YOU FORGOT

AN EMAIL ABOUT A MISUNDERSTANDING

TYPES OF LEARNER

GETTING CLARIFICATION

129

reading people and plants • grammar could, was able to, manage to and succeed in • vocabulary learning • speaking acquiring knowledge

11 a Knowledge conservation 4 What does the article say about:

Reading 1 Work in pairs. Look at the photo in the article below of a botanist in the field. What does a botanist do?

2 Make a list of plants or plant products you use on a daily basis. Then compare your list with another pair. Which uses did your lists have in common? Example:

cotton in my clothes

3 Read the article about Maria Fadiman and answer

1 the way Fadiman collects knowledge from local people? 2 the way that local people often pass their know ledge on? 3 the way Fadiman passes her knowledge on to her students?

S Do you think that Fadiman's idea of recording traditional plant knowledge is useful? Why? I Why not? What knowledge has been passed down to you by your parents or grandparents? Tell your partner.

the questions. 1 How is her interest in plants different from a traditional botanist? 2 Where does she work? 3 What two uses of plants are mentioned in the article?

KNOWLEDGE

1JJJ-

WORDBUILDING idiomatic expressions

Often there are idiomatic expressions that can replace basic verbs like think, realise, etc.

It struck me that ...

=I realised that ...

For further information and practice, see Workbook page 91.

C 0 N S E R V A T

0 N

Dr Maria Fadiman is an ethnobotanist - she studies how people use plants. 'Looking at plant conservation without including people is a fantasy; she says. 'The focus of my work is finding a balance where people use resources in a sustainable way: It struck Fadiman early on that this was what she wanted to do. 'I was born with a passion for conservation and a fascination with indigenous cultures; she explains. 'Ethnobotany lets me bring it all together. On my first trip to the rain forest I met a woman who was in terrible pain because the people in her village weren't able to remember which plant would cure her. I saw traditional plant knowledge was being lost, and at that moment I knew conserving this kind of knowledge was what I wanted to do with my life: Visiting the Ecuadorian rain forest, Dr Fadiman was amazed at the variety of plants. 'It looked like one big, green mish-mash to me; she says. 'But the people who lived there were able to pick out the right plants for medicine and could distinguish not only the plants that were safe to eat, but also the right part of each plant: The problem often is that such knowledge is stored only in local people's minds and it is passed down from generation to generation. Fadiman managed to persuade inhabitants of the Ecuadorian rain forest to let her record the information in written form. 'They are excited by this idea because suddenly their knowledge is valued: But conservation doesn't just mean protecting indigenous plants. If bringing in non-native plants - cash crops like coffee is beneficial to people and the environment, then that's fine too. In the Galapagos Islands, where overfishing was a real problem, environmentalists like Fadiman succeeded in getting local people to think about alternatives to fishing, such as growing coffee. 130

By forming close relationships with local people and joining in with their way of life, Fadiman has inspired her own students in her teaching at Florida Atlantic University. Students who couldn't easily absorb facts and statistics said they were able to engage much more easily with the subject when they heard her stories of going to the river to brush her teeth or sitting around a cooking fire. indigenous (adj) / m 'd1d3;in;is/ native to a particular country or area mish-mash (n) l 'm1f ,mref / a confu sing mixture or collection of things

Unit 11 Knowledge and learning

Grammar could, was able to, manage to and succeed in

8 Underline the correct form in each of these sentences. Sometimes both forms are possible. 1

6

Work in pairs. Underline the sentences in the article w here the following forms (1-6) are used. Then match each form to the uses (a-c). Note that some forms can have more than one use.

2

1 could 2 was/wereable to (do) 3 couldn't

3

4 wasn't I weren't able to 5 managed to (do) 6 succeeded in (doing)

4

a to describe success in a task on a particular occasion in the past b to describe a general ability in the past c to describe an inability to do something in the past ... COULD, WAS ABLE TO, MANAGE TO and SUCCEED IN could + infinitive (without to) He could tell which plants were safe and which were dangerous. couldn't+ infinitive (without to) I couldn't remember the name of the plant. was I were able + to + infinitive We were able to learn a Jot by talking to the local people. He wasn't able to expla in how he knew it was the right plant. manage + to + infinitive After three hours climbing, we managed to reach the top of the mountain. succeed in + -ing We succeeded in finding a guide to take us into the forest. For further information and practice, see page 171.

7 Look at the grammar box. Then complete the sentences. 1 In the past people could __ . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

3 4

5 6

6

I

By specialising in ethnobotany, Fadiman was able to combine I succeeded in combining an interest in plants with her interest in people. She also studied geography, which meant she could look at I managed to look at people and the land. In Ecuador, Fadiman could record I managed to record data about plants that hadn't been written down before. In Yucatan, Mexico, local women taught Fadiman how to weave, something that she wasn't able to do I didn 't manage to do before. On a recent trip to Ecuador, she could visit I was able to visit a lot of places in a short time by using a helicopter rather than buses and canoes. Fadiman was impressed by how indigenous people were able to make I succeeded in making use of the plants around them.

Vocabulary learning 9 Work in pairs. Find pairs of words in this group with the same meaning. absorb acquire be ignorant connect with engage with grasp inspire motivate not know pick up take in understand

10 Complete these sentences about your own learning at school using one of the forms in the grammar box. Ask and answer these questions. 1 Which teachers _ . . (inspire) you at school? 2 What kind of facts _ . . (absorb) most easily? 3 Which subjects __ ___ (engage with)? 4 _ .......................................... (pass) all your exams? 5 What knowledge ....................................................... (acquire) that has been useful in later life? 6 Was there anything that __ __ (not I grasp) that you wished you did now?

_ (distinguish) plants much more than they can Speaking now. Recently, a group of schoolchildren who were 11 " 2.31 Listen to someone describing her area of asked where cotton came from weren't able expertise and answer the questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (say) whether it was from an animal or a plant. 1 What is the speaker's area of expertise? People were able . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (use) this 2 How did the speaker acquire their knowledge to find food and medicines. knowledge? They also managed _. . . . . . . . . . . . . (work) out 12 Work in pairs. Think of a subject you know w hich plants were good for building and a lot about. How were you able to become making clothes. knowledgeable in this area? Have you managed But they didn't always succeed . . to record or pass on this knowledge in any way? (pass) this knowledge on to the next generation. So people couldn't _ _ _ (save) some of this knowledge from being lost.

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5

-I

WHY YOU FORGOT

AN EMAIL ABOUT A MISUNDERSTANDING

TYPES OF LEARNER

GETTING CLARIFICATION

131

speaking memory tests • listening memory • grammar future in the past • pronunciation contrastive sentence stress · speaking why you forgot

11b Memory Speaking

Listening

1 Work in pairs. How good is your memory? Look at the picture

3 What things do you commonly forget?

below for ten seconds. Then turn your book over and write down all the objects you can remember.

2 Compare your results with another pair. What techniques did you use to remember each set? Items left at the Vietnam Memorial, Landover, Maryland

Which failures of memory annoy you the most?

4 ~ 2.32 Listen to the first part of a talk on memory by a psychologist and note the common failures of memory that he mentions. Were any of them the same as yours?

5 "ii 2.33 Listen to the rest of the talk and answer the questions. 1 What is the woman ' AJ' good at remembering? 2 How does ' AJ' feel about her good memory? 3 Why are people's memories perhaps not as good as they used to be?

6 'ii 2.34 Complete the psychologist's statements by putting in the missing words (one word per space). Then listen again and check. 1 AJ's memory is stimulated by __ _ in the same way that our memories can be stimulated by certain 2 Having a good memory should make people feel more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Our memories are selective: they remember mostly ... _ _ _ things and ____ things. _ for all the 4 We should be _ things that our memories hide away. 5 Psychologists call the technology we use to store information 'our _ memory'. ow medical science is trying to 6 address the problem of . . memory.

7 Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 How much d o you rely on your own internal memory to remember things? 2 H ow m uch do you rely on aids, such as p o t-it notes, corn.pute r,

diaries, etc. . 3 Do you agree ,,·ith the speaker that our memorie are getting worse?

132

Unit 11 Knowledge and learning

Grammar future in the past 8

~ 2.36 Look at the grammar box. Transform

11

these original plans into future in the past forms. Then listen and check your answers.

~Iii 2.35 Listen to the first part of the talk again and

complete the first half of these sentences w ith the correct verb forms.

1 Tm going to ask Sarah to come.' I _ ................................. , but I asked Kate instead. 2 'She's supposed to be in Cairo this week.' She ....................................................... in Cairo this week, but she's ill. 3 'I'll definitely send you the original.' He promised he me the original, but he sent me a copy. 4 'We will be there by ten o'clock'. We ...................................... _. . . . there by ten o'clock, but the train didn't get in until eleven fifteen. 5 He's about to announce that he will retire this year. He _. . . ,but now he thinks he'll stay until next year. 6 'The council will build a new shopping mall in the centre.' The council ........................................... a new shopping mall in the centre, but residents opposed the idea.

1 You _. . . to make a comment at a meeting and then ... 2 You ......................................................... to send a friend a card for their birthday, but then ... 3 You recognised someone in the street and _ ............. spoken to them, but ... 4 You promised you post a letter for someone and two days later ... 5 You _. . . to write down a great idea you had, but w hen you found a pen and paper, ...

9 Work in pairs. What happened next in each case? Were any of these actions completed? If not, w hy not?

10 Choose the right verb form to complete this description of another memory patient. There was another interesting patient who couldn't form new memories. He could only remember events before 1960. I ' was going to ask I would ask his doctor how someone w ith no memory managed to cope with daily life, but she suggested I speak to him directly. So I went to interview him. Our appointment 2 was supposed to be I would be at 2 p.m., but it made no difference to him what time it was since he lived only in the present. I 3 would tell I would have told him my name and why I was there, but I realised there was no point: 4 it was going to mean I it would ha ve meant nothing to him . So I began by asking him about his past and he talked about his time as a child during the Second World War. But then the telephone rang. When he came back, I 5 was about to ask I would ask him to continue, but I realised the moment had gone. He had completely forgotten our earlier conversation. I thought he 6 was about to be I would be frustrated by this but not at all. The man was not stupid and he did not seem unhappy. If anything he seemed happier for not being burdened by memory.

; .... FUTURE . IN~THE PASTC going to and about to I was going to call you, but I forgot. I was about to call you, but I was interrupted. would and would have He said he would call me. I would have called you, but I didn't have your number. supposed to He was supposed to call you. Did he forget?

-

12 Pronunciation contrastive sentence stress

a Ii 2.36

Work in pairs. Underline the words in each sentence in Exercise 11 that highlight the contrasting facts . Listen and check. Then practise saying each sentence.

b

Complete each of these sentences with a contrasting idea . Underline the w ords in the sentence that highlight the contrast. Then say your sentences to your partner. Ask them which words they thought were stressed. 1 I was going to order a steak, but ... 2 They were supposed to be going on holiday to Italy, but ... 3 I would have driven, but ... 4 He said he would w ait for me, but ... 5 We were about to buy a new TV, but ...

Speaking 13 Work in pairs. Choose one of the three situations below. Think of a good excuse to explain why this happened. Then change pairs and explain your excuse again. At the end vote on w hich excuses were best. •

You were 30 minutes late for an important business meeting and didn't call to say so. • You borrowed someone's car and were supposed to return it the following day, but they had to call you to find out w here you were. • It was a close friend 's birthday two days ago. You didn't send a card or get them a present.

Fo r further information and practice, see page 172.

itMilf.llii mm

ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE

~

WHY YOU FORGOT

AN EMAIL ABOUT A MISUNDERSTANDING

TYPES OF LEARNER

GETIING CLARIFICATION

133

reading animal minds • critical thinking reinforcing ideas • word focus learn • speaking types of learner

11 c Who's a clever bird, then? Reading

Word focus learn

1 Work in pairs. Do you know a domestic animal

7 Work in pairs. Find these three expressions in the

which is particularly intelligent? How does this intelligence show itself?

2 Read the article and say how Alex the parrot's intelligence showed itself.

3 Read the article again. Are the sentences true (T), false (F) or does the article not give an answer (NA)? 1 People are right to believe that animals have thoughts and emotions. 2 Pepperberg's idea was to let Alex communicate to her how he saw the world. 3 Pepperberg didn't want people to think she had chosen Alex for his intelligence. 4 Alex showed that he could distinguish between colours and shapes but not numbers. 5 Pepperberg concluded that cognitive skills were necessary for survival in the wild. 6 Alex felt very proud of his ability to communicate in English.

4 Were you surprised by Pepperberg's experiment with Alex and its results? Why? I Why not? Tell your partner.

Critical thinking reinforcing ideas 5 Often when writers express an idea, they reinforce it to make sure the reader understands. They do this in a variety of ways: • rephrasing or saying the same thing in other words • giving examples • quoting someone who also made this point Find and underline the ideas expressed below by the author. Note how each one is reinforced. 1 How can we find out if animals can think? 2 Pepperberg's idea was to ask the parrot for his thoughts. 3 Researchers had no confidence in her idea. 4 She wanted to get inside the parrot's head. 5 Alex's cognitive abilities are not typical of all animals. 6 Alex cognitive abilities are necessary to cope w ith his environment. 7 Alex worked through various mental tests. 8 Alex behaved like a bored teenager.

article with the word learn. Discuss what each one means. 1 learn as you go along 2 learn by heart 3 learn the hard way

8 Look at the expressions in bold with learn in the sentences below and work out what each one means from its context. Which one means the same as 'learn the hard way'? 1 If Jack is interested in photography, there's an excellent four-week course at the adult college, where he can learn some tricks of the trade. 2 Jessica wants to design the new brochure, but she's only been here a month. I told her that you have to learn to walk before you can run. 3 It's never too late to learn. My grandfather took up the piano when he was 73. 4 I've learnt my lesson . I'm never going to try to build a piece of furniture again without reading the instructions first. 5 There's no point complaining about the changes in the organisation. We are all just going to have to learn to live with it. 6 You'd think that the government would learn from its mistakes, but they never do.

9 Choose two of the expressions from Exercise 8 and use them in sentences about your own learning experiences. Read your sentences to your partner, omitting the expressions with learn. Can your partner work out the missing expressions?

Speaking 10 Work in pairs. Do the quiz on page 154 to find out what type of learner you are. The answers are on page 155.

11 Work in small groups. Discuss how your learning style affects your language learning. What things can you do to learn more effectively? Look at the ideas below and add any others you can think of: • watching English language films with the subtitles on • reading stories (in English newspapers, books, magazines) and retelling them • keeping a vocabulary book and drawing illustrations of each new word

6 Which method of reinforcing an idea did you find the most effective? 134

I

Unit 11 Knowledge and learning

ow does a scientist find out to what extent an animal is capable of thinking? What evidence is there that it is able to acquire information about the world and act on it, learning as it goes along?

H

In 1977 Irene Pepperberg, a recent graduate of Harvard University, decided to investigate the thought processes of another creature by talking to it. In order to do this she would teach a one-year-old African grey parrot named Alex to reproduce the sounds of the English language. 1 thought if he learnt to communicate, I could ask him questions about how he sees the world.' Pepperberg bought Alex in a Chicago pet store. She let the store's assistant choose him because she didn't want other scientists to say that she had deliberately chosen an especially smart bird. Given that Alex's brain was the size of a walnut, most researchers thought Pepperberg's communication study would be futile. 'Some people actually called me crazy for trying this,' she said. With Pepperberg's patient teaching, Alex learnt how to imitate almost one hundred English words, including the names of food. He could count to six and had learnt the sounds for seven and eight. But the point was not to see if Alex could learn words by heart. Pepperberg wanted to get inside his mind and learn more about a bird's understanding of the world. She couldn't ask him what he was thinking about, but she could ask him about his knowledge of numbers, shapes and colours.

In one demonstration, Pepperberg placed Alex on a wooden perch in the middle of the room. She then held up a green key and a small green cup for him to look at. 'What's the same?' she asked. Without hesitation, Alex's beak opened: 'Co-lour.' 'What's different?' Pepperberg asked. 'Shape,' Alex said. His voice had the sound of a cartoon character. But the words - and what can only be called the thoughts - were entirely

Who's a

c

his. Many of Alex's cognitive skills, such as his ability to understand the concepts of 'same' and 'different', are rare in the animal world. Very few animals share these skills. But parrots, like humans, live a long time in complex societies. And like humans, these birds must keep track of the dynamics of changing relationships and environments. 'They need to be able to distinguish colours to know when a fruit is ripe or unripe,' Pepperberg explained. 'They need to categorise things - what's edible, what isn't - and to know the shapes of predators. And it helps to have a concept of numbers if you need to keep track of your flock. For a long-lived bird, you can't do all of this with instinct; cognition must be involved.'

In the demonstration, Alex then ran through various tests, distinguishing colours, shapes, sizes, and materials (wool versus wood versus metal). He did some simple arithmetic, such as counting the yellow toy blocks among a pile of mixed coloured blocks. And then, as if to offer final proof of the mind inside his bird 's brain, Alex spoke up. 'Talk clearly!' he commanded, when one of the younger birds Pepperberg was also teaching mispronounced the word green. 'Talk clearly!' Alex knew all the answers himself and was getting bored. 'He's moody,' said Pepperberg, 'so he interrupts the others, or he gives the wrong answer just to be difficult.' Pepperberg was certainly learning more about the mind of a parrot, but like the parent of a troublesome teenager, she was learning the hard way.

-I

I

real life getting clarifi cation • pronunciation linking in question forms

11 d Keep learning Real life getting clarification 1 Look at the list of short courses offered by an adult education college. Use a dictionary if you need to . Which of the courses interest you and w hy?

2

~ 2.37 Listen to a telephone conversation between

someone enquiring about a course and a college receptionist. Answer the questions.

Basic ca r mechan ics 5 Apr, 70 wks

1 What kind of course is Ahmad interested in taking? 2 What course does Liz suggest for him instead? Why? 3 What does Ahmad decide to do?

3

Look at the expressions used by Ahmad. Which are used for repetition (R) and w hich are used for explanation (E)?

Psychology of human behaviou r

1x2hrs

./

1 x l .Shrs

x

2 x 1.5 hrs

./

1 x l .Shrs

./

1 x 2hrs

x

1 x 2hrs

x

1 x 2hrs

x

1 x 3hrs

./

1 x 1.Shrs

x

22 Jan, 78 wks

Public spea ki ng 11Apr,8 wks

Fi rst aid ..... GETIING CLARIFICATION

12Apr, 4 wks

What do you mean by ... ? Can you speak up a little? Can you explain what ... ? I'm not really with you . Are you saying that ... ? Could you give me an examp le of ... ? What was ... again? Hang on a second. That's too much to take in all at once. I didn't catch .. . Did you say ... ?

Dese rt and jungle survival 1Mar,12wks

lkebana: Japanese flower arranging 22 Jan, 18 wks

Art appreciation 5 Apr, 10 wks

Screenwriting 21 Jan, 18 wks

4 ~ 2.37 Listen to the conversation again. Complete the

Surfing

sentences in the box that are unfinished.

12 Apr, 6 wks

5 Pronunciation linking in quest ion fo rms

Investi ng in stocks and shares

a 'i 2.38 In certain commonly used combinations - did

11Apr,8 wks

you, could you, what do you - the words are strongly linked together. Listen to these examples. Are you saving the cou rse is f ul l? Can you speak up a litt le? Could you give me an exam ple?

b

Work in pairs. Practise saying these sentences. Can yo u explain what yo u mea n? Cou ld you re peat that? Di d you mea n September?

6

Di d yo u say Tuesday? What do you mean ?

What a re yo u tryi ng t o say? What do you th ink?

Work in pairs. Act out a conversation, enquiring about the course. Then change roles and repeat the conversation. Student A: You are a prospective student. Choose one of the courses in Exercise 1 or another course you would like to do. Tell Student B your choice. Prepare questions about the course. Student B: You are a college administrator. Prepare what you are going to say about Student A 's chosen course.

136

it.i!iM•liii

mmII

ACQUIRI NG KN OWLEDG E

WHY YOU FORGOT

A N EMAIL ABOUT A M ISUNDERSTANDI NG

TYPES OF LEARNER

... GElTING CLARIACATION

writing an email about a misunderstanding • writing skill linking contrasting ideas Unit 11 Knowledge and learning

11 e The wrong course Writing an email about a misunderstanding

b

1 Work in pairs. Read the email from a student to an ad ult 1 Wh at is the misunderstanding about the course? a the timing b the level c the subject 2 H ow would you describe the student's feelings about the situation? b offended c frustrated a angry 3 How w ould you describe the tone of the em ail? a complaining b reasonable c apologetic

appropriate linking phrases. 1 ............................................ . . . . . . the brochure says the start date is 12th Sep tember, the first real class is a week later, on the 19th . 2 The course is advertised as 'practical', _ ............. you learn a lot of theory as well. 3 __ ....._. _. . . the cou rse fee is quite high, it's a great investment because it increases your employment p rospects. 4 The course isn 't much fun, . . . . . you would expect a course in lifesaving to be serious. 5 The French conversation class focuses on everyday French, .. in the A-level French class you cover literature and w ritten French more. 6 Surfing is not an easy skill to learn . ................................................ , you need to have great natural balance and a lot of perseverance.

I enroll ed on you r course 'car mechan ics 1' in Augu st and have attended three sessions. When I originall y enquired about the course, I was t ol d t hat it was suitable fo r peop le with no previous knowledge of ca r mechani cs. But in fact everyone else on th e course seems to kn ow a lot already. So despite t he fact that the lessons gene rally start with a basic concept, they move ve ry quickly ont o more complicated ideas. I don't blame the teacher. On the contrary, he does hi s best to explai n co ncepts to me. But I feel that I am just ho ldi ng everyo ne else back. They know how an engine works already, whereas I have no ba ckgroun d at all in mechanics. I was going to lea ve it a couple of wee ks more before saying anything, but in t he last session I felt so out of my depth that I have decided to write now and ask for a refund . While I appreciate it's not really anyone's fault that this has ha ppened, I hope you will und erstand how unsatisfactory the situation is for me.

4 Imagine you enrolled for on e of the other courses on page 136. Think of a m isunderstanding that occurred w ith the cou rse. Write an email to the college explaining the misun d erstanding and asking for a refund.

Karen Redman

2

whilst although in actual fac t but on the other hand but in reality

C Comp lete these sentences with

Dear Sir I Madam

I look fo rward t o hearing fro m you You rs faithfull y

Match these word s and phrases to the ones in the em ail that they could replace. 1 2 3 4 5

education college. Answer the questions.

-

If you were an administrator at the college, how would you react to this email?

S Exchange letters with your partner 3 Writing skill linking contrasting ideas

and check the following items:

a Find the words or phrases in the em ail that link these

• Does the email m ake clear what the misunderstanding was? • Is the tone of the email reason able? • H as the writer used linking words and phrases correctly? • Do you think the email will get the d esired response?

contrasting ideas. 1 The course should be for beginners. No one else is a beginner. 2 Each lesson starts w ith a simp le id ea. It p rogresses quickly to difficult ideas. 3 The teacher is not at fa ult. He helps m e as much as he can. 4 The other students know a lot. I know nothing. 5 No one is to blam e for this. I still feel it is unfair.

mm

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1£.j!f;i:Jeliii ~

AC QUIRING KNOWLEDGE WHY YOU FORGOT AN EMAIL ABOUT A MISUNDERSTANDING

TYPES OF LEARNER

GETIING CLARIFICATION

137

I

Unit 11 Knowledge and learning

Before you watch 1 Work in groups. Look at the photo of the shaman, a traditional tribal healer or doctor and discuss the questions. 1 What do you know about shamans? 2 What techniques do you think they use to heal sick people?

2 You are going to watch a video about medicinal plants. Answer these questions. 1 What problem do you think faces these plants? 2 What solution to the problem might the video suggest? 3 Write down three kinds of people you're going to see in the video.

6 N umber the extracts in the order you hear them. a Recording and studying Paraguayan plants for possible medical cures is urgent business. b To reach Gervasio, a group of researchers set out on a long journey through the reserve. c Somewhere in this forest, maybe in this plant or that herb, there could be a cure for an illness. d When he feels ready, Gervasio and his wife take the group on the search. e The rain forests of Paraguay have been a source of medicinal cures for a long time.

After you watch 7 Roleplay interviewing a scientist Work in pairs.

While you watch 3 Watch the video and check your answers from Exercise 2.

