Allison J. - The Business 2.0 B1 Intermediate Students Book

•• 2 17" Business2.0 • • u s1ness 2.oBl+ INTERMEDIATE To the student The objective of Business 2.0 is to help you learn two things: how to do business...

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••



u s1ness 2.o •

B l+ INTERMEDIATE

To the student The objective of Business 2.0 is to help you learn two things: how to do business in English and the language you need to do it. The new language and structures are presented in the Student's Book whilst the eWorkbook provides language practice and extension. Here is a sum mary of what you will find in each.

Student's Book The modules The Student's Book contains 48 modules in eight units. Each unit deals with a key sector of activi ty in the business world. There are six different types of module:

About business These modules contain information and language for the topie area of each unit . The focus is on understanding the topie and the general sense of the texts - don't worry too much about details such as new vocabulary.

2 Vocabulary These modules build on the important words and phrases associated with the topie and provide thorough practice.

--

These modules help you practise the grammar in a communicative and meaningful way, in business situations relating to the unit topie. Before you start, read the 'Refresh your memory' box to remind yourself of the key grammar points. Use the Grammar and practice section at the back of the book for consolidation .

These modules develop understanding and speaking skills in typical business situations. In these modules, you build up a checklist of useful expressions to use in the speaking activities. The activities themselves allow you to practise these expressions and your speaking skills in rea listic situations with other people. I

5 Writ ing These modules provide practice for the most important types of document you will need to write at work. You analyse a model text, focus on key language and use both as a basis for doing a writing output activity.

The case studies provide an opportunity to apply all the language, skills and ideas you have worked on in the unit. They present authentic problem-solving situations sim ilar to those you will meet in business.

h researc

Internet

Every module includes an Internet research task to encourage ~uu to explore the topie in more detail. The tasks can be done before or after working on the module. Remember that to search for an exact phrase, you may get more accurate results if~ ut quotation marks around it. .._ 2

17" Business 2.0

Otherfeat ures In a dditi on to the eight main units, th e Student's Book contains the following: Business fu ndamentals Th is opening section introduces you to basie business pri nciples and vocabulary. It provides a solid fo undation for you to build on in the course and will help you get the most out o f all components of I he Business 2 .0 .

Reviews These units can be used in three ways: to consolidate your work on the units, to catch up quickly if you have missed a lesso n, and to revise befo re tests or exams. Addit io n a ł mat eria ł

T his section conta ins all the extra ma terials you nccd to do pai r- o r group-wo rk activitics.

Grammar and practice Th is scction gives a useful surnrnary of grammar ru lcs with elear examples, and a lso provides fur ther practice of the essential grammar points in this level of the course. Record ings Full scripts of all the audio recordings are provided, allowing you to study the audio dialogues in detai l. H owevcr, try not to rely o n reading t hem to understand the listenings - very often you don't need to un derstand every word, just t he main ideas. Glossary In each module, therc is a short glossary of words you may not know. The defini tions fo r these a re in the G lossary at the back of the book. Words in red a re high-frequency items, which you should try to learn and use. The others, in black, are words you just need to understa nd.

eWorkbook FIN Business 2.0 eWorkbook provides everything you would fin d in a printed Workboo k, as well as extra multimedia resources. It is mainly in tended fo r self-study or home study an d con tains materia! to support an d en ha ncc the activities in the Student's Boole

Language practice T his section contains activities to consolidate t he language presen ted in the Student's Book. You can practise gramm ar, voca bulary, listening, pronu nciation , read ing and writi ng. Wateh This section conta ins a video clip and wo rksheet to accompany each un it in the Student's Boole The video elips are e pisodes of a mini-dra ma that ill ustrate the communicatio n and pcople skills in each unit. The cxercises a llow you to prac tise the functional language in the video. Tests You can test you rself at a ny point in the course using the eWorkbook , by setting either the time or the number of questions. Yo ur test sco res a re recorded for your reference. Print and work This sectio n offers a pen-a nd-paper version of the activiti es in the La nguage practice section. You can a lso download th e aud io trac ks required fo r these activities. Grammar help You ca n refer to thi s section for helpful grammar ru les and examp les. Word lists This secti on contains the key words and defini tions from the Vocabulary modules in the Student's Boole Dictionary Use the P iction ary Tool to link to the M acmillan Dictionary onli ne http :/ / www. macmill and icti onary.com. Writing tips T h is section provides explan ations a nd exercises on aspects of w riti ng, such as spelling, punctu ation and paragraphing. List en T his section contains all the au dio recordi ngs from the Student's Book and eWorkbook, together with the audi o scripts. You can download all the m ateria ł in this section to a mobile device for \ist ening on the rnove. We sincerely hopc you will enjoy working with The Business 2 .0 . Good luc k 1 John Allison Paul Emmerson •· Busmess

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Contents PAGES 6- 9 Company t ypes and structures

Corporate cui tu re PAGE 10

2 Cust omer support

Reviews 1 and 2 ·

1.3 Past tenses and advice structures

Reading: Monkey business Discussion: Unw ritten rules in the workplace

Company department s Job t itles Describing responsibilities

Past simp le and continuous, past perfect should, ought to, it's a good idea to

2. 1 Call centres

2.2 Cust omer service and tel ephoning

2.3 Asking questions and giving instructions

Personal qualities Describing problems Phrasal verbs for ph oni ng

Yes/No questions Wh- questions Have to, might have to, need to

3.3 Relative clauses, articles and noun combinations

PAGES 34-35

3.1 Packaging

3.2 Specifications and features

Products and packaging

Reading: Wrap rage Discussion : Packaging an electronic toy

Measurements Product descr iption Expressions for product present ations

4.1 Career choices

4.2 Careers, personal skills and qualities

4 Careers

Reading: Ten tips for creating a career that lights your fire Discussion: Managing your career

PAGE 48

+ąfji§ifim•I' 5 Making deals PAGE 62

6 Company and community PAGE 74

ev1ews s·and 6 7 Mergers and acquisitions PAGE 88

8 International trade PAGE 100

Reviews 7 and 8 Add itional mat eria! Glossary

Relative clauses Alan, the and no article Noun combinations

Job benef its Recruitment and emplo yment verbs Sk ills and qualities

4.3 Present tenses Present simple, present conti nu ous Present perfect, present perfect cont in uo us

PAGES 00-61

5.1 Retailing

5.2 Negot iating and ret ailing

Reading: Retail finds its new best friend Discussion: Social media and shopping

Collocation s for negotiating E-tail t r ansactions

6.1 Corporate social

6.2 Meetings, ethical behaviour and social performance

responsibil ity Reading: The Johnson & Johnson Credo Discussion: Different aspects of cor porate social responsibility

5.3 Conditionals and recommendations lf + present simple + w ill lf + past simple + would Recommend, advise, suggest

6.3 The passive and reported speech

Meetings expressions Adj ectives for t alki ng about ethics CSR collocations

Passive structures Reported speech - tell. promise assure, ask, say, guarantee, claim, explain, imp ly. state

PAGES86-87

7.1 Risks and opportunities in M&A Reading: Lessons in M&A Discussion: The pros and cons of tak ing o ver a busin ess

8.1 Export sales and payment Reading: Pinball wizard learns from mistakes Discussion: Payment methods for exporters

7.2 Business performance Financial information Describing charts and graphs Resu lt s and consequences

8.2 International deals and payments Making and processing pa)"'TiefrtS Credit and insurance Business t ransactions

7.3 Future forms and expressing likelihood W• ll and gomg to Present cortm uous Could may: might, be likely/ UJJ:;.&i~Y W, be bound to

8.3 Prepositions T.ne exD!'essions with in, on an d at AgQ. .sst next, yesterday and ~OW

Dependent prepositions

PAGES 112- 1 13

PAGES 114- 121

PAGES 152-158

J /1, Busu1ess 2 o

CVs and cover letters

1.2 Work organization and responsibility

3

PAG E 36

4

Supply chain

1.1 Work culture and placements

Reading: Manila ca/ling Discussion: The location of call centres

PAGE 22

Company finance

Grammar and practice

PAGES 122-137

~ eaxtt....--ig5

"'6f5138-1 51

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Speaking

Writing

Case study

1.4 Meetings one-to-one

1.5 A placement report

1.6 Counselling

Expressions for giving diplomatic advice Roleplay: a one-to-one meeting

Analysis: report structure Language focus: forma! phrases

Discussion, reading, listening and writing related to counselling and giving advice

2.4 Dealing with problems by telephone

2.5 Forma l and informal correspondence

2.6 Cybertartan Software

Expressions for giving instructions Roleplay: a technical problem

Analysis: format vs informal Language focus: email expressions

3.4 Presentations - structure

3.5 A product description

3.6 Big Jack's Pizza

Expressions for structuring a presentation Roleplay: presentation of a new product

Analysis: structure of a product description Language focus: features and benetits

Discussion, reading, listening and presentation related t o a Hong Kong fast food chain

4.4 Job interviews

4.5 A CV

4.6 Gap years and career breaks

Expressions for answering job interview questions Roleplay: job interviews

Analysis: structure of a OJ Language focus: appropriate CV expressions

Reading, listen ing, writing and roleplay related to gap year placement s and career breaks

5.4

5.5 A proposal

5.6 St John's Beach Club

Analysis: structure of a proposal Language focus: options and contingencies

Reading, list ening and discussion related to negotiating an incentive travel package in Antigua

Negotiations - bargaining

Expressions for bargaining and making offers Roleplay: a negotiation

Discussion, reading, listening and presentation related t o a customer service centre in Scotland

6.4 Meetings - teamwork

6.5 Reports and minutes

6.6 Phoenix

Expressions for contributing to meetings Roleplay: meetings

Analysis: the structure of minutes and reports Language focus: linking words and expressions

Discussion, reading, listenin g and roleplay related t o a car recycling plant in Australia

7.4 Presentations - visu a Is

7.5 Presentation slides

7.6 Calisto

Expressions for describing slides and visual aids Roleplay: a presentation

Analysis: presentation slide layout Language focus: being brief and concise

Discussion, listening, reading and presentation related t o a musical instruments manufacturer in Cent ral Amer ica

8.4 Negotiations - diplomacy

8.5 Requests and reminders

8.6 Jeddah Royal Beach Resort

Expressions for checking understanding, correcting and reformulating Roleplay: negotiations

Analysis: formulating requests for payment Language focus: sounding polite

Discussion, reading and listening related to a luxury resort in Jeddah

Business~

5

+als --...-

-

~

business structures

--.

~.

--~-~

-

--

~

-~

-

-

Company types and strudures

types of compan ies

Vocabulary

D

Look at the ways of classifying businesses. Which categories do the companies that provide these products and services belong to?

your In tern et connection your milk and cheese

lndustry type

your bicycle your haircut

spare parts for your car your dental care

Primary

agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining

Second ary

co nstr uct i o n, manufacturing

Tertiary/service

banking, tourism, entertainment

Sole trade r

The business is owned by one person who is responsible for any debts.

Partnership

Two or more people run the business; all partners share profits and losses.

Limited liability (Ltd)

The company is responsible for any losses, not the owners; the company is private, i.e. shares cannot be sold to the public.

* Public limited (PLC)

The company is owned by shareholders who receive dividends and gai n or lose money if share prices go up or down.

828

business to business - companies sell to companies

82C

business to consumer - companies sell to individuals

C2C

con sum er to consumer - individuals sell to individuals

8282C

third party vendors or consultants sell a company's products to consumers

~-----------------------

------- - - Business ty pe

Business model

----

----------

*A public limited company can also be known as a corporation (Corp) (Inc)

O

Look at the business structures. W hich d o you t hin k is best for t hese co mpanies? small family business global online retai ler medium-sized manufacturer

mult inational conglomerate

Hierarchical structure

Functional structure Sca rlatti He adquarters

Research & Development

Production

CEO

Accounting & finance

Marketing

Peterson

Jordan

Wladislaw

SAlES MANAGER

CFO

R&D MANAGER

Kilroy

Jones

SW DEVELO PE R

TESTER

Product structure

J

Matrix structure Management

Chief Executive Officer

research

f

production

sal es

finance

product A Orange Juice

Toothpaste

T

r-

Mosca SALES REP

product B 1-Batteries

Listening

D :-, 1:01-1 :05

Listen to five people tal king about their businesses. Note each speaker's job, industry type, business model, type of business and company st ructu re. e.g. Speaker 1 - geol ogist - mining - multinational corporation

6

Bus ne

1>

o

Business fundamet'ltals •

.,.. profit and Ioss Il>

Company finance

assets and liabllit ies

Reading

D

Read the article below and choose the best summary:

a) Baker's Dozen makes healthy profits because its products sell well. b) Baker's Dozen makes a heavy loss because its costs arc out of control. c) Baker's Dozen only just breaks even because its overall margin is too small.

THE

Baker's Dozen Ltd 's thirteen outlets bake and sell their own fresh bread and cakes. Revenue has n sen quickly since the bakeries started selling to hotels and restaurants as well as the generał public. Pastries and pies are selling well, but shareholders are finding annual results disappointing. It seems that there is very little left over to pay dividends or to reinvest in the business as retained profit. So what's the problem? The company reports a healthy g r oss p rofit, since it.s cost of goods sold is Jow: raw materials (essentially flour, weter, eggs and sugar) are cheap, and most bakery staff are on minimum wage. However, operating profit is much less impressive. As the business has expanded, operating costs. such as rent, electricity, administrative sa1aries, insurance and m arketing have increased considerably. So net profit after tax has been a big disappointment, not to mention all the money that disappears in corporation tax and depreciation (the B28 market requires customized vans that Jose value very q uickly). In conclusion, it seems there's still profit to be made in baking, but it's certainly not easy money '

Bakc1'1

DO ZEN

Vocabulary

O

Use the words in bold in the article to complete 1- 9 in the table.

money from customers

2 profit (or loss) after d irect costs

3 4

profit (or loss) after direct and other costs

O

money paid to the government and loss in value of equipment

7

8 money reinvested in the company

other costs, e.g. administration, buildings, utilities

5 6

profit (or loss) after all costs and ta'xes

direct costs, e.g. materials and labour

money distributed to shareholders

9

With a partner, put the assets and liabilities in the box in the correct category. bank loans buildings cars inventory invo ices land money invested in the company by the founders mortgages office f urniture patents production machinery raw materials retained profit unpaid customer invoices unpaid insurance premiums unpaid salaries unpaid supplier ,.._ Vfrl ~

Assets (what the company owns) Current assets (cash and things that can be sold within one year)

Long-term assets (things that are used over more than one year)

Liabilities (what the company owes) Current liabil ities (debts to pay back w ithin one year)

Long-term liabilities (debts to pay back over more than one year)

Shareholders' equit y (what's left after paying all debts)

bank loans

I 1i, Business 2 o

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Business fundamentals .,.

supply cha in logistics

Il>

financial supply chain

Supply chain Vocabulary

O

Complete the text about the supply cha in responsible for Suzy's new computer with the company names from the chart. PRODUCTS

General Piast ies Corp. raw materials supplier

'China Keyboards Ltd component supplier

Cherry Computer Inc manufacturer

Electron ie Distribution PLC wholesaler

High Street PCs Ltd retailer

Suzy customer

ORDERS/MONEY When Suzy's o ld PC breaks down, she can 't imagine a weekend without her social network. So she goes down to (1) and buys a new one. lt's as si mple as that. She doesn't need to know about the supply cha in that makes it possible, or the multiple fi nancial operations that will distribute her credit card payment to companies arou nd the world. On another continent, a new order of plastic granulate (made from crude o il) is being delivered to component suppli ers (2) by a (3) trucie Suzy's new computcr was only delivered to the stare last week by Fed Ex, but they're already al most out of stock, so the inventory system automatically places an order for ten more with (4) _ _ __ Every month, the manufacturer (5) , buys hundreds of thousands of components from suppliers like (6) , whilst distributors like (7) order severa! hu ndred PCs to be able to supply stores all over the country. By the time Suzy gets her new PC set up, literally hundreds of people have contributed to keeping her onli ne.

O

Complete the sentences about supply chains with the correct preposition from the box. fo r

from (x2)

to

to

0

with (x2)

1

Retaile rs order

wholesalers.

2

Wholesalers place orde rs

3

Suppliers sell

4

Manufacturers buy components _ _ _ _ sub-co ntractors.

5

Commodity suppliers provide manufacturers _ _ _ _ raw materials.

manufacture rs. the ir customers.

6 Trucks dcliver goods

customers.

7 Customers pay _ _ _ _ retailers, usually in cash. 8 Ultimately, the e nd-user pays _ _ __ eve ryth ing.

O

Complete the diagram of a financial supply chain with the words in the box. d elivery

D

goods

invo ice

With a partner, draw a similar diagram to the one in Exercise 1 to show how you think the supply chain is organized for buying books or music online. Compare your ideas with another pair.

8

!/., Buniness z o

Business fundamentals •

Il>



_____

CV information

CVs and cover

____,

composi ng a cove r letter

łetters

Writing

D

Use the headings in the CV below to create your own CV with your personal details.

NAME: (Your first or given name(s) and family or surname) Lina Ramirez Moreno DA.TE Of BIRTH: NATIONALITY: CURRENT ADDRESS: PERMANENT ADDRESS: (IF APPLICABlE) EDUCATION: (year: from-to, starting w ith most recent) (names of institutions attended and qualifications obtained) 2010-2013 Oxford High School, Buenos Aires: International Baccalaureate Dip/oma woRK HISTORY: (month/year: from-to, starting w ith most recent) (type of w ork, employer and responsibilities) Ju/y-August 2012 holiday job, Big Jack's Pizza, Hong Kong I worked as „ ., I was responsible for „. PosmoNs OF RESPONs1s1urv: (year: from-to, starting with most recent) (position and responsibi lities) 2010- 2011 Secretary of High School French Society I organized „ . , I managed ... OTHER: (giv e details ot language and IT skills, sports or cultural activities, driving \icence, etc.) good spoken French, MS Office and Adobe Photoshop, volleyba//, clean driving licence REFERENCES: See next page

------._

----------------------------------

................

.......

____,.,-

.

Speaking

O

With a partner, exchange CVs. Ask and answer questions t o find out at least two more pieces of information for each item. Which type of baccala ureate did you do? What was the most difficult part of your job at Big fack's Pizza? Why did you choose volleyball?

Writing

O

With a partner, put the phrases in bold in t his cove r letter in the correct order.

Dear Ms Naqvi, As a second-year student at Cracow University of Economics, 1am business experience gain I keen to through a three-month work placement (Ju ly-September) w it h a leading international retailer l ike PC Warehouse. 2extensive of have I knowledge th e PC market, and 3assembling considerable of computers experience for fami ly and friends. In addition, my university course in Customer Relationship Management 4 a has in given interest me reta il ing strong . I w ill be a 5and highly hard-working intern motivated and I feel sure that I can 6a contribution make your valuable organization t o . I am interested in all aspects of your business model, and 7accept any happy position to be would you are able to offer me. 8 to answer any call I next questions week you will you may have, but 9 at contact time free to me any feel please for more details or to arrange an interview. Thank you 10and time your consideration for. Si ncerely yours, Karol Kowalski

.- - - - -- --...........----- -----.-... -- ....._..__.,. __ -

El

- ...-. ...,.._ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -......._ _,.••.!

Write your own cover letter for a job or work placement you would like to do.

r Busines'l 2 o

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1 Corporate culture -

.,. company culture

.

-

1

1.1 About business Work culture and placements

.,. unwritten rules in the workplace

Discussion

D

h researc

Internet

Search for the keywords work fun. Find out how companies are trying to create a fun atmosphere

at work.

'

With a partner„discuss what you would do in each situation and explain why.

You've just startcd working for a new company. Do you: a) try to look as smart and professional as possible? b) wear jeans and a T-shirt like all the other 'employees? Why? a) stop work at five o'clock like everyone else? b) stay longer to finish your work? Why? a) share your ideas a nd opinions at staff meetings immediately? b) say nothing like most of your colleagues? Why?

Sean reading

O

Sean the article opposite to find:

a) what the monkey experiment demonstrated. b) seven examples of unwritten rules. c) what new staff learn about work cultu re and how thcy lcarn it.

Discussion

O

In small groups, discuss the questions.

1 What do you think organizations and companies can do to avoid negative unwritten rules? 2 What unwritten rules do you imagine yo u might encounter in your coun try as an intern in: a government department? a small public relations firm? Think about: office etiquette, e.g. dress code, punctuality, personal calls, coffee and lunch brcaks rclationships with colleagues, management and clients/ business partners autonomy a nd initiative 3 Which work culture above would you prefer to work in ? Which wou ld be the most difficult to adapt to? Why?

Listening for gist

O :

1:06-1:07 Listen to Sandra, an American business student. and David, a British civil service manager, talking about problems they experienced with work placements. Answer the questions.

What problems did Sandra and David have? 2 What were the misunderstandings that caused these problems?

Listening for detail

O :

1:06-1:07 Listen again. What mistakes did the students and the supervisors make in

each case?

Brainstorming and presentation

li In small groups, compare organizations where you yourself, your friends or members Glossary

PAGE 152

assignment autonomy beating dress code etiquette initiative intern pick up

10

Bu ne

of your family have worked or studied. In what ways are their cultures different? Have these differences ever caused problems or misunderstandings?

B I

I

Scientists put a group of five monkeys in a cage. At the top of a ladder, they hung a banana. As soon as a monkey climbed the ladder, he was showered w ith cold water; the group soon gave up trying to reach the banana. anyone, because management are more interested in Next, the scientists disconnected the cold water profitability. and replaced one of the five monkeys. When the new monkey trie
-- - - - - Business 7 o

11

1

Corporate culture

company departments

1.2 Vocabulary

job titles ... describing respo nsibilities

Discussion

D

Decide which word in each group is different from th e others. Then compare your ideas with a partner.