4 Underline the false information in these sentences. Then rewrite the sentences correctly. 1 Before going into the forest, a scientist travels to a local village by car. 2 When they arrive, Gervasio, the local shaman, is collecting plants in the forest. 3 Gervasio and the team set off to look for an insect the scientists are interested in. 4 Gervasio's wife leads the way. 5 The local people eat the root raw. 6 Later, back in the village, Gervasio shows the team a book he has written.

5 Watch the video again and answer the questions. 1 What illnesses are mentioned in the video? 2 How do traditional folk healers in Paraguay help scientists? 3 Why is it important to record shamans' knowledge urgently? 4 Why does Gervasio use chants and prayers before going into the forest? 5 Why are the scientists interested in the Suruvi root?

Student A: Imagine you are a Na tional Geographic reporter. You are going to interview the scientist who made the documentary about Gervasio. Use the information below to prepare questions to ask the scientist. Student B: Imagine you are the scientist who made the documentary about Gervasio. Look at the information below and think about what you are going to say to the reporter. • the journey to the reserve • the journey to Tekoha Ryapu • what it feels like to work with someone like Gervasio • the importance of Gervasio's knowledge • what they were able to achieve on this trip • how the book might help Act out the interview, then change roles and act out the interview again.

8 Work in groups and discuss these questions. 1 Do you know of any modern medicines that originated from rain forest plants? 2 Do you think traditional medicines from plants are effective? 3 What do you think about other forms of traditional medicine, for example acupuncture, massage therapy, homeopathy? chant (n) /1fo:nt/ a kind of rhythmical song that uses only one or two notes deforestation (n) /di:fons' te1f;:in/ cutting down trees folk healer (n) / 'fauk hi:l;:i/ a person who uses traditional methods to cure illnesses multiply (v) / 'mAlt1pla1/ reproduce quickly renowned (adj) /n 'naund/ famous reserve (n) /n' z3: v/ an area of land where plants or animals are officially protected

6 What does the scientists' book set out to do?

139

-

UNIT 11 REVIEW Grammar

Vocabulary

1 Work in pairs. What do you think is the maximum

4 Work in pairs. Complete the passage about

number of languages someone can speak fluently? Does speaking one language help you to learn another?

2 Read the article about polyglot Ziad Fazah. Answer the questions. 1 What is a polyglot? 2 What is Fazah's regular job? 3 How many languages is he really fluent in?

learning. The first letter of each missing word has been given for you. There are many different ways to learn and 1 a ...... knowledge : by 2 t ........................... and error, from an authority, by reasoning and by 3 o ....... - or in other words just watching how something works. Some things, like bringing up children, are more instinctive -you have a gut 4 f _____ about what is the right way to do things. Some things, like playing a musical instrument, you can 5 P -······················· up as you go along. But there are other things that you need to be taught. For example, you m ight have a basic 6 g ....... of mathematics, but still be completely 7 i. .... of how differentia I calculus works . For this type of learning, you need an authority - a book or a teacher - that can help you to 8 e ................ with the subject and understand it.

5 Think of h.Yo things that you know how to do (e.g. play an instrument, cook). Tell each other how you learnt to do these things. When police in Brazil arrested an illegal immigrant speaking an unrecognisable language, they immediately called Ziad Fazah, the world's greatest linguist. Fazah realized quickly that the man was speaking a dialect used in Afghanistan . With Fazah's help, the man 1 explain I was able to explain that he had escaped Afghanistan and was seeking asylum in Brazil. At that time Fazah, originally from the Lebanon, 2 could speak I managed to speak 54 different languages. He also 3 could get I succeeded in getting his name into the Brazilian Guinness World Book of Records as the world's greatest living polyglot. Fazah used to get quite a lot of work interpreting for the police, but unfortunately they 4 couldn't pay I didn't manage to pay him . When Fazah was 17, his talents were spotted by the Lebanese government who 5 were going to use I would use him as an interpreter. But soon after, he moved to Brazil with his parents. There he married a Brazilian and began giving private language lessons. Fazah 6 would remain I would have remained unknown, but in 2006 his language abilities were tested on a Spanish television programme and he received international attention . It was at this point that people began to question these abilities. 7 Was he really able I Did he really manage to be fluent in over 50 languages? The programme 8 was supposed to show I would have shown that he could, but the evidence was not so convincing .

ICAN talk about learning and knowledge

Real life 6 Work in pairs. Match 1-5 to a-e. 1 2 3 4 5

What do you mean by that? Could you give me an example? Can you speak up a little? What w as that again? I'm not really with you.

a b c d e

I didn't catch that. I don't really understand. For instance? Can you explain that? I can't hear you very clearly.

1 Think of something you can do, but your partner probably can 't. Give your p artner some instructions. As you receive the instructions ask for clarification and repetition. ICAN get clarification by asking someone to repeat or explain

Speaking 8 Work in small groups. Read the example below.

3 Complete the extract by underlining the correct form of the verbs. ICAN describe past abilities with could, was able to, managed to and succeeded in talk about past intentions and predictions with the future in the past 140

Tell each other about a imilar (good or bad) learning experience you ha\·e had . At school we had a fan t astic art teacher who was able to inspire everyo ne, wh eth er they had natural artistic talent or not. He had really good ideas, such as ...

Unit 12 The economy

FEA TUR ES 142 Saving for a rainy day orway, the richest country in the world

144 Don't do it yourself The revival of the servant economy

146 The gift economy An alternative economic model

150 Japan A video about the culture and traditions of Japan

1 Work in pairs. Look at the photo. What does a matching luxury car and fur coat say about a person? Do rich people in your coun try like to show off their wealth?

2 ~ 2.39 Listen to an economist defining poverty and wealth. Answer the questions. 1 What are the two definitions of being poor that use percentages (ten per cent and 60 p er cent)? 2 How can you be rich with out havin g a lot of money?

3 Match the word

(1- 7) w ith its synonym (a-g).

1 afford 2 hard up 3 income 4 loaded 5 pricey 6 reasonable 7 well off

a b c d e f a

b

poor have enough money exp ensive cheap very rich com fortab le earnings

4 Work in small groups. How would you define rich and poor? What proportion of the population is rich in your cow1try?

THE ECONOMY IN YOUR COUNTRY

GETTING THINGS DONE

GIFT GIVING AND EXCHANGE

NEGOTIATING

141

reading Norway's riches • grammar focus adverbs only, just, even • grammar focus adverbs too, as well, also • vocabulary money • speaking the economy in your country

12a Saving for a rainy day Reading 1 Work in pairs. What do you know about Norway: its landscape, its people, its industry? Look at the photo below for ideas.

2 Read the article. In w hat ways is orway a 'rich' country?

3 Complete these summaries of each paragraph using as many words as necessary in each space. Then compare answers w ith another pair. 1 For a long time, orway has had a better . . ................................................... than other countries. 2 The three reasons for Norway's success are: big oil reserves, ................................. and 3 For Norwegians being rich means 4 Norway is saving money for

4 Do you think that the Norwegians are right to save their money? Why? I Why not?

Grammar focus adverbs only, just, even ..... FOCUS ADVERBS ONLY, JUST, EVEN only Only Luxembourg and a couple of other countries are richer. just Just 80 years ago, Norwegians were emigrating to the USA. even This isn 't even a competition anymore. For further information and practice, see page 172.

5 Work in pairs. Look at the sentences in the grammar box. Which of these statements (a-c) is true of only, just and even? a they always come directly after the word they are emphasising b they always come directly after the main verb c they always come directly before the word they are emphasising

6 Find other examples of these words in the article. Do they follow the same rule?

142

Come on, Norway; this isn't even a competition anymore! For the last eight years, Norway has registered the highest quality of life among the world's nations. It is one of the wealthiest countries in the world - only Luxembourg and a couple of others are richer. Norwegians can also expect to get a good education, find the job they want - unemployment is only 2.5 per cent - enjoy good health and live a long life. People say the prisons are quite comfortable too! Norway has not always been a rich country. Just 80 years ago Norwegians were emigrating to the USA in their thousands in search of a better life. The rise in oil prices in the 1970s changed all that. But Norway's success is not only the result of its huge reserves of oil. Other countries have had such riches and squandered them. It is also due to the Norwegians' natural thrift and their strong work ethic. When you arrive in Oslo for the first time, don't expect to be met with Dubai-style skyscrapers, entrepreneurs in designer suits and rows of Ferraris and Porsches. Norway may be rich, but it is modest in its wealth. Norwegians also work hard and are always near the top in surveys of global worker productivity rates. But in today's high-tech world where work seems to follow us wherever we go, the people of Norway are redefining what wealth means. Laws just recently passed by the government emphasise the importance of family and time off, offering generous maternity and paternity leave, subsidised childcare and long holidays as well. Also, the country is saving for the future. Every dollar earned from oil is put straight into what is now the world's biggest pension fund - worth over $200 billion. Extraordinarily, none of this money is allowed to be spent on state infrastructure projects. It is not even invested in new schools and hospitals. But at a time when most other countries are wondering how they will finance the pensions of a growing retired population, Norway is sitting pretty. leave (n) /l i:v/ time off from work sitting pretty (v) /,sitIIJ 'pnti/ in a good or comfortable situation squander (v) /'skwond;i/ waste thrift (n) /8nft / carefulness when spending money



Unit 12 The economy

7

Discu ss the meaning of each sentence (1-8).

Then match each of the sentences to the clause or sentence that follows it (a-h). 1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8

Only visitors think Norway is expensive. Visitors only think Norway is expensive. Visitors think only Norway is expensive. Among the Scandinavian countries, I have visited Norway just once. Among the Scandinavian countries, I have visited just Norway. Even fathers are given time off to be w ith their new babies. Fathers are even given time off to be w ith their new babies. Fathers are given time off even to be w ith their new babies.

a Of course mothers are given a lot of time off too. b I have visited the others several times. c They are also given time off to move house and to look after elderly parents. d ... but all the Scandinavian countries are expensive. e ... but actually it's quite reasonable. f I haven't visited the others at all. g The residents themselves find it reasonable. h This is in addition to the extra money the state gives them.

8 Complete these sentences by putting a focus adverb in the right place. Then compare answers w ith your partner. Tell them whether these facts are true of your country.

1 Many people work long hours during the week, so they see their children at weekends. 2 People with university degrees are finding it difficult to get jobs these days. 3 For most p eople a job is a way to make money, not something they particularly enjoy. 4 The rich represent about five per cent of the population. 5 You don't see extreme poverty. Poor people usually have food and somewhere to live. 6 The state pension gives you enough to live on, but not to live very comfortably.

Grammar focus adverbs too, as well, also 9 Work in pairs. Look at the position of too and as well in these sentences. Find the same sentences in the article, but w ith the word also. What do you notice about the position of also? 1 Norwegians can expect to get a good education too. 2 It is due to the Norwegians' natural thrift as well. 3 Norwegians work hard too. 4 The country is saving for the future too .

[email protected]:I.1111 . ._

&iiJ

THE ECONOMY IN YOUR COUNTRY

A REPORT

IJJI.. FOCUS ADVERBS TOO, AS WELL, ALSO sentence + too sentence + as well Also, + sentence

also+ main verb be+ also auxiliary verb+ also+ main verb

-

For further information and practice, see page 172.

10 Look at the grammar box. Which patterns from the box can you find in the article? Underline them. Then compare your answers with your partner.

11 Rewrite the sentences tw ice using one of the focus adverbs given each time. Compare your answers w ith another pair.

1 Norwegians are happy that the country is saving for the future, but they would like to see the government increase spending on healthcare. (as well I also) 2 Most countries have high public borrow ing and a lot of debt. Norway has neither. (too I also) 3 Teachers in Norway receive a good salary and if they teach 'heavy' subjects, they get extra payments. (also I too) 4 Artists can get a grant - not a loan - from the government of around $20,000 a year and support w ith childcare. (also I as well) 5 The prices for food and drink seem very high to outsiders and fue l is expensive. However, house prices are relatively low and so property is a good investment. (too I also) 6 N urses in Norway get 42 weeks' maternity leave on full p ay. They have access to the hospital kindergarten w hen they return to work. (as well I also)

Vocabulary money 12 Look at the verbs below and find the right noun in Exercise 11 to make phrases w ith the same meaning.

1 pay money = make a ........................................... 2 invest money = make an . . . 3 borrow more money = increase your . . 4 spend less money = reduce your . . 5 be lent money = take out a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 owe money = have a . . 7 earn money= receive a . . 8 be given money (by the government) = receive a . .

Speaking 13 Work in pairs. Prepare questions to ask each other about the economy in your country or countries (the cost of living, work-life balance, government spending, government grants for certain professions, etc.). Use the items in Exercise 11 to help you get ideas.

14 Now change partners with another pair and ask and answer your questions.

GETIING THINGS DONE

GIFT GIVING AND EXCHANGE

NEGOTIATING

143

vocabulary domestic help • listening the servant economy • grammar causative have and get • pronunciation the sounds /fl, /y/, /3/ and ld:il • vocabulary and speaking getting things done

12b Don't do it yourself Vocabulary domestic help 1 Work in pairs. Which of the domestic workers listed below is the woman in the photo? Discuss w hat each of the other jobs involve. au pair child minder cleaner cook dog walker gardener handyman maid personal shopper nanny

2 Discuss these questions about the jobs in Exercise 1. 1 Have you done any of these jobs yourself? 2 Have you (or your family) employed anyone in these roles? 3 Which jobs involve the greatest skill? 4 Would you like to do any of them? Why? I Why not?

Listening 3

~ 2.40 Listen to the interview w ith the author of

w ith it? Or do you think it is lazy to employ people to do all your domestic chores?

1 How many domestic workers are there in Britain today? Who are they? 2 Does the author think the growth of the servant economy is a good thing or a bad thing?

It is the duty of the the artisan. Hilaire Be/lac

4 ~ 2.40 Listen again and identify: 1 which jobs from Exercise 1 the speakers mention 2 what other jobs are mentioned 3 whether many people or only the rich employ such workers .... WORDBUILDING the + adjective We can refer to a group of people using the+ adjective.

the rich, the poor For further information and practice, see Workbook page 99.

5 Work in pairs. What did the interviewer find strange about the person who hired a Christmas tree installer? Do you agree with her?

144

6 Complete Hilaire Belloc's quotation. Do you agree

a book entitled The Servant Economy. Answer the questions.

_ man to give

m

m

to

Grammar causative have and

get 7 Look at the forms in bold in sentences (a- d). Answer the questions (1-2). Then look at the transcript on page 181 and find one more example of each type of phrase. a Thirty years ago, the idea of getting a worker to hand wash your car would have been unthinkable. b owadays, you can have it washed inside and out for as little as £6. c You don't have to be rich to have a cleaner come once a week. d Another example would be getting your windows cleaned every few months. 1 Which phrases mean someone does a job for you? 2 Which phrases tell you who actually does the job?

Un it 12 The economy

~ llli:cAusAnve /.i,D.vi~and :GET fi[;'i/'f:~~y'::k_~ ;,..:_,;=:.::~~ .. -,_.,···:__... 0.---~,,~,,,,.,,..,-

~~,.,~~..:!'... ~,.. ....

~

J.

• ...-,

--



i'..~

.,~

have/get+ something + past participle I had/got th e fence fixed yesterday.

11 Pronunciation the sounds If /, ltf/, /3/ and /63/

a

~ 2.41 Listen carefully to how the underlined

have+ someone+ infinitive (without to) I had th e gardener fix the fence.

letters are pronounced in the following words. Then practise saying them with your partner.

get+ someone+ to+ infinitive I got the gardener to fix th e fence.

If / carwash shelves shopper

For fu rt her info rm ation an d practi ce, see page 173.

8 Look at the grammar box. Then complete this passage about a survey into p aying people to help with domestic chores. Nearly half of al l homes in Brit ain get outside staff 1 ..................... (do) their domestic chores for an average of si x hours per w ee k. The most common reasons that people gave for having someone ... .. .. (he lp) around the house w ere their ow n long w orking hours and to avo id arguments w it h their pa rtner. A th ird of peopl e said if they didn't have help, noth ing w ould get 3 .... (do) . The most popula r jobs to pay for are having the house 4 .... .............. (clean) regu larly, getting someone 5 .... .. ............. (do) the ga rden and having a handyman 6 ____ .__ (fix) th ings when they are broken . Some of these services do not come cheap eithe r. People pay up t o £500 per w eek to have a personal assistant 7 ___ _ .......... (organise) their affairs or have thei r young baby 8 ·-------(look) after.

-

/tf /

/3/

/63/

chores richer watch

deci~ion

chan~

garage

colle~

plea~ure

frid~

b '!ii 2.42 Listen to these words. Discuss w hich of the fo ur sounds above each one contains. Then practise saying them. agent arrange choice fashion televis ion usua l

champag ne cheese general January sugar

Vocabulary and speaking 12 Work in p airs. H ow m any DIY jobs can you make by matching verbs in A w ith nouns in B?

a

assemble clean decorate do fit fi x hang plaster put up tile

a

a bed a carpet a pictu re a tap a wall some curtains some shelves the bathroom the garden the roof

13 Look at the fla t in the photo. First make a list of

9 Look at these things that a rich couple gets other people to do for them. Comp lete the sentences with causative forms. Note that you can comp lete the sentences in tvvo different w ays.

all the things th at need to be done before you can live in it. Then decide w hat you will do yourself and what you w ill get p rofessional help to do. Explain your plans to another pair.

1 When they had a party last month, someone organised everythin g for them . They ........................................................ everything for them. (get) 2 A personal trainer takes their children to the p ark to play foo tball. They ..................................................... to the park to p lay football. (have) 3 A driver p icks their children up from school each day. They _ from school each d ay. (have) 4 A travel consultant chooses their holidays for them. They ....................................... . . . . ... . . . for them. (have) 5 A nanny looks after their children when they are on holiday. They __ . . . . . . when they are on holiday. (get) 6 Someone even p acks their bags for them, I think! They even ................................................... for them, I think. (get)

10 Write down one thing that you would never consider getting someone else to do and one thing you would always get someone else to do. Compare your list w ith your partner.

ifuli!i:Miii

mm

THE ECONOMY IN YOUR COUNTRY

AREPORT

1111<-

GETTING THINGS DONE

GIFT GIVING AND EXCHANGE

NEGOTIATING

145

reading an alternative economic model • critical thinking signposts to key information • word focus hard • speaking gift giving and exchange

12c The gift economy 5 Work in small groups. Tell each other what kind

Reading 1 Look at the title of the article. How do you think a gift economy works?

2 Read the article and see if you were right. What three illustrations of the gift economy at w ork does the author give?

3 Read the article again. Choose the correct option (a- c). 1 The false understanding of human nature mentioned is that we are all trying to: a compete to get as much as w e can. b be individuals. c keep from being hungry. 2 Hunter-gatherers: a had plenty and needed plenty. b had little and needed little. c had p lenty and needed little. 3 American companies found it difficult to recruit Japanese employees because they: a couldn't offer good conditions. b couldn't offer job security. c didn't understand Japanese culh1re. 4 The message of the 4th paragraph is that Japanese employers are involved in: a organising employees' holidays. b their employees' lives. c the quality of employees' work. 5 According to the w riter of the article, the Internet has made it easier for people to: a get to know each other. b discuss problems. c give and receive help. 6 The message of the last paragraph is that big organisations need to: a be made smaller. b think about the common good. c give more of their profits back.

4 Look at these pairs of words from the article. Which definition (a orb) matches each word? 1 gain I reward a profit 2 strive I thrive a do well 3 common I mutual a shared by two or more groups 4 abundance I excess a too much 5 prospects I aspects a future possibilities 6 accuracy I promptness a being precise

146

b

compensation

b

do your best

b

shared by many

b

plenty

b

characteristics

b

being on time

of relationship exists between employer and employees in your country. Is it more like the American system or the Japanese relationship?

Critical thinking signposts to key information 6 There are certain phrases that act as signposts for key information (just given or about to follow) . Find the following phrases in the article and then draw out the key information they refer to. at the heart of ... not only .. . the main . . . the real ...

rather .. .

7 Work in pairs. Compare your answ ers. Did you agree on w hat the key information was?

Word focus hard 8 Work in pairs. Find three expressions in the article containing the word hard. Discuss their meaning.

9 The sentences below contain six more expressions with the word hard . Work with a partner and try to guess the meaning of each one from its context. Then compare your answers with another pair. 1 I'm sorry the boss didn' t like your idea and preferred mine. No hard feelings, I hope. 2 Fran and Chris are pretty hard up these days. He lost his job hvo weeks ago and she only works part-time. 3 Hard luck about the job. I'm sure you'll get other opportunities though. 4 Kate's feeling pretty hard done b y. The college didn't accept her because her French wasn't good enough, even though she's spending a year in France before the course starts. 5 Don't be hard on Jake. It's not his fault he was late - his car broke down. 6 I tried to get him to sympathise with our situation because we're new ly established, but he's a pretty hard-headed businessman.

Speaking 10 Work in groups of three. Discuss the customs of gift giving and exchange that you are familiar with. Think about: • • • • •

specific occasions (e.g. weddings, dinner parties) visiting people help and favours business gifts returning home after a trip abroad

Unit 12

The banking crisis of 2008 again raised concerns that our economy is based too much on individual greed. Such an economic model, critics say, comes from a false understanding of human nature. Human society is not made up of individuals pursuing pri vate gain through competition with each other. The real essence of human nature lies in the social bonds that we make through family, friendships , professional associations and local communities. These bonds produce a sense of common purpose and shared values, in which groups of people strive for the things that are for the common good: a sound education, a pleasant environment to live in, a healthy population. It is this idea of shared social interests that is at the heart of the gift economy. Gift economies thrived in earlier times when people lived in a world of greater abundance and when their wants were fewer. Stone Age hunter-gatherers had shelter and enough food and did not need many possessions - a fevv weapons for hunting and clothing to keep warm . They helped each other by sharing food and tools without any expectation of payment or immediate reward. But this is not only an idea that applies to a more primitive way of life. There are also many recent examples of the gift economy at work. In the past, American companies operating in Japan found it difficult to attract Japanese recruits, even though, compared with Japanese employers, they offered more generous wages, shorter work hours and better promotion prospects . But these factors were traditionally not so important to Japanese employees, who did not think of their services as being 'bought'. Rather, they felt they were entering into a long-term - 'gift exchange' - relationship with their employer, which was of mutual benefit. This relationship had many aspects. At its most basic it involved the simple exchange of physical gifts. For example, if the employee got married, the company sent a gift and even a departmental manager to represent it at the wedding.

~

ffit§l#tl!•h!•luW

Another company gift which is still popular among Japanese employees is the yearly company vacation. On these organised weekends co-workers share dormitories, eat together and visit the same attractions, largely at the company's expense. For their part, the main gift given by the employees to their company is their hard work and this is why each Japanese employee gives such great attention to accuracy, quality in their work and promptness in its delivery. Even the simplest tasks are carried out with extraordinary care. Elsewhere, the Internet is facilitating the re-emergence of the gift economy. Neighbourhood groups use online networks to share tools and skills. Someone who needs a long ladder to repair their roof does not need to go out and buy one; they simply put a message up on the neighbourhood discussion board and soon a neighbour will offer theirs. They will probably even help them with the repair, because helping and giving is part of human nature. Via the Internet, knowledge and advice can be shared on almost everything, from how a nuclear reactor works to how to plan your holiday or build your own canoe. All this is very well, but these are hard times: helping our neighbour with his roof isn't going to pay the bills, I hear you say. But in an indirect way it is. The point is that by stressing the co-operative side of human nature, the gift economy helps us all. It keeps in check the excesses of big commercial organisations that seek to exploit situations for their own gain. So the big supermarket chains must understand that it is in the common interest not to force small shopkeepers out of business. Big industrial farms must realise that they cannot go on intensively farming the land until there is nothing left in it. Other large companies should not always seek to drive the hardest bargain possible with their suppliers, but just pay them fairly. That is the real lesson of the gift economy.

-

real life negotiating • pronunciation sentence stress in idiomatic phrases

-

12d The bottom line Real life negotiating

6 Pronunciation sentence stress in idiomatic phrases

1 Read this advice about negotiating. Do you agree with it? How does it relate to your own experience?

a

underline the one or two words that are most stressed in each phrase.

Herb Cohen was a famous negotiator. His advice was to ' Care, really care ... but not that much.' In other words, don't become too emotionally involved. The other person will see how much you want the thing and then you wi ll be at a disadvantage.

2 'ii 2.43 Listen to a woman who is trying to negotiate a lease on a building for her young business with a letting agent. Answer the questions. 1 How much does each person seem to care about agreeing the lease? 2 On what point do they have trouble agreeing? 3 What does the woman suggest to get around this problem? 4 How does the negotiation end?