1 job task work project 2 manager boss deputy su pervisor 3 colleague co-worker associate collaborator

Listening for detail

O : , 1 08

Sam Shenton is a new intern at Warndar Techonologies, a software engineering company in Texas. Listen to Bertram Newman, her supervisor, explaining th e company structure. Complete the organigram.

Meri lyn Warner

CEO

David Darren

(l ) _ __

Administration

Marketi ng

Monica Overstreet

Bertram Newman

(2)

(4)

\ 1anager

Development Manager

two

one Art Director one(5) _ _ __

(3) _

_

_

officer two salesmen

D :

(6)

IT & Technical

(8)

Herb Monroe

Suppo rt

Program Manager

Roxane Pawle

Douglas Pearson

R& D Manager

(10) _

seven (7) _ __

two software cngineers one(9) _ _ __

_

_

one ( 11) _

_

_

two (12) _

_

_

1:08 Listen again and answer the questions.

l Why is the organization sim ple now? 2 Why does Bertram say it's going to change? 3 What is th e difference between the roles of the CEO and the COO at Warndar ? 4 Who arc Irysis and w here are they based? 5 What happened about two years ago? 6 When d id Roxane Pawle join Warndar'> W hat happened to her predecessor?

D

M atch the parts of these sentences from the listening to complete ways of describing responsibilities.

h researc

Internet

CEO, COO, CFO .. .

Search for the keywords Chief Officer to find mare C .„Os. Make a list, dividing them into

two categories, serious and hu morous.

12

Business 2

1 2 3 4 5

You're goi ng to report ~ She also looks She has two accountants work ing David runs the business Merilyn deals

6 O ur Office Manager 7 Hc 's rcsponsible 8 Roxane is in charge 9 My role is 10 He liaises

a) b) c) d) e)

on a day-to-day basis. with strategy. d irectly to me. under her. after fina nce.

f) g) h) i) j)

to manage Ma rketin g & Sales. with me in Marketing. for bui ld ing our prod uct package. takes care of personnel. of IT & Tcchnical Su pport.

Prepositions

O

Complete the electronic newsletter by using each preposition once. alongside

6



INSOX

REPlY



as

at

in

on

under

FORWARD •

This month Warndar News 1s deilghted to welcome Sam Shenton, our new intern. Sam, who comes from Boston, joins the Jake Smith and Sa1dah Hussain. Market ing team and w ill be working (1) Andy Highlands has moved trom R&D. He is now work1ng (2) IT Manager Roxane Pawle 1n IT & Tech nical Support. He replaces Fred Staples. who ret1red last month. Good move, Andy! Head of IT News of Jackson Tyler, our farmer IT Manager: after transferring to Washington and working (3) (4) Sterns & Lowe, Jackson is now back in San Antonio. He was hired immediately, but only to work (5) an Internet cafe. Jackson te/Is us 1t's 1ust a temporary demotion; he is also working (6) a business plan for a new social networking s1te. We w 1sh him the best of luck!

,,„. '

Discussion and presentation

O

Work in groups of three. You want to open a private music school that offers music lessons to people of all ages. Decide:

who is responsible for the areas in the box below. how many extra staff mem bers you will need. who cvcryone reports to. Draw an organigram of the company structure using the wo rds from the box. accounts advertising CD and music library clean ing and maintenance discipline educational policy instrument repairs insurance legal questions organ izing concerts planning timetables public relations purchasing quality and complaints salaries sound systems reception and office recruiting teachers registrations transport and logistics

O

Work with a partner from a different group. Present your music school's organization using relevant phrases and vocabulary from the previous exercises.

Glossary

PAGE 152

on a day-to-day basis organ igram predecessor take over

Defining words [J With a partner, practise defining words

relating to work organization.

Student A: tum to page 114. Student B: turn to page 11 8.

Bus1nes

13

1

Corporate culture

li>

past sim ple and continuous

li>

past perfect

Past tenses

li>

should, ought to, it's a good idea to

Past continuous

D Refresh your

memory

Past simple He worked

completed actions Past continuous He was working

background situations Past perfect

With a partner, take turns asking about and explaining these situations:

1 A: I saw you at the.meeting yesterday. Why were you sleeping? B: f wasn 't sleeping actually. I was thinl?ing. Deeply. A: So why were you snoring? B: I wasn't snoring! I was just laughing at the presenter's jokes. 2 3 4 5 6

I heard you on the phone yesterday in t he office. Why were you talking to your mother? I heard you in a tclcconfcrcncc ycstcrday. Why were you shouting at your boss? I saw you at the coffee machine yesterday. Why were you laughing at the new intern? I saw you at your computer yesterday. Why were you playing a video game? I saw you in the car park yesterday. Why were you kicking the CEO's car?

He had a/ready worked

one past event befo re another ... Grammar and practice page 122

Advice structures ... Grammar and practice page 123

Past perfect and past simple

O

Write endings for any six of the sentences below. Use the past simple or the past perfect as appropriate. Your partner has to guess which sentence the ending goes with.

A: B: A: B: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

I had my first interview at university. You had just passed your exams? No, try again. You had never been so nervous as when?

A : Right. B: Why was that? A: Because ...

I had just passed my exams when ... When I got my first car ... I had already donc severa! holiday jobs when .„ The first time I carne here ... I had never been so nervous as when .„ I was completely lost on the first day because ... I hadn't felt so good for a long time when .„ When I first met you I was surprised because .. . I had just been on holiday at the seaside when „. When I heard the news ... I had just fo und a job when ... l'd ncver becn so happy in my life as when ...

Advice structures

D

In small groups, take turns to ask for and give advice on the points 1-6 below. Use expressions from boxes A and C to give, accept and reject advice. You should(n't) ... lt's (not) a good idea to .„ lt's (un)wise to ... lt's important (not) to ...

.__

Have you tried ... ? How about ... ? What about ... ? Why don't you ...? Have you thought of ... ? You could alw ays ... You ought to .„ You might want to ...

,

Good idea. 1'11 try that. Yes, you're quite right. OK, point taken. You've got a point, (but ...) I see what you mean, (but ... ) You may be right, (but ... ) l'm not sure about that. I don't think that will w ork. You're joking!

1 how to get a we ll-paid job 2 how to be popular in the office 3 how to manage your time effectively

4 5 6

how to keep customers happy how to get a promotion quickly how to manage stress

D

Take turns to explain the problems 1-6 below and give each other advice on how to solve them. Use expressions from boxes Band C to give, accept and reject advice.

1 a problem with your car 2 a problem with you r computcr 3 a problem with your teacher

14

Business 2 o

4 5 6

a problem of money a problem with a colleague or frie nd a problem of time

_.~~~

Internet

researc

h

Search for the keywords business jokes. Which other tenses do business jokes use? Tell a joke in your own words, without using notes.

Listening for detail

O

~ 1:09 Listen to an after-dinner story. Number the events below in the order they happened.

O The largest crocodile's mouth shut -snap- behind the CFO. O There was a loud splash. OJ The CEO gave a party. O The CEO showed the executives the pool. O Everyone ran back to the pool. O The CFO asked t.he CEO who was responsible. O The CFO climbed out of the pool. 0 The C~O challenged his team. O ~ 1:09 Listen aga in and complete the sentences from the story. 1 The boss _ ___ very well for himself, so he _ _ __ the executives around his luxurious country house. 2 At the back of the house, he the largest swimming pool any of them had ever scen. 3 They to follow the CEO towards the barbecue when suddenly there a loud splash. 4 Everyone _ _ _ _ and _ ___ to the pool where the Chief Financial Officer _ _ __ for his life. 5 The crocodiles him when the he _ _ __ the edge of the pool. 6 He climb out of the pool when he the mouth of the biggest crocodile close shut -snap- behind hirn.

Telling a story

O

With a partner, tell a story in your own words using appropriate past tenses.

Giving advice

O

Match the beginnings of the sentences 1-10 with the endings a-f to make pieces of advice for new employees.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

You should - - - - - - - - - a) lt's unwise b) lt's a good idea c) You should d) You shouldn't e) It's a good idea to - - - lt's important -......_ You shouldn't You should You ought

expect to finish on time evcry day. learn to set goals. dress appropriately. to make too many personal phone calls. to learn proper meeting behaviour.

accept rcsponsibility for mistakes. lcarn who does what and how things get done. not to neglect form ing effective relationships at work. to reduce stress by balancing your life. j) expect that you will like every task.

t) g) h) i)

IJ With a partner, take turns asking for and giving advice. Student A: turn to page 114. Student B: tum to page 118.

Busin ss i o

15

1 Corporate culture r li>

adjectives to describe behaviour

li>

diplomatic expressions

li>

roleplaying a one-to-one meeting

1.4 Speaking

Meetings one-to-one

Discussion

D

Do the questionnaire from a business magazine. Mark the statements T (true), F (false) o r D (it depends). Then compare and just ify you r answers. Ta lk about how different cultural and business contexts affect your answers.

OFFICE ETIQUETT:E uestionnaire

O O O

O O O

O O

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

lt is perfectly acceptable to call the boss by t heir first name. You should never socialize with managers after work. lf a superior asks you to bring coffee for a visitor, you can tell them politely it's not your j ob. Personal calls are acceptable only at certa in times of the day. Staying lat e at the office to finish your work is a sign of inefficiency. In meetings it is advisable for junior staff to speak only when invited to do so. lt is OK to offer suggestions to superiors about how to improve the business. lt is not advisable to have a romant ic relationship with a co-worker.

Listening for detail

O

~ 1:10- 1:11 Listen t o two versi ons of a conversatio n b etween Tiffany, a n intern, and Simon, her supervisor. Und erline the words that describe Simon's be haviour. Then com pare your answers w ith a partner.

Version 1 - Simon is:

Version 2 - Simon is:

objective impat ient a good listener dogmatic diplomatic friendly firm understanding insincere authoritarian t hreateni ng weak frank

objective impatient a good listener dogmatic diplomatic friendly firm understanding insincere authoritarian t hreatening wea k frank

D

With a partner, d iscuss the questio ns.

1 Why is Simon's communication style more effective in Version 2? 2 Are there situations when the style in Version 1 is more appropriate? 3 Would the two communication styles be a) acceptable and b) effective in your own language? 16

Tlw Business z.o

------ - - -------

IJ

~ 1:11 In Version 2, Simon uses modal verbs, introductory phrases and negative questions to make his advice more diplomatic. With a partner, find su itable words to complete the useful expressions for being diplomatic in the checklist. Then listen again and check your answers.

Useful expressions: Being diplomatic Modal verbs You _ _ __ w ant to .„

You could maybe ...

You'd do better (not ) to ...

lt _ _ _ _ t o me that ...

Act ually, I t hink ...

lntroductory phrases lthink _ _ __ Negative questions _ _ _ _ you th ink ... ? Would n't it be better (not) to ...?

Wouldn 't you agree that ... ? Why you ...?

Diplomatic advice

D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

O

h researc

Internet

Search for t he keywords Jearn English. W hat are the best e-learning resources for English available on the Web?

--~-----

A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

Make these comments more diplomatic.

You shouldn't disturb your co-workers. You won't meet deadlines if you don't prio ritize. Delegate, or you'll never fi nish the job. You sh ouldn't eat at your desk. Don 't make personal calls at work. If you ignore your colleagues, don't expect them to help. You'll make yourself iii if you don't take care of your life-work balance. With a partner, read the dialogue aloud. Then read it again, ma king it more diplomatic.

You disagreed with the boss this morning. Not a good idea! So what? I was right, he was wrong. But you're always so aggressive! And you should mind your own business! You'll never progress in th is company if you can't accept criticism. So that's why you never got promotion , right? Weil, unless you change your attitude, don't expect any support from me. Look, just forget it, OK? lt's coffee time anyway.

Roleplay

O

With a partner, hold informal problem-solving meetings. Use diplomatic language to help you agree, unless you feel a more direct approach is necessary.

Stude nt A: tum to page 114. Student B: turn to page 120.

-/Iw Business 2 o

17

1 Corporate culture •

report structure



forma! phrases



w riting a report

1.5 Writing

A placement report

Discussion

D

Henry, a marketing student, has just finished his placement a~ Cambro Corp. a_n engineering company in Littlehampton, New Jersey. He has to wnte a repo~ on_his experiences. Discuss what you think this report will contain and what style 1t will be written in.

Model

O

Read the extracts from different sections of Henry's report below. Choose the correct heading a-e for each section 1-5.

a) b) c) d) c)

Observalions about the company Appendix I ntroduction Professional achievements and conclusions Expcrience during work placement l _ __ _ __ __

a six-month placement with Cambro Corp. under the supervision of Mr Geoffrey Thomson, Marketing Manager. The objective of the internship was to design, conduct and analyze the results of a market study for a new electronic gearbox.

2 _ _ _ _ _ _ __ response rate to the first mailshot was very poor. When customers were contacted by telephone, it became elear that many of them had not understood the first question. The order of the items was therefore modified and the response rate increased by 2000/o ...

---------------------·----------------------------3 _ _ _ _ _ _ __ a long history of sponsoring !ocal sports and cultura! events. Cambro's reputation is one of its greatest strengths. To obtain a similar result through media campaigns would cost millions. Th is aspect of the company's marketing and PR policy was most impressive ...

4 _ _ _ _ _ _ __

communication skiJJs in particul ar. Developing and performing a market study in less than six months was a major challenge. Fortunately, J was able to apply the knowledge J had acquired in marketing in year two of my degree, and the results of my study were extremely well received. In future, I think it would be very helpful if ...

5 ... including the following documents : A Daily journal B Thank you letter to Mr Thomson C Evaluation letter from Mr Thomson O Rćsume E Cambro brochure and sales literature

........____________________

--~--_......---------..,.-..--..._.--.

Ana lysis

D J

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 18

/Tie Business 2.0

Decide which section 1-5 of the report these topics should be in.

O

Analysis of successes and failures

O O O O O O

Dctails of your rcsponsibilities Analysis of what you learncd Evaluation of the company as a potentia! ernployer Suggestions for the future Descripti on of the company and how it is organized Observati ons on the company's culture and po licies

O Objectives of the internship

h researc

Internet

How and where can you find an internship? Search for the keywords find internships to learn more.

Language focus

D

Match Henry's informal diary entries 1-9 with the formal phrases used to talk about the same things in the report extracts in Exercise 2. Underline the formal phrases in the report.

1

6

2

7

•• · Wt\S

8

3

c.ool !

°'TM...,K ~ood....e.ss :i: 'd le.i>.r~ł i....ow to do i>. iW.rKe. ł S1Arve.1} !

4

5

Output

O

1:12 Listen to a conversation between Jason, who has recently completed a placement at Diftco, an exporter of construction equipment in Birmingham, UK and his friend Alex. Take notes about Jason's placement in preparation for writing his placement report.

D

With a partner, organize your notes from Exercise 5 and Jason's notes below into the five placement report sections listed in Exercise 2. Then write Jason's placement report. Remember to use more formal language.

-

appendix gearbox mailshot rapport take t he mickey

3000 r~ppcrt witk e.xpcrt st~·H 1 w~re.k014se. sfaU IOO.Ore. di.f.fic1AH eil1Aip....e.....t ~sse.111.ble.d ~....d ~cJ'-3 too 111.'!ACk ro'!Ati....e. ~perworJ< - ve.~ bori....3! copie.s o.f le.tte.rs to ~....d .fro.... ~s Witte..... 1 S1Apervisor 111.o st o.f ti....e. ;.... ~Xpcrł O.f.f ice. 1 ~J.so cke.cl(i1't3 c,o...,. f~i...,.e.rs ;..., w~re.ko'!Ase. ve.~ tiri11(} - 11e.e.d I:\ kolid~(J 1'\0w!

1 Corporate culture --;

..,_ counse lling skills

.__

.- r-

--

-

-

1.6 Case study Counselling

l)i>

exploring problems

l)i>

w ritten advice



-.

_.-

-



T -

•.

-

-

. -

-,-

· ·.

Discussion

D

What kind of personal problems can interns or employees experience when working abroad? With a partner, brainstorm a list.

Listening for detail

D

1:13 Listen to an extract from a lecture on counselling skills and complete the handout.

COUNSELLING Counselling = hel ping someone _ _ _ _ a personal problem using t heir own _ _ __ COUNSELLING SKILLS

O helping O persuading Otelling

O listening O manipulating O t alking

O assisting O exploring problems O reassuring

O solving (for t hem)

THE THREE PHASES OF COUNSELl.ING

Phase one

= ____

Phase two = _ _ __

Phase t hree = _ _ __

----------------------·----------------------------------------_.,...._..._....._._.......... D

With a partner, describe a situation when you helped someone with a problem, or when someone helped you. Did your experience correspond to what you heard in the lecture?

Counselling language

El Match each phrase in the box with a counselling skill on the second handout below. How did you fee!? Why not start by - ing ... ? What's your first priority? You were surprised? What would happen if (+past tense)? Right. So, t o sum up, . .. So you're saying that .. . ? What are the options?

COUNSELLING SKILLS CHECKLIST

Counselling skill

Description of skill

1 Asking open questions

Ask who , why, what, where, how, etc. to get t hem talking about the issues.

2 Paraphrasing

Clarify your understanding by rephrasing what they said, and feed it back to them.

3 Paying attention

Use positive body language to show that you are really listening.

4 Encouraging

Show you're interested by nodding and saying Uh·huh, Mmm, Yeah, I see, etc.

5 Echoing

Encourage them to tell you more about a topie by repeating a key phrase or word.

6 Summarizing

Show you have understood all they said by pulling it all together in two sentences.

7 Establishing options

Get ideas from them on possible alternatives to resolve the problem.

Useful phrases or body language

look person in the eye. smile. nod head

8 Asking hypothetica\ Encourage the problem ho\der to think through the questions implications of their suggestions. 9 Prioritizing

Establish which of the possible options the problem holder chooses to tackle first.

10 Action-planning

O

Suggest a elear first step they can take to help them manage their problem.

Add one more phrase of your own to each counselling

-~-------------------------------------~

20

Jh„ Business 2.0

handout in Exercise 4.

Int ernet

researc

h

Find out more about living and working in either Japan, the UK or the USA.

Roleplay

D

Work in groups of three. Take turns being the problem holder, the counsellor and the observer.

Problem holder Problem ho lder A: tum to page 114. Problem holder B: tum to page 118. Problem holder C: tum to page 120. Use the information given to respond to the counsellor. Co unselłor

Guide th e problem holder through the three phases of counsell ing in Exercise 2. Use the coun selling skills in the checklist in Exercise 4 to help the problem holder find solutions to their problems. ..., e W o r kbook

Now watch the video for this unit.

Observer Observe the counselling session and take notes. Use the c hecklist in Exercise 4 to note whi ch counselling skills the cou nsellor uses and how well they use them. At the end of the session, give the counsellor feedback to help them improve their skills.

Writing

D Glossary

PAGE 152

bodylanguage bounce back echo headache open question outlook paraphrase perspective

Work with a partner. You are on a placement in a foreign country.

a) Write a n email to your partner explaining the problems you are having. b) Exchange emails with your partner. Write a reply, giving your adviee. Use some of the expressions in the box to show that you understand your partner's problems and to encourage them to think positively. I can see exactly what you mean about „. lt can't be easy to „. when I if you „. You must be feeling very .„ I know just how you fee!. lt's perfectly norma! t o f ee! t hat way. You have to keep thin gs in perspective. l'm confident you'l l be able to f ind a solution. l'm sure you'll bounce back.

Bu mess

21

2 Customer support .,. call centres

2.1 About business Call centres

.,. customer service techno logy

Discussion

D

From the customer's point of view, does it matter where a call centre is? With a partner, think of reasons why it is, or is not important.

Sean reading

O

Read the article ópposite about call centres in the Philippines. Decide if statements a-f are T (true) or F (false).

The Philippines have overtaken India as a business process outsourcing provider because .„

D D

D

D D D

a) b) c) d) e)

millions of Filipinos emigrate every year. changes to financial regulations have made setting up call centres more attractive. call centre op,erators don't want to put all their eggs in one basket. American customers understand Filipinos better than Indians. most Filipinos' mother tongue is Tagalog. ł) Indian call centres only provide high-level consultancy scrvices.

Summarizing

D

Match the headings below with the correct paragraph in the text.

1 Margin for improvement D 2 Culturc change [AJ

h researc

Internet

Search for the keywords call centre racist abuse to learn about racism experienced by call centre operators. What can be done to combat this type of abuse?

3 India's reality chcck D 4 Language of success D

5

Learning from India D

Reading for detail

D

With a partner, discuss the significance of these words and phrases from the article. Decide whether they represent strengths or weaknesses, threats or opportunities for the Philippines and complete the SWOT chart.

bars, restaurants and shopping malls to bus employees to and from work replace up to half their staff four mill ion college grad uates

consultancy projects national language unreliablc infrastructure experienced managers

hel pfu I

harmful

interna I factors

Strengths

Weaknesses

external factors

Opportunities

cultural links tax breaks night shifts

cultural links Threats

Listening

O

~ 1:14 Cloud computing now offers a third alternative to domestic or outsourced call centres. Listen to an interview with the head of customer relations at Groupon®, a 'deal of the day' website company, talking about new technology they use. Answer the questions.

How does Natterbox deal with calls from important clients? 2 How docs Natterbox match callers to the best customer senice agent? 3 What is special about Groupon's call centre staff? 4 How does Natterbox avoid customer frustration ? 5 How could cloud-based computing change call centre staffs lives? Glossary

PAGE 1s2

bus (verb) copycat t ax break tax holiday twentysomething

22

//,, Business 2.0

Roleplay

O

Work in groups of th ree. Your company provides an onUne music-streaming service to customers all over the world. Hold a meeting to dedde where to set up your new ca ll centre. Choose one of the three roles and prepare your arguments before you begin.

Role A: low-cost country - turn to page 114. Role B: your own country - tum to page 11 8. Role C: cloud-based approach - turn to page 117.

CALLING ll1 Times have changed in the Philippines. In a traditionally poor, deeply religious and conservative country, suddenly twentysomethmgs are spending freely in bars, restaurants and shopping malls as they start or leave their night s shifts. After decades of exportmg its labour force to richer countries, Manila is turning the tables in the business process outsourcing market.

D

In the Philippines, emigration is a long-established tradition . Every year, a million Filipinos leave their islands, o hoping for a better life \n Asia and the Middle East. As welcome as the $1 Ob (5% of GDP) they send home to their families may be, a decade ago there were worries that emigration was slowing the country's development. In its search for ways to encourage foreign investment is and growth, the government turned to lndia's call centre industry. Copying the Indian model, Manila introduced tax breaks and incentives for telecoms companies as well as sponsored training schemes to help students fine-tune their language and communication skills. 20

2s

B

At the same time, Indian call centres were becoming a less attract1ve investment for American and European businesses. Not anty were their generous tax holidays coming to an end, but irritations like unreliable infrastructure and having to bus employees to and from work were increasing. In addition, the opportunity to spread risk by diversifying into the Philippines carne at a t ime when Indian outsourcing operators were having to replace up to half their staff every year.

l!I The Philippines' copycat strategy has been SO successful that American customers are now far more likely to be talking to a Filipino helpline adviser than an Indian. With revenues of nearly $11 billion, Philtppine outsourcing now employs 650,000 people, almost twice as many as lndia. What's more, operators believe their customers are likely Js to be more satisfied with the service they receive from well-educated young Filipinos who grew up listening to American pop music and reading American comtes. A US colony until independence in 1946, the Ph1lippines has maintained strong cultural links w1th its former masters: •o in a country where the national language, Tagalog, is not most people's mother tongue, English is a second, rather than a foreign language. 30

U

Not sat isfied with outselling the market leader. the Philippine government hopes to double the market to

$26 billion in the next five years. However, staying on top of the pile may prove harder than getting there: as it grows. the new outsourcing 1ndustry is d1scovering how much more difficult tt can be to find experienced managers and competent engineers than to hire young so English-speaking helpline advisers. lndia, on the other hand, with four million college graduates a year, is moving upmarket. Margins for more complex financial and engineering consultancy projects are much higher than for simply handling customer calls. In the longer term, Indian 55 operators may be happy to leave Filipinos to pick up the phone while they pick up the pace on more profitable assignments.

•5

l7Jt Business 2.0

23

2 Customer support .,. personal qualities .,. describing problems ... phrasal verbs for phoning

Adjectives

D

With a partner, decide whether these adjectives are most likely to be used to describe customers, helpline operators or both. Write C (customers), H (helpline operators) or B (both) next to each word. annoyed cheerful patient persuasive

difficult frustrated grateful helpful knowledgeable pleasant reassuring satisfied sympathetic upset

Listening for attitude

O

~ 1:15- 1:22 Listen to eight extracts from helpline conversations and choose appropriate adjectives from Exercise 1 to describe the speakers.

Describing problems

D

Decide which device each of the sentences can refer to and tick (.I) the appropriate columns.

QI

c o

Qi

.... ft)

u

1 When I switch it on, nothing happens. 2

lt broke down on the way to work.

3

lt kee ps crashing.

·o..

.I:.

u

j!

o o +' o .I:. a. ./

a.

V

:oo

a..

E

./

./

----------~

4 There's something stuck inside. ~~-----~--------------

5 I can't switch it off. 6 lt's not working properly. 7

lt won't start.

8

lt's out of order.

9 I think it's a complete write-off. -

-

-------------------

1O The battery's dead.

Collocations

O

Choose the best verb from the box to complete each collocation. Use each verb once only. arrange

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

diagnose

escalate

exchange

_ _ _ _ _ the symptoms _ _ _ _ _ th e fault _ _ _ _ _ a problem _ _ _ _ _ th e customer th rough the process _ _ _ _ _ the problem to a supervisor _ _ __ _ a visit from our techni cian _ _ _ __ the product _ __ _ _ a full refund

- - - ----24

Busmess2

give

identify

sort out

ta lk

Antonyms

O

Match each verb with its opposite.

1 connect 2 insert 3 lift out 4 relcase 5 replace 6 screw in 7 turn on

a) disconnect

b) c) d) e) f) g)

fas ten push in (to) remove remove switch off unscrew

O

Complete the instructions for upgrading a PC memory module using 12 of the verbs from Exercise 5.

First, (1) the PC. Do not (2) the power cabie, so that the PC remains earthed. Then (3) and (4) the side-panel. Next, (5) the retaining elips at each end of the old memory module. (6) the old memory module. Carefully (7) the new memory module a nd (8) it firmly the slot. (9) the elips at each end. (10) and (11) the side panel. Finally, (12) the PC and check that the new memory is recognized.

Phrasalverbs

O

Match each verb with the correct definition .

1 hang up 2 speak up 3 call back 4 put through

D

a) renew a call b) connect c) talk louder d) terminale a call

5 ho ld on 6 get through 7 get back to 8

take down

e) f) g) h)

make a note stay on line make contact return a call

Complete the crossword with the phrasal verbs from Exercise 7.

1 I can't hear you very well. Could you _ _ ____ , please? 2 I'm going to _ _ _ __ _ _ __ to my supervisor. 3 l'll just ___ ___ you r name and address. 4 We tried to con tact you yesterday, but we couldn't ___ ___ . 5 We'll _________ you as soon as we salve the problem. 6 All ou r lines are currently engaged. Please ______ later. 7 Could you ______ a moment , p lease? 8 It's a terrible line. Could you _ __ ___, and try agai n ?

Glossary

PAGE 153

clip

earth (verb) retain side-panel slot ups et

lntemet

research

Search for the key words go/den rules of customer service. Compare your findings with your own 'golden rules' from Exercise 9.

Discussion

D

In small groups, brainstorm ten 'golden rules' of customer service. Then present your 'golden rules' to another group.

I „Businessio

25

2 Customer support ~

Yes/No questions

~

Wh- questions

~

have to, might have to, need to

2.3 Grammar Questions and instructions

Refresb your

memory

Yes/No questions auxiliary verb + subject + main verb

Wh - questions question word + auxiliary verb + subject + main verb except if who, what or which is the subject: no auxiliary is needed ... Grammar and practice page 124

Listening

D :; 1:23

Listen to some people playing Guess the Product. Try to guess what the mystery product is along with the contestants. Then continue listening to check your answer.

D

~ 1:23 Listen again and complete the questions.

on lV? for work? in every office? in you r pocket? twenty years ago? electricity? speak to people? with compute rs? more tha n $30? to sto re data?

l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10

D

No, it isn't. Yes, you do. Yes, you wou ld. Yes, you can. No, it didn 't. Yes, it does. No, you don't. Yes, there is. No, it doesn't. Yes, you can.

In small groups, take turns choosing a mystery product and play Guess the Product.

Asking questions

D

Work in small groups of As or Bs. Write a question for each answer in your list below.

B

A

365 about €25,000 a year about lOkm about two years ago at home Barack Obama by offering a discount Coca-Cola® coffee once a quarter since the l 990s Steve Jobs the Olympic Gamesrg, to buy food and drink 20 minutes or so

O

about 300m at least an hour between €30 and €50 a month Bill Gates by advertising the prod uct 52 for about five years Formula One" in a restaurant last ycar mobile phones Nelson Mandela once a year to meet friends Toyota

Work in pairs, A and B. Close your books and ask each other the questions you prepared in Exercise 4, in any order. Score one point for each correct answer.

26

/ 11 Business z.o

Internet

researc

h

What's the best w ay to learn English? How long will it take? Do I have to learn grammar? How can I learn more vocabulary? Search for the keywords FAQ learning English to f ind the most frequently asked questions and some of the answers.

Making requests

D

Complete these requests with fax or faxing. Then put them in order 1-6 from the most direct (1) to the most polite (6) .

D D O D D O

Do you think you could possibly me the details, please? Would you mind me the details? Can you me the details? I was wondering if you would have any objection to me the details? me the details, will you? Could you me the detai ls, please?

O

Which one of these responses is not appropriate for all the requests in Exercise 6. Why?

a) b) c) d) e)

I'm afraid my fax is out of order. l'il do it straight away. I'm sorry, but l'm not in th e office. I'm a bit short of time, actually. No, no problem.

Roleplay [I With a partner, take turns

beginning these telephone roleplays and responding. Choose suitable forms for your requests, according to the answer expected, and give appropriate answers. Ask your:

colieague to send you an email to test your new address. boss to give you an advance on nexl month's salary. supplier to postpone a delivery by one week. supervisor to write a reference for your job application. friend to lend you their laptop for the weekend. customer to call back later when the sales manager comes back from lunch. bank manager to lend you a million dollars. supplier to upgrade the office coffee machine, at no charge.

Giving instructions

D

Complete Steve's side of the telephone conversation using don't, might have to, 'li have to,

'li need to, don't have to or needn't.

Steve: OK, Pete. First of all, you open the pri nter. No, wait a minute, (1) _ _ _ _ just open it. Select 'c hange cartridge' from the menu. Pete: Steve: Er, yes, of course you (2) _ _ __ switch it on, otherwise you can't use the menu! Pete : Steve: No, that's all right, you (3) _ _ _ _ switch the PC on, just the printer. Pete: Steve: So naw you gently remove the ald cartridge. (4) _ _ _ _ force it. If it's difficult, you (5) pull it back first, then upwards. Pete: Steve: OK. So naw you can install the new cartridge. You (6) remove the adhesive tape touch the printed circuits - they're very fragile. first, but be careful you (7) Pete: Steve: Right. It'll ask you if you want to align the new cartridge, but you (8) _ _ _ _ bother. Usually it's fine as it is. Pete: Steve: Oh no, (9) throw the o\d cartridge away. You can recycle them. Pete : Steve: No, that's all right, Pete. You (10) wony Just buy me a coffee same time 1 ~ 1:24 Write Pete's side of the conversation. Then listen and compare your version with the recording .

Eii]

m Choose something you don't know how to do from the list below. change the oil in your car organize a press co nfercnce

upgrade the processor in your PC publish your website (your own idea)

Find someone who knows how to do it and ask them to explain what to do. Ask questions and/or reformulate their answers to check that you understand.

- - - -- - -

-------' 'I ·Business 2 o

27

2 Customer support .,. expressions for giving inst ructions .,. handling a technical problem

2.4 Speaking

Dealing with problems by telephone

Giving instructions

O

With a partner, practise giving instructions by describing a symbol so that your partner can d raw it. Do not look at each other's pages during the exercise.

Stu dent A: turn to page 114 . Studen t B: turn to page 119.

Listening

O :, 1:25

Listen to a software helpline conversation and answer the questions.

1 W hat is the customer's problem?

2

What help does the operator give?

D

With a partner, decid e which expressions i n the telephone /anguage checklist below were in the conversati on , a o r b . Then listen ag ain and check your answers.

Telephone language 1

2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9 10 11

12

a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a)

l'm just putting you on hold for a moment. Dean speaking. What can I do for you? What exactly seems to be the problem? The line's bad. Could you speak up a little? 1'11 connect you to .„ The number is engaged. Can I get her to call you back? So you're on „. Could I have your name, please? You're welcome.

b) b) b) b) b) b) b) b) b) b) b) b)

Please hold the line. This is Dean. How can I help you ? Could you expla in the problem you 're having? lt's not a very good line. Can you talk a bit louder? 1'11 put you th rough to . „ The number's busy. Could I ask her to get back t o you? So, you r number is „ . What's your name, please? Not at all.

lmproving a conversation

li W ith a partner, read thi s conversation a loud. Helpline : Superword helpline, wait a min ute „.Ycah? What's your problem? Customer: I'm having trouble with PD F fi les. I can't pri nt them. Helpline: What? I can't hear you. Customer: I said I can't print PDF files. Helpline: O h. l don 't do PDFs. Customer: Weil, could you connect me to someone who does? Helpline: Can't. Th e PDF expert's gone out for lunch. Give me your name and we'll call you later. Customer: Oh , all right. It's Gearhirt. Jamila Gearhirt. Helpline: Er, come again? Customer: That's G-E-A-R·H-1-R-T Helpline: OK. Customer: All right. Weil, l'd appreciate it if you could call me as soon as possible. Goodbye. Helpline: Yeah , right. 1

2 3

Decide h ow the conversation could be improved . Practisc your im proved version. Now change roles, turn to page 115 and do th e same with a similar conversation.

Handling problems

O

~ 1:26 Listen to another helpline co nversatio n , w hich is based on a t rue st o ry, and a nswer the q uestion s. 1

28

' Business 2

What is the customer's problem?

2

What is the operator's solution?

Internet

h

researc

Go to the BBC World Service Radio Player (http://www.bbc.eo.uk/ worldservice/index. shtml) and find a radio programme about one ot your interests. Listen extensively, then tell a partner about the three most interesting points in the programme.

O

~ 1:26 With a partner, find suitable words to complete the expressions in the customer support checklist below. Then listen again and check your answers.

Useful expressions: Customer support Explaining the problem

Diagnosing the causes

l'm having with Word. lt doesn't _ _ __ lt accept anything when I type. Nothing _ _ __ I type anything. l'm having difficulty connecting to the Internet. lt keeps crashing.

Was it properly before that? What does your screen like now? hitting 'Escape'? Have you Did you Word? Can you the cursor around? Does your have a power indicator? Have you installed any new software? What happens if you press 'Control - Alt Delete'?

Giving instructions

Promising help

Could you _ _ _ _ on the back of the monitor? Now you just to follow the cord to the plug. you to look back there again. I l'd like to go and get them. you to take it back to the store. Then I You'll have to adjust the settings in the control panel.

1'11 _ _ __ someone call the electricity company. 1'11 get our technical expert to help you. We'll get back to you in a couple of hours. 1'11 have a technician call as soon as possible.

Roleplay

O

With a partner, use the chart to roleplay helping a colleague with the technical problems below. Take turns being Student A and Student B.

You can 't print your report. Your mobile phone doesn't work. The video projector doesn't work. Therc are no lights in your office.

Your car won't start. Your laptop is frozen . (you r own problem)

Student A

Student B

Explain the problem. Diagnose possible causes. Answer Student B's questions. Give instructions. Problem solved?

Yes.

No.

Promise help.

""eWorkbook

Now watch the video for this unit.

Thank Student B.

DOG BER T'S TECH SUPPORT YOU HAVE A BAD CASE OF COMPUTER ROT. Glossary

YOUR COMPUTER I5 DESIGNED TO BECOME SLOWER AND MORE UNRELIABLE OVER TIME SO YOU HAVE TO UPGRADE.

BUT IF YOU'D LIKE SOME FALSE HOPE, I CAN TELL YOU HOW TO DEFRAGMENT YOUR DISK DRIVE.

\

PAGE 153

Come again? crash free ze Cartoon from Dilbert.com 2815105

r1, Business z o

29

2 Customer support ~

levels ot tormality

~

email expressions

~

w riting emai ls

2.5 Writing

Formal and informal correspondence

Discussion

D

With a partner, discuss what differences you would find in your own language between formal correspondence, e.g. a letter to your bank or your legal advisor and informal messages, e.g. an email to a friend .

Model

O

Read the tour emails below and answer the questions.

1 Which email is from:

O O 2

CBJ I •

o

C8J

o

INBOX

a junior colleague? a customer?

Which two emails are forma!? Wh ich two are neutral/informal?

REPLV •

FORWARD



REPLY •

FORWARD



Dear Sir or Madarn. I am writing to enquire about having a television repa ired. The set 1s a Goodson 42 " LED TV wh 1ch we bought 18 months ago and therefore is unfortunately no longer under guarantee . Currently we have a p1cture but no sound . I wou ld be very grateful 1f you could give me the address of an authorized repair centre in the Greater Manchester area. Thank you for your help. Yours faithfu lly, J. Roebotham (Miss)

l • INBOX

REPLV •

FORWARD



Hi James. Thanks for your mail. Bad luck about the laptop. Mine was a write-off - had to get a new one! Why don't you try Harrowson's 1n Oldham? They're usually good. Hope this helps. Cheers, Margaret P.S. Of course I remember you. G1ve me a ring next time you're in town and we' ll go for a drink i

• INBOX

o

O O

Dear Ms Reckett, I am writing with regard to a computer problem. You may remember we met at the office Christmas party, and I believe you mentioned having a similar problem with your laptop. Unfortunately, I have dropped mine and the screen 1s cracked. I was wondering if you could give me any advice on getting it repaired? I wou ld very much appreciate any help you rnight be able to give me. Yours sincerely, James Blair

CBJ I •

f)

INBOX

a customer service departm ent? a senior colleague?

REPLV •

FORWARD



Dear Miss Roebotham. Re your email of 1 O September: your TV 1s in fact covered by a two-year manufacturer's guarantee. Can you just send the set back in its original packing and we will repair or exchange it ASAP. Don't hesitate to get back to me if you need any mare information. Regards, Max Hurst P.S. Are you by any chance the Jenny Roebotham I knew at Manchester Business School in 06/0?J

30

Business z

I

h

Internet

researc

The advantages of email are obvious - but what risks must companies consider? Search for the keywords email risk policy to fi nd out.

Language focus

D

Find expressions in the tour emails in Exercise 2 to complete the table.

Forma I

Neutral/Informal

Greeting

Opening

Requests

Glossary

PAGE 153

Closing

accounts payable

ASAP

Salutation

crack duplicate inconsistency patch Trojan (horse) w rite-ott

C8:J

O

Read the next tour emails the people in Exercise 2 sent and answer the questions.

1 Which two writers have changed style? W hy? 2 Find and correct the two inconsistencies of style in each emai l.

1• INBOX I REPLY „

FORWARD



Dear Mr Hurst. Thanks tor your email of 12 September. I am afraid you have mistaken me for my cousin, who attended Manchester Business School. I am very pleased to learn that the TV set is stili under guarantee. Unfortunately, I no longer have t he original packaging, so I thin k it would be preferable if I del iver the TV directly to your repair centre after work. Could you possibly let me know the opening hours? Cheers, Jane Roebot ham

C8:J f •

O

D

INBO X I REPLY



FORWARD



Hi M argaret, Thanks for your email. I wasn't sure if you'd remember me - it was qu1te a party, wasn't it? Funnily enough, I will be in town next Thursday so perhaps w e could have that drink? I would be very grateful if you could let me know if you are free around 6.30? Looking forward to seeing you . James P.S I would like to express my gratitude for your help with the computer. l'm getting it fixed tomorrow.

1:8'.J

O

I

~

O

I • INBOX

REPLY



FORWARD



Dear Miss Roebotham, I am writing with reterence to the repair of your Goodson TV750. Ou r Manchester repair centre is open from 9am to 6pm from Monday to Saturday. l've attached a leaflet with the details and a map. Hope th is helps. Yours sincerely, Max Hurst P.S. Please accept my apolog1es for confusing you with your cousin.

• INBOX

REPLY



FORWARD



::I

James, Re next Th ursday. lt w ill be lovely to see you . Actua lly, my husband w ill be in lndonesia t hat week, so I need to be at home to look after the cats . I was wondering if you wou ld mind coming over to our place? l've attached a map - get back to me if it's not elear. Yours sincerely, Margaret

Output

D

Work in groups of three to write and reply to business emails using appropriate styles.

Student A: page 115. Student B: page 11 6. Student C: page 119. fl., Business 2.0

31

2 Customer support .,.

customer feedback

.,. job satisfaction .,.

Discussion

presenting

D

recommendations

What annoys you most as a custome r? waiting for service product s that don't d o what they claim high pr ices plan ned obsolescence deadlines not respect ed incompetent service poor ly translated 'inst ructions being put on hold other?

hidden cost s

With a partne r, discuss what you as a customer can do about these problems.

Sean reading

O

Read the email from Hamish Hamilton, CEO of Cybertartan Software and answer the

questions. 1 What are his four problems? 2 How are the probł e m s linked?

C8:J

I • INBOX

REPLY •

FORWARD



really pleased w 1th the solutions you recommended. For your next project, I need you to take a look at our K1rkcaldy contact centre . Our 04 customer sat1sfact1on survey 1s disastrous (see charts and report extract attached) and this represents a maior risk to our corporate image and future sales. We have serious recruitment problems and a high staff turnover. These two problems are obviously linked . I suggest you talk to Laurie McAllister, our HR Manager there. l'd like you to come up w ith some proposals but without s1gnificantly increas1ng costs, which are another problem. Cu rrently we est1mate that on average a customer call costs us f4 .50. We cover th1s from the call charge (currently f0.50 per minute), wh1ch 1s why we keep customers on hold for around six minutes. They spend about the same time w ith an adviser, although 1f possible we need to reduce this because at the moment we can't take enough cal ls. Obv1ously, we can't afford to 1ncrease sa laries. l'rn counting on you to come up with sorne creat1ve ideas; get back to me as soon as you can . Best regards, Ham1sh

Customer satisfaction Ql:

~ 21%

~

TOP FIVE REASONS FOR CUSTOMER DISSATISFACTION

1

26%

44%

very satisfled sat lsfl ed dissatisfled very dlssatlsfled

Customer

26% 44% 21% 9'

satłsfactlon

9 8% -

Q4

24%

41%

very satisfled satlsfled dissatisfled very di!IHttsfled

32

8% 24% 41% "1

Business

Difficult to get through to customer adviser

76%

2 Time spent on hold

65%

3

Severa! calls needed to solve problem

53%

4

Cost of calls

49%

-5

Can 't get help by email

32%

Reading for detail

O

M ark

these st at e ments T (true), F (false) or D (it depe nds).

1 Hamish Ha milt on is probably writing to an external consulti ng group. O 2 The Kirkcaldy contact centre has sati sfi ed employees and dissatisfi ed customers. O 3 The contact centre is losing money at the moment. O 4 Jf th e centre employs more advisers, its income will increase. O 5 More tha n two thirds of customers wc re satisfied or vcry satisfied in Q1. O 6 The number of both dissatisfied a nd very dissatisfied customers tripled in Q 4. O 7 About half of their customers would be prepared to pay fo r support if their problems were solvcd qui ckly, O

h researc

Internet

What is the FLSA? What are employees' rights on meal and rest breaks in the USA? Are they similar to those in your country? Search for the keywords mea/ rest breaks to find out.