3

~ 2.43 Work in pairs. Listen again and complete

.... NEGOTIATING •

2

··--·--·····-------·----··· the lease. I was hoping we could 3 ·----·-·-·-·----·--·---If you look at it from our point of view, we're a Let's face it, fifteen years is

5

1 2 3 4 5

b

To be honest ... A key thing for us is ... Let's face it ... At the end of the day, .. . To tell you the truth .. .

~ 2.45 Work in pairs. Look at these other phrases.

Mark the words where you think the stress falls. Then listen and check. 1 2 3 4 5 6

The bottom line for us is .. . The long and short of it is .. . The fact of the matter is ... One thing that's bothering me is .. . To be frank, ... Am I right in thinking that ... ?

7 You are spending eight months in a foreign country and want to get a car to use while you are there. You see a second-hand one advertised in the newspaper. It seems to be exactly what you are looking for. Work in pairs and negotiate the sale of the car. Student A look at page 153; Student B look at page 155.

the expressions in the box.

To be honest, it's absolutely 1 .. . ......................... A key thing for us is how long we'd be

~ 2.44 Listen to these phrases again and

······-···---·····-···-·········-······--·-··· .

6

If your client could ···-······-··---······-···-·······-· on that .. . I think what you have to appreciate is that our client's main concern is ... At the end of the day, it gives them some security. To tell you the truth, that's why the rent That's a bit of a sticking point. Is there not some way around that? Perhaps if we signed .. . , then we could pay ... If I were in your shoes, I think I'd just When all's said and done, it has to you .

9

·····-··---···-··-··---··--·-···- for

4 Work in pairs. Look at the expressions in the box and discuss which are used to: • • • •

say what the important thing is be direct talk about an obstacle to the agreement ask the other person to see your side

5 How do you think each person could have done better in the negotiation? Tell your partner.

148

iMij.!:f1liii

mm

THE ECONOMY IN YOUR COUNTRY

AREPORT

GETTING THINGS DONE

GIFT GIVING AND EXCHANGE

~

IMfttliMl!m'i

Unit 12 The economy

writing a report • writing skill sub-headings and bullet points

12e This is what I propose Writing a report

4 Writing skill sub-headings and bullet points

1 Work in pairs. Look at this quotation by the French

a

mathematician, Blaise Pascal. Discuss what he was saying about the art of writing. 'I'm sorry I wrote you such a long letter; I didn't have time to wri te a short one.'

The writer of the report has organised it into sections using sub-headings and bullet points. What do you notice about the language after each bullet point?

b Read this first paragraph of a report on a language

2 Look at these elements of a good report. Which is the one referred to by Blaise Pascal? clear aims clear recommendation good organisation

training course. Rewrite the report, dividing it into two sections, with subheadings. Then break the points in the second section into bullet points.

conciseness

Last month the company sent me on a twoweek ' professional English' course at Falcon Business Language Training in London. I stayed with a host family in west London. Although the course did not focus on my particular job as an engineer very much, it was well organised. On the positive side, I was made to speak English all the time, both in the school and with my host family. The teachers were very professional and had a good knowledge of the business world. We were put in small groups of three to four students which meant that we got a lot of individual attention.

3 Read the report below. What is the aim of the report? What is the recommenda tion? Tell your parh1er.

Summa<>

-

({:'

I visited our potential new offices at 1 Paradise Square yesterday, 4 May, and was very impressed . They seem ideal for our needs, but the lease is for fifteen years, much longer than the six or seven we agreed at our last meeting. These are the details:

C Work in pairs. Compare your answers. Did you

Advantages__ _ _ _ _ _~ 200m 2 of flexible office space • Low rent - only £40 ,000 per annum • Central location - close to shops and train station • Serviced - cleaning , repairs are included Disadvantages~-----------

• Long lease - fifteen years Service charge quite high - £10,000 per annum Recommer:idati= o~ n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

organise your reports in the same way?

5 Now write the second half of the report including any negative comments and a recommendation. When you have finished, exchange your report with your partner.

6 Read your partner's report. Check the following: • Is the report concise and clear? • Has it been broken down into clear sections using sub-headings and bullet points? • Does it end with a clear recommendation?

I propose taking these offices. We have been looking for five months and these are the best offices I have seen at a reasonable rent. If we have to leave before the end of the lease, I am confident that the remaining part of the lease can be sold to a new tenant.

if.U3f.!:Miii THE ECONOMY IN YOUR COUNTRY mil ~ t!j;J§4·hil

GETIING THINGS DONE

GIFT GIVING AND EXCHANGE

NEGOTIATING

149

12f

It is a land of dual identities.

Unit 12 The economy

7 Work in pairs. Describe the snow scene painting

Before you watch

by Hiroshige.

1 Work in groups. Look at the photos and discuss the questions. 1 What do the photos show? Describe each photo. 2 What two identities do you think the caption refers to?

After you watch

2 Work in pairs. Write down things you associate 8 Roleplay a conversation between two different generations

with Japan.

While you watch

Work in pairs.

3 Watch the video and check your ideas from

Student A: Imagine you grew up in a small village in pre-war Japan. Look at the information below and think about w hat you are going to say to your grandchild.

Exercise 2. Which of the things that you wrote down appeared in the video?

4 Watch the first part of the video (to 02.04). What do these numbers and dates refer to? 1 2 3 4 5 6

127 million __ 4 .. 35 million _ _ 1868 · · · · ······························· 1941 .....

·-

_

_ -

-

5 Watch the second part of the video (02.05 to the end). Answer the questions. 1 What gave Japan political stability after the war? 2 What has helped it become a world leader in technology, manufacturing and finance? 3 What three things does the tea ceremony emphasise? a b c

........................................................................................................ -·

4 Who did painters like Hiroshige influence?

6 Match the sentence beginnings (1- 5) w ith the

• w hat life was like (the work you did, how you travelled around, the food you ate, etc.) • the differences behveen life then and now • the war years Student B: Imagine you are a young Japanese business person talking to one of your grandparents. Look at the information below and think about what you are going to say to him I her. • what life is like in the city (the work you do, how you travel to work, the food you eat, etc.) • how you combine modern and traditional life in the city Act out the conversation. Compare life in Japan pre- and post-war. When you have finished, change roles and act out the conversation again.

9 Work in groups and discuss the questions. 1 How has your country changed culturally and economically in the last 100 years? 2 Do cultural traditions always support economic innovation? 3 Are economic advances always beneficial? Why? I Why not?

endings (a-e). 1 Japan is a country that harmonises the forces of what is Western and modern 2 The bustling urban area of greater Tokyo is 3 It looked to the West for a new, more modern 4 Although it is a land of few natural resources, Japan h as become 5 Beyond the bullet trains and neon of Tokyo, a b c d e

with those that are traditional Japanese. political and industrial model. there lies a rich cultural tradition. the largest metropolitan area on Earth. one of the most industrialised countries in the world.

bustling (adj) /'bAshIJ/ busy feudal (a dj) /'fju:d;:il/ relating to a social system w here most people wo rk and fight for more powerful people who own t he land forge (v) /b:d.;/ make something in difficult conditions glitz (n) /ght s/ the quality of being shiny and superficially attractive neon (n) / 'ni:o n/ a kind of bright artificial light raid (n) /re1d/ a quick attack shrine (n) /fra1n/ a place w here people go to meditate o r pray ubiquitous (adj) /ju: 'b1kw1t;:is/ present everywhere wrestling (n) / 'reshIJ/ a sport where the contestants try to throw each other on the ground

151

UNIT 12 REVIEW Grammar

Vocabulary

1 Read the article and say w h y Japan has had a

4

problem of relative poverty in recent years.

2

Find a synonym or close synonym in B for each word / expression in A. A hard up hang decorate borrow from the bank cheap income nanny owe money

Compete the sentences by inserting the focus adverb into the right place in each sentence.

5

B

paint child-minder earnings reasonable take out a loan put up poor have a debt

Work in pairs. Make a list of luxuries and domestic help that you think most people can afford now and again. ICAN

When we picture poverty we often think of people in under-developed countries without food or shelter. 1 But the so called advanced economies of the world have their share of poverty (even) . 2 Japan, for example, a few decades ago was enjoying an economic boom (just). 3 Yet by 2000 it had one of the highest rates of relative poverty among developed countries, with the USA having a higher rate (only). 4 One reason was that Japan had one of the highest rates of non-regular workers (also). This means people who are working without proper social protection . 5 An increasingly elderly population - people who were not actively working - contributed to the problem (as well). Making savings last when you live to be over 90 is a problem that people in many developed countries will face in the coming years. 6 It is beginning to be a problem already (even) .

3 Put the verbs in the right form to complete this advice to people who are long-term unemployed. 1 CV. The first thing to do is to rewrite your CV and then get it ........................... (check) b y an expert. Make sure that it includes activities that you have done while you have been unemployed. 2 Interview. Practise your interview technique. Have a friend ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . (play) the part of the interviewer and get them . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (ask) you tricky questions. 3 Appearance. Try to look smart when you go for a job. Get your hair _ (cut) and make sure your clothes are suitable. Again, get a friend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (help) you with this. 4 Job seeking. Telephone employers and go to see them in person. Show enthusiasm and get them . . . . . . . . (see) that you are keen to work. Even offer to work for a trial period without pay!

152

talk about money and the economy talk about getting domestic jobs done

Real life 6 Work in pairs. Put this conversation between a travel agent (TA) and customer (C) into the right order. TA:

To tell you the truth, they're not the kind of hotels you can negotiate with. TA: So we're suggesting one week in the north of the island and one week in the south. Is this the kind of holiday you were looking for? TA: OK. I'll give them a call and see w hat I can do . TA: I understand that and if I were in your shoes, I think I'd just go for it. At the end of the day, you only get one honeymoon. TA: What you have to appreciate is that you 've chosen two top hotels w hich aren't cheap. C: I was hoping we could negotiate the price. C: I know they aren't, but the key thing for us is to have nice accommodation. C: Perhaps if we stayed at just one of them for the full two weeks we could get a better deal. C: Yes it is, but to be honest it's much more expensive than we expected.

7 Take the roles of travel agent and customer and finish the negotiation. ICAN

state my position and negotiate from it

Speaking 8 Work in small groups. Do you think the idea

ICAN

below for a domestic service would work? Think of another idea. Then tell it to others in the class.

use focus adverbs to add emphasis talk about things that others do for me with have and get

What about offering a cooking service where busy couples can have a mea l prepared for them at home rather eating out or buyi ng a takeaway ?

Communication activities

UNIT 3c Exercise 11, page 38

UNIT Sd Exercise 5, page 64

Instructions

Aston Homes for the Elderly



• •



• •

-

Form a group o f three o r four people and ask the

teacher which product you are going to present. Turn to page 154 or 155 and read the description of the product. Together prepare a brief presentation of the product: what it is, how it works, what it is appropriate for and why it is special. Choose one person to give the presentation (the others will have to answ er questions). Think about the questions you may be asked. Give and listen to the presentations, asking and answering questions as you go. Take a class vote on which product you think is the best.

UNIT 4a Exercise 10, page 47 Parti cipat ion by art fo rm Art form

Creative Receptive Total participation % participation % participation %

Vi sual Arts & 22 Crafts Thea tre & Dance 7 Reading/ 16 Crea tive Writing Music

15

38

49

40 84

42 84

57

62

The National Development Bank agreed a loan of £9 million with the Aston Housing Association (AHA) in September 2009 . The purpose of the loan was to convert eight residential houses into groups of self-contained apartments for elderly people in the community who did not want to go into nursing or care homes. Work started in December 2009 and so far five of the houses have already been converted, creating 40 selfcontained apartments. The AHA has sold 30 of these, raising £4.5 million. It has also made repayments to the bank correctly and on time. However, there have been complaints from local residents that AHA has sold some of the flats to people who are not so elderly (one lady was in her late fifties) and that they have allmved people from outside the area to buy them. It seems that the price of the apartments is in fact too high for many local people. The AHA now intends to convert a further two houses in the same area and is asking for a further loan of £2.2 million.

UNIT 12d Exercise 7, page 148

Pa rt ic ipation in music

Student A Sing Play an instrument Attend musicals Attend live perform ances Li sten to music 0

20

40

60

80

100

Reasons for non-participation Reason

Non-participants %

It's difficult to find th e tim e

54

I'm not rea lly interested

43

It costs too much

41

There aren't enough opportunities close to where I live

28

UNIT Se Exercise 4, page 101

You w ant to buy th is car. It is a seve n-year-o ld VW Golf and the advertised price is £3 ,000. It is in good cond it ion but has a lot of mi les 'on the clock ' (1 00, 000). Obv io usly you would like to get it for less, if you can . The pro blem is you have been looking for a long t ime and want to get a ca r qui ckly so that you can drive to work each day.

• write to the university and ask them to speak to students about being considerate neighbours • threaten to call the police if the students make noise after midnight • have a friendly meeting with the students to explain your point of view • complain to the local council and ask them to put pressure on the university to find another solution

153

Communication activities

UNIT 11 c Exercise 10, page 134

UNIT 3c Exercise 11, page 38

Quiz

Description 1

Ask each other these questions and make a note of the answers. Then look at the key on page 155 to see what type of learner you are. Discuss if you agree with this. WHE N I STU DY G RAMMA R I LE ARN BE ST BY . A reading clear rules B writing down examples C putting it into practice in conversation

2 IN LE SSONS. I PREFER . A discussing B looking at pictures, maps, diagrams or videos C doing something practical

3 I RE MEM BER NEW VOCA BULARY BE ST WHE N IT IS .ACCOM PAN IED BY . A a clear definition

Portable Clay Cooler Building upon an ancient food-storage technique, the pot-in-pot system uses evaporation from a layer of wet sand between tw o pots to help extend the life of farmers' goods. Tomatoes can last weeks instead of just days, meaning more fresh produce at the market and more income for farmers . Developed by: Mohammed Bah Abba Website: none available Launch country: igeria

C a demonstration

4 IF I AM DI STRACTED I\i C LASS. I USUA LLY .. A hum or sing to myself B make little drawings in my book C play with a pen or pencil

5 WHE N LEARN ING A N EW SKIL L. I PREFER. A someone to explain it to me C just to get on with it myself

B someone to demonstrate it

6 WHE N ril l NOT SU RE HOW TO SPELL .A WO RD. I . A say the word aloud to myself B t ry to visualise it in my mind C write down different versions

7 I PREFER TO RE AD STO RIES WIT H LO TS O F . A dialogue and conversation C action or adventure

o

UNIT 9c Exercise 10, page 110

B an image

B descriptive passages

I PRO BABLY LE ARN MOST WHE N I M . A listening to others speak English B watching an English film or documentary C trying to use English myself

.......

~~~~~~

Managers and senior officials

~-,--..~~~-

UNIT 3c Exercise 11, page 38 Description 2

Skill ed trades

Professional Associate professional and technical

Low skil led Process, plant and machine operatives Sales and customer service Administrative and secretarial Persona l servi ce 0

154

10

15

20

Sugarcane Charcoal Burning wood and dung, the main fuel sources for many in the developing world, has contributed to deforestation and breathing problems among inhabitants. These briquettes made from crushed sugarcane stalks not only make use of a local resource, they also burn more cleanly and allow residents to start a charcoal business for less than $50. Developed by: MIT D-Lab Website:http://d-lab.mit.edu/resources Launch country: Haiti

Communication activites

UNIT 3c Exercise 11, page 38

UNIT 3c Exercise 11, page 38 Description 4

Description 3

Water Container In poor rural areas, clean water is often miles away from the people who need it, leaving them vulnerable to diseases found in unclean water. The strong Q Drum holds thirteen gallons in a rolling container that makes it easy to transport safe, drinking water - a task that is usually done by women and children.

Developed by: P. J. and J. P. S. Hendrikse Website: http ://www.qdrum.co.za Launch country: South Africa

-

Solar Wi-Fi Streetlight The StarSight system consists of a series of pylons that use solar panels to power streetlamps, a Wi-Fi box for wireless Internet access, and if needed, closed-circuit TVs for security surveillance. The result is an integrated system of electricity and communication, plus better street lighting, which has been shown to help reduce crime.

Developed by: Kolam Partnership Ltd. Website: http://www.starsightproject.com Launch countries: Nigeria, South Africa, Turkey

UNIT Sb Exercise 10, page 61

Questionnaire

UNIT 12d Exercise 7, page 148

HOW S.ATI SF!ED DO PE O PLE SEE M WITH THE AMOUN T O F MON EY THEY HAV E?

Student B

2 DO PE O PLE HAVE A GOOD BALANC E BETWEE N WO RK .AN D FR EE TIME? 3 HO\\/ HAPPY ARE PE O PLE WITH THE EDUCA TI ON TH EY RE C EI VE?

~ ~ ·o

4

HOW CON FIDEN T ARE PE O PLE IN YOU R COL NTRY"S HE ALTH SYS TE M TO LOO K AFTER THE.VI ?

5 WHAT KIN D O F FOO D DO PE O PLE EAT? IS IT HEALTHY O R NOT? You want to sell this car. It is a seven-year-old VW Golf and the advertised price is £3,000. It is in good condition but has a lot of miles 'on the clock' (100,000). You would like to get as close to the asking price as you can . However, it has been advertised for two months and you would like to sell it soon .

UNIT 11 c Exercise 10, page 134 Answers to quiz

Mostly As - this means you have an auditory learning style. In other words you remember best when you hear things. Mostly Bs - this means you have a visual learning style. In other words you remember best when you see things. Mostly Cs - this means you have a kinaesthetic learning style. In other words you remember best when you do things or when things are acted out.

6 HOW ENGA GED ARE PEO PLE PO LITI C.A LLY? 7 HOW O FTE N DO PE O PLE PARTIC IPATE ,\ LO T TN CU LT URAL ACTI VITIE S? 8 ARE PE O PLE TO LERAN T O F TH E DIFFERE NT G ROU PS IN SOC IETY?

UNIT Sb Exercise 10, page 97 1 false 2 true 3 half-true - it does increase life expectancy but no one can say how much 4 true 5 false - the Zebra fish can heal its own heart, but not humans - yet! 6 true

155

Grammar summary

UNITl

Present perfect continuous

Present tenses review Form Present simple Affirmative

Negative

I/you/we/they live

I/you/we/they don't live (don't = do not)

he/she/it lives

he/she/it doesn't live (doesn't= does not)

Interrogative

Short answer

do I/you/we/they live ?

Yes, I/you/we/they do. No, I/you/we/they don't.

does he/s he/it live?

Yes, he/she/it does. No, he/she/it doesn 't.

Present continuous Affirmative

Negative

I' m livi ng ('m = am)

I'm not living ('m not = am not)

you' re/ we're/t hey're liv ing ('re = are)

you/we/they aren't living (aren't = are not)

he's/she's/it's living ('s = is)

he/she/it isn't living (isn't = is not)

Interrogative

Short answer

am I living ?

Yes, I am . No, I'm not.

are you/we/they living ?

Yes, you/we/they are. No, yo u/we/they aren't.

is he/sh e/ it living ?

Yes, he/she/it is. No, he/she/it isn't .

Present perfect simple Affirmative

Negative

I've/yo u've/we 've/ they've lived ('ve = have)

I/you/we/they haven't lived (haven't= have not)

he's/she's/it's lived ('s =has)

he/she/it hasn't lived (hasn't = has not)

Interrogative

Short answer

have I/you/we/th ey lived?

Yes, I/you/we/t hey have. No, I/yo u/we/t hey haven't .

has he/she/it lived ?

Yes, he/she/it has. No, he/she/it hasn't.

ate the spelling rules for -ed endings: work -· worked; play __, played; die __, died; lie -• lied; try -· tried; study -· studied; stop __, stopped Some verbs have irregu lar past participles, for example: do -· done; find -•found; have -· had; make -• made

156

Affirmative

Negative

I've/you've/we've/ they've been living ('ve = have)

I/you/we/they haven't been liv ing (haven 't = have not)

he's/she's/ it's been living ('s = has)

he/she/it hasn't been living (hasn't = has not)

Interrogative

Short answer

have I/you/we/they been living ?

Yes, I/you/we/they have. No, I/you/we/they haven't.

has he/she/it been living ?

Yes, he/she/it has. No, he/she/it hasn't .

ate the spelling rules for -ing endings: work -• working; piny -• playing; live -• living; have -• having; stop -• stopping; run __, running; die __, dying; lie -· lying

Use Present simple We use the present simple to talk about: • facts or things which are generally true. Orang-utans eat bark, frui t and leaves. The Earth does n't move around the Moon. Where do polar bears live ? • daily routines and habits. I work in that factory every day. I always have n shower in the morning. • a permanent state or situation. She doesn't play the piano. Do you live in Manches ter? We often use adverbs of frequency (always , usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never) and expressions of frequency (once n week, on Fridays, at the weekend, in the summer, every Saturday) with the present simple to talk about how often we do something. We always play football on Saturday morning. She never talks to strangers. Present continuous We use the present continuous to talk about a situation in progress or things which are happening now or around now. With the present continuous we often use these time expressions: at the moment, (right) now, this week, this summer. The boys are playing tennis in the park. Paul isn't staying in Paris long. Are you doing your report, Chris? Present perfect simple We use the present perfect simple to talk about a recent action or situation which started at some time in the past. The situation may also continue into the present or have a result in the present. The dogs are happy because she has just fed them. Michael can't come with us because he hasn't renewed his passport. Have yo u visited your grandparents lately?

Grammar summary

Present perfect continuous We use the present perfect continuous to talk about an action or situation that was in progress in the recent past. The situation may also continue into the present or have a result in the present. We use the present perfect continuous, not the present perfect simple, to emphasise the duration of an action. I've been working in this office for six months. (I'm still working in the office.) They've been behaving like this since they arrived. What have you been doing since I saw you last? She hasn't been working hard enough lately!

We often use the present perfect simple and continuous with since and for to talk about how long a situation has continued. We use since w ith the point of time w hen the activity started, for example since Monday, since ten o'clock, since January, since I was a boy. We use for to talk about a period of time up to now, for example for an hour, for two months, for a long time. We've been friends since we were twelve years old. We've been playing at the club since 2010. I've lived in this house for six months. I've been going to Asia on holiday for eight years.

Practice 1 Choose the correct option. Can you believe these other unlikely friendships between animals? • A baby hippo 1 )J(l?Pl?/?11/~()irzg w ith a giant tortoise since a devastating tsunami in 2004. They 2 ... and 3 ..................... together. • One intrepid explorer says that his Eskimo dogs -1 ........................... an extraordinary relationship with some polar bears. They 5 ....... together each year since 2008, when the dogs first travelled through the Arctic lands of Canada. • Ellie, a dog, and Hattie, an elephant, 6 ... the best of friends since they met in 2009. • At a reserve in South Africa, a leopard cub and Tommy, a dog, often 7 ....................... together several times a week. At the moment they 8 ... in the same kennel. People are amazed by these friendships. 'It's true to say that there has been an evolution in the animal kingdom recently,' says one animal expert. 1 2 3 4 5

a has been living b has lived c is living a are eating b have eaten c eat a are sleeping b have slept c sleep a have been b have been getting c have got a are playing b have played c have been playing 6 a become bare becoming c have become 7 a play b are playing c have played 8 a sleep b are sleeping c have slept

The passive Form

-

We form the passive with the correct form of the verb to be+ past participle. Tense

Active

Passive

Present simple

makes/make

is/are made

Present continuous

is/are making

is/are being made

Present perfect simple

has/ha ve made

has/have been made

Use We use the passive voice w hen we want to focus on an action or the object of the action, rather than the person who is doing the action. The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. subject object Active: Parents are questioning the new values. subject object Passive: The new values are being questioned by parents. In a passive sentence, we can say who did the action (the agent) using by. We use by+ agent w hen it is important to know who did the action. It isn't always necessary to use by+ agent. We don't usually use the agent w hen it is obvious w ho has done the action, when we don't know, or when it isn't important or relevant. The best products are selected by the product manager. Guests arc asked by the izCJtel to sign the visitors' book. We also use the passive when the agent doesn' t want to be know n in order to avoid criticism. I'm sorry, but the window has been broken by-me.

Practice

2 Rew rite the sentences in the passive form. Use by+ agent where appropriate. 1 They are changing people's lives every day. f?Qp/e.'? Ii()?§ ll.!? b?irigc:hC111g?4: i?()?ry d.:CIY: 2 We make new plans all the time. 3 The government is bringing in some new laws. 4 They have changed the whole system since I was a student. 5 Young people are forgetting the old way of life. 6 We haven 't seen good manners for a very long time. 7 We are still respecting a lot of the old customs. 8 Are they respecting the way that people used to live?

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Grammar summary

UNIT2 Past simple and present perfect simple Form Past simple We add -ed to regular verbs to form the past simple. Affirmative

Negative

I/you/he/she/it/we/they worked

I/you/he/she/it/we/they didn't work (didn't = did not)

Interrogative

Short answer

did I/you/he/she/it/we/ they work ?

Yes, I/yo u/h e/she/it/we/they did . No, I/you/he/she/it/we/they didn't.

Note the spelling rules for other regular verbs: • for verbs ending in -e, we add -d: realise _, realised • for verbs ending in -y, we change the -y to i and add -ed: carry _, carried • for verbs ending in vowel + consonant (n ot -w, -x or -y), we double the consonant: plan _,planned Some verbs have an irregular affirmative form in the past simple: be _, was/were; do _, did; go _, went; see _, saw; write _, wrote Present perfect simple We form the present perfect simple with the present simple of the verb to have + past participle.

See page 156: Present perfect simple

Use Past simple

We use the past simple to talk about finished actions in the past when there is a clear link to a specific time in the past. We often use a time phrase (yesterday, last week, five years ago) with the past simple. He finish ed the film script two hours ago. They didn't go to the cinema last night. Did you meet Alex at the meeting earlier? We use the past simple to talk about someone's life, when they are dead. Sharpe fought as a soldier in the army during the Napoleonic wars. Present perfect simple

We use the present perfect simple to talk about a recent action or situation w hich started at some time in the past. The situation may also continue into the present or have a result in the present. We use the p resent perfect simple w hen the exp erience is more important than the time and the time is not stated. I've seen a lot of different films in the last five years. She's visited a lot of interesting places in her life. He hasn't seen the new Lord of the Rings film yet. We also use the present p erfect simple to talk about people's life experiences (when the person is still alive). I' ve never been to New Zealand. Have you ever been to the North Pole? 158

When we talk about a p eriod of time that is not finished, we use the present perfect simple, even if the action itself is finished. Ha ve you talked to the producer this afternoon? (It is still afternoon.) When the period of time is finished, we use the past simple. Did you talk to the producer this afternoon? (It is the evening, the afternoon has finished.)

Practice 1 Choose the correct op tion. 1 I ~/ have seen a very gripping film yesterday. 2 Did you ever read I Have you ever read an Agatha Christie story? 3 I didn't like I haven't liked the end of his new novel. It was too sentimental. 4 They enjoyed I have enjoyed watching the play last night. 5 Elena didn 't study I hasn't studied literature for a long time. 6 The students wrote I have written some very original short stories on last year 's creative writing course. 7 His parents told I have told him a lot of funny anecdotes from w hen he was a child. 8 Wh en did you find out I have you found out about the stories of Borges?

Past tenses review Form Past simple See page 158: Past simple Past continuous Interrogative

Short answer

was I/he/she/it working there?

Yes, I/he/she/it was. No, I/he/she/it wasn't.

were you/we/they working there?

Yes, you/we/they were. No, you/we/they weren 't.

Past perfect simple Affirmative

Negative

I'd/you'd/he'd/she'd/ it'd/we'd/they'd worked ('d =had)

I/you/he/she/it/we/they hadn't worked (hadn't= had not)

Interrogative . had I/yo u/he/she/it/we/ they worked?

~

Short answer Yes, I/you/he/she/it/we/they had . No, I/yo u/he/she/it/we/they hadn't .

Past perfect continuous Affirmative

Negative

I' d/you'd/he'd/she'd/ it'd/we' d/they'd been working ('d = had)

I/you/he/she/it/we/they hadn't been w orking (hadn 't= had not)

Grammar summary

Interrogative

Short answer

had I/you/he/she/it/we/ th ey been working?

Yes, I/you/he/she/it/we/they had . No, I/yo u/he/s he/ it/we/they hadn't.

Use Past simple We use the past simple to talk about the sequence of the main events of a story.

Giles got up at six o'clock and left the location early. Past continuous We use the past continuous to describe a background event which was in progress around the time of the main event. We often use the past continuous with the past simple. The sun was coming up as Paul arrived at the park.

We don' t usually use stative verbs in the past continuous. I knew the route well. (Not I wa:; knawin~ the route well.) Past perfect simple We use the past perfect simple to talk about something that happened before the main event, i.e. to talk about something that happened earlier. When Juliet saw the animals, she remembered what the trainer had said the day before. Past perfect continuous We use the past perfect continuous to describe an action that was in progress before or up to the main event in the past.

When Becky arrived, the other actors had already been rehearsing for two hours. We don't usually use stative verbs in the past perfect continuous. I had known him for ten years. (Not I IJad h'" 11 k 11 ,9,,,;,1"' him for ten years.)

Practice

2 Complete the text with the correct past tense form of the verbs. Esther 1 ........................................................ (walk) in the park near her home. It 2 ..................................................... (be) a beautiful evening. The sun 3 ...................................................... (shine) all day and now it (set) behind some tall trees by the river. Suddenly she 5 ....................................................... (hear) a scream. She thought that it 6 __ _ ......... (come) from the direction of the river so she 7 • . • · - (run) there as fast as she could. When she 8 ... (reach) the river she 9 _ _ _ ............... (see) a young 10 boy in the water. He __ ................... (slip) on the muddy bank and 11 _ ...... (fall) head first 12 __ ......................... . (struggle) into the water. Now he and unable to swim. Esther quickly 13 ... (take) off her shoes and she J.1 __ (j ump ) 15 _ ........... (catch) the boy by the arm in. She and 16 ......................................................... (drag) him out.

UNIT3 Future forms review Form will Affirmative

Negative

I/you/he/she/it/we/they'll go (' II =will)

I/you/he/she/it/we/they won 't go (won't= w ill not)

Interrogative

Short answer

will I/you/he/she/it/we/ they go?

Yes, I/you/he/she/it/we/they will. No, I/you/he/she/it/we/they won 't

going to future Affirmative

Negative

I'm going to visit

I'm not going to visit

you're/we 're/they're going to visit

you/we/they aren't going to visit

he's/she's /it's going to visit

he/she/it isn't going to visit

Interrogative

Short answer

am I going to vis it?

Yes, I am. No, I'm not.

are you/we/they going to visit?

Yes, you/we/they are. No, you/we/they aren't.

is he/she/it going to vis it?

Yes, he/she/it is . No, he/she/it isn't.

about to Affirmative

Negative

I'm about to start

I'm not about to start

you're/we' re/t hey're about to start

you/we/they aren't about to start

he's/s he's/it's about to start

he/she/it isn't about to start

Interrogative

Short answer

am I about to start?

Yes, I am . No, I'm not.

are yo u/we/they about to start?

Yes, you/we/they are . No, you/we/they aren't.

is he/she/it about to start?

Yes, he/she/it is. No, he/she/it isn't.

See page 156: Present continuous See page 156: Present simple

Use will We use will: • to talk about a prediction. I expect he'll be here in a minute. • to talk about a decision we have made at the time of speaking. 'I can't start my car.' 'Don't worry. I'll give you a lift.' • in the main clause of a first conditional sentence. If the population increases, there won't be enough food . 159

Grammar summary

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going to f uture We use be + going to+ infinitive: • to talk about a plan or intention for the future . This has been decided before the moment of speaking. When I'm in Europe, I'm going to travel to France, Spain, Portugal and Italy. • to make a prediction about the future based on present information. My team is playing very badly. They're going to lose this match.

Future continuous and future perfect simple Fo rm Future cont inuous We form the future continuous with will be+ -ing. Affirmative

Negative

l/you/he/she/itlw e/they wi ll be doing

l/you/he/she/itlw e/they wo n't be doing

Interrogative

Short answer

w il l l/you/he/she/ itlwe/ they be doing ?

Yes, l/yo u/he/she/itlwe/they wi ll. No, l/you/he/she/itlwe/they won 't.

about to We use be+ about to to talk about an event in the immediate future . I can't talk to you now - I'm about to go into a meeting. We often use just in front of about to. Tell me the details later - I'm just about to go into town. Present continuous We use the present continuous to talk about: • an intention or previously made decision or arrangement. They aren't coming to the theatre. • a formal arrangement. Th ey're having a meeting at ten o'clock.

We often use the present continuous with a specific (or understood) time in the future. I'm travelling to New York on Thursday evening. We normally use the present continuous (not going to) with the verbs go and come. Present simple We use the present simple to talk about: • a scheduled or timetabled event. The concert starts at eight o'clock. What time does the train leave ?

Practice 1 Complete the conversation with the correct future tense of the verbs. A: The first talk

1

_ .......

(start) in five

minutes. B: A:

B: A:

B: A:

B: A:

160

2

__ you __ .................. (go) to it? o, I think I 3 _ ..... (give) it a miss. It's not really a subject that interests me. Really? I think it -1 ....................................................... (be) really interesting. o, it's OK. I 5 _ ......... (meet) a colleague anyway in half an hour to discuss the presentation we 6 _ _ (give) this afternoon. Oh. When does that 7 ....................................... (start)? It 8 __ _ ...... (be) at 2.00 p .m. in the green room. Oh good. I 9 __ _ __ (try) to come to that. You'd be very welcome. Anyway you'd better go. Your talk 10 ___ (be) to start .. .

.

·

Future perfect simple We form the future perfect simple with will have + past participle. Affirmative

Negative

l/you/he/she/itlwe/they w ill have done

l/you/he/she/ itlwe/they won't have done

Interrogative

Short answer

wi ll 1/you/he/sh e/itlwe/ they have done ?

Yes, l/you/he/she/itlwe/they wil l. No, l/you/he/she/ itlwe/they won 't .

Use Futu re continuous We use the future continuous to talk about an action which you know or think will be in progress at a certain time or during a certain period of time, in the future .

In five years' time, everyone will be using HD phones. This time tomorrow I won't be sitting in this office. What will scientists be researching ten years from now? Future perfect simple We use the future perfect simple to talk about an action which is going to be completed at or before a certain point of time in the future. In 50 years' time, people will have stopped using cash. He won't have finished installing the new system by the weekend. Will you have sent that email by five o'clock?

Practice 2 Choose the correct option. 1 Next year people(will be usini) I will have used w ind power for their electricity. 2 By next January the company will be designing I will have designed a smaller computer chip. 3 Scientists will be making I will have made some important breakthroughs by 2020. 4 It is predicted that scientists will be discovering I will have discovered a cure for cancer in the next ten years. 5 I expect that I will be working I will have worked in a laboratory next month. 6 I'm sure he will be studying I will have studied biology all his life.

Grammar summary

UNIT4 Expressions of quantity Form

They arrived very late so they only saw a little of the show. (= some, but not much) He ate little of the meal in the restaurant as he didn 't like seafood. (= only a small amount of)

There were not many people at the concert. Ella has only been to a few classical concerts.

We don' t usually use nzuch in affirmative statements. We normally use a lot of/lots of. They haven't got much knowledge of the local area. We've got a lo t of brochures about the area .

(not) much, (a) little, a bit of, a (large/small) amount of+ uncountable noun

Several usually means three or more things or people. There were several people in the audience.

There isn't much live music at the festival . You can see a bit of sculpture as part of the exhibition.

enough We use enough to say we have the correct or sufficient quantity. We use not enough to say we have less than we want or need. There are enough members of the orchestra now. There aren't enough artists signed up for the festival yet.

(not) many, (a) few, a (small/large) number of, several+ plural countable noun

a lot of, lots of, plenty of, loads of, (a) lack of, (almost) no, (not/hardly) any, some, enough + pl ural countable or uncountable noun

You can buy plenty of food and drink at the show. Because of the show, there were hardly any cars in town today.

Use We use quantifiers with countable or uncountable nouns to talk about quantity (how much or how many of something). Large quantities We use the following quantifiers to express large quantities. With plural countable nouns: a large number of, a huge number of With uncountable nouns: a large amount of, an enormous amount of With plural countable and uncountable nouns: some, a lot of, lots of, plenty of, loads of An enormous number of people are actively involved in the arts, many more than you would imagine. Some visitors return three or four times a year. There were a lot of/loads of great bands at the festival. ote that loads of is less formal than a lot of/lots of. Small quantities We use the following quantifiers to express small quantities. With plural countable nouns: (not) many, (a) few, a (small) number of, several With uncountable nouns: (not) much, (a) little, a bit of, a small amount of With p lural countable and uncountable nouns: some, a lack of, (almost) no, (not/hardly) any • In most towns, there are a few interesting places to visit. Hardly any artists become rich in their lifetime.

We use little/a little and few/a few to talk about small quantities in affirmative statements. A little and a few have a positive meaning(= some, but not many) . Little and few have a negative meaning (= only a small number of). A few people watched his latest play. (= some, but not many) Few people watched his latest play. (=only a small number)

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We can use a large amount, enough, plenty, several, not much, not many without nouns when the meaning is clear. Do you have many theatres in your town? Yes, we have several. I No, there aren't many.

Practice 1 Choose the correct option. 1 There aren't much~ a little films on this week. 2 There is a few I several I lots of paint in the studio. 3 Is there many I much I a few interest in the exhibition? 4 There were few I not much I a little people at the gallery. 5 There aren't much I many I some art books on the shelf. 6 There is only a little I lots of I plenty of talent amongst these new actors. 7 There were a little I not much I almost no good paintings on show. 8 Are there a bit of I enough I not much bands playing at the festival?

Determiners Form each, every, either, the whole+ singular noun

Each visitor to the gallery receives a plan of the exhibition. Every exhibit in the museum is catalogued. People can buy either a day ticket or a season ticket. all, both + plural noun

All the shortlisted artists gained a lot of publicity. Both artists exhibited three pictures. any, no + singular or plural noun

Ha ve you seen any good films this month? They received no complaints.

161

Grammar summary

-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ · ~

all, any, no + uncountable noun A ll literature has value. Can we use any material we like? No culture is superior to another.

Use every, each, all We use every, each and all to talk generally about people or things.

Every musician played well. Each artist had some interesting work on display. A ll the paintings were very good. We use each and every to refer to the individuals or individual parts of a group. We use all to refer to the whole group. We use every (+ singular noun) and all, all the, all of the (+plural noun / uncountable noun) w hen the plural noun refers to three or more people or things. Every person had the opportunity to be an artist for a day. (There were three or more people.) A ll of the participants wrote a poem about nature. (There were three or more participants.) We use each (+ singular noun) to talk about two or more people or things. Each member of the group made some form of contribution. (There were two or more people.) both, either We use both and either to talk about two things or people. We use both/both of the (+ plural noun) to say the same thing about two people or things. We use either (+ singular noun) to say there are two possible options. Both (of the) sculptors made three works of art for the exhibition. They could choose to use either stone or clay.

We use neither to express a negative meaning. Neither contestant made it to the final. (not) any, no We use (not) any or no to talk about a negative idea. They didn't allow any graffiti on the walls at all. There are no original ideas left in art.

We can use (not) any w ithout a noun when the meaning is clear. Have you got any tickets left? No, I'm sorry, there aren't any.

Practice 2 Complete the sentences using a suitable determiner. There may be more than one possible answer. 1 There were ten pianists in the competition, and they were all very good. 2 .......................................... member of the band plays a different instrument. 3 Gilbert and George work as a pair, but ......................................... men are artists in their own right.

162

. . . . . . . . . . . . . of 4 They were both good players, and them could have won. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . performer was better than the others. 6 ........................ student was asked to bring a sketch book to the gallery.

UNITS Verb+ infinitive or -ing Form Verb + infinitive verb+ to+ infinitive

They wanted to create a lux ury holiday resort.

verb + someone + to + infiniti ve

He asked his father to lend him the money for the deposit.

verb + someone + infinitive (without to)

She helped her friend establish a new theme park.

Verb+ -ing verb+ -ing

I enjoy going to shopping malls.

Use verb+ to+ infinitive After certain verbs we use to+ infinitive. This is often to talk about hopes, intentions and decisions. He offered to draw the plans for the redevelopment. They didn 't want to w ork on the project any more. Common verbs which are followed by to+ infinitive include: agree, appear, arrange, choose, decide, expect, hope, intend, manage, need, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, want, wish, would like. verb+ someone+ to+ infinitive Some verbs are followed by an object and to + infinitive. He reminded his employees to arrive early. They'd like the contractors to submit their proposal by the end of the week. Common verbs which are followed by someone + to + infinitive include: allow, ask, expect, force , help, invite, need, remind, teach, tell, want, would like. verb+ someone+ infinitive without to Some verbs are followed by an object and the infinitive w ithout to. He watched his ex-partner become the richest businessman in the world. She helped her daughter expand her business. Common verbs which are followed by someone + infinitive w ithout to are: feel, hear, help, notice, see, watch. verb+ -ing We use verb + -ing after certain verbs. I enjoy staying in luxury hotels. The architect suggested adding some green space. Common verbs which are followed by -ing are: avoid, can't help, like, love, enjoy, prefer don't like, hate, can't stand, (not) mind, keep, miss, practise, risk, suggest.

Grammar summary

Practice 1 Choose the correct option. 1 I always enjo~/ to go to w ork in developing countries. 2 He wa tched his country growing I grow richer every day. 3 They asked the IMF lending I to lend the government some money. 4 The President decided to invest I investing in property. 5 The ministers suggested to start I starting an investment bank. 6 The government refused giving I to give them planning permission.

Verb+ -ing or to+ infinitive Form verb + -ing and verb + to + infinitive (two different meanings) He remembered listening to the programme. They remembered to listen to the programme. verb + -ing and verb + to + infinitive (no change in meaning) He continued travelling around Asia in spite of not having any money. He continued to travel around Asia in spite of not having any money.