El



O

~ 1:27 Listen again. What are the effects on the contact centre of the following?

Listening for detail 1:27 Listen to part of an interview with Laurie McAllister, HR Manager at the Kirkcaldy contact centre. In her opinion, what is the biggest problem for advisers?

l 2 3 4 5 6 7

Employees have poor working conditions and low job satisfaction. The workload is heavier than before. The bus service is inadequate. Oesks are shared with colleagues on other shifts. Software products have become very complcx. Advisers don't get enough training. The shift system is inflexible.

Solving problems

O

Work in small groups. You are the consultants that Hamish Hamilton wrote to in Exercise 2. Hold a meeting to discuss the agenda below.

Kirkcaldy Contact Centre AGENDA FOR CONSULTANTS' MEETING

The situation Isołate the problems and prioritize them as: a) important and urgent b) important but not urgent c) not important. Solutions Brainstorm solutions to the problems prioritized as a) and b) above. • Review company policy on customer services? • Review company pollcy on working conditions for advisers? Recommendations Define recommendations for short- and long-term policy. Glossary

PAGE 153

come up with from the horse's mouth obsolescence shift staff turnover swap triple

- - - - - - - . . . . _ . . . , , . . _ . , - - - - - - - - - - - - . - . _ . . . - . . . - . . - - - - rM

Writing presentation slides

O

Prepare slides to present to Cybertartan Software summarizing your recommendations. For each problem, make recommendations, give reasons for these and outline the expected results.

Presentations

O

in your groups, present your recommendations and take questions from the class.

1

Bus•ness 2

33

Revie"W 1 Corporate culture

D

Make expressions about internships by matching each verb with a phrase a- f below.

1 ln corporate .. . Enhan ce .. . Relate . „ Be assessed Be supervised . . . Offer ...

2 3 4

5 6

D D D

D

Complete the sentences with expressions from Exercise 3 so that they have the same meaning.

Maria (1) is _ _ _ _ _ _ I (2) is _ _ __ the marketing side of the bus iness.

O

She (3) _ _ _ _ I (4) _ _ _ _ I (5) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ th e marketing side of the business.

O

D

O

a) ... yo ur academic study to the workplace. b) „ . work experience in to a university degree. c) ... by your institution through reports, appraisals, etc. d) „ . closely by someone from the workplace and a university staff mem ber. e) „. your career prospects by doing an internship. t) . „ permanent employment to a student after graduation.

O

Match each word in the box with its definition below. Then translate the words into your language. appraisal commitment deadline etiquette overview predecessor insight outcome threaten workload

a date by wh ich you have to do something 2

an ability to und erstand something clearly

3

an opinio n about how successful somco nc is

4

the amount of work that a person has to do

5

enthusiasm, determination and loyalty

6

a set of rules for behaving correctly

7

a description of the main features of something

8

the person who had a job before someone else

9

the fina I result of a process, meeting, etc.

Mark these statements about work organization T (true) or F (false).

A task is bigger than an assignment. A line manage r has a higher position than a project leader. 3 A branch is bigger than a division. 4 COO stands for Chief Organizatio n Officer. 5 The Public Relations officer will often work in the Marketing Depart men t. 6 Personne l is a fun ction o f Human Resources. 7 R&D stands for Resources and Deployment. 8 A parent com pany owns severa! small er companies call ed subsidies. 9 Purchasing is a more forma! way of saying buying. 10 Company structure can be shown visually using an 'organichart'. 1

to tell someo ne you might cause the m harm

O

Underline the correct preposition in each expression.

be in c harge to I of I from a departm ent or project be involved on I in I for doing something be responsible to I for I with an area of work deal with I on I for an area of work have so mebody working of I under I 011 you liaise for I to I with someone about an arca of the business 7 look through I with I after an area of work 8 report directly to I for I under somebody 9 run th e business from I w ilh I on a day-today basis 10 take ca re with I of I for an area of work l 2 3 4 5 6

Business 2 o

O

O

O O

O O

O

1 White I (work) in my fat her"s business I _ __ _ (sta1i ) to und erstand the importance of marketing - I (never/ th ink) about it before. (al ready/ be) in the job for two months 2 I when I first (speak) to the big boss, the CEO; I nearly hit his car as I (park) mine!

11 Complete the expressions for giving diplomatic advice (in bold) by filling in the missing letters.

A _ _ _ _ _ _ _, I think the re's a better way to do this. lt s_ _ _ _ to me that there has been a misunderstanding. You m _ _ _ _ want to ask Sue for her opin ion. You c _ _ _ _ maybe try a different a pproach . D _ _ ' _ you think th at making personal ca lls at work c reates an unprofessional atm osp here? W _ _ _ _ _' _ you agree that it's importan t to meet all o ur deadli nes ?

2 3 4 5 6

Il

Match these words related to report writing with their definitions below. description suggest ion

observation evaluation

analysis

1 examining someth ing in order to unders tand it _ _ __ 2 a statement about what something is like _ _ _ __ 3 conside rin g something in order to d iscover how good or ba d it is _ _ _ __ 4 a comm ent about something you have seen , heard o r fett 5

34

O O O

In each sentence, p ut one verb in the past simple (did), one in the past continuous (was/were doing) and one in the past perfect (had done) .

1

10

O

2

an idea or plan that you offer for someone to consider

Revie-w 2 Customer support

D

In each set of tour below, match an adjective on the left with a noun on the right to make collocations about working conditions. clean satisfied high subsidized

1

2 3 4

5 heavy 6 hourly 7 competent 8 dead-end

O

customer environment mea Is staff turnover

O

Read the definitions and complete the words by filling in the missing letters.

rate staff job workload

Make adjectives from these nouns. annoyance competence frustration gratitude help

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

knowledge persuasion reassurance _ _ _ _ satisfaction rudeness

D

The collocations below a re useful in customer support. Cross out the one verb that does not collocate with the noun. deal with I loo/{ into I push in I sort out a problem describe I identify I replace I treat the symptoms diagnose / locate I offer I repair the fault escalate I exchange 1 launch I replace the product ask for I call I give I offer a full refund escalate I fax I refer I replace the problem to a supervisor

1 2 3 4 5 6

Please hold a moment while I find your records on ou r database. and l'll call you 9 The line is bad. Please hang back. 10 The line is bad. Could you speak , please? 8

1 computer screen m _ _ _ _ _ r 2 a row of icons on a computer screen too _ _ _ r 3 something you hope your compu ter doesn't do c___h 4 make a computer more powerful u_ _ _ _de 5 something that goes in a printer ca_ _ _ _ dge 6 connect to the electricity supply p _ _g in 7 send a document with an email a _ _ _eh 8 someone who a business sells to c _ _ _ _ _ _ r 9 someone who a business buys from s__ _ _ _ _ r 10 a written promise that a company will repair something you buy from them g_ _ _ _ _ _ _e

Il Complete the email using the words in the box. appreciate attached get back to grateful urgently would

C8J

In this customer support dialogue the verbs in bold are all in the wrong places. Put them in the correct places. Helpline operator: Before I can locate the problem, I fi rst need to escałate exactly where the fault is. Customer: OK, no problem, we can do that. But if it's still not working properly, can you sort out the product, or at least repłace me a refund? Helpline operator: Yes, that's possible, but l'm not a uthorized to do it. I would first have to give the problem to my supervisor. Complete th is useful phrase for after sales service using the letters in brackets.

Tli ____ into it, ____ it out, and ___ back to yo u tomorrow ' (gk lrstteooo)

Il.I

Complete the sentences typical of customer support telephone calls 1- 10 using the prepositions in the box. down down in t hrough t hrough 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

into on up up

on

We tried to contact you, but we couldn't get _ _ __ The machine broke after only a few days. the side panel. Replace and screw When I switch it , nothing happens. I'm going to put you to my supervisor. !'li just take your details. Push the new module the slot.

I REPLY ._

ł FORWARD •

Dear Mr White I am writing with (1) _ __ to my order placed online last week. lt stili hasn 't arrived. I (2) _ _ _ be (3) _ __ if you (4) _ _ _ ship the order immed1ately. For your reference, I have (5) _ _ _ a copy of the confirrnation you sent me. Do not (6) _ _ _ to (7} _ _ _ me if you need any (8) _ _ _ information. I would (9) _ __ a quick response as these items are needed (1O)-- · Best rega rds J Garcia

D

D

-ł INBOX

could further hesitate rega rd

O

The extracts below come from an email between colleagues at a custome r contact ce ntre. Use one word to fill each gap. The clues in brackets will help you . 1 I you to take a look at ou r Metz contact centre. (clue: not want, but a similar single wo rd more often used in a business context) 2 Our customer satisfaction survey is disast.rous. (clue: how business people often write fou.rth quarter) 3 This represents a major to our corporate image. (clue: it means the possibility that something bad may happen!) 4 These two problems are obviously . (clue: not connected, although the meaning is t he same) you talk to Marie Pinon. (clue : the meaning 5 1 is close to recommend, although less definite) on you to come up with some ideas. 6 I'm (clue: not relying, although the meaning is the same)

1he Business 2.0

35

3 Products and packaging .,. wrap rage

„ .,.

3.1 About business

package design

h researc

Internet

Search for the keywords universal design packaging to find out about Universal Design and its impact on packaging.

Discussion

D

With a partner, think of three examples of products which are packaged well or badly, and say why. Think about protection, identification, transport, storage, display and security.

Listening for gist

O

~ 1:28 Listen to an interview with Charlie Wang, President of New China Packaging, a design consultancy based in Taipei, and answer the questions.

Why does he think packaging is so important? 2 What is spccial about New China Packaging's approach?

listening for detail

D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

~ 1:28 Listen aga in and mark these statements T (true) or F (false).

Branding is not enough to differentiate almost identical products. O Business guru Jack Trout thinks that companies overcommunicate their difference. O Most customers decide which product to buy before going to the store. O In the past, design teams were not told about financial and manufacturing problems so as not to limit their creativity. O Creative ideas are often simplificd and adapted because focus groups don't like them. O The task force can't leave their hotel until every mem ber of the team is enthusiastic about the new concept. O Consumers are not always conscious of what they need. O New China Packaging's task forces need months or years to deliver a consumer-validated package. O

Discussion

D

What do you think the advantages and disadvantages of using a cross-functional task force might be for the following situations?

l 2 3 4 36

I

1t

Business i.o

lnterviewing new job candidates Briefing software consultants who are designing new systems for the company Setting up special deals with irnportant custorners Creating new in-company training programmes

Sean reading

11 Read the article and an swer t he quest ions. 1 What is wrap rage ? 2 Who suffers from it?

3 What triggers it ? 4 What are the underlying causcs?

Paraphrasing

O 1 2 3 4 5

6

Reform u lat e t hese ph rases from the article in your own words. to reduce theft frąm shops (line 10) the most common triggers of wrap rage (line 22) even fighting to remove price tags .. . can raise blood pressure (l ine 26) pure provocation to the ecologically-minded (line 28) there's light at the end of the tunnel (line 29) The bottom line is thai i/ they don 't react, they risk losing safes „. (l ine 32)

Discussion

O Glossary focus groups frustration interface w ith provocation rage resistant trigger wrap

PAGE 153

You have invented a new children's toy - MP-Bunny, an electronic rabbit which dances, t al ks and plays children's favourite songs. In small groups, discuss how you w ill package it . Th ink about the questions below.

1 What different materials could you use? What are their advantages and disadvantages? 2 What design elements will you incorporate? Th ink about shape, colour, photos, logos and text. 3 H ow will your packaging make your product look diffcrent from ot.her el ectronic toys? Present your packaging sol ution to another group.

SURVEYS show that intense frustration and even injury caused by modern packaging is on the increase, especially amongst seniors. Seventy per cent of over SOs admit to injuring fingers, hands and shoulders as a resu lt of 'wrap rage', a new term used • t o describe the irrit ation and loss of self-control experienced when struggling to open wrapping. In recent years manufacturers have been under increasing pressure to keep food items sterile, to provide child-proof packaging for dangerous or toxic household cleaning products, 10 to protect products during transport and to reduce theft from shops. At the same time, they are forced to keep costs to a minimum. As a result , packaging has become ever more resistant to finge'5, nail< and

JSU



20

25

30

-··'!l!!lmtj-t• ~;"„~'.~~~~~ ~t~h~;, 1114ff; · • 1

plast1c packs, wh1ch defeat all att empts to open them, even with scissors, consumers use all kinds of tools and knives. At best, the product inside the packaging is at risk; at w orst, it is hardly surprising that 60,000 people a year are injured in Great Britain alone. Some of the most common triggers of wrap rage are processed cheese packages, tightly wrapped CDs, chi Id-proof tops on medicine bottles, and milk and j uice cartons. Ring-pull cans are particularly problemat ic for older fingers and delicat e skin. Even fighting to rernove price tags from items bought as gifts can raise blood pressure, and unnecessary overpackaging is pure provocat ion t o the ecologically-minded. However it seems t here's light at the end of t he tunnel. Manufacturers are listening t o cust omers' complaint s, and some have begun t o research and invest in rnore consurner-friendly packaging. The bottom line is t hat if they don't react, they risk losing sal es if cust omers sim ply stop buying products wit h packaging that offers too much resistance.

I

1

Business 2 o

37

3 Products and packaging ,,,. measurements Il> product descript ion Il>

expressio~s fo r p~uctl presentat1ons

__J

Discussion

D O

Put these stages of product development into the most likely chronolog ical order.

Beta test the product by users in typical situations. Conduct ma rket studies to test th e con cept. O Launch th e product. O Draw sketches and bu iId mockups. O Go in to producti on . O Draw up specifications fo r th e product. W Generale new ideas in foc us groups and brainstormi ng meetings. O Screen out unfeasible or unprofi tabl e ideas.

O

Reading for detail

D

Read the information on the FedEx® Box and FedEx® lube and complete the product specification summaries below. lnslde dlmensions

I Large FedEx Box ~ are

for

wfdth X lenCth X helght

I

31.4

xJ

45.4

x

7.6

For shlpments welghln& maximum

9

lnside dlmensions

for

FedEx Tube

96.5

long

X

are

15.2

X

wicie

15.2

high

Maximum wełght allowed

Ile

9

1 The la rge FedEx Box is 31.4 cm _ _ __ and 45.4 cm . lt is 7.6 cm _ _ _ _ When empty, the box 400 g; it can be used to ship smaJI parts or computer printouts up to 9 kg in _ _ __ 2 The FedEx Tube is 96.5 cm in and 15.2 cm in and . With a o f 450 g when empty, it can be used to ship plans, posters, blueprints, etc. _ _ __ up to 9 kg.

Describing products

D

Describe the dimensions of objects in your pockets or your bag. Your partner should try to guess what they are.

Collocations

D

Match the nouns in the box with the compound adjectives they most often collocate with. design

devłee!

materials

packaging

energy-savi ng

personal stereos

technology

child-resistant devices

38

fi,~

Business 2.0

labour-saving

tamper-resistant

fi re-retardant

f ut ure-proof

water-resistant

fool-proof

waterproof

eye-catching

shockproof

attention-grabbing

Internet

h

researc

What a(e the best w ays of recording and learning vocabulary? Search for the keywords recording vocabulary and make a list of possible techniques. Rank t he techniq ues on your list from t he most to t he least useful for you personally.

Listening for gist

O :i

1:29-1:34 Listen to six conversations. Use collocations from Exercise 4 to describe what is being discussed.

O

~ 1.35 Listen to a presentation of the ChartTech i3. What are its three main features?

Listening for detail

O

~ 1:35 Listen again and complete these expressions for structuring a product presentation using the correct preposition from the box.

about

Glossary

PAGE 153

attention-grabbing bi rd's-eye view blueprint chart fool-proof mockup overlay retardant tamper w it h

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Il a) b) c) d)

back

by

on

to

up

w ith

I'm here today to tell you (the ChartTech i3 .. .). Let's start (Touch Screen Command). Moving to (wh at's below the water .. .). Can I just turn (communications)? I'll just sum (the ChartTech i3's three main features ... ). Let's just go to (our midnight fishing trip) . (inviting you to .. .). I'd like to fi nish Match th e expressions in Exercise 7 with their function in th e presentation a-d.

Beginning the prese ntation O Moving to a new point O Returning to a point made earlier O Ending the prescntation O

Presentati on

O

Work in small groups. Use the vocabulary and expression s in the previous exercises to present the specificat ions and features of an electronic d evice of your choice.

-

-----fJ '"Business 2 o

39

3 Products and packaging IJJJ>

relative clauses

IJJJ>

a/an, the and no article

IJJJ>

noun combinatio ns

Refresh your

memory

Relative clauses who: people which: things that: people or things, but not after a comma

Ili- Grammar and practice page 126 Articles

3.3 Grammar

combinations

Defining relative clauses

D

In sma ll groups, answer these business trivia questions.

1 What was the communi cations device that was invented by Joh n Logie Baird ? 2 Who was the woman who is famous for her research on radioactivity? 3 What was the business process that was introduced by Henry Ford ? 4 Who was the .man w ho invented radio? 5 What was the business model fi rst developed by Martha Matilda Harper in 1891? 6 What was the revolutionary painting device which was invented by Dougla s Engelbart in 1963?

O

In your groups, write your own business and technology trivia quiz using the formulae 'Who was the man/ woman ...'or 'What was the product/ device/ process/ model .. .'. Use the Internet if you ha ve a connection. Then challenge another group.

a/an: non-specific or not previously mentioned the: specific, unique or previously mentioned no article: generalizations

Ili- Grammar and practice page 126 Noun combinations The main noun comes at the end. Any others describe it.

Non-defining relative clauses

O

With a pa rtner, t a ke turns ma king sentences and adding re lative clauses about famous people, products and organizations. How much information can you add?

A: Steve Jobs was the co-founder of Apple R„ B: Steve Jobs, who was {rom Californi a, was the co-founder of Apple. A: Steve Jobs, who was fro111 California, was the co-founder of Apple, which i s famous for high-end electro11ic products Jike the iPhone. B: Steve Jobs, who was fro111 California, and whose parents adopted him at birth, was the cofounder of Apple. which is famous for high -end electronic products lil?e the iPhone.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Steve Jobs. Apple (iPhone) Oprah Winfrey, The Oprah Winfrey Show (Harpo Studios R) Walt Disney, Walt Disney Co. (Mickey Mouse) Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook (Facebook) Ben Cohen a nd Jerry Greenfield, Be n & Jerry's (Yes Pecan) Jeff Bezos, Amazon (Kindl e) Sergey Brin and Larry Page, Google (Google Earth) Ric ha rd Branson, Virgin (Virgin Galactic) Muh ammed Yunus, Grameen Bank (mi cro-credit) Victoria Bec kham , Bec kham Brand ('Intimately Bec kham ' perfumes)

Discussion

D

Which of the pe ople in Exercise 3 ha ve ha d the biggest influe nce on the business w o rld ? Choose your t o p three.

40

Bu me

Articles

O

Complete texts about important products and inventions with a/an, the or - (no article).

Some popular produds take a long time to get to !hg marketplace. • In 1485, Leonardo da Vinci made detailed drawings of_ parachutes. He also made sketches of_ helicopter and _ tank. _ first helicopter that could carry_ person was flown by Paul Cornu at _ beginning of_ twentieth century. During _ First World War, _ tanks were first used in _ France in 1917. • _ Bar codes were invented by Silver and Wood land in 1948. They used _ light to read _set of concentric circles, but it was two decades before _ arrival of_ computers and _ lasers made _ system practical. • _ first computer was built in 1943, more than 1OO years after Charles Babbage had designed _ first programmable device. In 1998, _ Science Museum in London built _ working copy of_ Babbage machine using his original plans and _ materials that would have been available at the time. lt worked just as Babbage had intended.

Expanding notes

[I

1:36 When writing notes in English, pronouns, articles and common verbs like be and have are often omitted. Listen to a product review and write the words you hear which the

customer omitted in t he notes below.

h researc

Internet

Open an online dictionary by searching for the keywords online dictionary. Search for the noun information. Is information countable or uncountable? What is its informal form? Which prepositions is it used with? What t ypical collocations and constructions is it used in? Browse several online dictionaries and find out what other features they offer. Vote to find out which online dictionary the class prefers.

~C).sii'tr be.st pko't'le. so .fl).r. Pe.r.fe.ct pko'ł'le. .for bl).sic 1Ase.r. Aire.C).d'tr b1A~pe.d Mid droppe.d .fe.w ti~s b1At sfiiJ.. (toi"l'l(t stro11(t . &tte."tr i i.fe. i't'lcre.dibR.e. . Ove.rl).H re.I)./.. wor1
.friJ.R.s, b1At doe.s wkl).t ce.Hp1i1.o"l'le. 11e.e.ds to do. RP.ti11(t 5/5. ___..._.. ~ ------ ........ ,.. „_.,,.,.,.,.,,,,..... --......... _ _ _......______,...,,.,............-,,..

O ,:i 1:37- 1:38

With a partner, expand these notes written by customers into full product reviews. Then listen and compare your versions with the recordings.

o

Hate the phone. Too small - can't open flip cover with one hand. No screen on outside to see caller identity. Reception - horrible. Drops ca/Is prol?ably 30%of time. Very long key delay, incredibly annoying. Anxiously awaiting day can upgrade and get rid of monstrosity. Rating0/5.

fiG\d F'Ol"le- Qk:>ouł łl-1,...e-e, We-e-k5 l;ke, 5;-z..e, Qlo'1d de..S'.r'. Fe-C\łun~.S ~ łoo. fosj e-'flOU.y. ło uSe-, Qio'1d SUr"V;Ve,d c.ouple- of dr"opS. HoWe-Ve-r", QIC\r"M doc,k WOl"I 'ł Wor"k OYljmor"e-. Noł łoo Sur"e- Qbouł ;„łe-r"VlQI CW1łe-Y1nQ. HQłe- l-IQV;~ full 5j>1QI w(...e,„ ~ ;"'.') C...Qll1 cK1lJ ło i,.,QVe, d...-o.mC\+;c... dr"op w(,..e,„ puł ło l-le-o.d. E.vu7body łe-le-c.OrY1 c.OrY1pOY1iS fe\ulł, V10ł FOl"1e.oi or" MC\jbe, jusł :;cł ~d Ol"1eo. We, '(I se.e-. Go:n3 ło ł,...j 920 ne-x.ł. R.C\Ln3 3/§.

sap

--

---- ---------

FOV\e.