Use Some verbs can be followed by either -ing or to + infinitive but the meaning changes. Jan stopped talking to journalists. =Jan used to talk to journalists but now he has stopped. (We talk about the action which has ended, i.e. he is no longer talking to journalists.) Jan stopped to talk to a local resident. =Jan stopped and then he talked to a local resident. (This tells us the reason for stopping, i.e. to talk to a local resident.) Common verbs w hich can be followed by -ing or to + infinitive w ith a change in meaning are: forget, remember, go on, mean, regret, stop, try. Some verbs can be followed by either -ing or to + infinitive with very little or no change in meaning. Lizze likes reading business economics books. Lizzie likes to read business economics books. Common verbs w hich can be followed by -ing or to +infinitive w ith little or no change in meaning are: begin, continue, hate, love, prefer, start.

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UNIT6 not Form Negative infinitive We form the negative infinitive by putting not in front of the infinitive. Note that not goes before to. We decided not to go abroad on holiday this year.

want, would like To make a sentence negative w ith want or would like, we make the main verb negative. She didn't want to visit India. They wouldn't like to work there.

mustn't and don't have to The negative form of must is mustn't and the negative form of have to is don't/doesn't have to. You mustn't travel without your passport. If you are British, you don't have to get a visa to visit France. hope and think The negative form of hope and think is different. When we form a negative sentence \'\rith hope, we make the following verb negative. When we form a negative sentence with think, we use don't/doesn't think. I hope he isn't late. He doesn't think she should travel alone. let's To form the negative of let's, we use let's not. Let's not go on holiday in the UK this summer - I want to go somewhere warm!

Use Negative infinitive We often use the negative infinitive to make suggestions and give advice or orders about what not to do. It would be better for you not to meet him tomorrow. He advised me not to fly next week because of the strikes.

want, would like

Practice

2 Complete the sentences w ith the correct form of these verbs. ask

3 We regret - . . . . . . . you that your bank account has been closed. 4 I meant .......................... - them if the water was safe to drink or not. 5 Did you remember ..................................... . the plans for the new development w ith you? 6 If we want the company to be profitable, it means .......................... . ... our prices.

bring

borrow

btty

change

inform

We use don 't/doesn't want and wouldn't like to talk about a wish not to do something in the future. I don't want to go to the party tomorrow. (Not I wtmt not to go to the party tomorrow.) I wouldn't like to read that book again .

1 I forgot to buu some milk w hen I was at the supermarket. 2 I don't remember ................................. . .... any money from Mike but he says I did.

163

Grammar summary

-

mustn't and don't have to We use mustn 't to say that it is important not to do something. You mustn't forget to apply for your visa. (= It's important that you don't forget.) We use don't/doesn 't have to to show that something is not important or essential. He doesn't have to get a new passport before he goes . (=It's not essential.)

hope and think I hope my holiday won't be a disappointment. (not I dmtt

lwpe ... ) I don't think her accommodation will be venJ luxurious - it was very cheap! (not I think her accommodation wtm1+be luxurious ... )

let's We use let's not + infinitive when we want to make a negative suggestion. Let's see what time they arrive. Let's not go out now.

Practice 1 Complete the sentences using not and the correct form of the verb. Use contractions where possible. 1 He told me _ JJQL[Q$.pgncj ......... (spend) too much money on holiday. . . . . . . . . . . . . (want) to go to the museum 2 Sarah at the weekend . 3 Let's ............... _ . . . . . . . . . . (tell) Peter about it - it will upset him. 4 Mike asked me ............ (book) selfcatering accommodation. ___. . . . (think) the aeroplane will take 5 We off on time. 6 We decided _ (stop) off in Paris on the way.

Negative and tag questions Form Open questions We form open questions using an auxiliary verb (e.g. do, have) and invert the subject and verb. Do you enjoy travelling by train ? Has he played tennis before? Negative questions We form negative questions using the negative form of the verb. We usually use the contracted form. Don't you enjoy travelling by train? Hasn't he played tennis befo re ? Tag questions To form tag questions we use the auxiliary of the verb in the main sentence. When the main verb in the sentence is affirmative, the tag question is negative: They were at the party, weren't they? When the main verb in the sentence is negative, the tag question is affirmative: He didn't stay late, did he?

164

When you write tag questions, put a comma between the main sentence and the tag. ote that when the subject is a pronoun, we repeat the pronoun in the tag question. When the subject is a noun, we use an appropriate pronoun in the tag question. It's very interesting, isn't it? Mike travels to South Africa every year, doesn't he ? Tense

Positive-negative

Negative-positive

to be

It's a long way, isn't it? I w as there, wasn 't I?

It isn't a long way, is it? I wasn't there, w as I?

(do/does)

She w orks there, doesn 't she ?

She doesn't work there, does she ?

Present continuous

They're arriving soon, aren't they?

They aren't arriving soon, are they?

She went there yesterday, didn 't she ?

She didn 't go there yesterday, did she ?

They weren't working yesterday, were they?

They were working yesterday, weren't they ?

You 've been here before, haven't you ? They've been studying late, haven't they?

You haven't been here before, have you ? They haven't been studying late, have they ?

They'd met him before, hadn 't they?

They hadn't met him before, had they?

will

You 'll do it tomorrow, won 't you ?

You won't do it tomorrow, will you ?

Modals

I can go, can't I? He should know about the plans, shouldn't he ?

I can't go, can I? He shouldn't know about the plans, should he ?

(is, are, was, were) Present simple

(is, are) Past simple

(did) Pa st co nti nuo us

(was, were) Present pe rfect simple and present perfect co ntinuous

(has, have) Pa st perfect simple

(had)

(must, should, can, would, et c.)

Use Open questions We use open questions when we don't know what the answer w ill be or when we don't expect a particular answer. Are you going on holiday this year? (Possible answers: Yes, I am. No, I'm not. Well, maybe. I don 't think so.) Did he tell you where he was going? (Possible answers: Yes, he did. No, he didn't. I can't remember.) Negative questions We use negative questions to check some information or something you think is probably true. We answer negative questions with yes/no answers. Don't you always visit your parents on Sunday? Yes, I do. Wou ldn't you prefer to stay in a hotel? No, I wouldn't.

Grammar summary

We also use negative questions. • to show surprise. Don't you enjoy eating out? • to make a suggestion. Don't you want to invite him too? • to request something, especially when we expect a negative answer. Can 't I have a different room? Tag questions We use tag questions to ask for information, or to check and confirm information.

We're meeting at two o'clock at the airport, aren't we? That's the meeting point, isn't it?

Practice 2 Complete the negative and tag questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Q911't .............. you want to stay here? It's really comfortable. India is a very diverse country, i.E:n'tit . . . . .. . ? Sue didn't go mountain climbing last year, ......................................................... ? ........................................................ you booked the flights yet? I thought I asked you to last week. The group w on't travel to Athens by train, ? Those old map books wouldn't be much use,

?

7 ................................................... he pay for his accommodation before he arrived? 8 she like to visit somewhere different for a change?

UNIT7 Mixed conditional sentences Form First conditional

If-clause

Main clause

If+ present simple

will+ infinitive w ithout to

If it rains, the drought will end. Second conditional

If+ past simple

would/could/might+ infinitive without to

If everyone used their own shopping bags, there wouldn't be so much plastic waste. Third conditional

If+ past perfect

would/could/might have+ past participle

If they had saved more water; there wouldn't have been a drought. Mixed second and third conditional

If+ past simple

would have + past participle

If the policy worked, the government wouldn't have needed extra food. Mixed third and second conditionals

If+ past perfect

would/could/might+ infinitive without to

If the water hadn't been stored, there wouldn't be a harvest this year.

Remember, we can use if in two positions: • If-clause first: If we use less water, we should be able to provide enough for the whole population. • Main clause first: We should be able to provide enough water for the whole population if we use less water. When the if-clause is at the beginning of the sentence, we use a comma to separate it from the main clause.

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Use First conditional We use the first conditional to talk about a possible future action or situation. We can also use it to talk about things that are generally true. If they pollute the water, we won't be able to drink it. (It's possible that they w ill pollute the water in the future. Then we won 't be able to drink the w ater.) Second conditional We use the second conditional to talk about unreal or imagined (hypothetical) situations in the present or future . If they changed their environmental views, perhaps they would get the contract. (This is an imagined situation in the future .) Note that when we use the past simple with if, it refers to the present or future . It does not refer to the past. We can also use could and might instead of would in the m ain clause. We use could or might to talk about events that are possible but not certain. If you visited the polluted region, you could see the contamination quite clearly. Fossil fuels might not run out if people didn 't use scarce resources. Third conditional We use the third conditional to talk about situations or events in the past that did not happen and the hypothetical consequence or result of the imagined past situation.

If thei; had built the dam, those villages wouldn't have flooded . (But they didn't build the dam and the villages were flooded .) We can use could/might (not) have to speculate on a possible consequence of the imagined past situation. If they had built the dam, those villages might not have flooded. (They did build the dam, and it's possible that the villages wouldn't have been flooded but we are not certain.) Mixed conditionals We use mixed conditionals to talk about unreal situations when the if clause and the main clause don't refer to the same time.

We use mixed second and third conditionals to talk about an imagined situation in the present or future w ith the hypothetical past result or consequence. If the pro-forest organisation didn't exist, more of the Amazon forests would have disappeared. (But the organisation does exist, and so more of the Amazon fo rests didn't disappear.)

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Grammar summary

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We use mixed third and second conditionals to talk about an imagined situation or action in the past, with the imagined consequence in the present or future. If the activists hadn't intervened, the Amazon wou ld be much smaller now. (But the activists did intervene, so the Amazon is bigger than it would have been without their help.)

ote that when we use the verb to be, we use was in everyday speech; we use were in formal speech and writing, for example: • Informal spoken: I wish I was on holiday now. • Formal spoken / written: I wish I were on holiday now.

Practice 1 Complete the sentences. Use mixed conditionals.

We use wish and if only to talk about regrets and to describe an imaginary situation which is the opposite of the real situation. • To express a w ish about a present situation, we use wish I if only + past simple. I wish I knew the answer. (But I don't.) • To express a wish about a past situation, we use wish I if only + past perfect. I wish I'd bought a smaller car. (But I didn't.) • To express a wish for someone to do something differently in the present or fu ture, we use wish I if only+ noun / pronoun+ would+ infinitive (without to). I wish you would be more environmentally friendly. (You won' t be more environmentally friendly, but I want you to be.) otice that you can't use the same subject in both clauses w ith would. You can't say: I wish f-wtm:ttf be more environmentally friendly.

1 Rafa went to the summit meeting, but he didn't say anything because he didn't know the correct information. If Rafa }y:i_if._k11:QJ:()1J: ........... (know) the correct information, I'm sure he (:l!Q!l/cf.Jzqv._~?C.Z.icl. . (say) something. 2 They didn't dam the river because people protested about it. If people . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (not protest) about it, the river __ . . . . . . . . . (be) dammed today. 3 The organisation was looking for someone w ho knows about the environment. Katrin doesn't know about environment, so she didn't apply for the job. Katrin __ _ (apply) for the job if she .......................................... (know) about the environment. 4 They need people w ith experience of conservation, but I haven't got any. If I __ . . . (have), I . . (join) them. 5 I worked hard on the mining project, so I felt I deserved a rest. If I _ (not work) hard on the project, ........................... (be) tired. I 6 You were writing reports last week. You're feeling very tired today. If you . . . . . . . . . . . . (not write) so many reports, you -(not feel) so tired today. mm

mm

wish, would rather and if only Form wish I if only+ noun/pronoun + past simple I wish I knew more about the proposal. If only I knew more about the proposal. wish I if only+ noun/pronoun + past perfect I wish he hadn't signed up to the agreement. If only he hadn't signed up to the agreement. wish I if only+ noun/pronoun + would+ infinitive (without to) I wish they would approve the plan. If only they would approve the plan. would rather+ infinitive (without to) They would rather save the rain forest than mine for oil. would rather+ object+ past simple The company would rather you proposed a more ener[51J efficient solution.

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Use

We use would rather+ infinitive (without to) to talk about preferences. I don 't wan t to spend more on petrol. I wou ld rather use my car less. When we use would rather, we can also include than + an alternative. I'd rather use my car less (than spend more on petrol). I'd rather travel by train (than by plane). We use would rather+ object+ past simple to state what we would prefer someone else to do. I'd rather you used ener[51;-saving lightbulbs. He'd rather they met every week.

Practice

2 Complete the sentence using the correct form of the verbs. 1 If only there _. W~/'.I'?_ _ ......... (be) a way to stop people using up fossil fuels, but there isn't. 2 I w ish they ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .... . . . (stop) using pesticides on crops, but they won't. 3 If only the river . . . . . (not flood) their village, things would be OK now. . . . . . .... ....... . . . . . . . . . (understand) how to 4 I w ish they protect their environment, but they don't. . . . . . . . . . . (consider) the 5 If only people _ consequences before cutting down the forest, but they didn't. 6 I w ish there _. . . . (not be) a nuclear power station here, but there is.

Grammar summary

7 I'd rather the government (not let) them register the oil tanker, but I imagine they w ill. 8 I w ish they (leave) the town centre as it was, but they didn't.

UNITS Reporting verbs Form Reporting verbs are followed by different verb patterns. verb + to + infinitive She promised to investigate the story. Reporting verbs with this pattern include: agree, offer, promise, refuse, threaten. verb+ someone+ to+ infinitive He asked the photographer to send the files immediately. Reporting verbs with this pattern include: advise, ask, convince, encourage, invite, persuade, remind, tell, urge, warn . verb+ -ing He admitted faking the document . Reporting verbs with this pattern include: advise, admit, deny, mention, propose, recommend, suggest. verb + preposition + -ing He complained about working long hours. Reporting verbs with this pattern include: apologise (for), complain (about) , insist (on), object (to). verb + someone + preposition + -ing The editor blamed him for not checking his facts . Reporting verbs with this pattern include: accuse (+of), blame(+ for), compliment(+ on), congratulate(+ on), criticise (+for), forgive (+for) , thank (+for), warn (+about). Other common verb patterns are: verb + someone + that He warned us that the journey would be difficult. Reporting verbs with this pattern include: advise, persuade, tell, warn. verb+ that We agreed that she was the best candidate. Reporting verbs w ith this pattern include: admit, agree, explain, deny, know, realise, say, think, warn.

Use Say, tell, think and ask are the most common reporting verbs, but we often use other reporting verbs to report what people said. When we decide what reporting verb to use, we think about the function or the purpose of the speaker's words. 'Remember to download your photos.' = remind (He reminded me to download my photos.) Tl/ sign up for the media course when I get back. ' = promise (She promised to sign up for the media course when she got back.)

Practice 1 Report the statements using these verbs. You may need to use a preposition after the verb. admit apologise complain tell thank ~

invite

-

offer

1 I really think you should go to the meeting. Kailey i1rg1?.4 111e tqg() tg t}1g r1JE?E?ti11g, 2 It was me that informed the press. Rebecca . 3 I'm really grateful that you read m y article, thank you. Susanne 4 I really dislike having to write business reports. Leo ... . . . 5 I'm sorry, but I made a mistake. Clara . . 6 Please come and discuss it at the newspaper office tomorrow. Pieter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7 I'll give you a lift to the press conference. James ............ _ __ _ 8 Don't send that email. Aisha . .

Passive reporting verbs Form Passive reporting verbs are formed with It + be+ past participle of reporting verb + that + clause. When we report ideas in the present, we use the verb be in the present simple. It is said that ... It is believed that ... For a present report of a present event, we use the present simple in the that-clause. It is said that people are less happy nowadays than they were 50 years ago . For a present report of a past event, we use the past simple in the that-clause. It is believed that they lived unknown to the outside world for over 200 years . For a present report of a future event, we use will + infinitive in the that-clause. It is understood that reporters will leave the area immediately. When we report ideas in the past, we use the verb be in the past simple. It was believed that .. . It was reported that .. . For a report and event at the same time in the past, we use the past simple in the that-clause. It was claimed tha t the break-in happened that morning.

167

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Grammar summary

For a report in the p ast of an event that happened before the report, we u se the past p erfect in th e thatclause. It was believed that the break-in had happened late at night. For a past report of a future event, we use would + infinitive in the that-clause. It was understood that the survivors w ould go straight to hospital when they returned.

Use We use passive rep orting structures to talk abou t events when the speaker is unknown or unimportant, or when someone w ishes to remain an onymous. We can rep ort ideas in the present or in the p ast. It is said that people consume on average 50 times more sugar than ten years ago. It is believed that tickets for the championships will be available next week. It was reported that there had been violence at the demonstration. It w as thought that there wouldn't be any money to fund the proposals. We use passive rep orting structures with reporting verbs such as said, thought, believed, claimed, considered, estimated, expected, known, reported, suggested and understood.

We use the+ singular countable noun, plural countable noun or uncountable noun: • to refer back to the same thing or p erson for a second time. I applied for a job. It was the pe1fect job for me. • when there is only one. He was the youngest person to cross the Atlantic Ocean by boat. • before a superlative adjective: That was the most terrifi;ing experience I've ever had! • to talk about a specific thing or person. Did you see the space shuttle landing earlier? • to talk about sp ecific thin gs or people. I have a lot of admiration for the relief workers in Somalia. • to talk about p rofessional groups. He worked in the navy for many years. • w ith certain countries, p lace names, geographical regions, oceans and seas, deserts, mountain ran ges and rivers, fo r examp le: the USA, the UK, the ether/ands, the Philippines, the United Arab Emirates, the Eiffel Tower, the White House, the Middle East, the Antarctic, the Pacific, the Mediterranean , the Kalahari Desert, the Alps, the Himalayas, the Amazon, the Nile.

5 Past report about a distant past event: said I men I not see I the Arctic ice I then

We use zero article + plural countable and uncountable nouns: • to talk in general about things or people. Do you use computers in your job? I don 't like potatoes. • before certain familiar places (work, home, hospital, university, school, etc. ). What time do you go to work? Are they at home? • before most cities, countries, continents, lakes, mountains, lan guages and names of people. Have you ever been to Beijing? She lives in Poland. He worked in India for many years. Other examples are: New York, London, Australia, China, Africa, Europe, Lake Geneva, Mount Everest, English, Spanish, Japanese, Christopher Columbus. • before certain time exp ressions. I'll meet you next week. He set up the company last year. Their anniversary is in Jun e. He was born in 1953. otice that there are exceptions, fo r example: time expressions: in the sixties, at the weekend, in the summer, in the l 811i century.

6 Past report of a futu re event: not believe I newspapers I become I so p owerful

Practice 1 Complete the text with the or zero article(- ).

Practice 2 Write sentences using the prompts. 1 Present report about a present event: report I story I not be I true . . . . . It.is... .1:?pQrf?4thC1.t. . tl1!?. S..t9..1:yis..!19..tf1J£?., _. . . 2 Present rep ort about a past event: understand I those people I live I there I fo r twenty years 3 Present report about a future event: suggest I people I travel I to Mars I next year 4 Past rep ort about a p ast event: think I women I be I less intelligent

UNIT9 Articles:

the

or zero article?

Form The definite article is the. When we do not use an article, we call it zero article.

168

Use

I w as listening to 1 ..... tl1!? . . . . . . news at ten o'clock _ last night, w hen it was reported that President of ~ . . . . USA was on 5 holiday fo r 6 ___ two weeks. They said that he . town where he was born. was visiting 7 _ ......... places Apparently he doesn 't like goin g to 8 w here there are lots of people, p referring 9 ... peace and quiet. 10 ........................... reasons w hy someone in his position does this are obviou s!

Grammar summary

Relative clauses Form The relative pronouns who, which, whose, where, when and that introduce defining relative clauses. • to give information about people, we use who or that. He's the man who got the job. • to give information about things, we use which or that. That's the network w hich is used for public access. • to give information about places, we use where. This is the place where the information is stored. • to give information about possession, we use whose. She's the person whose job was advertised. Reduced relative clauses We can sometimes shorten relative clauses by omitting the relative pronoun and using a present or past participle. If the verb in the rela tive clause is in the active, we use the present participle. People who visit the area have complained about the traffic. People visiting the area have complained about the traffic.

If the verb in the relative clause is in the passive, we use the past participle: It is a subject which is studied by many people. It is a subject studied by many people.

We can't use a reduced relative clause w hen the relative pronoun is the object of the relative clause. The expedition, which I am leading, is in June. ot: Tlh I· .t"IJ1?difim1 lemii11~ i.~ i11 Tt.olh

Use We use a relative clause to give more information about a noun in the main clause of the sentence. We use a defining relative clause when the extra information in the relative clause is essential for identification. The meaning in the main clause is unclear without it. This is the team who filmed beneath the ice. This is the forest where the new species was discovered. We use a non-defining relative clause when the extra information is not essential. The meaning of the main clause is still clear. The non-defining relative clause is separated from the main clause by commas. Stefano Calabria, who is eighty-five, still works as a mountain guide. • The ship Arctic Kestral, which was built in Glasgow, is registered in Russia. The relative pronoun in a relative clause can be: • the subject of the clause. Explorers are people who make discoveries. • the object of the clause (with a noun or pronoun following it). He's the explorer who I met in Cambodia.

We can omit the relative pronoun when it is the object of a defining relative clause. That 's the explorer (who) I met in Cambodia. The place (that) I would like to visit is Madagascar. We cannot omit the relative pronoun when it is the subject of a defining relative clause or in a nondefining relative clause.

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We often use reduced relative clauses in announcements and reports. Passengers wJw me travelling to Mumbai, please proceed to gate number 25. Due to the bomb scare, all bags wJziclz we1e left unattended were removed and destroyed. The miners, who we1e trapped underground, managed to find their way to the swface.

Practice 2 Write sentences using relative clauses. Use reduced relative clauses where possible. 1 He is an explorer. He likes travelling to remote places. .. Jit?.'.?_ 1J.11t?.~lJ2J9re.r. ZL'/!Q_likt?.?. t1:11v..glfi!1gJ9 . . . J:t?.1119ft?.P/(1<:.t?.?: 2 This is the desert. The fossils were discovered here. 3 Equipment is often left on Mount Everest. It is regularly removed. 4 That is the biologist. Her papers were lost in the storm. 5 Lake Titicaca is very large. It is on the border of Bolivia and Peru. 6 GreenSpace created the prototype. The prototype was copied by a rival company.

UNIT 10 Present simple, present continuous and will for repeated actions Form Present simple Adverbs of frequency come before the main verb with the present simple, but after the verb be. We always have a family celebration at Thanksgiving. He's usually on time for his extra class. Present continuous with always

Always comes between the verb be and the -ing form of the verb. They're always criticising their children. She's always talking about herself will Children will naturally choose to play rather than study.

169

Grammar summary

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Use We use the present simple for repeated actions (often w ith adverbs of frequency) or to talk about a simple fact or general truth. He listens to the radio news every morning. Water free zes at 0° Celsius . We use the present continuous w ith always to talk about a habit w hich we find annoying or which we w ish to criticise. I try to avoid John at work. He is always talking about his children's achievements. She's always complaining about how much work she has to do. We use will to talk about typical behaviour. The bower bird doesn't build an ordinary nest. It constructs an incredible tower. It will often use pieces of plastic and glass to decorate this tower.

Practice 1 Write sentences using the prompts. Use the present simple (PS), present continuous (PC) with always and will (W). 1 (PS) Mary I read I detective novels . . . . . .Ml1tY . 1'.?.l1.ci..?.ci..e..te..c:t.iz;e.....1.1.Qv.e..l?,. . . . 2 (W) Cats don't like swimming. They I do I anything to avoid getting wet 3 (PS) James I ride / his bike everywhere 4 (PC) Nicola I talk I with I her mouth full 5 (PS) Steve is hard-working. He I stay I at work until 7.00 or 8.00 in the evening 6 (W) Cats I sleep I all day I rather than go out 7 (PC) My mum I complain I about the mess I in my bedroom 8 (PS) Jack I get I to work early most days

be used to + noun or -ing

I'm not used to playing

am I used to playing ?

you' re/we' re/ they're used to playing

you/we/they aren't used t o playing

are you/we/they used to playing?

he's/she's/it's used to playing

he/she/ it isn't used to pla ying

is he/she/ it used to playing?

be getting used to

I'm not getting used to playing

am I getting used to playing?

you're/we're/ they're getting used to playing

you/we/they aren't getting used to playing

are you/we/they getting used to playing?

he's/s he's/it's getting used to playing

he/she/it isn't getting used to pla ying

is he/s he/it getting used to pla ying ?

I'm used to playing

+ noun or -ing I'm getting used to playing

Use We use used to (+ infinitive) to talk about past habits, situations and states. I used to go out to eat a lot when I lived in Paris. She didn't use to enjoy opera when she was younger. We use usually+ p resent simple to talk about present habits. We usually have dinner with my parents on Sundays. Do you usually go shopping on Friday nights? We use be used to to talk about familiar (and unfamiliar) habits and situations. Is he used to using his new laptop yet? He isn't used to his new laptop yet. We use get used to to talk about habits that are becoming familiar. Sara is getting used to working in the shop now. Sara is getting used to the shop now.

Practice

2 Choose the correct option.

used to, usually, be used to and get used to Form .Affirmative used to+ infinitive I/yo u/he/s he/it/we/ they used to live

usually+ present simple

Negative

Interrogative

I/youth elshe/it/we/ they didn't use to live

did I/yo u/he/she/ it/we/they use to live?

I/yo u/we/they don't usually play

do I/yo u/we/they usually play?

he/she/it doesn't usually play

does he/she/ it usually play?

I/yo u/we/they usually play he/she/it usually plays

170

1 Since his illness, he very healthy food. a (usually eats bused to eat c is getting used to eat 2 Paul has worked for a multinational company for years, so he . . . . . . . . . . .... . . now. a usually travels b used to travel c is used to travelling 3 They both .......................... golf when they were boys. a usually play bused to play c are used to playing

Grammar summary

4 Lizzie at her new college. a usually studies b used to study c is getting used to studying S Jessica ........................... to her co-director every day. a usually speaks b is used to speak c is getting used to speaking 6 John . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . different food since he went to Thailand last week. a used to b is used to trying c is getting used to trying 7 Petra's worked here for years, so she . . early. a used to get up b is used to getting up c is getting used to getting up 8 My brother very late on Saturday nights. a usually stays out bis used to staying out c is getting used to staying out