~

________________

:._

Defining words

Il Complete the definitions by matching the noun combinations 1-4 with the appropriate relative clauses a-d. Glossary

PAGE 154

bu mp drop calls empowerment flip cover get rid of no frills rating workhorse

1 Decision-making tools are tools Feature-packed spreadsheets are spreadsheets 3 An ind ustry-standard battery package is a pack of batteries 4 Market studies are investigations

2

a) that have many different fun ctions. b) that companies conduct to identify customer

needs. c) that you evaluate choices and options with. d) whose specifications comply with industry no rms.

Definitions game

D

In small groups, divide into As and Bs.

As: turn to page 115.

Bs: turn to page 121.

f'I,,. Business 2.0

41

3 Products and packaging "" struct uring a presentation

3.4 Speaking

Presentations - structure

"" hooks and object ives "" present ing a product -----j

Brainstorming

D

What are the qualities of a good lesson, lecture or presentation? With a partner, draw up a checklist.

Listening for gist

O

1:39 Listen ·to Version 1 of a presentation of the Pingman, a new personal GPS tracking device which can be used to locate children, elderly people, animals or mobile staff. Compare the presentation with your checklist.

O

With a partner, discuss how the presentation could be improved.

Listening for detail

D

~ 1:40 Listen to Version 2 of the presentation and answer the questions.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

How does the presenter get the aud ience's attention and interest? What is the objective of the presentation ? How long will the presen tation last, and what is the next step? What does the presenter say about questions? What subjects will be covered in the th ree sectio ns of the presentatio n? Which part of the presentation do we not hear? What does the presenter do at the beginning of th e conclusion ? What does the presenter ask the audience to do? How do the audience know when to applaud? What aspects of presentation technique have improved in Versio n 2?

O

~ 1:40 With a partner, find suitable words to complete the useful expressions in the checklist. Then listen again to Version 2 and check your answers.

Useful expressions: Structuring a presentation Hook

Objective

_ _ _ _ you like to know . „? What wo uId you do if ... ? _ _ __ _ _ _ _ would it be worth to ... ? Somebody once said „ .

l'm here this morning to _ _ _ _ the Pingman, „. My objective today is ... The goal of this meeting is „ .

Agenda

Summ ary

Feel to interrupt me. l've divided my presentation into three _ _ __ _ ___ of all, l'm going to „ . _ _ _ _ that, 1'11 be talking about .„ ---~ l'd like to present . „ 1'11 take any questions at the end.

42

l' d like to

up t he presentation and move on to

---~ I explained why „. ---~

I presented the different specifications „. Last, but not I have given you ...

Call for action

Close

These are the _ _ _ _ why I am asking you to . . .

Thank you very much for your _ _ __ Thank you for listening. lf you have any questions, 1'11 d o my best to answer them.

rr,, Business 2.0

„.

h researc

Internet

Search for the keywords presentation tips to find answers to the questions below. 1 How long should a good presentation be? 2 What should you research before a presentation? 3 What are the most important parts of a presentation? 4 What are the best ways to practise a presentation? 5 Which colours and fonts should you use in your slides? 6 How should you deal with hostile questions? 7 What's the !atest presentation technology available?

Pronunciation

O

~ 1:41 Decide where the speaker should pause in this extract from the presentation. Before each pause, mark whether the speaker's voice should go up " or down ~ . as in the examples. Then listen and compare your answers.

I've divided my presentation in to three sections. !i.I First of all, " l'm going to remind you of the background to this project and the current offer on t he market. After that, l'll be talking about the prototype, and the data we've cotlected from tests, focus groups and market studies. Finatly, I'd like to present a business plan ; this will demonstrate why we expect a return on investment that is without precedent f~:>r our company. Is everybody happy with that agenda?

D

Underline the key syllables and key words which should be stressed, and draw a line between words which should be linked ( _ ), as in the example below.

l've di'ili.ded my presentation_into three sections. First_of_all,

.„

O

~ 1:41 Listen again and compare your answers. Then practise reading the extract with correct intonation, stress and linking.

Presentation

D

In small groups, prepare the introduction and conclusion of a presentation of one of these new products to a group of department store buyers.

a flexible tablet PC that can be rolled up to fit in a pocket furniture which changes colour and temperature depending o n the light and room temperature a T-shirt which displays a text message that can be modified fro m a mobi le phone your own product idea Think about the following questions.

ł„ e Work book

Now watch the video for this unit.

Glossary

PAGE 154

hook lecture overwhelmingly ping tracking wrap up

Hook: What is the most surprising, exciting or unusual aspect of your product? Objective: Why arc you making the p resentation and what do you ho pe to obtain? Agenda: H ow wi ll you organize your presentation and what witl happen after the talk? Summary: What are the highlights of your talk? Call for action: What do you want your audience to do now? Close: H ow can you avoid an embarrassing silence at the end of your presentation?

[[!J In your group, present your introduction and conclusion and answer any questions. (Assume the body of the talk has been presented.) The rest of the class are the buyers. As a class, vote for the best product presentation.

!Iw Business 2.0

43

3 Products and packaging .,. structu re analysis

3.5 Writing A product description

.,. features and benefits

Discussion

.,. writi ng a product description

O

Read the items in the box and identify the four features of this car and t he four corresponding benefits to consumers. Then discuss the questions below. ABS air-condit ioned comfort alloy wheels head-turning good looks power on demand 3.01 V6 engine

automatic climate control safe braking and cornering

1 What do you look for in a car - fcaturcs or benefi ts? Why? 2 When you buy a computer, a mobi le phonc, or software, are you more intcrested i n its fcatures or benefits? What about other products?

Model

O

Read the product description and l ist the main benefits of using OpenOffice.

OpenOffice.org.3 Great software ... Easy to use ... and it's free! O

OpenOffice.erg 3 is the leading open-source office software suite. lt is available in many languages and works on all common computers. lt stores all your data in an international open standard format and can also read and write files from other common office software packages. lt can be d ownloaded and used completely free of charge for any purpose,

A new approach to office productivity software OpenOffice.org 3 gives you everything you'd expect in office software. You can create dynamie documents, analyze data, design eye-catching presentations, produce dramatic illustrations and open up your databases. You can publish your work in Portable Document Format (PDF) and release your graphics in Flash (SWF) format - without needing any additional software. lf you're used to using other office suites - such as Microsoft Office®-you'll be completely at home with OpenOffice.erg 3. However, as you become used to OpenOffice.erg 3, you'll start to appreciate the extras that make your life easier. You can of course continue to use your old Microsoft Office files without any problems - and if you need to exchange files with people stil! using Microsoft Office, that's no problem either.

O G

What's in the suite? WRITER - a powerful tool for creating professional documents. You can easily integrate images and charts in docurnents, create everything from business letters to complete books and web content. CALC - a feature-packed spreadsheet. Use advanced spreadsheet functions and decision-making tools to perform sophisticated data analysis. Use built-in charting tools to generate impressive 20 and 30 charts. IMPRESS - the fastest way to create effective multimedia presentations. Your presentations will truly stand out with special effects, animation and high-impact drawing tools. ORAW - produce everything from simple diagrams to dynamie 30 illustrations and special effects. Find out more - try it today! Get OpenOffice.org 3 now! Go to www.openoffice.org for an introduction in Flash format.

Cl)

Ana lysis

O

Number the five sections in the box in the order they appear in the OpenOffice.org text above. background compatibility details of f eatures and benefits invit ation overview of benefit s

44

/ /,, Business 2 o

Language focus

Internet

research

Search for the keywords open source software

to learn about free software, including games. Choose one product, and write a short description; try to 'sell' your software to your classmates.

D

R&D departments often focus on describing features, while marketing departments prefer

to describe benefits to consumers. Read the eight features described by R&D and underline their corresponding benefits in the text in Exercise 2.

1 Open source code application available to download (Paragraph A) ft can be downloaded and used completely free of charge for any purpose.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Fułly integrated suite of office applications (Paragraph B) Supports PDP and SWF publishing without plug-i ns (Paragraph B) Intuitive user interface (Paragraph C) Fully compatible. with oth er docum ent formats (Paragraph C) Image integration capability (Paragraph D) Built-in 2D and 3D cha rting tools (Paragraph D) Diagram and special effects functions (Paragraph D)

O

Reformulate the product features of the Creole Audio Manager, pictured on the right, in terms of benefits.

1 Fully integrated multi-format aud io and video player Creole gives you everything you'd expect from an audio player; watch and play video and music in all popular formats.

Glossary alloy benefit feature intuitive plug-in quibble

stand out

PAGE 154

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Downloadable shareware Full PC and Mac compatibility Music search, download and organizer features Online radio and TV capability Built-in CD burning tool Intuitive user interface and foolproof operation Karaoke function

Writing

O

Write a product description of the Torrent tablet PC using the notes below. (Alternatively, use a product of your choice.) Focus on the benefits to consumers, adding any details you feel are appropriate.

Ne.w Torre.,,..t 'ltOW tl.Vtl.iltl.bi.e. - Il.li .f-e.tl.t1Are.s o.f- Apple.® iPttd ll.t Il. .f-rll.ctio'lt o.f- tfM. pr-ice.. s~lt.e.rl iicr/A.te.r, str~cre.r.



Ove.rvie.w o.fbe.'lte.·fits

o'lt1 1c .... ti...ic!(.1 1Altm-t;cri...t1 1A'lt1; ....;te.d .f-re.e. ci01Ad stortl. e. 1 Mce.ss to ....ovie.s1 -rv1 0 11.lb1A....s1 bool<'..S1 ~ tl.e;-i~s 1 -xe.wspt"-pe.rs1 0 501000+ tl.pps.

C>e.tll.iis o.f.f-e.tl.t1Are.s il."Ad

Atte...,.tio1'1- rt\bbi..,. de.si()'"" 0 0 S/A.oc}( pr-oo.f-1 Wll.te.r-re.sisfo-1'\t ll.fo..._;..,.;1A,... c.ll.Se. ll.'ltd &oriifa &i.tl.ss scre.e.'lt :r..,.f1Aitive. to1Ac/A.-scre.e...,. ;..,. ter.fil.ce. 18c .... X 12c.... X 1c ....I 3(1.58' bl/- criotl.b(1te.s stortl.oe. 15 /A.01Ar MAłO'lt0-...(1 WiFi il-1'1d 3& &PS Scre.e...,. re.sol1Afio'lt 102.l/-)Cłb8 Fro..,.f Il.~ re.ll.r Cll.....e.m1 fM.~dpi...o,,,.e. jll.c!(.1 1.1.SIS rort . A""droid OS ~""'d browse.r o.f-.f-ice. so.f-twtl.re. &.He.~ li.fe. 12/A.rs 21'e.ll.r 1Atl.rtl.'ltte.e.

be.~·fits

11

0

I 1'1vifotio,,,.

2.-we.e.j(. 1'10 q_1Aibble. ....o'lte.(1-btl.cj(. auar11.-xte.e.

Tiu Business 2.0

45

3 I Products and packaging .._

product d ifferent iation

3.6 Case study

Big Jack's Pizza

.._ formulat ing a

.._

development strategy

Discussion

presenting

D

In one minute, list as many fast-food businesses as you can. How does each of them try to differentiate itself from its competitors?

recommendations

Sean reading

fi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Read the docunients and answer the questions.

What sort of com pany is Big Jack's Pizza? Who is Jack Jr? What is Big Jack's USP (unique selling point)? What proportion of Big Jack's customers eat in the restaurants? What is the company's development strategy? What is the biggest threat to the company? What do customers like and dislike about Big Jack's ? What four changes is Jack Jr suggesting?

Big pizzas, big value! 23 stores In Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Territories dine-in, parties, takeout or 24/ 7 home dellvery

Call us now on 2893 6161 Become a Big Jack's franchisee - call 2893 5468

-

~

I • INBOX I REPLY „ I FORWARD •

Re: Marketing meeting tomorrow Biłlie, Mick, l've attached the latest figures and customer-feedback summary, which seem to confirm what we discussed last time. Restaurant sales are holding up but, as expected, our takeout and delivery revenues are down again this month. lf we want to defend our market share against Pizza Hut and the other international majors, and attract new franchisees, we desperately need to relaunch our product. So, here's the agenda for the meeting: 3 a new or updated logo and color scheme 1 a new, more exciting range of pizzas 2 new promotional ideas 4 a new box for takeout and delivery Looking forward to hearing your ideas on all these points tomorrow. Jack Jr President & CEO

Why did you buy a Big Jack's pizza?

Big Jack's Pizza Revenues 36%

Taste -----~

9%

pizzas 15%

4%

24/ 7 delivery service 24%

46

J be Business 2.0

Takeout

Home delivery

Oine-in

Partles

h researc

Internet

Search for the keywords

Listening for gist

D

~ 1:42 Listen to an extract from the marketing meet ing at Big Jack's. What two decisions are made?

pizza box advertising to

find out how companies are using a new way to get their messages into the home.

Listening for inference

li

~ 1:42 Listen again and list t he t en suggestions made by Billie and Mick. Which ones does Jack like?

O Glossary

PAGE 154

BOGO F

chequered dine-in franchisee fusion cuisine gourmet slide strengthen t hreat

USP

Mat ch t he diplo.matic phrases on the left w it h t heir real, more direct, meanings on the right.

1 Of course, but we ca n come back ~ to that later? "--2 Can we move on to point two? 3 Weil, Bill ie, it's been done before, but I guess we could do that. W hy not? 4 I'm sorry'> 5 I'm not sure that's a direction we really want to go in. 6 That's more the kind of thing I had in mind. 7 I think you feel strongly about this? 8 Th ings have changed since Big Jack's time. 9 This is all very interesting, but . . . 10 I trust you'll agree.

a) It's not a wonderful idea, but it's a possibility. b) It's not a priority right now. c) lt's a bad idea. d) I don't want to waste more time on this. e) I know we disagree about this. f) Big Jack 's is old-fashioned. g) What are you talking about? h) lt's not exactly what I wanted, but better than your previous ideas. i) I've decided, whether you like it or not. j) This isn't relevant.

Brainstorming and presentation

O

Work in small gro ups as co nsultants to Big Jack's Pizza and d o the followi ng tasks.

1 Read the brief below from Big Jack's Pizza. 2 Brainstorm and select the best ideas. 3 Prepare a presentation to the company's management. 4 Present your recommendations and take questions from the class.

Big Jack's Pizza wishes to strengthen its brand and improve its packaging. Please provide advice on the following points:

• a new range of fusion cuisine pizzas: exciting names Recurrent negative customer comments: ·The pizzas all taste the same.' 'Big Jack's is old-fashioned - it's time for a change.' 'Th e pizzas are tao big; I can never finish them.' 'The slices slide around in the box and get stuck together.' 'No different from other pizza houses - same pizzas, same colors, same box, same price.'

needed for at least five pizzas •

new promotional ideas

• a new or updated

logo, color scheme and slogan

• a new box or box design for takeout and delivery. Estimated impact of implementing changes on packaging and advertising costs: • change logo + 2 % • three-color printing + 1 % • four-color printing + 2 % • non-standard box shape + 2 % • non-standard box materials + 2 %. NB Big Jack's w ill not accept an increase of more than 5% .

I /i, Business 2.0

47

4

Careers

.,. careers, jobs and vocations

4.1 About business

Career choices

__J

.,. managing your career

Discussion

D

h researc

Internet

Search for the keywords personality profile test

and do at least one online test. Compare you r results with a classmate and discuss how well they describe your personality.

Mark your position on the scales below. With a partner, explain and justify your choices.

I have no idea how my career will develop.

I have a elear idea of my "' career path.

I expect to work for one company 4 all my life.

I expect to work for severa! "' different companies in my life.

Money, status and a comfortable lifestyle are my priorities.

Job satisfaction, variety and being "' useful to society are my priorities.

Predicting and listening

O

~ 1:43 You are going to hear a talk for university students about how to choose a career. In part one, Charlie Schumann, a popular careers coach, tałks about two things you shouldn't do, and two things you have to do. Before you listen, try to predict what those things might be. Then listen and check your predictions.

Listening for detail

D :; 1 2 3 4 5

Il

1:43 Listen to Part 1 again and mark these statements T (true) or F (false).

Schumann says yo u shoul d choose something you love doing and that feels right for you. O Shc recommends goi ng to the Himalayas to learn martial arts. O Myers Briggs (M BT®) and Keirsey a re Kung Fu experts. O . You don't need to researc h a Jot of careers, only those that suit your personality profile. O Facebook and Google+ a re a great place to read about potentia! career choices. O ~ 1:44 Listen to Part 2 of the talk and answer the questions.

1 According to Schuma nn, wh ich of these factors are more likely to make you happy? Money, variety, farne, autonomy, beauty, recogn ition, team spirit, job sec urity, helping people. 2 What are 'flow' activities?

Discussion

D 1 2 3 4

In small groups, discuss your reactions to these statements from the talk.

'This is maybe th e one time in your life when you need to be totally selfish'. 'Tests like Myers Briggs or Keirsey are not a hun dred per cent reliable'. ' Having mare money doesn 't actually make you any happier'. 'Jobs that let you experien ce t hat 'flow' (a re) t he key to ... your idea! career'.

Sean reading

O

Read the a rticle opposite a nd find which two tips can be summarized as:

1 Move towards your long-term goal in small, easy stages. 2 Make sure that preconceived ideas about success and failure a re not preventing you from reac hing your goals. Glossary

Summarizing

O

Summarize each of the eight remaining tips in one sentence. In small groups, compare your sentences with other people and choose the best summary for each tip.

48

/ /,, Business z.o

PAGE 154

earth-shattering inertia jump in at the deep end pick someone's brains posse start the ball rolling stay put treadmill

D

GETTO KNOW YOURSELF - Before you start off in pursuit of a career that really lights your fire, take some time to do some serious self-exploration. Make a list of all the things in your life that you have really enjoyed. lt could be work or play, an event, a period of time in your life, etc. Pick one and start digging into the reasons why. Get beyond what you love doing, and break it down into the underlying characteristics. Think of it as identifying your passion's building bloc ks.

fł BRAINSTORM - Once you have a picture of the things that light your fire, 10

brainstorm ways you could incorporate them into your life. Write them down alone or with friends, in one session or on a small pad of paper you carry with you. Above all, be creative. You never know what crazy idea is going to spark the Big One.

El EXPLORE 15

Ask, ask, ask! Once you have identified some things you think you might be interested in, identify people who are knowledgeable in those areas and contact them. Explain that you are exploring your options and ask if you can pick their brains. You'll get some fantastic insights if you make this a habit, not to mention making some great contacts along the way.

O 20

BABY STEPS - The fear of jumping in the deep end of the passion pool keeps many people from swimming at all. Remember there's a shallow end too, so you can stil! enjoy splashing in the water. Look for baby steps you can take that will bring your passion into your life and keep you moving towards your long-term goal.

0 25

IDENTIFY YOUR OBSTACLES - What things are getting in your way? Make a list. Maybe they're real financial obstacles, or perhaps the need for more training. Maybe they are interna!. What's stopping you? Fear? Self-doubt? Simple inertia? We all have voices in our heads that are always tell ing us 'You can't do that', 'You're not good enough', 'What will they think?', etc. ldentifying and acknowledging those voices is the first step in taking their power away.

D 30

35

40

•5

CREATE A PASSION POSSE - In my interviews with people who have followed their dream, the most commonly rnentioned success factor has been the support of the people around them. Friends, family and colleagues can all be a great source of support and inspiration. lt can be an informal support network, or a regularly scheduled meeting to exchange ideas and brainstorm solutions to challenges.

0

RE-EXAMINE YOUR DEFINITIONS OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE - What is your definition of success? Is it getting in the way? Our culture places a lot of emphasis on materiał accomplishments, status, etc. Unfortunately, that gets in the way of real happiness for a lot of people, who choose to stay on the treadmill in pursuit of that version of success. Perhaps you're not at a point where you can or want to change that definition of success. That's OK; don't. lnstead, try identifying one or two less common ways of identifying 'success' - ones that come from the heart - and try to move towards them aswell. Our definition of failure, which tends to be all or nothing, also gets in the way. lf you try something and it doesn't pan out, how do you see that? Is it a failure? Or is it an opportunity to learn? lf you 'fail' in an effort to rnove toward your passion, it's not really failure. Think of it as a step in the right direction. Taking a longer term view can help with this.

D

MAKE A PLAN - Whether it's a high level overview or a step-by-step action

so plan, it is up to you - you know how you work best. Creating a plan w ill force

you to think things through and add some comfortable structure to something that can seem very up in the air and undefined.

D 55

ACT! TODAY! - The fact is, the time will never be right. Something is always going to be less than optimum. Don't wait! Do something right now that will move you toward your passion. What two things can you do right away that will start the bali rolling? They don't need to be earth-shattering, they just need to happen.

UlJ COMMIT TO MAKING IT HAPPEN -

Let it out of your brain and into the open. Say, 'I am going to do this.' Say it out loud to yourself. Say it to a friend. oo Put it in writing and put it where you can see it. Once it's out in the open it will have room to grow. And that's exactly what you want!

Busmess 2.0

49

4

Careers

Il> job benefits Il> rec ru itment and

li>-

employment verbs

Discussion

skills and qualities

D

Rank these benefits from the most (9) to the least desirable (1), in your opinion. Christmas bonus company car free accomrnodation free medical insurance luncheon vouchers pension plan profit-sharing sports and socia l facilities stock option~

Careers and employment

O

Put the events in Josef Gutkind's career in logical order.

Part 1 [] Beforc graduating, Josef applied for jobs in 20 companies. O Wilson Brothers offered Josef a position as a management tra inee. O His first interview was successful and he was short-listed for a second interview. O When Wilson's got in to difficulties, Josef was made redundant. O Two years later he was appointed Logistics Manager. O He was invited for an interview at Wilson Brothers. Part 2 ln his early fifties he took a sabbatical to write a book. Josef quickly found a new job, but was dismissed after arguing with his boss. O The book was a best-seller, and Josef resigned from the firm. O While he was unemployed Josef studied for a master's degree. O He retired from business and now lives in the south of France. O Thanks to the masters on his CV, Josef was hired by a fi rm of consultants.

O O

O

Use appropriate expressions in bold from Exercise 2 above to complete these job interview questions. Change the form as necessary.

1 Could you tell me exactly why you from OQP? 2 Were the departmenls merged before or after you Quality Manager? 3 After the factory closed, was it difficult to ? 4 Have you jobs in other companics in the area? 5 If you for a second in terview, would yo u be able to come to our head office in London? 6 How would you feel if we you as a prod uc t manager?

D

Now correct these sentences from a biography. The words in bold have been mixed up. Put them back in the right places.

1 Aisha's resum e was im pressivc; she was dismissed with out even attending a first interview. 2 At the second interview, Aisha did so well that she was made redundant on the spot. 3 A few years latcr, she wrote her first novel whi le she was unemployed; it sold only 400 cop ies. 4 Aisha was an unconventional journalist who preferred to work at night; aftcr a rriving fou r hours late for a meeti ng she was hired. 5 Wh en th e editor in her next job refused to publish a controversial article she had written, Aisha immediately offered to retire but the editor refused to let her. 6 However, when the newspaper was taken over by a larger competitor, Aisha was shortlisted. 7 After difficult times while she was on sabbatical, she was fi nally able to live in comfort when her sixth novcl b ecame a best-seller. 8 She was 74 when sh e finally decided to resign from writing novels. 50

, Business z o

h

Internet

researc

Search for the keyword mentoring to find out how a mentor can help employees with their personal development.

Collocations

O

In each set of five below, match a verb 1-10 with a noun a-j to make coffocations for describing skiffs and qualities.

1 2 3 4 5

take ---....._ a) make - - - - b) c) be d) work build e) f)

6 work 7 make 8 manage 9 possess 10 take on

g) h) i) j)

a commitment to in itiative good working relationships a good listencr to strict deadli nes a busy workload ownership closely with a valuab lc contribution to strong negotiating skills

D

Use eight of the collocations from Exercise 5 to complete the sentences below. Change the verb form if necessary.

1

3

I enjoy taking initiative, and I keep my promises; when I to a project, I always deliver. I have a lot of expericncc in both product development and sales teams, and can adapt to their different work ing styles. I have excellent organizational skills, and I hate being late - so I have no problem with

4 5 6 7 8

I liaise with government officials: fo rtunately, I _ _ _ __ I'm used to ; l'm good at multitasking, and coping with pressure is no problem. I often of projects with multi-million dollar budgets. I believe I can any work group. I , so I build good working relationships with colleagues.

li

Which two answers in Exercise 6 could you give to each of these questions?

a) b) c) d)

Are Are Are Are

2

you you you you

able to a good a good a good

take responsibility? O communicator? O O time manager? O O team workcr? O O

O

Listening for gist

Il

~ 1:45 Listen to an extract from a human resources review meeting. Mark these employees as high-fliers (+)or as concerns (-).

Rachel Ratcliff

Paul Stevens

Michael Diegel

Shane Garncy

Taking notes

Il

~ 1:45 Listen again. Take notes on the problem, causes and possible solutions for Rachel, Michael and Shane.

Rachel

Michael

Shane

problem causes possible solutions Glossary

PAGE

controversia I flag (verb) headhunter liaise with multitasking on the spot unconventional w anna be

tss

Discussion

[I!J

In small groups, decide what you would do about Rachel, Michael and Shane.

-------- -- - ' Business 2 o

51

4

Careers -

Il> present sim ple, present contin uous

-

--

-

-

4 .3 Grammar Present tenses

Il> present perfect, present perfect continuous

Refresh your

memory

Present simple I work best late at night. permanent or recurrent present actions or situations Present co ntinuous l'm not working on anything special at the moment. temporary present actions or situations

The bluffing game

Present perf ect simple /'ve never worked in safes, but I have worked in a cafe. life experience up to now, or present result of a past action

1 2 3 4

Present perfect continuou s

l've been working too hard - l'm exhausted! action in progress up to now

D

Complete the sentences below w ith information about yourself th at other students don't know. Use the present simple, present continuous, present perfect simple and p resent perfect continuous. Four of your sentences should be true, the other four should be untrue.

I often ... I don 't usually ... At the moment, I'm .. . Right now. l'm not .. .

5 I've never .. . 6 l'vc already ... 7 Recently, l've been ... 8 For some time now, I haven't been ...

O

In g roups, take t urns reading your sentences o ut and answering other students' questions. The group has to decide whether you are telling the truth or bluffing. Who is the best bluffer?

Present perfect and past simple

O

You and yo ur pa rtner work for an inte rnationa l recruitment agency. Your cl ients are looki ng for:

.... Grammar and practice pag;> 128

l

2 3 4 5 6

a Spanish-speaking science graduatc an undergraduate with marketing experience a graduate accountant, to be a future finance director a French-speaking graduate in business an arts undergraduate with experience in the Far East a Portuguese-speaking graduate with experience in sales.

You have each interviewed and tested five candidates. Exc hange information with your partner and decide together wh ich candidates are most sui table for eac h request. Student A: use the information below. Student B: turn to page 117. Candidate

Graduation

Work experience

Mr Salmon

next summer, Chemistry

pullover sales in Mexico

Management potentia! test

Ms Bianco Mrs Grey Miss Rose Mr Da Si lva

A+ next June, M arketing

nurse in New York A

---last December, MBA

own business in Brazil

Mr Green Mr Schwartz

B+

last October, Accountancy banks in Geneva, Monaco, Portugal

Miss Plum

Ms Violeta

B next spring, History

holiday club in Thaila nd

c-

Mr Braun

--~

52

l

Business;;: o

-

----~---

----

Listening: present perfect simple and continuous

Internet

research

D

~ 1:46-1 :55 Listen to situations 1- 10 and match them with the pictures A- J.

Search for the keywords English grammar p ractice to explore t he

1-w;;:v-J



~

many websites offering 9 rammar explanations and exercises. In class, hold a vote to find your favourite grammar site.

o

o

o

o

o Glossary

PAc:;E 155

assault course hand knock over relevant undergraduate You're kidding

o

D

1:46- 1:55 Listen again and w rite down what has happened or has been happening in each situation. Then compare your ideas with a partner.

Asking questions

O

With a partner, take turns interviewing each other for a job.

Student A: tum to page 115. Student B: turn to page 118.

I J;, Businei;s 2.0

53

I

L_

4 Jl>

Careers

preparing for intervi ews

4.4 Speaking Job interviews

Iii' answering interview quest ions Jl>

ro leplaying a job interview

Discussion

D 1 2 3 4

How would you answer the following interview questions?

Where do you see yourself in fivc years' time? How do you motivate people to do their bcst? Wh at are your weaknesses? Can you give an example of a situation you fo und stressful, and how you coped with the stress?

Listening

O 1 2 3 4

t.56- 1.59 Listen to extracts from tour job interviews A-D. Which candidate{s):

give(s) concrete examples from their experience? ask(s) questions to make sure they answer th e interviewer's question? structu re(s) the an'swer in two parts? turn (s) a question abo ut a negative point into an opportunity to emphasize a positive qua lity?

D

1.56-1 .59 Listen again and complete the checklist of useful expressions for answering job interview questions.

Useful expressions: Answering interview questions

54

Asking for clarification or reformulating

Playing for time

l'm sorry, could you expand on what you mean by „.? Doyou .„ ?

That's a very interesting question. I would say „. That's a difficult question to · let's _ _ _ _ that„.

Structuring your answer

Giving concrete examples

l'd like to answer that in two ways: firstly, . „ secondly, . „ I think there are two important to this question „.

Let me give you an example of what I mean. Take „., for _ _ __

Talking about yourself

Validating your answer

_ _ _ _ what I learned. I see _ _ __ as a top performing employee in a leading company. I plan to experience and learn new skills. J would be ready to up to a position with more responsibility. I real ized that know ing how well you're is essential to staying motivated. l'm that there are areas that I can improve on. I don't feel that I have any weaknesses. I would say that organization is one of my _ __ _ I to fin ish the project on time.

Is that what you wanted to know? Does that your question?

BusJness20

Internet

research

Search for the keywords interview advice tips to find out how to succeed in job interviews.

D

The candidates in Exercise 2 used these expressions. Put the words in bold in the correct order.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

I applied what learned I. I'm able being u npopular with to cope. I see myself performing as top a a employee company in leading. I pla n experience to gain new and skills learn. I would be ready more a move to position up with to responsibiłity . I realized that knowing well you're how motivated essential doing is to staying. l 'm aware there that on that areas are can I improve. I don't feel weaknesses I any have that significant. I would say my organization is that one of strengths. l managed on finish to the time project.

O

Read the quotation and mark the interview questions a-h as type 1 or type 2 questions.

The good news is that there a re only two interview questions. That is, regardless of what you're asked, the employer really only wants to know: 1

2

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Glossary

PAGE 155

achievement cope with rapport regardless of strengths weaknesses

łtf eWorkbook

Now watch the video for this unit.

What value can you add to my enterprise as an employee (and can you prove it) ? Why do you want this job?' What are your strcngths and weaknesses? Why do you want to work for us? What is your greatest achievement? How do you make sure things get done? Why do you want to leave your present job? Tell me about a time when you successfully handled a difficult situation. What sort of environment would you prefer not to work in? What are the most difficult kinds of decisions for you to make?

With a partner, ask and answcr the questions using expressions from Exercises 3 and 4, inventing any details as necessary.

Roleplay

D

With a partner, roleplay an interview for one of the jobs below.

lnterviewer Interview the candidate for the job they have chosen. lnvent further information about the job as necessary. For each of your questions, note whether the answer is satisfactory or not. At the end of the interview, give the candidate feedback on how well they performed. Candidate Let the interviewer lead the conversation initially, but try to develop an exchange by asking questions about the job and the organization. r-

Multinational oil company seeks future managers to lead development teams for alternative energies in Norway, lndonesia and South America. Strong leadership and communication skills essential. Motivating compensation package.

For details visit www.nuenergeez.com

Leading consultancy requires business graduates to train as auditors and consultants

J

-1

I

Vacancies in London, Paris, New York, Tokyo Candidates should be analytical, independent and able to develop a rapport with clients in all sectors Competitive salary and benefits Send CV to Jane O'Hara - johara@acc.jobs.org ____...

L

-

____.____________________

----~

Music major seeks dynamie tour managers to organize and manage promotional tours for top pop, rock, and R&B acts 80% of time on tour Successful candidates will have strong intercultural, negotiation, people- and crisis-management skills Sala
I

l

I

I /

, ~

I

l

Business 2 o

55

4

Careers

Ili- CV structure

4.5 Writing

A CV

Ili- appropriate language

Discussion

Ili- writing a CV

D

Discuss why you agree or disagree with the following statements about writing CVs or resumes.

1 2 3 4

You should never use more tha n one page. You should describe your experience first, then your qualifications. You shoulq list five or six people who can be contacted for a reference. You should always include a photograp h.

Model

O

Decide in what order you expect the following categories to occur in a CV. Then read the CV below to check. general additional skills personal details positions of responsibility qualifications refe rences voluntary roles wor k experience

Robert Khan Date of birth Nationality Current address Tel:

29 April 1991 British 27 Keats Road, London SE4 3KL (until 30 June) 020 8088 8965

Permanent address 247 Newmarket Road, Norwich NR4 1ET Tel : 01603 443143 EDUCATION

2010-2013 2007-2010 2003-2007

BA in Business Studies at Chelsea School of Business (Exam results to date 2:2; Expected finał grade 2:1) Norwich School: 3 'A' levels: Economics (A), Maths (BJ, History (C) Norwich School: 10 GCSEs, including Maths and English

WORK HISTORY

Jan-June 2012

July-Sept 2011 2010- 2011

Work placement, Atherton Consultants I played an integral part in a team of consultants working on IS projects. This position

required familiarity with networking solutions and Web design and involved liaising with a client's parent company in Germany. Vacation Trainee, Jardine, White & Partners I coordinated an office reorganization project. Sa/es Assistant, Kaufhaus des Westens, Berlin I was responsible for managing the outdoor exhibition of camping equipment. I ran a language training programme for members of the department.

POSITIONS Of RESPONSIBILITY

2011-2012

2011 to present

President of CSB Students ' Union I represented over 400 members in faculty meetings and organized and chaired conferences with visiting speakers. Captain of CSS Squash Team I run training sessions and am responsible for organizing matches and motivating the team.

OTHER

Fluent German Advanced computer literacy: Office software, networking and Web design 3rd trombone In the London Students' Jazz Orchestra Clean driving licence REFERENCES

See next page

56

Il Business 2. o

research

Internet

Search for t he keywords resume style to find out about different resume styles to consider, including f un ctional, ski/Is and chronological styl es.

Ana lysis

D

Underline all the verbs in Robert's CV in Exercise 2. What do you notice?

Language focus

D

Read the CV again. How has Robert formulated the following information in mare appropriate language?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

I sometimes phoned people in Germany. I'm good with computers. I was the contact for the removal company for the transfer to new offices. I gave some colleagues some English lessons. l spoke on behalf of 400 stud ents in meetings with teachers. I was the general assistant to the computer consultants. I sold tents. I had to learn how to set up a LAN. I'm the only member of the team who believes we can win. My job was to introduce the speakers and thank them at the end.

Output

O

Read the facts about Justine Collier and organize the information under the five headings used in Robert Khan's CV. Then write Justine's CV using relevant language and expressions from Exercise 4.

Vofo11tc>.15 worK si11ce 2.008 - 01ATL..OOK1 cfĄ/.\ritlJ .for dis/.\bfed ct,...ifdre1'1. - p/.\rties, visits, etc. Pf/.\lJ viofi11 i11 sfri11 B1AMtet

0

1A11iversitlJ b/.\sKetb/.\H fe/.\»1- - »1-l)Job to bri11 dri11Ks

0

z.oos-z.001 Nortt,...er1'1. Hi k Sct,...oof 'A' fevef M/.\tks (A), t;co110»1-ics (IS),

0

Fre11ct,... (B)

Secrehrlj1 NewMstfe S'!A11ior C.k/.\»1-ber o.f- C.0»1-»1-erce i1'1. 2...009 - »1-i1'1.-i.
0

TlJpi11(r speed 90 wpl'l-

0/.\ C.ofi.ier

S-i.
14- &ree1't Sfreef1 Newc/.\stfe Nt;l3 8BH

Tef: 01819 12...2... 1189

Oct-M/.\r 2...00S ::r:11ter11st,...ip Arbof Oif: .f111/.\11ce dep/.\rt~11t 1 Sl'\,/.\Hjobs, fe/.\r11e.d /.\cco-i.<11ts so.ftw/.\re1 el'\,/.\if .f-ro1t1- S Al'l-e.ric/.\ Bifi11 -i.
0

4-/11/891 A-i.
focKlJ)

O

Write (or update) your own CV.

I hr Business 2.0

57

4

Careers -·~,,.:..-'•-.:: -

~

taking a gap year

~

applying for a placement

~

placement interviews

h researc

Internet

Search for the keywords gap year to read about some of the ways students (and other age groups) are using t heir gap years.

,

-.........~

„ ........ -;: --·-;-;-, ,.,.,----:-

4.6 Case study „ G~p years 'a~d ~ąreer'l)rea.ks- ·

--~~~

--

-

·_

I Brainstorming

D

Brainstorm the advantages and disadvantages of taking a year off before or after university or in mid-career. How many different ways of spending a gap year can you think of?

Listening

O

2.0 1-2.06 Listen to six interviews with people who took a gap year and answer

the questions.

1 When and where did they take thcir year out? 2 Were their experiences positive, negative or mixed? Why?

Sean reading

D 1 2 3 4 5

Read the advertisement and answer th e questions.

Who can app ly for a gap-year placement, and when? What are the four benefits of a gap-year placement mentioned in the advertisement? What kind of work is available? Do you get paid/have to pay? How do you apply?

Want to change the world, or just wanta change? Whether you are stlll a student or already In work, a gap-year placement Is a unlque opportunlty to broaden your horlzons, enhance your CV and step back from your studies or career to declde what you want to do wlth your life. Perhaps more importantly, a gap-year placement Is the chance to do something concrete and tanglble to help people In need In underprlvlleged areas of the world. Placements are deslgned for people over 17 years of age, and run for slx or nlne months throughout the world. All placements begin wlth an lntenslve orlentatlon course to help you flnd your feet; for some countrles, an optlonal te~ay lntenslve language course Is recommended. Partlclpants work as volunteers in sectors such as education, conservatlon, medlcal support and care work. Food and accommodatlon are provlded, but partlclpants pay thelr own travel costs.

58

l h, Business 2.0

- --

Reading and discussion

IJ Read the tour descriptions of gap-year placements. With a partner, explain which one(s) you'd prefer to go on, and why. Why wouldn 't you like to go on the others?

Writing and roleplay

O

You are going to take turns interviewing and being interviewed for www.gapyearpl~c ement.org. First complete the application form, then follow the steps below.

application form

Care Work in South Africa Population : 45 million Officia! Language: 11 officia! languages, including English and Afrikaans Placement: Schools for 4 to 18 year olds with special needs Job: Classroom assistant in a special needs school, providing classroom support and working on an individual basis with children with mental and physical disabilities. Working week: 45 hours, some evening duties.

www.gapyearplacement.org Name: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Current occupation: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A Describe your previous participation in any organization, your experiences in other countries and your contact with persons of other nationalities, races and cultures.

B What are your main reasons for spending a year abroad and why have you applied for a gap-year placement?

C What is your preferred destination and type of voluntary work?

1 Divide into A Groups and B Groups of four 2

3

4

5

students each. Three studen ts from Group A inter view one student from Group B. At the sam e time, three students from Group B interview one student from Group A. Use th e compl eted application forms above (and CVs. ii avai lable) for the interviews. When the first interview is finished, a different person from each group goes to the other group to be interviewed. The interview panel will, therefore, be slightly di ffereni each time. When all the interviews arc finished, decidc in your groups which candidates have been successful. Group A and Group B join together and give the cand idates feedback on why their applications Glossary PAGE 1SS have or have not been successful. ecofind your feet step back tangible underprivileged

Conservation in Malaysia Population: 24 million Officia! Language: Bahasa Melayu Main Religion : Islam Placement: Conservation work Job: Various conservation projects: construction and maintenance of tra ils, identification of species, eco-tourism projects, organie farms, anima! sanctuaries, turtle-conservation projects. Work is physically demanding.

Care Work in Costa Rica Population: 4 million Officia! Language: Spanish (Indian languages and Patois also spoken) Main Religion: Roman Catholic Placement: Care work Job: Care-work placements in homes for children with disabilities or orphanages: assisting individual chi ldren, organizing activities, helping with lessons or assisting at meal times. lntensive Spanish language course recommended.

Teaching in Tanzania Population : 37 million - over 129 tribes Officia! Language : Swahili and English Main Religion: Christianity and \siam Placement: Teaching in primary or secondary schools Job: Teaching five days a week: all subjects, including sport and drama. Participants must have excellent English . Four weeks" school holidays per year.

- --- --! lu Business z o

-

59

Review- 3 Products and packaging

D

Fili in the missing vowels in these adjectives.

1 Today's marketplace is highly c_mp_t_t_v_. 2 Packaging has to be _ttr_ ct_v _, _ff_ ct_ v _and d_st_nct_v_. 3 Packaging is er _t_c_l to make sure there is _ ff_c _ _n t use of l_ m _t_d shelf .space. 4 An _r _g_n_I idea can turn out to be _ mp r_ct_c_l fo r reasons of t _ chn_c_l limi tati o ns.

O

1

2 3 4

Packaging is the manufacturer's last _ __ _ to sedu ce the custo mer. Many products are identical from the consu mer's poin t of _ _ __ Most purchasing decisions a re made at th e point of Th e pri ncipal problem is a Jack of between t he people involved in t he design and development

5 T here are differen t groups of experts, all work ing in

6

their own specialized _ _ __ Production people know noth ing about consumer

T he manufacturing people deal with the tech nical _ _ _ _ as a nd when they arise. 8 Our task forces can deliver an opti ma] in o ne week, so metimes less.

7

D

In each set of tour below, match a verb on the left with a phrase on the right to make collocations about product development.

generate 2 screen out 3 launch 4 d raw up

the product o nto the market new ideas in focus groups specifications for the product u nfeasible or unprofitable ideas

5 cond uct 6 draw 7 go into 8 test

production on a large scale after tests market studies sketches and bui ld mockups the product by using it in typical situatio ns

1

li

Fill in the missing letters to complete these nouns about dimensions.

1 It's 45 cm long. 2 lt's 31 cm wide. 3 It's 8 cm high. 4 lt weighs 9 kg.

=

Its l_ _ _ _ _ is 45 c m. lts w _ _ _ _ is 31 cm. Its h __ _ _ _ is 8 cm. lts w _ _ _ _ _ is 9 kg.

O

Match each word in the box with its definition 1- 5. Then translate the words into your language.

benefi t featu re function USP (unique selling point)

specificatio n

1 t he th ing that makes a product special or different from others _ _ __

/he Business 2.0

an important, interesting or typical part of something

a detailed instruction about how something should be made _ __ _ 4 a n advantage that you get fro m something _ _ __ 5 the job that something is designcd to do _ _ __ 3

O

Join the sentences using who (for people), that (for things) or whose.