UNIT 11 could, was able to, manage to and succeed in Form Negative

Interrogative

could+ infi nitive (without to)

I/you/he/she/it/we/ they couldn't do

could I/you/he/she/ it/we/they do?

+ infinitive

I/he/she/it wasn't able to do

was I/he/she/it able to do?

I/he/she/it was able to do

you/we/they weren't able to do

we re you/we/they able to do?

I/yo u/he/she/it/ we/they didn't manage to finish

did I/you/he/she/it/ we/they manage to finish?

I/you/he/she/it/ we/they didn't succeed in making

did I/you/he/she/it/ we/they succeed in making ?

I/you/he/she/it/we/ they could do

you/we/they were able to do manage+ to+ infinitive I/you/he/she/it/we/ they managed to finish succeed in + -ing I/you/he/she/it/we/ they succeeded in making

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We can use both couldn 't and wasn't /weren 't able to to talk about not succeeding in a particular task or activity. They weren't able to finish the journey. He couldn't find the herbal medicine he was looking for. We use manage to+ infinitive and succeed in+ -ing to talk about success (or lack of success) in a particular task or activity, but not to talk about general ability. He fin ally managed to publish his book after trying six different companies. Did she manage to get that scholarship in the end ? After some time, Marco succeeded in raising enough money fo r his trip. Unfortunately, Sue didn't succeed in getting the job she wanted. We often use expressions such as finally and in the end with manage to and succeed in to emphasise that the activity was an effort. I finally managed to pass my exams. In the end, I succeeded in becoming a doctor.

Practice 1 Look at the sentences (a and b) and choose the best option.

Affirmative

was/were able + to

We also use was I were able to to talk about success in a particular task or activity. She was able to find the quickest route im mediately. Were they able to take their exams in the end?

~ Did you manage to find out about the Mexican

cure for blisters? lb Could you find out about the Mexican cure for blisters? 2a In the past people didn't succeed in accessing as much information about plants as they can today. 2b In the past people weren't able to access as much information about plants as they can today. 3a A recent survey found that most people in the UK weren't able to identify common plants. 3a A recent survey found that most people in the UK didn't manage to identify common plants. 4a The medicine didn't always succeed in treating the illness. 4b The medicine couldn't treat the illness. Sa Sally didn't manage to publish her latest article. She submitted it too late. Sb Sally couldn't publish her latest article. She submitted it too late.

Use We use could and was I were able to to talk about a general ability to do something in the past. He could swim when he was three years old. He couldn't study much last month. I was the only one who was able to understand what he was talking about.

171

Grammar summary

Practice 2 Complete the second sentence so it has the sam e

Future in the past Form

m eaning as the first. Use the words in bold.

going to: See page 159 about to+ infinitive: See page 159 Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

would+ infinitive (w ithout to)

I sa id (that) I/you/ he/sh e/it/we/th ey wouldn't do

th ey as ked if I/yo u/ he/she/it/we/they would do

I/yo u/he/she/ it/ we/they wouldn't have made

would I/yo u/h e/ she/it/w e/they have made?

I/h e/s he/ it wasn't supposed to finish

was I/he/s he/ it supposed to finish?

I said (that) I/yo u/ he/she/ it/w e/they would do

would have + pa st participle I/you/he/sh e/it/w e/ th ey would have made

be supposed to + infinitive I/he/s he/it was supposed to finish yo u/we/t hey were supposed to finish

yo u/we/they weren't supposed to finish

were yo u/we/ they supposed to finish?

Use We use was I were going to to talk about the future in the p ast: • to talk about an intention w hich m ay or m ay not have been fulfilled. I'm sorry, Mike. I w as going to phone you, but then I was too busy. • to talk about a plan or arrangem ent w hich then changed . We were going to meet at 2.00 but didn 't arrive until 3.00. We use be about to to say that we were very close to doing som ething, but were prevented at the last m om ent. I was about to leave the house when the telephone rang. We use would to talk about the future in the p ast to rep ort what som ebod y said they would d o. Jane said that she w ould w ork that evening. He promised he w ould send me the report. We use would have to refer to a future action in the past w hich didn't happen . I w ould have bought it, but I didn't have enough money with me. We use supposed to to talk about actions w hich p eople should have done, but didn't. They w ere supposed to get here at eight o'clock! Where are they?

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1 H e planned to tell you, but he didn't see you . going He . . WC1?g(Ji71gJ(Jt€l/ ........ you, but he didn't see you . 2 'I'll work h arder next week.' would John said that he ....................................................... harder next week. 3 She intended to tell you, but she was too frightened to speak. would She _. . . . . you, but she was too frightened to sp eak. 4 Marilyn was going to bring enou gh foo d for everyone! Where is it? enough foo d supposed Marilyn for everyone! Wh ere is it? 5 They intended to start studying tom orrow, but then they went out instead. going They _ studying tomorrow, but then they went out instead . 6 H e wanted to say som ething, but then decided not to. about H e ............................................... something, but then decided n ot to. 7 Why didn't you ask her? She wanted to tell you. would She ............................................... you if you had asked her. 8 'I'll pass all my exams.' would Liz said that she . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. all her exams.

UNIT 12 Focus adverbs:

only, just, even, too,

also, as well Form only, just, even Only, just and even always come directly before the word they are emphasising.

Only/Just Dave knows how difficult it was for them to move. It is only/just two days since I saw him. A lot of people don 't even have enough savings to pay the rent for a month. too, also, as well • sentence + too:

We can invest in that company too . • sentence+ as well: We bought a new iPad as well. • Also + sentence: A lso , she runs a successful accountancy business. • also + m ain verb: Most people also want to plan for their future . • be+ also: He's good at tennis. He's also a good badminton player. • au xiliary verb + also+ m ain verb : They have also got three cars.

Grammar summary

Use

Use

We use focus adverbs to emphasise a particular piece of information. Sentences which include focus adverbs can all exist as complete sentences without the adverbs in them. Only and just focus on one particular thing to the exclusion of all others. Only/Just she and I know her secret. It's only/just banks that accept travellers cheques. He packed only/just a toothbrush and one change of clothes.

We use have I get something done to explain that we asked someone to do something for us but we don't say who. We often pay for the work. She has her house cleaned by a cleaning company. We get our car sen1iced every six months at the local garage.

We use even to shm·v that we think something is unusual or surprising. The question was so easy that even Bill knew the answer. Even football doesn 't interest him any more. We use also, as well and too to emphasise an additional piece of information in a sentence. Also comes before most verbs, but after the verb to be, or at the beginning of a sentence. As well and too come after the verb (and the object if there is one) . He likes outdoor sports, but also enjoys playing chess. He likes outdoor sports, but enjoys playing chess, as well/ too.

Practice

1 Choose the correct option. 1 I(onlv) I too heard about his financial situation yesterday. 2 Did you want to go to the stock exchange even I too? 3 He even I too asked the accountant about it! 4 He usually goes to the bank on Thursdays even I as well. 5 They have only I as well got a few thousand pounds left. 6 The sum has just I even been deposited in your account. 7 The boys also I too wanted some of the money. 8 The recession is a big problem for us too I only.

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We use have someone do I get someone to do to explain that you have asked someone to do something for you. With these expressions, we say who does the job. otice that with get we use to + infinitive. With have we use the infinitive without to . I have a gardener mow the lawn. I get a window cleaner to clean the windows!

Practice 2 Write sentences using the prompts. Use causative



forms. 1 I I get I hair cut I yesterday Jg9U1!y)1(lfJ'.C:Ltfye.?te.1:ci(IJL 2 I I have I accountant I go over I my accounts I on Saturday

3 We I get I mortgage rate I fix I last week 4 She I get I neighbour I pay for I new fence I this afternoon 5 He I get I friend I open I an account I last summer 6 She I have I nev,1credit card I send out I this morning



Causative have and get Form have/get + something + past participle I had/got my car repaired last week. have + someone+ infinitive (without to) I had a gardena help me with the garden.

I

get + someone + to + infinitive I got a gardener to help me with the garden.

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Audioscripts

Unit 1

Ii 1.1 Speaker 1 It's a bit odd beca use I see him almost every day at work. He has a job in the marketing department on the 4th fl oor and m y office is on the 5th floor and occasionally, just occasionally, we' re asked to attend the same meetings. Umm ... it's strange seeing someone you're so close to in a different context. We've been married for seven years, and colleagues for longer than tha t, but we try not to discuss work when we' re at home with the rest of the fa mily . Speaker 2 We were such good mates at school and then we went travelling together, but we see each other very rarely now, because John lives in Birmingham with his wife and I still live in London. The funny thing is, it doesn' t matter how little we see each other - we' re still great fr iends. Actually, he never calls me - and every time I call him he says 'Oh, I've been meaning to call you for ages ', but I don' t mind Speaker 3 We get on very well as colleagues, but I never see him outside work. He's one of those people that can alwa ys make you laugh, w hich is rea lly important in a stressful work environment. He's very good at his job too and I'm always asking for help for things.

Ii 1.2 It's known that animals often co-opera te in their own social groups, helping each other to h unt or raise their young. Some highly intelligent anima ls, like elephants, go even further than this, and help other anima ls who are not in their own family group. But co-opera tion between anima ls of different species is unusual, so that's why the story of Suri ya, the orang-utan, has attracted a lot of interest. Suriya lives with his keepers at The Institute of Greatly Endangered and Rare Species in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, which is a kind of sanctuary for rare animals. Recently this orang-utan has made an unlikely fr iend in a local hound dog. Now most dogs avoid apes, because they are scared of them basically, but these two have formed a strong bond. Each day the dog comes into the compound and searches out Suriya. Wh en he finds him, they carry on like long lost friends, w restling and hugging and playing together. They've been doing this every day since they first met and their friendship has attracted the curiosity of millions of viewers on the Nntionnl Geographic Cha nnel. The fou nder of the institute, Dr Antle explains: 'It's clear they are having the time of their life. What is more striking is that Suriya has also understood that the hound dog is very hungry and so he regularly sha res his monkey biscuits w ith him. Oran g-utans are very generous creatures. If you give one a piece of candy, often they will break it in half and hand one piece back to you.' So how does he explain the fac t that their relationship has a lot of the cha racteristics of w hat we call ' friendship '? Antle says that the two anima ls are fulfilling a basic social need in each other that perhaps we don ' t normally associate with animals. 'It's a relationship with attributes of fun and interaction that they are not getting from anyone else'.

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Ii 1.3 There are many children like Bella in China. They admire western brand s. They have been spoiled a li ttle perhaps by their parents. Often these children receive a better education than their parents. They are sent to private schools and are encouraged to go to university. In China everyone's hopes and aspirations are being raised by the new economy.

Ii 1.4

G = Greta; T = Tim G: Tim, hello. Fancy bumping into you here. How a re you? T: Oh hi Greta. Yeah, I'm doing fine, thanks. Wow, what a surprise . G: It's been ages . What have you been up to? T: I know. It's been fa r too long. Umm ... I've been working abroad for the last eighteen months. G: Anywhere exciting? T: Yes, in India, actually. I had a contract with the British CowKil, doing some teacher training.

G: Well, it obviously suits you: you' re looking very tanned and relaxed. T: Oh, thanks, it's been a lot of fun. And you? You're looking well too. How are things? G: Oh you know, busy as ever. I've been comp letely snowed under w ith work the last few months, trying to get my online shoe shop business off the ground. T: ls it going OK? G: Well, you know. It has its ups and downs. But we're getting there. T: And w hat about Amanda? Do you see much of her? G: Yeah, we still get together now and then. She was asking after you the other day, actua lly. T: Oh. Well I p robably won' t ha ve time to look her up this time. I'm only back for a week. But do give her m y regards. G: I w ill. T: And the next time I'm back, perhaps we can all meet and catch up. G: Yeah, that'd be great. How long will you be gone for? T: I've just got to do another tvm months over there. Then I'll be back in the UK for a while, I hope. G: OK. Well give me a ca ll when you're back. You've got my number, haven' t you? T: Yes, if it's sti ll the same one. G: Yeah, it is. I' ll look forw ard to that. Is Sarah going out there with you? T: She has been with me, but umm ... she's sta ying back this time. G: Oh. Well, say hello to her from me .. . er . Look, I don' t mean to be rude, but I need to get back to work - but it was really nice to see you. H ope the trip goes well. T: Thanks. Yeah I've got to rush too . An yway, great to see you too, Greta. Take care .. and see you soon. Good luck with the business.

Unit 2

'ii 1.6 A: Have you seen the film Sennn? B: No, I read a biography of him a few years back. I've heard the film 's really good. What did you think? A: I thought it was fantas tic. It's a documentary essentially, but unlike most documentaries there's no narrator. It just tells the story of his life through archive footage. Actually, I'm not a huge fan of Formula One so I wasn' t really expecting to enjoy it, but it's really grippin g.

B: Oh, so it didn' t really give an y opinion on whether Senna really believed he was superior to every other driver or whether he acted unfairly sometimes .. A: o, not at all ... it leaves you to make up your own mind about him completely. A lot of the film focusses on his driving career, from his early wins to his dea th in a crash in tunmm 1994, I think it was. For much of it, he had this big rivalry w ith the French driver Alain Prost and they took each other off the track at critical times. But the film doesn' t say who was right or wrong ... although in the end you come down on Senna's side . B: Well, you say it's objective, but of course the viewer 's opinion can be manipu lated by the director ... just in the way he chooses to edit the film. A: Yes, no, I suppose that's true ... but it's not a sentimental film . Perhaps you feel sympathetic towards Senna, 'cos he seemed like a nice guy - ummm ... he did a lot of charity work in his native Brazil - but it fe lt very fair and impartial . B: Well, that's very different from the biography I read. The writer made his opinion very clear. He was very biased against Alain Prost and took every opportunity to tell you so. A: Was it good otherwise? B: Well, quite good but rather repetitive and not very well written. But there were a fe w good anecdotes in it. There are better biographies out there, I' m told.

Ii 1.7 P = Presenter; M = Mark Mowlam P: Take a bestselling book, a great storyline and add a great cast, an experienced d irector and a large filming budget. And what do you get? A box office success, you would think. Think aga in. There's no guarantee that a book tha t has enjoyed great success will make a good film. Some film adaptations have worked, others ha ve flopped. So what' s the secret? That was the question I put earlier to fi lm critic Mark Mow lam, who's fo llowed the progress of many book-to-film adaptations in his time and has recently reported on the making of Tolkien 's The Hobbit. M: Well, the goal is really to make a good film that remains true to the spirit of the book. There are many examples of adaptations which have failed because th ey tried to remain too faithful to the plot and the characters of the book. Probably because at the time the producers worried that they'd alienate loyal readers if they departed too much from the original text. But in fact that's a mistake: wha t works well on the page doesn't necessarily work well on screen; you ha ve to give the screenwriter freedom to create a script that flows, even if that means changing the original. So what we fin d is a lot of good films - Sense nnd Sensibility, The Shining, for examp le - that are completely unlike the origina l book. And readers are generally OK about this beca use they think of book and film as two separate works of art. But there are fi lms that have managed to stay true to the book and still be good films. What they've done - a bit like in cooking, I suppose - is to put in all the book's good ingredients and then boil them down to a concentra ted mixture that's packed w ith the flavour of the original work. Probab ly the best example of this is Tlze Lord of the Rings trilogy by Peter Jackson. The central theme of the book - which is a struggle betw een the forces of good and evil - perhaps wasn' t so difficult to

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Audioscripts

portray, but J.R.R. Tolkien created a very original other world and reproducing that was a much more difficult task, because each reader has their own very distinct idea of what this world was like. I think Jackson did a fantastic job, using the spectacular scenery of New Zealand for the film 's location. The other thing about the The Lord of the Rings is that it's a very substantial work - three books each containing over twenty long chapters - so Jackson had to leave some elements of the story out. To compensate for this, he took the most important scenes and then put all the emotional force behind these. The result is that it has become one of the most successful films of all time, a blockbuster that has grossed almost $3 billion.

'i 1.10 Steve Winter and Douglas Chadwick, w ho were working in Kaziranga National Park, had three close encounters with rhinos all on the same day. Before entering the park, their guide had told them not to be afraid, so they weren't especially worried, but clearly the incidents shocked them. They knew that filming in the park was dangerous work, but they hadn 't been expecting to meet danger quite so soon or so frequently. But it didn 't stop them carrying on!

~ 1.12 I was mow1tain-biking with a frie nd in Wales

and we'd just finished a long off-road climb out of the Dysynni Valley. It had been raining earlier but now the sun was shining and we were feeling quite warm. Since the rest of the route was downhill on tarmac roads, I took off my bike helmet and set off. Suddenly the road became very steep and the bike picked up speed quickly. There was a turn ahead in the road and I knew I was going to crash. The bike went straight into a wa ll, but luckily I flew over it and landed in a field of long grass. Mr Charles Everson and his wife Linda were driving home from church one Sunday when a cow feLI from the sky and landed on the bonnet of their van. The cow, which had escaped from a breeding farm, had been grazing too close to the edge of a cliff next to the road and had slipped and plunged 200ft. When the emergency services arrived at the scene they found the cow dead and Mr and Mrs Everson in shock.

~ 1.13 Con versation 1 A: The bus broke down on the motorwa y, so we were aLI left stranded until help could arrive. B: What did you do? A: Luckily another bus came w ithin about 15 minutes and we all transferred to that one. B: That must have been a relief. Conversation 2 A: My trousers got caught on the door handle and as I walked away they tore. B: Oh, that's awful. A: Yes, I had to walk right across the restaurant back to our table with m y hands over the hole. B: How embarrassing! Conversation 3 A: I bent the key trying to force it into the door lock and when I tried to straighten the key it snapped. B: How did you get in? A: I went to the neighbours', but they weren' t at home. So I just had to wait 'til someone came home. B: Yeah, a simi lar thing happened to me once.

Conversation 4 A: The lift got stuck between floors 25 storeys up and hvo of the occupants were completely panic-stricken. B: What a nightmare' A: It was. Then the lights in the lift went off and one of them started screaming. B: Yeah I think I would have done the same thing. Conversation 5 A: The tyres on m y bicycle were bad ly worn and when I hit a bump in the road one of them burst. B: Poor you! A: Well, I came off and cut my hand. Thank goodness there were no cars behind me. B: That was lucky. Conversation 6 A: My computer froze without any reason while I was working. B: Really? How strange' A: Yeah, I thought I'd lost about four hours' work, but I when I rebooted the computer I searched for some of the key words in my document and I found a temporary file which had most of the document in it. B: That was good thinking.

Unit 3

'i 1.16 1

I expect that most of my generation will live to be around a hundred years old. There are already 12,000 people in the UK aged over a hundred and it's predicted that by the year 2060 that number will have risen to about one million. 2

I think people will be interacting with intelligent machines even more than they do now. I read this article about things called clrntbots which are programs that can hold intelligent conversations with people in chat rooms on the Internet. These programmes already exist. 3 I don' t think global warming is going to be the problem that everyone says it is. By the middle of this century I think humans will have discovered ways to control the weather. If you think about it, the benefits, commercial and otherw ise, are so great - for agriculture, for stopping natural disasters and so on - that it's only a matter of time before someone works out a way.

' i 1.17 Hello everyone . . one moment, I'll just adjust m y microphone ... OK, that's better. I can see a lot of hopeful-looking faces out there. I'm speaking to a government committee tomorrow and I hope they look as bright-eyed as you do ... Let me just say that I'm afraid that those of you who have come looking for immediate answers to overpopulation are going to be disappointed, but I hope I can at least give you some cause for optimism. I' m not going to speak for too long because I'd like to hear what you have to say too, but let me teLI you first how I see the situation .. In 1798 an English economist, Thomas Malthus, claimed that the population always grows faster than the food supply, until war, disease or famine arri ve to reduce the number of people. A century and a half later in 1968, Paul Ehrlich wrote in his book The Pop11 /atio11 Bomb that medical science was keeping too many people alive and that we had failed to control the birth rate. He predicted that as a result hw1dreds of millions of people would soon starve to death.

But his bomb was a dud. Yes, med ical science has extended life expectancy and the population carries on growing: around seven billion today and it will probably peak at arolmd nine billion by 2050. But mass starvation? It hasn' t happened. Why? Because science stepped in with better seeds and better pesticides to boost food production and it's about to step in again with nanotechnology, which will in turn help us to engineer safer and cheaper foods . So w hat about overpopulation? Let me give you a fact: if in 2045 there are nine biLlion people in the world, the population density will still only be half that of France today. And no one complains about overcrowding there: France is the world 's favourite holiday destination' Some of the new megacities of Asia might not be such pleasant places to live . but the problem is not just the number of people. The problem is how people consume resources. By 2030 more than a billion people in the developing world will belong to the 'global middle class'. That's a good thing. But it will be a bad thing for the planet if those people start eating meat and driving big cars every day. Some, ultra-cautious, people say we should bring in wartime emergency measures to conserve resources. I don' t think that's the answer, but then I'm a scientist at heart even if I'm semi-retired now. For me the answer lies in i..tmovations like biofuels and other alternative energy sources . I' Li talk about these specific solutions in the second part of my talk but let's just go back to Malthus for a moment. People, he argued, are basically lazy. They won 't do anything Lmless they are forced to by necessity. But what he didn' t take into account is that faced with d isaster people are not lazy. Mankind and science will rise to the challenge ... that is my sincere belief ... Oh, by the way, one more thing: the necessity train arrives i..t1 half an hour.

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ti 1.21 World leaders are meeting i..t1 Geneva tomorrow to discuss the issue of overpopulation. 2 In the next few weeks, the government is going to introduce a fee for each child that couples have after their first two children. 3 Scientists sa y that space colonies will be the only solution for overpopulation in the medium term. 4 Doctors have said that in future they are not going to spend so much effort keepi..t1g the old alive. 5 The government will launch a new education programme later today to encourage women to have fewer children. 6 People will have to change their lifestyles if they want the w orld's resources to support the grow ing population in the coming years.

1

~ 1.22 B = Ben; S = Soph ie

B: Can you give me a hand? I'm having trouble making this map. S: Hang on. I'm just finishi..t1g a letter. I'll be with you in a second .... OK. What do you want to do exactly? B: I' m just making some directions for some friends w ho are staying in our house next week . I'm tryi..t1g to paste this map into a Word document. S: Are you going to email it to them? Because if so, you could just email them the li..t1k to the map.

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Audioscripts

B:

S: B: S: B: S:

B: S: B: S:

lo, I'm going to print it out and give it to them when they get here, because we're going away ... The trouble is it won' t allow me to copy it. Let me have a look. Oh, I see ... Oh, it's a Google map; you can't select and copy them, I'm afraid. Oh ... what shall I do then? Well, you've got two possibilities. You can either take a screen shot . What's tha t? Here I'll show you. Just press alt print screen like this, then open a new Word document and paste it in. That should do the trick. Oh, I see, but it' s come out ,·ery small. That's going to be too d ifficult for them to read. What else do you suggest? Have you tried looking for a different map? lf you do a search, you might find one that you can copy. OK ... I'll give that a try. Thanks ... Feel free to ask me again if that doesn' t work.

Unit 4

Ii 1.24 A: People are never quite what you expect, are they? There's a teacher that I work with who's really quite a shy person ... never expresses a strong view or imposes herself in a group. I worked with her for abou t a year before I foLmd out that every weekend she becomes a street performer. B: What kind of street performer? A: Weil, she turns out to be some klnd of acrobat. She was brought up in a circus and she sti ll gets together at weekends with friends and puts on shows of circus skills with them in public places, like a busy shopping street on a Saturday afternoon. She doesn' t do it for money - just for fun. But it's not w hat you imagine her doing when you meet her .. B: That sounds a bit like my neighbour. He works for a firm of accountants, wa tches a lot of sport, but in his free time he writes poetry. I don' t think many people have read it, because he's rather private, but he showed me a poem a whil e ago that he wrote w hen his little boy was sick in hospital and it was absolutely beautiful .

Ii 1.25 'Nature has done everything for Sydney, man nothing; man has done everything fo r Melbourne, nature nothing,' a visitor to Australia once noted. Herein lies the essential difference between Australia's two largest cities. Melbourne is Australia's second city, but it has plenty of first-class qualities, from a buzzing arts scene to its enormous range of restaurants. It may have a few grey days, and a mudd y river instead of a beautiful harbour, but don't let that worry you. The lack of natural attractions has meant that Melbourne has had to crea te its own man-made pleasures ... and in doing so it has become Australia's cultural capital. Theatre, music, street sculpture, fashion - in fact, there are hardly any forms of artistic expression which you can' t find here - ail thrive, alongside a cosmopolitan mix of cafes, restaurants and pubs. What's great about Melbourne for the visitor is how accessible all these arts are. As well as traditional museums and galleries like the ational Gallery of Victoria and concert halls, like Hamer H all, there are an enormous number of smaller art spaces and venues whi ch cater for every kind of taste. Art is not something for a small minority. In fact, for

176

most inhabitants of Melbourne a weekly visit to the cinema or an art exhibition is a routine event. Several festivals take place during the winter months including the International Film Festival in Jul y and the Fringe Festival in September which has loads of interesting (even if not always that good!) comed y, dance and theatre acts. If the locals appreciate their art, they absolutely love their sport. Lots of people around the world will know the Australian Formula One Grand Prix and the Australian Open Tennis, which attracts over half a mi.Iii.on spectators to Melbourne in a carn..i,·al atmosphere, but few people will be familiar with the sports Melburnians themselves follow. Australian rules football and cricket enjoy a huge amount of support and, if you have enough time, a visit to see either is well worth it just for the atmosphere. If you' re looking to partic ipate rather than just watch, why not try a bit of surfing or swimming? Cycling, jogging or a vi.sit to one of \llelbourne' s many gyms are other possibilities. All this information is on our website at tiletrnvelsilow.org so do have a look if .

~ 1.27 I = Interviewer; W = Will I : OK, Will, I'm going to fire some statements