1

H ere's the email. I got it this morning. H ere's the email that I gat this morning.

2

H ere's the email. It arrived this morn ing.

3

The team leader is an interesting ma n . He comes fro m Spain.

Cornplete the sentences using words from the box.

chance commu nication field issues needs process sa le solution view

60

2

4 The team leader is an interesting man. I met him yesterday.

5 The team leader is an interesting man. H is backgro und is in IT.

O

Put brackets around any examples of who or that that are not necessary in Exercise 6.

O

Make noun phrases from the following definitions.

1 A cycle for developing a product is a product development cycle.

2

A docum ent th at shows you have insurance for travel is

3

A concept for the design·of packaging is a _ _ _ __

4

A product used fo r cleaning households is a _ _ _ _

a --~----~--------~----

I.I Choose the correct word(s) to make phrases for a product presentation.

1 After that, l'll go I go on to present ... 2 An d now, if you have any questions, 1'11 do my best to answer I respond them. 3 My reason I objective today is . 4 Finał I Finally, J'm going to . 5 First of a ll, I I l 'll talk ab out ... 6 Thank you for l istening I your listening. 7 l've divided my presentation by I i nto three sectio ns. 8 Please make I feel free to interrupt me. 9 So, in summary, these a re the reasons I motives why I am aski ng you to ...

[[!]

Put phrases 1-9 from Exercise 9 into the order that you wou ld probably hear them.

m Rearrange the words to make diplomatic phrases used in a meeting.

1

can I to I t hat I later I come I back I we?

2

we I want I to I go I in I that's I a I direction I I'm I not I sure.

3

that's I the I more I mind I of I th ing I I I had I in I kind.

Revievv 4

I

Careers

D

Finish each phrase about careers with the best collocation from a-h.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

make a career reach your long-term prefer money rather than job learn new gain get a performance-related send off a job apply for a gap-year

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

application bonus choice experience goal placement satisfaction skills

D

Fill in the missing letters in these words which all have a meaning similar to goal.

y.

2 3

elear I annual I production I sales t _____ s limited I elear I spccific I business o ______ __ s the overall I main I sole I underlying __ m

D

Match each word in the box w ith its definition below. Then translate the words into your language.

experience aptit ude backg round know -how knowl edge ski\\

1 knowledge !hat you need to be able to do something 2 info rmation that someone knows _ _ __ 3 an ability to do something well, especially because you have practised it _ _ _ _ 4 knowledge or skill you get fro m being in differen t situations _ __ _ 5 the typ e of education, experience and family that you h ave _ __ _ 6 a natura! ability to do something well or to learn it qu ickly _ _ _ _

D

The expressions in th e box refer to losing your job.

O

Put each verb into the correct form : present sim ple (do I does), present continuous (am I are I is doing), present perfect (have I has done) or past sim ple (did) . Each form is used twice.

'I'm really busy this morning - I (1) (interview) three candidates for that sales job - the second one is outsidc now. Yesterday was even worse. I (2) _ _ __ (interview) five candidates in two hours, and none of them were any good. Let me see, over the last ten days I thi nk I (3) (interview) 16 candidates. Just imagine! And every time l (4) (interview) someone there's a CV to read , qu estions to prepare, records to keep. It just (need) a b reak. never ends. Right now, I (5) (6) (anyone/see) that travel brochure about (put) it holidays in th e Seychelles? I know I (7) somewhere. Wait a minu te. There's no-one here. I (8) (ta lk) to myself. '

O

Put each verb into the correct form : present perfect (have I has done) or present perfect continuous (have I has been doing).

1

I (write) my CV all morning, and finally I. _ __ _ (finish) it. 2 (writc) four job applications this week. One day I must get lucky - I (try) to find a job for a ges.

Il

1 strong (adj) _ _ __ _ 2 weak (adj) _ _ _ __ 3 responsible (adj) _ _ __ _ 4 perform (v) _ _ __ _ 5 commit (v) _ _ _ __ 6 achieve (v) _ _ _ __

O

Use each noun from Exercise 8 to complete these questions from a job interview. Some have a pl ural form.

be d ismissed be fired be laid off be made red undant be sacked

2 1 2 3 4

Wh ich three suggest it was your fault?

---·---1--Which of these three is mare forma!? Which two expressio ns suggest it was not your fault?

- - - · -- -

Which of these two is British English? _ __

D

Fili in the missing letters in these words about careers.

1 2 3 4 5 6

be sh _ _ _-li _ _ _d for a second interview re_ _ _ n from a job because you have a better offer in another company a _ _ _ _ d an interview on Friday morning be p_ _ _ _ _ _ d to a mare senior position after same time in the company be h _ _ ed by a company after a successful interview a _ _ _y fo r a job in a company

Make nouns from th e adjectives and verbs below.

3 4 5 6

What are your main functions and dutics in your ? present job? What are your How does the company know you are doing a good job? How do th ey measure your ? What are the positive things you can bring to the team? W hat a re your ? And what would you say a re your ? Come on, be honest now. What is the one thing you a re most proud of in your present job? What is your greatest ? If we offer you th is job, w hat kind of will you have to the company? Will you be looking for a nother job after a year or two?

[1,t

Business 2 o

61

5 Making deals IJll>

online and offline retailers

IJll>

social networking in retail

5.1 About business Retailing Discussion

D

h researc

Internet

Visit two or three of these sites: Foursquare. com, Booyah.com, Shopkick.com, Stickybits. com, Gowalla.com, Loopt.com, Brightkite. com, Facebook Places. Which service appeals to you most? Why?

1 2 3 4

In small groups, discuss these questions.

Do you prefer shopping in a bricks-and-mortar store or online? Why ? Do you do research online before buying in a stare, or look at products in store before ordering online? Does it depend on what you 're buying? H ave you used services like Facebook Places and Foursquare? How do you see the future of retailing? Is there room for both bricks-and-mortar and e-commerce?

Sean reading

O

Read the article opposite quickly and choose the best summary.

Retailers are using Internet serv ices a) to attract social networking users to their wcbsitcs. b) to imp rove their conversion rates by having customers scan bar codes. c) to acqu ire data about customers and their lifestyles. d) to incrcase foot traffic a nd make personalized offers.

Reading for detail

D 2 3

4 5 6

Read the article again and decide whether these statements are T (true) or F (false).

The advantage offlin e retailers have over online stores is that they can easily know who their customers are and adapt to their needs. O Visitors to an e-commerce site are mare likcly to make a purchase than people who walk into a store. O Smartphone apps allow users to tell their friends where they are in return for exchanging information with retailcrs. O Manufacturers could increase sales by persuading shoppcrs to handle their products. O Big brands are unconvinced about the effici ency of using social media apps. O Competing to collect virtual titles can become an obsession for same shoppers. O

Discussion

D

Explain the significance of the following phrases:

e-commerce doesn 't let go easily (line 4) app-mania carne flying to bricks-and-mortar's rescue (line 11) all-important foot traftic (line 19) if that seems somehow less than essential (line 27) powe1fully addictive experiences (line 58) to hook users into a self-perpetuating race to ... lheir individual identity (line 60)

Listening

11 :; 2:07

Listen to a shopper answering questions in a survey on social media and shopping. Complete the questionnaire.

How interested are you in services like Facebook Places and Foursquare? Please give each option a rating between O (no interest) and 5 (very interested).

1 2 3 4 5 Glossary

PAGE 155

bricks-and-mortar claws hit

62

I J,, Business 2.0

checking in to shopping venues so your friends know where you are O winning gift certificates or prizes after a certain number of check-ins O receiving information on special deals from stores O checking in to a product by scanning a bar code O becoming the mayor of your favourite coffee-shop or t he queen of lipstick O

-------..--.--~---·-·-------------------------------

Discussion

O

Interview a partner. Ask questions to complete the questionnaire in Exercise 5. Compare and discuss your answers.

Retai finds its new best friend 1n soc1a media marketing EVERY ONLINE SHOPPER knows that a single internet purchase will be followed by an uninterrupted stream of offers tailored to their profile and tastes. Once it's got its claws into your digital ID, e-commerce doesn't let go easily. s Make a cash purchase in a mall on the other hand, and you leave the retailer none the wiser about who you are, what kind of products you prefer or whether you'll ever set foot in their store again. Until very recently, offline stores were at a distinct 10 disadvantage when it carne to knowing their customers. But just when the retail battle seemed almost lost, app-mania carne flying to bricks-and-mortar's rescue. The consumer's love-affair with smartphone apps has not only saved physical retail's bacon, it may even be turning the tables in its favour. 1s Because in-store conversion rates are far higher than the very small percentage of e-commerce hits that actually make a sale, if apps get shoppers through the door, high street stores know they're winning. So just how is app-mania boosting that all-important 20 foot traffic? Old friends like Facebook and new services like Shopkick and Foursquare provide offline stores with online data on their visitors by encouraging users to check in via their apps as they move around town. Stores and service outlets can track consumer behaviour, recognize returning 2s customers and send them personalized offers. In return. app users can let their friends know exactly where they are and what they're buying. lf that seems somehow less than essential. they can also collect points, and win vouchers and prizes. 30 Other new services are taking advantage of smartphone technology and real-world store visits to push individual brands and products. Services like Barcode Hero® and Stickybits™ invite users to compare prices, post product

35

Jo

•5

so

s5

so

reviews and win prizes by scanning bar codes in stores. 'When we get a pack or a can off the shelf and into the consumer's hands, there's a very strong chance they'll actually purchase that product, enioy it, and become a regular customer' says a brand manager for a household name in food products. After an initial period of scepticism, the maiors have been persuaded to get involved by serious user numbers (Foursquare has over three million). High street retailers like Walgreens, Starbucksr "' and Gap® and service providers like American Express® are running app-based campaigns, while major brands like Pepsi, Lipton and Campbells® are also investing in social media. With a potentia! one billion Facebook users checking in to local businesses through 'Facebook Places', physical retailers can finally compete with e-commerce on equal terms. Sawy shoppers however have already seen loyalty cards, coupons, stamps and air miles come and go: will they be willing to keep checking in to venues and scanning bar codes? The results of new marketing concepts borrowed from digital gaming suggest they will. One of the strongest motivators in social media is status and identity: collecting points to obtain virtual titles like 'duchess of books' or 'queen of lipstick' combines the powerfully addictive experiences of social media, interactive competition and shopping, allowing high street names and big brands to hook users into a self-perpetuating race to connect to others and affirm their individual identity. Like it or not, virtual browsing and real world shopping are converging; in social media marketing, retail has found its new best friend.





-- ------ --

~-----

J,, Business 2..0

63

5 Making deals ..,. col locations for negotiating ..,. e-tail transactions

5.2 Vocabulary

Discussion

O Internet

' You can do everything in an e-store that you can do in a high-street store, except touch the product.' Do you agree? What can you do in an e-store that you can't do in a high-street store?

Search for the key words

Collocations .

h researc

principled negotiation

to f ind out about a popular approach t o negotiation .

D

Complete the collocations for negotiating by choosing the correct noun from the boxes for each group of three verbs. a discount

an order

a price

a proposal

the benefits

the details

place

bring down

take

quote

fill

state

grant

see

sort out

make

sell

discuss

4

explain

ask for

2

firm up

5

go over

a compromise

subject to open to

offer

a deadline

a deposit

require

costs

fee

negotiation

a monthly

8

an annual

under

put down

an entrance

hidden

meet

seek

extra fixed

10

miss extend

6

reject

pay 7

3

11

offer

9

12

find

Listening

D

~ 2.08- 2:15 Listen to eight extracts from negotiations. What's happening in each case? Complete the descriptions with an appropriate verb or expression from Exercise 2.

Extra et 1: A supplier is an order. Extract 2: A buyer is trying to the price. a bigger discount. Extract 3: A buyer is a proposal. Extract 4: A seller is Extract 5: A negotiator is saying that availability is open to/subject to _ _ __ Extract 6: A se!Jer is ask ing the buyer to deposit. Extract 7: A custom er is complaining that a supplier has deadline. a compro mise. Extract 8: A negotiator is Write two similar extrac ts illustrating two more of the colłocat ions. Read them to a partner, who sho ułd try to iden tify the coll ocations you are referring to.

64

Tli Business 2.0

Pronunciation

D

~ 2:16-2:20 Listen to these phrases you heard in Ex ercise 3 . Each contains examples of /:i/(schwa), the neutral sound used for unimportant, unstressed sounds, for example the fi rst and last sounds in the word another. Underline the /:i/ sounds in each phrase.

1 five hundred at 12 euros a box 2 two and a half thousand 3 an extra 2%

4 five or six weeks a year 5 We usually ask for 20% now.

Now p ractise saying the ph rases with the correct pronunci ation .

11:1 Put these steps in an e-tail transaction into the correct chronolo gica l o rder. O The product is sh ipped to the c ustomer's address by mai l or express carrier.

O O

O O O O

O

O O D

o

~

• INBOX

The seller exchanges the product or gives a refund. The customer goes to the check-out and pays by credit card . The website records the transaction and generates an in voice. The custo mer selects the product and places it in a cart. The customer sends the faulty product back under guarantee. The customer's credit card account is debited. The customer clicks on the link to the seller's site. The customer browses the site and identifics the product which interests him. The website sends an instruction to the warehouse to ship the product. In each email, correct the words in bold which a computer virus has mixed up.

REPLY



e

FORWARD •

Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to complain about the service from your lowlowprice.biz webs1te. Last month I ordered a DVD; you then took three weeks to ship the (a) site. While I was wait1ng for delivery, I browsed another (b) product, which advertised t he same DVD for only half the price. I have also priced the (c) credit on severa! other sites, all cheaper than yours . Finally, when I checked my bank statement. I noticed that you have debited my (d) p roduct card twice ! Please correct this error as soon as possible. Mary Brotherton

~

• INBOX

REPLY



FORWARD •

Dear Ms Brotherton, Please accept aur apologies for the errors you have experienced. Unfortunately. our computer recorded your (a) l ink twice, and therefore generated two (b) refunds. Usually our prices are the lowest on the Web; when this is not the case, we are happy to give full (c) product. Please send the (d) t ransaction back and we will credit your account for the full amount. (Click on the (e) inv oices below for the return address.) Customer Service Department www.lowlowprice.biz

Discussion

O

Tell a partner about a time when you had difficulty reaching an agreement in a neg otiat ion with someone . Talk abo ut the differe nt stages in the discussion, and if and what yo u ev entually agreed . Use the word s and th e exp ressions i n th e b ox t o help y ou.

be pre pared to

clarify

consider

discuss

point out

propose

reach an agreement

Business 2 o

65

5 Making deals Ili>-

ff+ present simple + will

Ili>-

ff+ past simple + would

Ili>-

recommend, advise, suggest

5.3 Grammar Conditionals and recommendations Discussion

D

Read the questionnaire and think about your answer to each quest ion; be careful to use the correct grammar structures. Then, with a partner, compare your answers; tell your partner if you think their answer is right or not.

Refresh your

memory

First conditional if + present simple, (then) + will+ do likely future events

li>- Grammar and practice page 130 Second conditional if + past simple, (then) + woufd+ do unlikely future events

Customer care questionnaire You've just started a new job selling sportswear and equipment.

... Grammar and practice page 131

What do you advise when a customer can't decide between a cheap and an expensive product?

recommend/suggestl advise recommend/suggest something recommend/suggest something to someone recommend/suggest (not) doing something recommend/suggest (that) someone do something advise someone (not) to do something advise (not) doing something

What do you say if a customer asks for a discount? What do you recommend doing if a customer is angry? What would you do if a customer injured her foot by dropping weight train ing equipment on it? What wil l you do if a customer breaks a va luable piece of equipment? What wo uld you say if a customer said you knew nothing about sport? What do you suggest doing if a customer asks you for your personal phone number?

... Grammar and practice page 131

O

What would yo u do if a customer complained about your attitude?

El

What will you do if you accidentally shortchange a customer?

IIlJ

What would you do if a customer made racist or sexist remarks?

mWhat do you recommend if a customer brings back a set of golf clubs and demands a ref und?

m What wou ld you do if you saw a customer steal some expensive running shoes?

[EJ What do you do if the item the customer wants is out of stock?

[C What will you say if a customer asks why your prices are higher than on li ne stores?

U3

66

• Bus1ne$s 2 o

What would you do if a customer left their credit card in the store?

h researc

Internet

Search for the keywords negotiation quotes to find quotatio ns about negotiating by experts and famous historical fig u res.

Reformulating

O

Reformulate these sentences using the words in bold.

We can only deliver by 1 July if we receive a 300/o deposit within ten days. (u nable, unless) We are unable to deliver by 1 ]u/y unless we receive a 30% deposit within ten days.

2

Our production manager will agree to make the changes, as long as you supply a prototype. (willing, providing) 3 We might consider a larger discount, on one condition: that yo u pay in advance. (reluctant, unless) 4 We would not wish to sponsor the exhibition unless we had a large stand in the cntrance hall. (prepared, but only if) 5 Providing we can get the sub-components in time, we will be able to meet the deadline. (unl ess, impossible) 6 lf, and only if, severa! other top CEOs were present, our p resident would agrcc to attend. (as long as, available)

Discussion O With a partner, ask and answer these questions, following the example. l

Would you recommend working abroad for a few years and, if so, where? I would certai nly recommend it, providing il was a good career move and, personally, I would suggest going to an Engl ish-speaking country. What do you think?

2 Would you advise wo rking for non-profit organizations and, if so, which ones? 3 Would you recommend that people work part-time? 4 How wo uld you advise a manager who wants to be popular? 5 What do you suggest young people do to become millionaires?

Listening

D :> 2:21

Two colleagues in a sales department, Jan and Petra, are negotiating a list of responsibilities they have to share. Listen and write J (Jan) or P (Petra) next to the points they agree on.

D D O O O O

tennis tournament with customer run exhibition stand in Kazakhstan conference in Madagascar team-building course in Siberia relocate call centre manager to India take holiday in August

O

D

O

D D

take holiday in January open office at 6am close office at lOpm supervise intern for six months share office with PR Manager

Negotiating

11 With a partn er, try to negotiat e an agreement on the remaining points in the list above. f/J, Business 2 o

67

5 Making deals IJo>

negotiating technique

IJo>

expressions for bargaining and offers

Discussion

roleplaying a negotiation

D

IJo>

5.4 Speaking

Negotiations - bargaining

In one minute, negotiate the sale of your bicycle/computer/ musical instrument /other item to a partner.

Did you win or lose the negotiation? Why? Is there always a win ner and a loser?

Listening

D :- 2:22 1 2 3 4 5 6

D D

Listen to Part 1 of a negotiation and answer the questions.

What does H arry Petersen's company do? What services are included in the package Ingrid's company offers? How does Harry intend to deliver products? How wi ll Holman Multimedia charge for thcir services? What are the advantages for Harry of working with Holman Multimedia? What is the next step? ~ 2:23 Listen to Part 2, Version 1. What important mistake does Harry make? ~ 2:24 Listen to Part 2, Version 2 and answer the questions.

1 How has Harry improved on Version 1? 2 What conditions docs Ingrid ask for to: bring down the monthly fee? guarantec a maximum down ti me of 24 hours per month ? have the site up and ru nning by next month? 3 What terms do Harry and Ingrid agree?

O :,

2:24 With a partner, find suitable words to complete the useful expressions for bargaining in the checklist. Then listen again and check your answers.

Useful expressions: Bargaining Tentative offers I might be able to bring it down a little, but _ _ __ if w e had a three-year contract. I might consider reducing the price if you increased your order. Compromising Would you agree t o a compromise? Is that an acceptable compromise? „. let's the difference. Firm offers I am ready to sign a contract today if you can guarantee the price for two years. „ . so we're happy to guarantee less than 24 hours per month, as _ __ _ as you choose our platinum service level. I can pay six months in advance, on that you have the site online in two months. Counter-offers l'd be to agree to a three-year contract, you could guarantee a maximum down time of 24 hours per month. I suppose we do it, providing you a year's fees in advance. lt would be difficult for me to increase my order unless you guaranteed the price for two years.

Which tenses are used in the condition (ifl unless) clauses of the tentative offers, counter-offers and firm offers above, and why?

68

/ Bus1nel;s z

Bargaining

Internet

research

Sea rch for the keywords cross cultural negotiation t o find out how cultural differences affect international negot iations.

O

Work with a partner to negotiate the following situations. Change roles for the second negotiation.

1 Student A: You have to give a presentation to the sales team tomorrow morning, but you booked an important client meeting at the same time. Ask B to give the presentation for you. Student B: This is the second time this has happened in two months. You th ink A should be more organized, so if you agree, negotiate something valuable in return. Student A: You have to work with an auditor on Friday afternoon, but your boss has booked you on an all-day training course. Ask B to look after the auditor for you.

2

Student B: You were pla nning to takc Friday afternoon off as you are going away for the weekend, so if you agree, negotiate sornething valuable in return. Use the following format to structure your negotiations: Student A

Student B

Ask a f avour.

Make a tentative offer.

/ /

Make a counter-offer.

Propose a com promise.

Make a firm offer.

Ag ree, go back to the beginni ng or break off negotiations.

Pronunciation

O

Stressing keywords is important in making elear that your first offers are tentative and hypothetical. Underline the two keywords that are stressed in each of these examples.

1 I might possibly be ablc to bring it down a li ttle, but only if we had a three-year contract. 2 I might consider reducing the price, if you increased your order. 3 I'd be reluctant to agree to a three-year contract, unless you could guarantee a maximum down time of 24 hours per month.

Il

~ 2:25- 2:27 Listen and check your answers in Exercise 7. Then practise saying each sentence.

Negotiating

D

With a partner, practise negotiating an e-tailing package.