at you about what various people say art should be and I want to know which of these you agree with. OK? W: Er ... OK ... but I'm already a bit suspicious, because I don ' t actuall y think that 'should ' has a lot to do with it. Peop le have a very fixed idea about what art 'should ' be - a certain kind of portra it or landscape very often ... but, anyway, anyw ay, I'll play the game, so ... let's hear what they say ... I: Good, here's the first one then ... Art s'1011/d be something pleasing for the viewer. W: Mnun no, not necessarily - the artist's intention might be to make you feel uncomfortable, not to give you a warm feeling. I: OK. What about th is, then? ... Art s'1011/d i1 wolve effort 0 11 tile part of tile artist. W: OK that's more interesting, but still the answer is 'not necessarily' - Monet did some of his paintings in fi ve minutes. I : Did he? I didn 't know that. That's amazing ... well, that ti.es in with the next one, perhaps. Art s/1011/d in volve tec/111icn/ skill. W: Ununm ... I can think of quite a lot of examples of successful art that wasn' t technically difficult, but was just based on a clever idea. I: OK ... A rt s'1011/d have a social message or make a political poin t. W: No, certainl y not. Is the 1ona Lisa political? I don' t think so. Look, .. . an artist's role is si mply to present an idea in a visual form. The viewer's role is to give that effort their time and a ttention and then they can say either 'Yes, I rea lly like that', or ... 'That moves me', or ' lo, I'm afraid that doesn' t do anything for me.'

~ 1.28 J =Jake; T = Tom

J:

Hey, Torn, how was Tile Lion Ki ng? T: I loved it ... I'm not generally a fan of musicals .. . J: No, me neither ... I never feel particularly inspired by the music in them ... which should rea lly be the whole point of them . with a few exceptions perhaps ... like West Side Story or Grease which have fantastic music ... So what was so good about it?

T: Well, visuall y it's absolutely shmning, the opening scene particularly. All the animals - giraffes, wildebeest, zebra, antelope congregate on the stage to set the scene, which is the plains of the Serengeti where the story takes place. And they're in these fabulous costumes: they' re difficult to describe but the effect is that they actually seem to move like real animals. Everyone in the audience was speUboLmd . J: But is the story the same as in the Disney filin? I remember there were a couple of rather annoying characters in the filin, like that bird, who's supposed to be there for comic effect, well at least I think it is, but actually after a while they begin to annoy you. T: You mean Zazu. Yeah, I know what you mean about that kind of Disney character often they can get on your nerves - but this production's different. It ach1ally seems much more ad ult than the film ... It's very well-done. I found the story rea lly moving. J: Mmm ... and what about the music? T: It's essen tially the same score as the film - I think Elton John w rote most of it, but it's all based on African rhythms and vocals J: Doesn ' t really sound like my kind of thing. T: Oh ... well, I've got a lot of time for Elton John. I think he catches the mood of this really well. Have you heard Circle of Life? J: Er ... no, 1 don 't think so. T: Well, I'm not going to sing it ... anyway I reall y recommend it. It's not cheap to go but if you get a chance you should. I can't bear the high prices they charge for musicals these days, but actually I didn' t mind for this one ... it was worth it.

Unit 5

~ 1.31 Speaker 1 It's always been our dream to have our own place in the countryside which is selfsufficient. So recently we decided to buy a small piece of land in the hills. We' re going to build a home out of natural materials and try to generate our own electricity using wind and solar power so that we won't need to buy in any extra electricity from outside. Speaker 2 At the moment a lot of stud ents use their own cars to get to the uni versity which is four miles outside the city and not served by regular public transport. So we hope that this new rai l link with trains running every hall an hour will help reduce traffic congestion around the un iversity a nd also reduce pollution. Speaker 3 I think this is the first mobile device to offer simulta neous translation. It listens to the speaker and then displays a translation of what they are saying directly onto the screen - absolutely incredible. It wi ll transform communication between people spea king different languages.

~ 1.32 There used to be a lovely residential area right in the city centre, but, in the 1960s the local authority decided to redevelop it as a shopping district. This involved demolishing all the houses and making way for huge car parks so that shoppers from out of town could park their cars. What's strange is that no one really considered opposing the idea at the time. Even the residen ts seemed to accept that the area had to be modernised. If you proposed con verting houses into shops on such a big scale today, I don't th.ink you would be allowed to do it.

Audioscripts

A n yvvay, the result vvas that they spoilt the

cha racter of the centre. People shopped there in the daytime bu t at night everyone avoided going there because it became a centre for drug dealing and crime. Now, 50 years later, the loca l authority wan ts to transform it into a mixed area aga in by bu ilding new homes. The trouble is that rents are so high that ordinary peop le, like the ones who were moved out originally, can ' t afford to live there anymore.

Ii 1.33 I = Interviewer; J = Journali st I: I know you like exotic places - have you tried visiting India? J: I was just there actu ally - in Kerala in the south-west. I was intending to go on to tour other pa rts of India, but Kerala was so fasc inating I stayed on I: Were you on holiday? J: No .. well, it was mean t to be a holiday, but actually it turned into more than that

I: Oh dear. Oh, no. I don' t regret changing my plans ... I became so interested in the place that I started to write an article about it for the newspaper I work for . I: Really? Is it a travel article? J: Not really. It's more sociological, I guess. I'm trying to show w hat a remarkable place Kera la is in the developing world . You see, it's a small state with a big population and the average income is only about 5300 a year. Usually that would mean peop le ha ving a fairly poor quality of life, but that's not the case. In fac t Kera la stand s out as a kind of model of social development. The population is highly literate and well-educated and they seem quite well-off, compared to other parts of India. They' re healthy and live almost as long as Americans or Europeans; it seems that infant mortality is also

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always traditionally been the head of the household, continue to be very active (and equal) participants in society. I: Mnun ... that's really interesting. I remember going there with my wife in the 1990s. But we were just tourists and my memories of it are as a very tranquil and beautiful place, with gorgeous beaches and lagoons .. J: Well, of course that's the part of it that tourists like to spend time visiting. But tranquil is not necessarily the adjective I would use. Triva..ndrum, the main city, where we stopped to visit an Indian journalist I know - a highly cultured man, by the way - is absolutely hectic. The people there are very poli tica lly engaged: they never stop debating; there a re often strikes on the buses or parades of demonstrators - some medica l students started protesting when we "vere there and went on protesting for four days. I: So why do you think it's such a successful society? J: Well, there are essentially two reasons, I think. The first is that the Keralites are natura lly tolerant people: you find Hindus, Muslims and Christia ns all living peacefully alongside each other and foreigners are trea ted no d ifferently to anyone else. And secondly, the govenu11ent has invested a lot in health and ed ucation and goes on investing a lot. The land is incredibly fertile and well-organised sma ll farmers cultiva te every inch of it so none is wasted, which I regret to say is not al ways the case in some developing countries.

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SoLmds fasc inating. Please remember to send me a copy of the article when it's published. J: Of course I w ill.

night feeling chilly, even in the special mi.nus 40 degree sleeping bags you are given. I guess it's a bit like high class camping, if you like that kind of thing.

tj 1.35

~ 1.37

P = Patrick; A = Anna; I = Isabelle P: OK, Anna, I believe you've prepared a brief summary of the Howard Park project . [A.Ima: Yup]. Would you just like to take us through the main points? A: Yes, sure. Well, the Howard Park project began two years ago. We agreed to lend the local authority £750,000 to redevelop a green space in the Howard's Hill area of the city. The aim was to give the local residents a nicer park, firs t of all, but also some new recreation facilities: a mini-golf course, hvo tennis courts, a sma ll cafe and a new children's play area. The play a rea was in terrible condition ... full of rubbish . it was actually quite dangerous. So here we are two years on: wha t progress have they made? Well, they've done a good job of cleaning the area up : they've plan ted trees and laid new grass, so it looks much, much better. They've also built the cafe and the children 's play area. However, they've also done some things that weren't part of the origin al plan. For example, they've built a fountain near the cafe and six months ago they also bought a sculpture, a t a cost of £80,000 to place near the foLmtain. Now they've run out of money and are asking for a new loan of £250,000 to complete the tennis courts and mini-golf course. What do you think? I: If you ask me, that's completely wrong. They've been spending money on things they had no right to. I don' t think we should give them another pe1rny. P: Well hang on a minute. Let's not be too hasty. I agree that they should have told us about these other changes. But we need to consider if they are in the spirit of the original aims of the project . A: That really depend s on the opinion of the local residents. The way I see it, it's probably a good thing - if residents like it and it means they' ll use the park more. I: Well, I just find it arrogant of them, actually . P: OK ... so what ought we to do? Persona lly, I don' t think we should lend them any more until we know what local people think of the work they've done already. A: Yes, I'd go along w ith that. We need to ask them to conduct a survey of local opinion and then show us the results. P: Exactly. Are we all agreed on that then? I: Yes, I guess so ... yes, that seems fair to me.

P = Presenter; K = Katie Samuel P: ... Now, have you ever though t of doing a

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Unit 6

~ 1.36 I onl y get three weeks' holiday a year so I always choose the places I go to carefu lly. I try to go to places with dramatic scenery . and unusual places. It can take time to get to these, but it's generally worth it. I' ve visited a few ice hotels in my time in Scandinavia, but Hotel de Glace is something special. It's a rea l work of art. The furniture and fittings are all made of ice - there's even an ice chandelier in the lobby - and the walls are decorated with pictures carved out of the snow. Once the sun goes down and all the coloured lighting is switched on, the effect is stunning. But .. there is a but, I'm afraid - as a place to get a comfortable night, I'm not sure I'd reconrn1end it. I know it sOLmds obvious, but the place is rea l.ly cold . Unless you ha ve a sauna before going to bed, you' ll probably wa ke up in the

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bit of building work during yo ur holidays? Or helping to look after animals on a w ild life reserve? You probably thought that sort of vacation was for eighteen yea r olds on their gap year, didn' t you? But it seems more and more working adults are opting for volunteer vacations. With us today is Katie Samuel, author of Good Travel, a guide to alternative holidays . Katie, I can see that this might attract a few people, but for most of us, who on ly get a few weeks off a year ... wou ldn't they prefer a more relaxing option? Well, that depends very much on how your volw1teer vaca tion is orga nised . The good companies in this field a re certainly conscious of the fact that this should be a rewa rding tra vel experience .. and not just a work trip. But isn ' t the whole point of it to go and lend a hand to people in need of help? It's not really a holiday as we know it, is it? Well, no, perhaps it isn' t, but it is more like what real tra vel should be about: a cultural experience where each side gives something and takes something. A good example is a programme next to Kenya's Tsavo National Park, where volunteers help loca l people to find ways of making a li ving that don' t involve poaching or killing local wildlife. So they help them to plant crops, build fe nces, develop ideas for tourist businesses and so on. In return the locals take them for bush walks, which are Like mini-safaris, teach them about local w ildlife, talk about the history of their community . But the volunteers pay for the trip, don' t they? Yes: of course, they have to pay for their airfares, their living expenses and something to cover the organisation costs. And do you need to be qua lified to volunteer? I imagine organisations don' t want peop le turning up to teach or build or whatever who have no idea of what they're doing, do they? Again it depends . . There are a few projects which are only open to people with professional experience ... um ... like people with a medical background ... but for the most part, volunteers can be trained to do the work . The Cultural Restoration Tourism Project (CRTP), which helps to restore cultural heritage sites around the world, gives volunteers the chance to work with local architects and artists. They have a project restoring a 300-yea r-old monastery in Nepal where you can get training in doing wall paintin gs from a world-famous painter. So, you could actually come back with a skill you didn' t have when you left? Absolutely. It might not be a skill you' ll ever use again: helping to bottle-feed milk to orphaned lion cubs - that's a project in Zambia - is unlikely to be of direct use to you back at the office in the UK, but we all benefit from new and different experiences, wou ldn' t you agree? Yeah, I'm sure that's true. So could you tell us a bit more about .

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'i 1.40 M = Mi ke; J =J eff M: Hi, I'm interested in helping out on the Great Continental Divide this sunu11er. My friend did four days last summer. I can work for just a fe w days, can 't I? J: Absolutely. Anything from two days to two months. M: That's great. I ha ve about a week in June. How much does it cost to take part? J: It's free. M: Sorry? Don 't I have to pay for my accommodation? J: o, it's completely free. You just ha ve to register by filling out a form and sending it to us. M: I can' t do that online, can I? J: Sure, you can. It' s on our website. You 've visited our website, haven' t you? M: Yes, I've had a quick look. And where on the trail can I work? J: New Mexico, Montana, Wyoming. M: Don 't you have something in Colorado? That's where I li ve. J: Yes, we do. We ha ve spaces in Winfield and a few in Mount Elbert. M: And you gi ve training first, don' t you? J: It's on the job training, unless it's very specific. We' re looking for a chef at the moment. You don't want to be a chef, do you? M: o. I just want to help bui ld some trails

Ii 1.41 M = Malcolm; P = Paul M: Hi Pau l, this is Malcolm, your host. You emailed me about staying next Thursday for a couple of nights. P: Oh hi, hi Malcolm. Thanks for getting back to me. Is that still OK? M: No, that's all fine. I just thought I'd give you a call to explain how to get here, because it's a bit complicated. How are you getting to Hamilton, first of all? P: I'm coming in by train sometime in the afternoon. M: OK. I wanted to pick you up, but my car 's at the garage that day. P: Hey, that's kind of you, but I can make my O\V n

V\'ay.

M: OK. Well I'm at work ' til about fi ve thirty so feel free to come over any time after six. P: That sounds perfect. And how do I get to you from the town centre? M: Well you could just get a taxi, but it's about eleven kilometres from the centre, so it won 't be cheap. Alternatively, you can hop on a bus to Stoney Creek. Look out for the Stoney Creek Arena on your right and get off there. It's only a twenty-minute ride. From there, Cherry Heights is another fifteen minutes on foot, straight up King St. Once you reach the crossroads at Gray Road, the easiest thing is to give me a ca ll and I'll come out and meet you. P: So bus to Stoney Creek, walk up King St to Cherry Heights and call from there? M: Yup. Call w hen you get to the crossroads at Gray Road. P: OK, got it. That sounds great. If I get held up in any way I'll let you know, but otherwise expect a call arow1d six thirty. M: Great. See you next Thursda y then. Bye P: Bye.

Unit 7

Ii 2.1 ... so if you always keep these three things in mind, it's actually quite simple to make a difference to your own persona l consumption of natural resources. N umber one and most important is reduce. In other words, try to

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buy and use fewer goods. In the UK we throw awa y a third of the food we buy. If we only bought the food we really needed, this wouldn' t happen. Umm ... try to reduce the energy you use too, for example sw itching the lights off when you leave the room or umm ... walking somewhere instead of taking the car. The second thing is to reuse. Mend things that are broken. Think how you can reuse old things, such as those old jeans you threw out. If you hadn 't thrown them away, you could have worn them the next time there was some gardening or decorating to do. And lastly recycle. Only buy products that are made of recyclable materials: like glass bottles or certain plastics; and w hen you ha ve finished w ith them, take them to a recycling point. OK so that's three things to remember: reduce, reuse, recycle.

tj 2.2 Speaker 1 Liam fro m the United Kingdom I li ve in Manchester, which is probably one of the wettest places in the UK. If I had been brought up somewhere like Saharan Africa , where I had to walk miles each day just to fetch water, I'd ob viously be a lot more conscious of water conservation. But I'm afraid I don' t set a very good examp le - er ... I probably waste a lot - lea ving the tap rwmi.ng when I brush my teeth and so on. Clearly we're not going to nm out of water in the UK, but I know water conservation is important. If we all used less water, the water companies wouldn' t have to use so much energy treating water to make it clean. And of course that would be more environmenta lly-friend ly. Sp eaker 2 Gema! fro m the United Arab Emi rates I'm not saying the idea of desalination plants is wrong. If desalination methods d idn 't exist, this country would not have been able to develop in the way it has. Nowadays we use water in our homes more or less as we want to. But I don' t think we can continue like this. You see, the waste from the desalination process is a kind of brine w ith a dangerously high salt content ... which will eventually destroy life in the sea. I am interested in discovering farming techniques that use salt water. There are grasses and other types of p lant that can grow with sea water. If we were to use more of these, it would give our natura l fresh water springs a chance to recharge. Speaker 3 Dan iel fro m the United States Americans (and I'm as guilty as the rest) use water like there is no tomorrow. I think it's well-know n that the Colorado River doesn' t reach the sea anymore. If you had visited the area around the old delta in Mexico 100 years ago - rich wetlands, full of w ildlife - you'd be shocked to see it now. It's all dried up . a kind of salt flat. The reason is agriculture. The river has been dammed and diverted in various places along its route to irrigate fields and provide enough water for people living in the desert areas of Nevada and California. Unless we change the way we think about wa ter and stop wasting so much, the river w ill carry on getting smaller. Speaker 4 Carmen from Mexico My water needs are the same as most people's, I think: I ha ve a small vegetable garden; I have to wash myself and my clothes. I don' t have to save water, but I want to, you know. I collect rainwater for the garden, I fill a basin to wash in rather than rwmi.ng the tap, I wash my dishes every other day. But now governments are d iscussing big projects for transporting water from one part of the world to another

using huge pipes and tankers. I t!Unk if more people thought and acted li ke me, things would not have come to this point, you know.

'i 2.4 E = Erika; A = Andy; J = Jane; R = Ralph A: Erika, what do you think about all these people who say that there's no proof that clima te change is man-made? E: OK, I'll tell you my position. I don' t know if climate change is man-made and I'm not sure anyone can say for sure. Let me give you an example ... umn1 ... an analogy. Imagine you were losing your hair and I told you that some people had found that if they ate a banana every day it prevented hair loss. Even though you had no proof it w orked, you wou ld probably try eating a banana each day, wouldn' t you? Well, it's the same with global warming. We don't know that we're causing it, but some people sa y we might be with all the fossil fuels we burn. And I, for one, am happy to be a little more carefu l in how I pollute in case they're right. A: Mmm ... well, I don' t accept that. I used to believe in climate change, but the last few winters here in the UK have been much colder than normal. To be honest with you, I' d believe it more if I wasn't getting up in the morning and scraping ice off the inside of m y w indows rather than the outside. E: Yeah, but that's not the point, Andy, is it? You know, regional temperatures may be lower, but average globa l temperatures carry on rising. J: Mmm ... Look - there's no doubt that th e weather 's changing, but I don't believe it's a man-made problem. It's just part of a natural weather cycle. Yeah, I know you' ll say 'Oh, that's just your excuse to drive a big car and fl y to exotic places for your holidays', but actually that's not the reason. I don't believe it simply because no scientist has successfully proved it yet. R: We' re approaching this debate all wrong by saying 'it's a big environmental problem that we need to address'. Because it's not just an environmental problem. It's an economic problem, a socia l prob lem, even an ethical problem.

Unit 8

'i 2.7 N = Newsreader; M = M artha Cash N: And in China, hw1d reds of parents of firstyear students at the University of Wuhan ha ve been sleeping on the floor of the university's gym so that they can be near their children in their first anxious days at college. As Martha Cash, our Far East correspondent, reports. M: China's policy of urging families to have only one child has meant that parents, already ambitious for the success of their children, become even more intensely focussed on helping a single son or daughter to make it in the world. Going to tmiversity is of course seen as a necessary first step in this journey, but most Chinese fam ilies are not particularly well-off and they often make great sacrifices to support their children. So stayin g in a local hotel d uring their children's first days at college is not really an option. That was how, on a recent visi t to Wuhan in the centre of China, we witnessed this extraordinary scene: a mass adult sleep-in on the tmiversity gym floor. It seems odd to us in the West to find parents so involved in their children's education and lives when they are already adults, but as an expression of parental concern, you can' t help but be impressed by it.

Audioscripts

~ 2.8 And finally ... it was thought that the large blue butterfly was extinct in Britain, but it seems to have made a remarkable return. The large blue, which disappeared 30 years ago, is only found in certain fields. What these fields have in common is that their grass is very short, because rabbits, sheep and cows graze there. Originally it was believed that greedy butterfly hunters had killed off the large blue butterfly, but it is now agreed that changes in farming techniques were responsible for its decline. As a result of recent efforts to protect its natural habitat, it is estimated that around 20,000 of these beautiful creatures w ill be seen in the British countryside this summer. And finally, researchers believe they may have found a cure - or at least some relief - for the common cold. ln tests it was reported that people who started taking zinc at the first signs of a common cold got well sooner. There have been many previous studies into the effectiveness of zinc but they were inconclusive. The new study, involving over 1,000 people of various ages, found that on average people who took zinc supplements recovered from their colds one day earlier than those who took nothing. The effectiveness of zinc in preventing a cold in the first place was less certain, although it was sa id that those who took it regu larly suffered less serious symptoms than those who didn't. And finall y, believe it or not, eating chocolate might be good for you after all. In the past it was thought that eating sv;eets would result in tooth decay and putting on weight. But now it is claimed that a new chocolate bar, invented by the world's largest chocolate maker, can ach1ally slow the ageing process of your skin. The special chocolate contains antioxidants, which help hydrate the skin and fight wrinkles. The market for healthy foods has grown by over five per cent a year in recent years and it seems now that even the sellers of traditionally unl1ealthy snacks are trying to get in on the act. However, doctors have warned against rushing out to buy extra chocolate - good skin and chocolate are not generally natural partners, they say. And finall y, Costa Rica today has the honour of being named the world's happiest nation. According to the latest Happy Planet lndex, it is said that Costa Rica has the best balance of human well-being - that is to say, good health, a long life, low levels of poverty - and a low ecological footprint, in other words the amount of nah1ral resources it uses. 111 fact, Latin American countries took nine of the top ten places, while richer, so-called developed countries, like the US at number 74, were much further down in the list.

lj 2.10 J =Jess; P = Phil J: Hi Phil. Did all that noise in the street wake you up last night? • P: No, it didn't but then I' m a deep sleeper. What happened ? J: Well, I didn't see it myself but I heard that it was an argument behveen two car drivers and supposedly it got quite heated. P: Really?? Who told you about it? J: Tara at number 42. It seems that both drivers got out of their cars and started shouting at each other. She says they almost started fighting. P: Hmm ... well I'd take what Tara says w ith a pinch of salt if I were you. She tends to blow things out of proportion. J: No, I believe her actually - people do get very frustrated by not being able to pass each other on this street. Anyway, the police were called .

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The police? It wasn' t that serious, was it?

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But Tara says that they got out of their cars and started arguing. She reckons that if the police hadn ' t arrived there would have been a fight. Did the cars make contact? Jo ... they were just corning in opposite directions and they met where the street gets narrow and neither one would reverse to let the other pass. So they just stayed there, in the middle of the road, with neither one giving way. How childish. Yeah, it is rather. Someone said they'd seen one of the drivers before. Apparently he's a loca l politician. It wasn't Tara getting her facts mixed up again, \·Vas it? No it was Chris ... I think I'd take his word for it; he's not the type to spread gossip. So what did the police do about it? Well, according to Chris, they took them both away for q uestioning ... surprisingly

Unit 9

~ 2 . 13 Both the mahout and the elephant start their training at a young age. A mahout generally begins to learn his trade when he's about ten years old and is assigned a baby elephant to look after. He'll probably be paired with this elephant for the rest of his life. It's traditionally a family trade, with know ledge being passed down from one generation to another. There are no formal qualifications for the job, but extreme patience is required. An elephant will learn up to 65 commands in its life - depending on what work it's expected to do - and the mahout has to teach these. The mahout must also develop an intimate understanding of his elephant - something that only comes with time and experience - so that he knows when it's sick or unhappy. 111 this way he can get the best out of his elephant. It's a very physical job and extremely hard work. The elephant must be fed and bathed daily and watched so that it doesn' t run away.

"11 2.14 A: Do you know this photo? B: Of course. It's the first man on the Moon, Neil Armstrong. The guy who said 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. A: That's what everyone thinks, but ach1ally it's his fe llow astronaut, Buzz Aldrin. Neil Armstrong took the photo - you can see his reflection in Aldrin's visor. But you 're right. It was that mission: Apollo 11 in 1969.

B: Amazing to think that was over 40 years ago ... but wha t happened to Neil Armstrong after that? A: He probably toured the world getting paid huge amounts of money for public speaking at corporate dinners and official openings and that sort of thing.

'i 2.16 Q: Can you tell us something about the

Emerging Explorers programme? A: It's an award scheme set up by the National Geographic Society to encourage young adventurers, scientists, photographers and storytellers to continue their work and to realise their potential. Each year between eight and fifteen explorers, whose work is really outstanding, are selected and given money to help them continue their research and exploration.

Q: So Emerging Explorers are generally young

people, are they? A: Not necessarily. Emerging Explorers are generally people who are at an early stage of their careers. What they have in common is that they are all people who are pushing at the bow1daries of their field , whether that's exploring undiscovered deep water caves or wa tching the stars th.rough a telescope. Q: And how does National Geographic encourage them? A: Well, first of all National Geographic awards each one of them US $10,000, which is intended to go towards further research and exploration. Of course their profiles are also raised by the articles and news that appear in Nat ional Geographic. ln other words, the magazine is a place where other interested people can read about their

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Q: And what kind of field s do the wi1rners

come from? A: We have so many different types of explorer, chosen from fields as diverse as anthropology, space exploration, mountaineering and music. Q: You mentioned storytellers earlier. What did you mean by that, exactly? A: Well, there are all these people doing important work out there in the various fields that I have described. And that's great but it's also very important that everyone hears about this work. That's the skill of the storytellers, commw1icating with pictures and words important facts about the planet and life on the planet in a way that grabs everyone's attention. A really good example is Alexandra Cousteau, whose grandfather Jacques Coustea u was well-known for his films about marine life. She works as a conservationist, trying to persuade people to protect scarce resources like water. Alexandra, inspired by her grandfather 's success as a storyteller, is researching ways i.n which the environmental community can use new media - social networks, video games - to communicate its message.

t8

'i 2.17 S = Sarah; P = Phil

S: So, you' re 24 yea rs old, you graduated a year ago and you' re looking for work with a charity. What attracted you to Shelterbox? P: Well, I'm familiar with your work because I have a friend w ho volunteered for you last year - packing boxes - and I think it's a fantastic concept. But unun ... mainly I'm very keen on the idea of working abroad .. i.n different countries ... S: Mm, I see ... and what makes you think you'd be suited to that? I see you studied economics at Cambridge ... Don' t you think that's a rather different world? P: Yes, it's true that I specialised in economics but, achially, I'm good at coping with difficult environments. I spent three months helping to build a school in Chennai in l11dia last summer. And the year before that I trekked across the Mojave Desert. So I think I'd be suited to the work. S: OK - well .. . they're certainly not easy places to adapt to ... although in fact you'd also be spending a good part of the time here in the office doing paperwork. P: Yeah, that's also fine. I was expecting that. I have quite a lot of experience of sitting at a desk ... for my studies. What sort of paperwork is it? S: Well, each trip involves a lot of preparation and a certain amount of fo llow-up too . Keeping spreadsheets, writing reports. Are you OK doing that sort of thing?

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Yeah, I'm quite good with compu ters. I'm comfortable with all the usua l programs Excel, Word, some financial software . S: OK. There's just one thing that's worrying me though. You' re clearly a bright person and you have a good degree. How do I know that you won' t just do this job fo r a few months and then go and get a better paid job w ith a bank or consultancy business? P: That's a good question . It's actually what a lot of my friends from university have done but I'll tell you why that's not for me. Firstly, I'm really serious about wanting to help people in need. Secondl y, I think I need to become more knowledgeable about the world, before I use my economics degree to do something else .. . If you put your faith in me, I will be absolutely committed to doing the best job that I can ... for two or three years at least. P:

Unit 10

'i 2.20 Well a narrow view of this quotation is that you need to ha ve good manners or you w·on' t get far in life ... Good manners meaning the kind that we teach om children: you know the kind of thing - don ' t talk with your mouth full; don' t interrupt when grown-ups are speaking; don' t point or stare at people; don ' t slouch or chew gum; don' t wear clothes that are inappropriate or offensive; in a nutshell, be pol ite, well-beha ved and show courtesy to others. But I think what William of Wykeham reall y meant is that each soc iety creates its own code of behaviour and customs, and that is what makes peop le what they are. So each culture defin es itself by the way it behaves socially ho\v \.\'e eat, ho\v \Ve dress, hovv vve celebrate, ho,·v vve interact vv ith one another. In fact, the

different ways we all find of doing essentially the same things.

'i 2.21 I've seen this situation so many times in Mexico. What happens is children beg their pa rents for some sweets. At first the parent will say no. So then the child will pester and pester until the parent finally gives in - which they always do. It's against all the rules of paren ting. 2 I teach in a school in San Francisco where we have quite a lot of ethnic Chinese and Japanese kids. By and large they will do what you tell them. But the other kids wow - th ey are always misbehaving. You can tell them ten times to sit down before they do. 3 Where I live in India, it's common for young children to work. Kids still depend on their parents, but they have a different attitude to responsibility. Just as children in every cu lture p lay naturally, so children in India naturally assume responsibility for working and earning money. 1

Ii 2.22 Differe nt peop le's d iets rarely surprise me these days. We didn 't use to think so much about what we ate. But toda y, well ... we live in an age where people are just very conscious of their diets. A day hard ly ever passes without a story in th e news about a particular food that's good for your health or bad for you if you eat too much of it. So I was very interested to read a story the other da y about the diet of the Nochma ni tribe of the Nicobar Islands in the IJ1dian Ocean. Peop le used to think that these tiny islands which are about 600 miles from the coast of

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India - that they were uninhabited by humans. But in 2004, aid workers in helicopters spotted some tribespeop le on a mountainside. Scientists were particularly surprised that there were inhabitants there, because people usually need mammals - you know, cows, goats and so on - and their produce - meat, milk, etcetera in order to live. But the Nicobar islands have almost no mammals. So what were the Noch1nani surviving on? Fish,

perhaps? No. Amazingly, their diet consisted largely of insects, in particular beetles, of which there were over 1,700 varieties on the islands, but also other insects and sp iders. This presented a problem for the aid workers, who'd brought with them standard surviva l meals, including chicken, beef and pork. The Nochmani, who weren' t used to eating meat at all, were disgusted by these offerings. All they'd take from the aid workers were sweets and cakes. It wasn't just a matter of taste either. If you 're used to a certain type of food - even insects - other types may be completely indigestible. IJ1sects are in fact very nutritious: high in protein and fat and low in carbohydrates, making them an ideal food source for humans. But wha t was even more amazing was that just as we usually help our animals to live by providing food for them, so the Nochmani cultivate certa in fungi and mosses to attract and feed the in sects they eat. Perhaps we can learn from this tribe. If more of us could get used to eating tmconventional foods such as insects, it might help the world 's food problems.

,., 2.25 M = Marie; E = Esther M: I know of he1rna painting as a custom from IJ1dian weddings ... but you came across it in Turkey, d idn't you? E: Yes, in eastern Turkey when I was tra velling there . It takes place a few nights before the wedding. M : Was it a bit like a hen night? E: Well, in the sense that it ma rks the last evening that a bride spends w ith female family and friends, I su ppose it is a bit like that. What happens is typically, the women from both families get together, with the bride, to celebrate with music, song and dance. But it's not just a party. It's an occasion for sadness too, because it symbolises the end of life as a single person and the start of another stage.

~ 2 . 26 M = Marie; E = Esther M : So what happens exactly? E: Well, the ceremony begins with preparation of the herma . It's traditional for this to be done by the daughter of a couple who have had a successful marriage themselves. Then, after the bride's head has been covered in a red vei l, her hands and feet are decora ted w ith he1rna. After tha t, a gold coin is put into the remainin g he1ma. While this is happening, the g uests sing .. . umm .. . separation songs - these are rather sad, as you can in1agine. The party continues well into the night. Then, on the morning of the wedding, a child presents the he1maed coin to the groom as a symbol of future prosperity and good fortune.

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2.27

M = Marie; E = Esther M : I know of henna painting as a custom from Ind ian weddings ... but you came across it in Tu rkey, d idn ' t you?

E: Yes, in eastern Turkey when I was travelling there. It takes p lace a few nights before the wedding. M: Was it a bit like a hen night? E: Well in the sense that it marks the last evening that a bride spends wi th female family and friends, I suppose it is a bit like that. What happens is typica ll y, the \·v o 1nen from both famil ies get together,

with the bride, to celeb ra te with music, song and dance. But it's not just a pa.rty. It's an occasion for sadness too, because it symbolises the end of life as a single person and the start of another stage . M: So what happens exactly? E: Well, the ceremony begins with prepa ration of the henna. It's traditional for this to be done by the daughter of a couple who've had a successful marriage themselves. Then, after the bride's head has been covered in a red veil, her hands and feet are decorated with henna. After that, a gold coin is put into the remaining he1ma. v\lhile this is happening, the guests sing . .. umrn ... separation songs - these are rather sad, as you can imagine. The party continues well into the night. Then, on the morning of the wedding, a child presents the hennaed coin to the groom as a symbol of future prosperity and good fortune.

Unit 11

'ir 2.30 V\le rely on our intuition all the time. Let me give you a couple of examp les. Imagine you' re going to buy a second-hand car. You have a basic grasp of car mechanics. So, first you consult an authority on the subject ... like a motoring magazine. You do a bit of research to find out what the best kind of car is, and try to pick up some tips from experts and journalists. Then you study the facts about the ca r - how big the engine is, how economical it is and so on - and make some reasoned judgements from the information you read about whether it's a suitable car for you or not. In other words, you process the information. But when it actually comes dow n to buying a particu lar car from a particular person, then ... in the end you have to trust your instinct or gut feeling. Do I trust this person? Is a ca r of this age going to give me any trouble? No one else can answer these questions. And that's how it is wi th many situations in life. Our knowledge is rarely perfect enough to mean we can make a purely objective decision.

~ 2.31 I became interested in growing my own vegetables a fe w years ago because I was aware of how expensive vegetables were in the shops. It also struck me that a lot of the vegetables we buy are imported. It occurred to me that if more people grew their own, we wouldn't ha ve to import so many. I was really ignorant of the subject - I couldn' t grow a thing - but luckily I managed to discover a fantastic book written by woman called Joy Larkcom. That was six years ago and it's become more than a hobby. It never crossed my mind that I would become an expert, but now I get a lot of neighbours coming to ask me for my advice.

'ir 2.32 Do these situations sotmd fa miliar to you? Have any of these things happened to you? You were about to give a speech or make a conm1ent at a meeting, and then your mind went blank. You were supposed to send a friend a card for their birthday, bu t then you forgot. You recognised someone in the street and would have spoken to them, but you

Audioscripts

didn't because you couldn' t remember their name. You promised you would post a letter for someone an d two days later you found it stil l in your pocket. You were goin g to write down a great id ea you had, but when you found a pen and paper, the idea had gone. I could go on, ... but I won't because I'm su re everyone recognises these common failures of memory.

~ 2.33 Everyone would like to remember more but would it actuallv make us any happier? I want to tell you the story of a ·±I-year-old woman from California known in medical literature as 'AJ,' who remembers almost every day of her life since the age of 11 . She remembers that at 12:34 p.m. on Sunday, the 3"' of August 1986, a young man she was attracted to ca lled her on the telephone. She remembers that on the 2S'h of March 1992, she had lunch w ith her father at the Beverly Hill s Hotel. It's a bit like certain smells that evoke strong memories ... AJ's memory is stimula ted in the most intense way by dates. You'd think that being able to retrie1·e facts and knowledge in this way would make us more confident and w iser. But in fact for AJ an incredible memory is as much a burden as it is a benefit. That's because most memories are selective: they remember mostly important things and mostly good things too. AJ remembers every detail good or bad, important or not. So when we curse our poor memories fo r fo rgetting to send a birthday card, actually we should be grateful also for all the things that our memories hide away beca use they don't need to be remembered or thought about. Umm ... technology of course helps us with this. We don't need to remember the precise content of a report or the exact time of a meeting, because it's stored on our computer or in our mobile phone. But interestingly, the growth of this technology - what psychologists call our externa l memory - is having an effect on what and how mu ch we remember. Even our memories of happy events - like parties or holidays - get stored in photo album s on our computers. So our internal memories are probably wo rse than those of people 100 yea rs ago. Medica l science is trying to address the problem of poor memory and this is what I want to talk about next ..

~ 2.34 Do these situa tions sotmd familiar to you? Have any of these things happened to you? You were about to give a speech or make a comment at a meeting, and then your mind wen t blank. You were supposed to send a fr iend a card for their birthday, but then you fo rgot. You recognised someone in the street and wo uld have spoken to them, but you didn't beca use you cou ldn't remember their • name. You promised you wou ld post a letter for someone and two days later you fo und it still in your pocket. You were going to write down a great idea you had, but when you found a pen and paper, the idea had gone. I could go on, ... but I won 't beca use I'm sure everyone recognises these common failures of memory. Everyone w ou ld like to remember more but wou ld it actua ll y ma ke us any happ ier?

I want to tell you the story of a 41 -year-old woman from Ca lifornia known in medical literature as' AJ,' who remembers almost every day of her life since the age of 11. She remembers that at 12.34 p .m . on Sunday, the 3"' of August 1986, a young man she was attracted to ca lled her on the telephone . She remembers that on the 28'h March of 1992, she had lunch w ith her father at the Beverly Hill s Hotel. It's a bit like ce rtain smells that evoke strong memories ... AJ' s memory is sti mulated in the most intense way by dates. You'd think that being ab le to retrieve facts and knowledge in this wa y would make us more confident and w iser. But in fact for AJ an incredib le memory is as much a burden as it is a benefit. That's beca use most m emories are selective: they remember mostly important things and mostly good things too. AJ remembers every detail good or bad, important or not. So w hen we curse our poor memories for forgetting to send a birthday ca rd , actually we should be grateful also fo r a ll the things that our memories hide away because they don't need to be remembered or thought about. Umm ... technology of course helps us wi th thi s. \/Ve don't need to remember the precise content of a report or the exact time of a meeting, because it's stored on our computer or in our mobile phone. But interestingly, the growth of thi s teclrnology - what psychologists ca ll our ex ternal memory - is ha ving an effect on ;vha t and how much we remember. Even our memories of happy events - like parties or holid ays - get stored in photograph alb ums on our computers. So our internal memories are probably worse than those of people 100 years ago. Medica l science is trying to add ress the problem of poor memory and this is what I want to talk about next.

~ 2.35 Do these situations sound fa miliar to you? Ha ve any of these things happened to you? You were about to give a speech or make a conunent at a meetin g, and then your mind went blank. You were su pposed to send a friend a card for thei r birthday, but then you fo rgot. You recognised someone in the street and would have spoken to them, but you didn' t because you couldn't remember their name. You promised you would post a letter for someone and two days later you found it sti ll in your pocket. You were going to write down a great idea you had , but when you found a pen and paper, the idea had gone. I could go on, ... but I \Von' t because l'n1 sure

everyone recogni ses these comm on fai lures of memory.

'i 2.37 A = Ahm ad; L = Liz A: Hi there, I'm interested in taking a class at your college - umm ... the history of art course .

L: Is that the two year A-level course? A: Sorry, what do you mean by A-level? L: The A-level art history course is a two year pre-university course with examinations at the end of each year. A: Oh no, no, no ... I don 't want to take any exams. It's just fo r interest. L: OK. In that case, we have a one year art appreciation cou rse. A: Sorry. Could you spea k up a li ttle? I can' t hear you very well. L: Yes,

\ •V e

course.

have a one year art appreciation

A: Umm ... can you explain what the course involves? L: Yeah, it's a two hour class once a week and, basically, it teaches you how to look at art so that you get the most from the experience. A: No, sorry, I'm not really with you. Are you saying that it doesn't really deal with the history of art? L: No ... there's some history of art in it, of course, but it's mainly learning about composition, techniques, references and so on. A: Hmm ... Could you give me an example of the kind of thing students do in the class? L: Sure. Typica lly, students look at works of art and then comment on them. Then they're told more about the artist, what he or she was trying to achieve and then they look at their work aga in, ... w ith fresh eyes as it were. A: Mmm, OK. It sounds qu ite interesting. What was the course called again ? L: Art appreciation. A: And when is it? L: Every Tuesday - in term time, that is from 7 p.m. ti! 9 p.m., starting on ... one minute ... yeah, starting on the 29'h of September. The cost is £298 for the year, unless you' re a registered student. A: Hang on a second. That's too much to take in all at once. I'm trying to write it down. I didn't ca tch the start date. Did you say the 29'h of November? L: No, the 29'h of September. A: OK. Well, thanks. I'll have a think about it, but it sou nd s good . L: No worries, bye.

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Unit 12

~ 2 . 39 Poverty is a relative concept. For some people being poor may mean not having enough to eat; others consider themselves hard-up if they ca n't afford to go on holiday. Much depends of course on the cost of living, in other words how pricey basic goods and services are. ln the UK one definition of poverty is that yo u spend more than ten per cent of your ea rnings on energy - that is, the gas and electricity you use in your home. The trouble w ith this kind of definition is that something like energy might be much more reasonable in one country than an other. So sometimes poverty is expressed as a percentage of average national income - for examp le, if you earn less than 60 per cent of the average, you are classified as poor. Wealth is also a relative concept. Being weU-off doesn't necessarily mean being loaded and su rround ed by luxuries - two cars and a second home in the counh-y. Wealth ca n also be measured by people's quality of life. You can be considered rich if you have all that you need - the basic necessities - a good work-life balance and a happy fa mHy life.

~ 2.40 I = Interviewer; D = Davis Stiles I: Thirty years ago, the idea of getting a worker to hand wash your car would have been unthinkable - except to the very rich. Either you washed it yourseU at home on a Sunda y morning or you took it down to the automatic carwash at your local garage. Nowadays, you can ha ve it washed inside and out by a tea m of willing and capable workers for as little as £6. So, what's changed? I have here with me David Stiles, author of The Servn11/ Economy. Da vid, are we just getting too la zy to do our own domestic chores or is this part of some new economic phenomenon?

I

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D: Well, first of all hell o and thanks for

I:

D:

I:

D:

inviting me onto your programme ... um so, yes in answer to your question, it's said that in Britain today there are more workers doing domestic jobs than there were in the 19'h century - um ... perhaps as many as two mrnion: gardeners, naiu1ies etcetera . And this is a direct consequence of globalisation and the freeing up of the labour market. You see, man y of these workers are migrants - in the case of Britain mostly Eastern Europeans. Umm and I think that in capitalist economies, at any rate, the richer classes will always provide employment for the poorer classes. As the Victorian satirist Hilaire Belloc famousl y said, ' it is the duty of the wealthy man to give employment to the artisan'. Yes, ... but that's the point, isn ' t it? A 19'h-century style servant economy actually emphasises the inequalities between rich and poor in a society. Well, hmm ... yes, it can do, but it also creates employment. You d on't have to be especially rich to have a cleaner come once a week and tidy your house. Quite a lot of working people do that. A lot of so-called ordinary people get their windows cleaned every few months. But there are some er ... rich - people who get it into their heads that they' re too busy or important to do any domestic chores. So they' ll hire a personal shopper, and have someone wa lk their dog e\·ery day. If they're hav ing a party at home, they'll get an outside ca tering company to prepare the food. I know some people who even have their Christmas tree insta lled in their living room and then decorated for them. That really is a statement of wea lth. Hmm ... it seems more a statement of confused priorities to me. Walking the dog and decorating the Chi-ish11as tree are supposed to be a pleasure, aren't they? Mmm ... of course, they are. But look at it another way ... these are all things that create employment. As long as staff are treated well - you know, as employees, not as servants - and are fairly paid and their skills are va lued, just as you would show respect to your ha irdresser when you get your hair cut, then I don' t see a problem.

~ 2 .43 LA= Letting agen t; W =Woman LA: So, you've had a look at the offices. What

do you think? W: Well, yeah , I really like the building. To be honest, it's absolutely perfect for our needs. LA: Tha t's wonderful. So you'd like to take it then? W: Well, yes, ideally I would but .. mmm a key thing for us is how long we'd be tied into the lease. LA: Er ... It's a fifteen-yea r lease. I think that was on the details I sent you. W: Yes, it was but I was hoping we could negotiate that down. Because if you look at it from our point of view ... we're a young business ... umm ... we don' t really know how things are going to go over the next few years ... who does? ... and let's face it, fifteen years is a big commihnent. So if your client could move a bit on that .. . LA: Hmm ... I think 1vhat you have to appreciate is that our client's main concern is to secure a rental for a reasonab le length of time. You know, at the end of the da y, it gives them some security. To tell you the truth, tha t's why the rent is so low. The fi fteen-yea r period is a kind of compensation for that. So I'm not at all sure we're going to get anyw here there

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W: Oh ... that's a bit of a sticking point then, isn' t it? Is there not some way around that? LA: Er ... Not that I can think of offhand. What did you have in mind? W: Well, perhaps if we signed a fifteen -year lease but with a get-out clause after, sa y, six years, then we could pay some kind of forfeit to get out of the contract. LA: Um ... well the norma l forfeit would be that you paid the remaining nine years rent, so I don't rea lly think that would work. W: Oh, I see. Well, that's a shame because I reall y Like it and we need somewhere pretty urgen ti y. LA: Look, we have other people interested in the premises, so someone will take it ... If I were in your shoes ... you know ... and found the terms of the lease difficult, I think I'd just leave it. When all's sa id and done, it has to feel right for you. W: But that's just the problem it does feel right for us. Gi ve me a moment. I'm just going to ca ll my business partner and see what he thinks. LA: OK no problem ..

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Blair/ Nationa l Geographic Image Collection), 69 (Hem is/ Ala my), 70 (Chris Johns / Nat ional Geographic Im age Co llect ion), 72 (Gerry El lis/Globio/ Minden Pi ctures), 73 (lvo Roospold /Alamy), 75 (tr) (Ian Trower/Age Fotostock / Photoli brary), 75 (ur) (R ichard Nowitz / National Geographic Image Col lection), 75 (Ir) (Sextantio Press), 75 (br) (Juergen Henkelmann Photography/ Ala my), 76 (Keenpress /N ationa l Geograph ic Image Collect ion), 78 (lnsadco Photography/Alamy), 80 (Farrell Grehan / National Geographic Image Collection), 81 (Da vid Doubilet/National Geographic Image Collection), 82 (Pac ific Stock / Ph oto library), 83 (tr) (Gerd Ludwig / National Geograph ic Image Col lection), 84 (Panoramic Images/ National Geographic Image Collection), 87 (Thomas Ma rent/Min den Pictures), 88 (S hu tterstock), 90 (Image Source / Ala my), 92 (Justin Guariglia / Nationa l Geographic Image Collection), 93 (Reuters/ Stringer Ch ina), 94 (ti) (Steve Mccurry/ Nationa l Geographic Image Collect ion), 94 (br) (Steve Mccu rry/ National Geographic Image Collection), 96 (bl) (Image Source / Alamy) , 96 (inset) (Shutterstock), 97 (Corbis Cusp/Alamy), 99 (Cate Gillon /Getty Images New s), 102 (Aurora Photos /Alamy) , 104 (Wong Maye- El Associated Press/ PA Photos), 105 (Robert Harding Tra vel/ Photolibrary), 106 (NASA Headquarters - GReatest Images of NASA (NASA- HQ-GR IN)), 108 (Wes C. Skiles / National Geographic Image Collection), 109 (bl) (Kira Salak), 109 (be) (Stephan Alexander/ Diana Rogers), 109 (br) (Wes C. Skiles / National Geograph ic Image Collection), lll (inset) (Kenneth Garrett! National Geographic Image Collection), 111 (b) (Kenneth Garrett/National Geographic Image Collection), 112 (ShelterBox), 11 3 (Shutterstock), 114 (Christ ie's lmages /Corbis), 11 6 (Bj oern Bertheau / Synthes is International), 117 (N igel Swinn / Nat iona l Geographic My Shot), 11 8 (Asiaselects /Alamy), 120 (Ma rk Moffett/Minden Pictures) , 123 (Stefano Massai / Nationa l Geographic My Shot), 124 (James L. Stanfield/ National Geographic Image Col lection), 125 (Shutterstock), 126 (Barc roft Media /Getty Images), 128 (Krista Rossow/ National Geograph ic Image Collection), 129 (George Steinmetz / National Geographic Image Collection), 130 (Renee Fad iman), 132 (Maggie Steber/ Nationa l Geogra phic Image Collection) , 135 (Vincent J. Musi / Nationa l Geographic Image Co llection), 136 (Shutterstock), 138 (Michael Nichols/ National Geographic Image Collection), 140 (Shutterstock), 141 (Jodi Cobb/ Nationa l Geographic Image Collection), 142 (Luka Tambaca /N ationa l Geograph ic Image Collection), 144 (Ma ria Stenzel / Nationa l Geographic Image Col lection), 145 (Joel Sartore /N ational Geographic Image Col lection), 147 (Justin Guariglia / National Geographic Image Collecti on), 148 (CTK /Alamy), 150 (inset) (Mattias Klum / Nationa l Geographic Image Collection), 150 (b) (Sam Abel l/ National Geographic Image Col lection), 152 (Justin Guarigli a/ National Geographic Image Collection), 153 (Motoring Picture Libra ry/Ala my), 154 (ti) (Renee Comet/National Geograph ic Image Col lection ), 154 (br) (Renee Comet/National Geographic Image Collection) , 155 (ti) (Renee Comet/ Nat ional Geograph ic Image Co llection), 155 (tr) (Renee Comet/National Geographic Image Collectio n) , 155 (cl) (Motoring Pict ure Li brary/Alamy) Text We are grateful to the follo wing for permission to reproduce their copyright material: National Geographic for extracts adapted from 'When Surya the orangutan meets a hound dog by t he ri ver, the t wo carry on like long lost fr ien ds', http://channe l. nationa lgeograph ic.com / ; 'Guardians of the Fairy Tale: The Brothers Grimm' by Thomas O'Neill, http: //www.nationalgeographic.com ; 'The Big Idea', http: //n gm .nationalgeograph ic.com / ; 'Duba i' by Afshin Mola vi , January 2007, http: //ngm.nationalgeograph ic.com /; 'A life revea led ', by Cathy Newman , April 2002,http: //ngm. nationa lgeographic.com / ; and 'Anima l M inds' by Virginia Morel l, March 2008, http: //ngm .nationa lgeographic.com / , copyright © National Geographic, reprod uced w ith permission; Australian Council for figures and text from the report 'More than bums on seats: Aust ralian participation in the arts', www.austra liacouncil.gov.au. Reproduced with permission; Office fo r National Sta ti stics for statistics adapted from data from the Office for Nationa l Statistics licensed under the Open Govern ment Licence v.1.0.; and Maria Fadiman for material as publ ished in Nati ona l Geographic, reproduced with permission. In some in stances we have been unable to trace the ow ners of copyright ma t eria l and we would appreciate any informat ion that would enable us to do so. Illustrations by Celia Hart p 100; Bob Leap 42; Dave Russe ll p 40; Nat iona l Geograph ic Maps pp 6- 7

Welcome to Life, an exciting six-level series that makes learning English an exploration of the world. Drawing on National Geographic content,

Life transforms the learning experience into a fabulous journey with irresistible images, articles and videos that engage learners like no series before. Bring Life into your classroom!

• A practica l, competency-based sy llabus he lps learners in the ir development of grammar, vocabulary, functions, pronunciation and skills through appropriate communicative tasks. • Real life lessons model and practise everyday functions, preparing learners to use language in the real w orld .

• National Geographic video on the DVD allow s teachers to bring lessons to life. • The carefully designed Critical thinking syllabus challenges learners to understand texts at a deeper level. • Vocabulary is introduced themat ica lly, w ith addit ional emphasis on key words and w ord building in Word focus and Word building sections .

Student's Book with DVD • • • •

Engaging tasks w ith fascinating National Geographic content Fully integrated National Geographic video for each unit Review at the end of each unit Gram mar reference with practice activities

Workbook with Audio CD • Further practice and linear progression of Student's Book contents • Focus on learning skills • Sample IELTS tests allow learners to benchmark their learning

Teacher's Book with Class Audio CD • Detailed teaching notes w ith lead-ins, additional acti vi ties and answer key • Notes on vocabu lary, grammar, pronunc iat ion and useful background information • Photocopiable communicative activities and tests

Interactive Whiteboard CD-ROM • Includes IWB tools, 'zoomable' pages and easy-to-access audio and video • Create your own interactive tasks with the easy-to-use content creation tool • Show or hide the key • Show justification for the answers to the reading and listen ing comprehension activities

Beginner Elementary Pre-intermediate EFR correlation: er Intermediate

round level B1+ i progress to B2

Intermediate Upper Int ermediate Advanced

Cover photograph by Paul Cheung My Shot I National Geog raphic Image Co llection . Marina Bay, Sin gapo re

ISBN 978- 1-133-31572-8

9

I

ns 1133 3157213 >

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