Student A: look at the instructions below. Student B: turn to page 121. Student A Harry Petersen's Application Service Provider, Holman Mu ltimedia, has gone out of business, taking with it Harry's site which was turning over a thousand dollars per day. Harry needs to hire a new provider. This time he is determined to negotiate a contract which will protect his business if there are problems. Harry has asked you to negotiate with another supplier, Easytail. He has given you a list of points to negotiate below. Try to obtain more 'ldeals' than 'Unacceptables'.

Glossary down time lead t ime package reluctant t entative

PAGE 155

IdeaI

Acceptab\e

Unacceptable

Set-up time

< 3 w eeks

3 w eeks

> 3 weeks

Co st

less tha n Holman

same as Holman

more than Holman

Payment terms

> 30 days

30 days

< 30 days

Contraet

6-12 months

12- 18 months

> 18 mont hs

Penalties if site is offline

> 50% of averag e turnover

50% of average turnover

< 50% of average turnover

Penalties if contract is broken

50% of turn over for 2 months

50% of turnover for 1 month

< 50% of turnover for 1 month

---

-----

I

Busines-; 2 o

69

5 Making deals Il> proposal structure

5.5 Writing

A proposal

Il> options and contingencies Il> writing a proposal

Discussion

D

Discuss your views on mailshots and spam. Mark your position on the scale.

They make good business sense.

...~t---+--+----
They're a w aste of money.

Model

O

Read the proposal below and answer the questions.

1 What service does the proposał offer? 2 Which four benefits does it offer? 3 How much does the service cost? 4 Why should the customer choose this provider?

Oear Mr Bellows, Thank you for taking the time to talk to me by celephone roday. As agreed, please find below a proposal for our PZpay merchant accoum, which I believe will resolve all your online paymem problems. Your website cu rrently generates five to ten orders per day. You expect this to increase steadily with the inrroduction of a new range of products. You are looking for a flexible, i11expensive and uansparem payment system which will allow you to deal direcdy with your customers and control your cash flow. We recomme11d the PZpay Pro small business merchant account, which can process up ro 75 o rders per day. If your sales volume were ro expa11d more quickly tha11 a11ticipared, you would be able ro upgrade to PZpay Corporate with 110 additional ser-up fee. PZpay Pro will gain prestige and respect for your e-business, since customers \vill make their credit card paymenrs directly 011 your website. PZpay is rorally uansparem, giving you rota! control of your sales, cash-flow and administratio11 fees. In the unłikely event of a dispure wirh a customer, you alone would decide whether ro refu11d your customer's payme11t. Our charges are amongsr the lowest on che market, meaning chat your business will be more proficable from day one. We provide everyching you need ro set up PZpay on your website within 48 hours. Should you however encoumer any difficułties, our hełpline is availabłe 24 hours a day, seven days a week to assist you. With more than 1,800 satisfied members in 26 countries, PZpay is che fascesr-growing mercham accounr provider on che Web. I will be happy to put you in rouch with ocher PZpay users in your region. The momhly fee for PZpay Pro is jusr $12, wich minimum cransaction fees of only $1 O. You will find full derails of our terms and condirions in the attach~d quoracion . We look forward to having you as a mem ber: to apply, simply fili out che application form at http://pzpay.com. If you have furrher questions, please feel free to call or email me. Sincerely yours, Clemmie A Buckton

Ana lysis

Internet

research

Search for the keywords

how to write direct mail t o find out more about writing to sell.

D

Read the proposal again and number these sections in the order they appear in the proposal.

O

Solution: State the options you recommend, and any contingency plans. Benefits: Sell your solution by pointing out its advantages for the customer. [1] Introduction: Refer to previous contact with your c ustomer, state the purpose and contents of the document and summarize the objective of the proposal. O Conclusion: Encourage the customer to take the next step. O Qualifications and references: Justify your ability to do the job. O Process and sch edule: Expłain proced ures, lead time and after-sales service. O Needs/Background : Review the reasons for the proposal and the customer's needs. O Costs: Give a breakdown of the investment, or refer to a separate quotation.

O

Language focus

li Your small business designs and builds multimedia websites. In small groups, supply suitable endings/beginnings for these options and contingencies.

Glossary

PAGE156

cash flow contingency plan mail order merchant account set-up fee

1 If you would like to see similar projects we have managed, _ _ __ _ _ 2 In the unlikeł y event that you were less than 1000/o satisfied with the result, _ _ __ _ _ 3 Should you require on-site support, _ _ _ _ __ 4 , I would be delighted to organize a demonstration on your premises. 5 , we would provide a replacement wh ite your server was repaired. 6 , our engineers can reform an upgrade on-site. 7 , we require a deposit of 250/o.

Output

O

Read the notes from a sales meeting with a prospect, and write a proposal to supply a new website. lnvent any details as necessary.

Prospe..c..t Ms

N!Aslti.-Wi .Hi!A~S

co~p(,\ 111.~ 'foste.r P!Assio~' - tke:~ se-11 poste.rs of PoP .sh.r.s1 roc.I( b1A-v.d.s1 .spart.s1 e.tc.. b(1 ~a order IA-'ttd vilA flti.e :r.~ter~et. t-tAsto~ers !Are ~sH(1 fee~ ers.

0

Ne..e..ds

0

t-«rre-i-1.ł website w!As desi ~ed b)t !A frie~d

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Business 2 o

71

5 Making deals i.- plann ing an incentive trip

J

-

5.6 Case study

St John's Beach Club

i.- negot iating a package

Discussion

D

Some companies reward their best sales staff with gifts, trips or additional pay, hoping that such benefits will serve as an incentive to improve sales. What do you think are the advantages of such sales incentive programs? Are there any disadvantages?

Reading

O 1 2 3 4

Read the memo and answer the questions.

Who can go on the incentive trip? Is this the first time the company has organized sucha trip? When and why was the memo sent? What sort of customers does the St John's Beach Club aim to attract?

Ashton Pharmaceuticals - Memo To: All sales reps Re: Incentive trip Just a quick reminder that our top ten performers will win an all-expenses paid holiday for two in the sun. As usual, our destination is the Caribbean, and this year we have chosen the St John's Beach Club in Antigua (see attached brochure). So if you haven't yet made it into the top ten, and you want to be on the beach this December, there's still time to record really excellent figures in Q4! Good luck! Malco lm Roberts Sales Director

72

J /J Business 2.0

h researc

Internet

Search for the keywords

employee incentive programmes to find out more about motivat ing employees. Hold a vote t o see which incentives the class find most motivat ing.

Listening for detail O 2:28 Listen to a conversation between Malcolm Roberts and loretta Harding, CEO of Ashton Pharmaceuticals. Mark these statements T {true) or F (false), and say why. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The conversation takes place in Malcolm 's office. Malcolm and Loretta are going on the trip. Charles is probably the CFO. Last year's budget was about $26,500. Malcolm is going to negotiate with the St John 's Beach Club. There will be between 22 and 26 participants. Malcolm hopes to stay in Antigua for ten nights.

B

listen again and complete these sentences. Lor etta would get to know the sales team better if _ _ _ _ _ _ __ If they only talked to one travel agent, _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Loretta thinks the agents may give a free upgrade if _ _ _ _ _ _ __ lf they can negotiate a really good package, Malcolm _ _ _ _ _ _ __ They'll stay Ionger than a week if _ _ _ __ _ __

1 2 3 4 5

2:28

Negotiating

11 I„

eWorkbook

Now wat.eh the video for this unit.

Divide into travel agents (A) and buyers (B). Each buyer negotiates with two different travel agents to get the best possible deal for Ashton Pharmaceuticals' incentive trip to the St John's Beach Club. When you have finished negotiations, compare your scores to see who got the best deal. Student A: turn to page 115. Student B: turn to page 119.

""'Business 2.0

73

6 Company and community Iii> ethical corporations Iii> CSR policies and programmes

6.1 About business

Corporate social responsibility

Discussion

D

Brainstorm a list of groups of people a company has a responsibility towards. What conflicts of interest are there between the different groups?

Sean reading

D

Read the credo below and identify the tour groups of people that Johnson & Johnson prioritize.

The Johnson & Johnson group manufactures health care products in over 200 companies in 57 countries. Their Credo, first written in 1943, has been a model for corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies for over 60 years.

Our Credo We believe our first responsibility is to the doctors, nurses and patients, to mothers and fathers and all others who use our products and services. In meeting their needs everything we do must be of high quality. We must constantly strive to reduce our costs in order to maintain reasonable prices. Customers · orders must be serviced promptly and accurately. Our suppliers and distributors must have an opportunity to maKe a fair profit.

10

ts

20

We are responsible to our employees, the men and women who work with us throughout the world. Everyone must be considered as an individual. We must respect their dignity and recognize their merit. They must have a sense of security in their jobs. Compensation must be fair and adequate , and working conditions clean, orderly and safe. We must be mindful of ways to help our employees fulfil their family responsibilities . Employees must feel free to make suggestions and complai nts. There must be equal opportunity for employment, development and advancement for those qualified. We must provide competent management, and their actions must be just and ethical.

We are responsible to the commun ities in which we live and work and to the world community as well. 25 We must be good citizens - support good works and charities and bear our fair share of taxes. J We must encourage civic improvements and better health and education . We must maintain in good order the property we are privileged to use, protecting the environment and natura! resources.

3s

40

74

//,,Business 2.0

Our fina l responsibility is to our stockholders . Business must make a sound profit. We must experiment with new ideas. Research must be carried on, innovative programs developed and mistakes paid for. New equipment must be purchased , new facilities provided and new products launched . Reserves must be created to provide for adverse times. When we operate according to these principles, the stockholders should rea lize a fair return.

lntemet

research

Reading and discussion

O

Search for the keywords

Srarbucks""' bean stock and Starbucks standards business conduct or CSR to find out more about :he social performance of other companies.

2 3

D l 2 3 4 5 6

Read Johnson & Johnson's credo again and discuss what is meant by:

maintaining reasonable prices (line 5) making a fair profit (line 8) fair and adequate compensation (line 14)

4 just and ethical actions (line 22) 5 our fair share of taxes (line 26) 6 a fair return (line 40)

Discuss the questions relating to Johnson & Johnson's credo opposite.

Which 'good works and charities' (li ne 25) should multinational companies support? What kind of 'civic. improvements' (line 27) shoul d t he company encouragc? How should the company protect 'the environment and natura! resources' (line 30)? Are the re any points in the credo you disagree with or items you would like to add? Does a credo really change the way a company operates or is it just good PR? Do small businesses have the sa me responsibilities as mułtinationał s?

Listening

O

~ 2:29-2:30 Usten to an interview with Estela Maldonaldo, an Argentinian entrepreneur who has built a successful chain of ethical beach cafes.

Part 1 Listen to Part 1 and decide if the following statements are T (true) or F (false).

Beach Hut's cafes are well-known for their fair trade coffee. 2 Estela bełieves socially responsible businesses cannot pay sha rehold ers a lot of money. 3 Beach H ut's fo unders wanted to demonstrate th at big co rporations have thcir priorities wrong. 4 Estela be łi eves that happy customers make happy employees.

Part 2 Listen to Part 2 and delete one incorrect item in italics from each statement.

Beach Hut reduces its carbon footp ri nt by using solar panels I biodegradable packaging I hybrid vehicles. 2 Working with loca! businesscs mean s Beach Hut can reduce transport costs I keep prices low I source quality foods. 3 Beach Hut's altru istic values are directly connected to its low taxes I good image I healthy margins. 4 The company's green image hclps them find new customers I shareholders I employees. Listen again and complete the summary.

Beach Hut helps to protect Arge ntina's (1) by giving staff time off work to run educational programmes for (2) . The company's image has been boosted by winning severa! (3) for e nvironmentałly friendly businesses; usi ng these green logos on its (4) and (5) reinforces the message. In this way, Beach Hut has built a (6) c ustomer-base despite a very (7) business environment. Customers value the fact that Beach Hut has a (8) strategy of building (9) businesses, not just looking for quick profits from a (10) model.

Discussion

O

With a partner, discuss your reactions to these quotes from the interview: take turns playing opposing roles as 'the capitalist' and 'the altruist'. ~re profit and social rcsponsibility really compatible?' ~bso lutely.' 'We've always felt that ou r empł oyees should come first." 'We work with !ocal businesses as much as possible . . . it makes good busi ness sense.' 'Taking care of the environmen t and the loca! community is very good P.R.' 'Our customers a re very loya ł because they kn ow we share the same va ł ues.' 'The short-term model just doesn't work - not for business, and not for society.' Glossary

PAGE 156

altruism biodegradab\e credo hybrid sustainable virtuous circle

I ,

Business 2 o

75

l

6 Company and community _____ ___,

.,.. meetings expressions

6.2 Vocabulary

.,.. adjectives for tal king about ethics

Meetings

.,._ CSR collocations

D

I I

Match up the beginnings of phrases you might use in a meeting 1-12 with the endings a- 1.

1 2 3 4 5 6

I have received two ---~ Has everybody received If we can't agree, I think we should take It's getting late, so I propose we close I think this would be a good time to break We have lots to discuss, so let's stick to

a) b) c) d) e) f)

a copy of the agenda? the meeting. apologies fo r absence. the agenda. a vote. for lunch.

7 8 9 10 11 12

It's five past nine, so I'd better open Can we start by approving We seem to have reached That's interesting, but I think we're getting I'll just give out th is Before we finish , we need to deal with

g) h) i) j) k) I)

side-tracked. any other business. handout. the meeting. a unan imous decision. the minutes of the last meeting?

O l

Which phrases would you probably use:

at the beginning of a meeti ng?

2 at the end of a meeting?

Adjectives

D

Mat ch the adjectives in bold in the article with the definitions below, as in the example.

ELASTIC ETHICS It was Groucho Marx who said that if people

didn't like his principles, h e had others. And unfortunately, business people and companies are not always as reliabłe or as trustworthy as we would like. Prod uct descriptio ns are freque ntly not as accurate as they could be, for example when listing ingredients used in foodstuffs. Service is not always as prompt as we expect, even in so-called fast-food restaurants. But it is perhaps in the world of advertising where ethical standards seem to be the most elastic. Advertisements are frequently deceptive and often confusing or deUberately misłeading, sometimes making extravagant promises. No doubt advertisers are neither more dishonest nor any less ałtruistic than the rest of us; they do not often make obviously false claims. It's just that, like Groucho, they sometimes seem a ł ittle too economical with the truth.

l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

76

J lu Business 2 o

immediate or quick willing to do th ings which are not honest intended to make someone believe something thai is not true appearing different from the way it really is able to be trusted as honest dependable complicated, not easy to understand not true having a selfless concern for others' well-being correct or true in every detai l

prompt

r

I

Collocations

D

Finish these extracts from a guide to corporate social responsibility by completing each one with verbs from the box that collocate with the words in bold. contribute

identify with

think

supporting

PRO-ACTIVE SOCIAL PERFORMANCE For most companies, rather than (1) _ _ _ _ _ a d ifferent charity each year on an ad hoc basis, it is preferable to (2) long-term. It can be very valu able for a company to (3) an issue which is rełated to its business, and to (4) _ _ __ _ funds regularly.

obey

recogn izing

respecting

uphold

ON-GOING SOCIAL PERFORMANCE Obvio us ły

a fundamen tal of HR management is that companies should always (5) the law. But above and beyond that requirement, they have a mora! duty to (6) standards of common decency. This means for example (7) human dignity when there are problems, and (8) merit when staff perform especially well.

-...---....__,....,..,,_._..w•------

·-

__..., .....

-._......_.,_______.._...~,,,....-..._..,....,..._..__.;"__,,_..--

~~ ....--------~-- „....-.

acknowledge

research

Internet

Search for the keywords ethical and unethical business practices to fi nd out abo ut the kind of ethical issues many businesses face and the different ways of dealing with them. List the most important on es.

compensate

limit

negotiate

DAMAGE LIMITATION The company's first
-

Discussion

D

Work in pairs or small groups. lf a company wants to be ethical and demonstrate corporate social responsibility, what specific practices and policies do you suggest this could involve in the following departments and areas of the business?

Glossary

PAGE 156

damage limitation extravagant misleading settlement

R&D Production and Quality Marketing and Sales HR Purchasing Finance Draw up a list of guidelines and present them to the class.

Ilu Business 2 o

77

6 Company and community lll- passive structu res

-

-

-- -

·=---~=--""~~-=~~

6.3 Grammar The passive and reported,sp~ech"i„? _

---

lll- reported speech

-~-==-------

--:;~„-- ~-:___:=;

Refresh your

memory

The passive

be + past participle it does ' it is done it is doing ' it is being done it did ' it was done, etc used when the person who does the action is obvious or unknown J111--

Grammar and practice page 132

Reported speech

l've finished! He said he had finished. direct ' present ' past ' present perfect ' will '

reported past past I past perfect past perfect would

when you report what someone said, move the original tense back in time

lll-

Grammar and practice page 133

The passive

D

In small groups, role-play a meeting betw een angry stakeholders and a company spokesperson. Take turns to be the spokesperson .

Stakehold ers: using the notes provided, rem ind the spokesperson of all the allegations about the company's Jack of social responsibility. Use active verbs to specify who is responsible and givc your accusations more impact. 1 Town's water-supply deliberately polluted. Your factory deliberately pollutes aur town's water-supply!

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Toxic products manufactured, risk to workers' health. Salary increases promised, but stili not paid. Redundancies anticipated, plans for compensation? Local suppliers paid very late, sometimes never paid. Enormous salaries paid to managers, but no investment in loca! community. Chi Id labour used by suppliers. Loca! company taxes not paid. Pension fund used to buy Chinese competitor, nothing left to pay future retirees. Factory could be relocated to Eastern Europe to cut costs.

Spokesperson: using the notes provided, acknowledge what is true in the allegations, but avoid taking responsibility. Use the passive to avoid saying who is responsible. The factory's activity does affect the water-supply, but R&D is developing solutions. Unfortunately it's true that the water-supply is sometimes affected, but solutions are naw being developed.

2 We do manufacture some restricted products, but we respect all government safety procedures. 3 The HR manager did discuss salary increases, but the CEO has not confirmed them yet. 4 We will have to make some redundancies, but we will compensate workers who lose their jobs. 5 We have occasionally delayed payments, but we h ave always paid our suppliers. 6 We have to offer top salaries to keep the best managers, they invest a lot of money in the local economy. 7 Our suppliers employ young adults, but they have not employed children since 2010. 8 We paid most of last year's tax bill, and the nrnyor has agreed to postpone payment of the rest. 9 We did buy a Chinese company last year, but the Board plan to sell it again soon at a profit. 10 We are discussing a possible relocation , but we won't take a decision until ncxt year.

Reported speech

O

With your books closed, try to re member as much as possible of w hat the spokesperson said .

He/She said that the water-supply was sometimes affected, but that solutions were being developed.

78

1

Business

Internet

research

D

Read the three extracts from newspaper reports. Then say who made the 12 statements below and explain how you know this. What phrases helped you?

~ead the business pages of an online newspaper to fi nd interesting comments and quotes 'rorn people and companies in the news. -e11 a partner what was said.

CEO KLAAS ROOS announced an end to manufacturing in Europe, informing shareholders that labour costs could not be justified, and explaining that Asian textile imports could no longer be matched for price.

Speaking to our reporter on the spot, Ms Gronko explained that all villagers forced to leave their homes by the new road would be compensated. Asked to what level, she replied that she was unable to give a figure, but added that discussions were being held wit h local representatives.

___,_;

--------...----...--._.....----·-------.._....._..,

Journalists are reported to ha ve been refused entry to Plazachem 's Tashkent plant after leakages of toxic chemicals were d escribed by workers. Employees claimed that health and safety regulations had not been applied fo r the last five years, a nd that severa! fata! accidents had occurred. Plazachern management declined to comment. Asked how the company intended to compensate the victi.rns of the accident, Mr Sanchez answered that no decision had yet been reached. Emphasizing the complexity of the lega! situa tion, he suggested negotiations rnay be protracted.

--

1 2 3 4 5 6

-----------~----...__.....

' It's just too expensive.' ' lt's dangerous: people have died .' 'We're stili talking.' ' lt could take years.' 'I don't know.' 'It's really not simple.'

7 8 9 10 11 12

' It's too early to say.' 'They wi ll be paid.' 'We are closi ng down .' 'Your request has been denied.' 'We can't compete.' 'l'm afraid he 's unava ilable.'

Listening and reporting

D

~ 2:31 - 2:36 A manufacturing plant in Kassra, a small city in Libya, has just made 500 people redundant. Listen to six extracts from a conversation between Geoffrey Bullard, the Plant Manager, and Lei la Belabed, a member of the mayor's staff. For each extract, decide how Leila reported to the mayor. using appropriate verbs, as in the example.

1 1 complained that 500 people had been made redundant and 1 reminded Mr Bullard that he had promised to create jobs for aur city.

D

Explain these forma! announcements to a foreign visitor in informal language.

1 Protective glasses must be warn beyond this point. You have to wear special protective glasses f rom this point onwards.

2 3 4 5 Glossary leakage protracted stakeholder

PAGE 156

6

Visitors are rcquested to use the stairs while the lift is under repair. Customers are advised that no refunds will be made without a recei pt. Deposits wi ll only be refunded after the return of all equipment to reception. All meeti ngs are transferred to the training centre during red ecoration of the conferencc room. Only expenses which have been approved by a manager will be reimbursed.

Bus111es

o

79

6 Company and community ~

expressions for meet ings

~

disagreeing tact fully

~

roleplayi ng meetings

6.4 Speaking Meetings - teamwork Discussion

D

Discuss how acceptable you find the following gifts from a seller to a corporate buyer. a corporate pen a free sample of the product a case of champagne a free weekend 'seminar' on a yacht cash employing a relative lunch in a good restaurant

Listening

O :, 2:37

Listen to an extract from a management meeting about an ethical problem and answer the questions.

1 What did Mr Vieri do wrong? 2 What is the purpose of the discussion?

3 What do Stan and Jon disagree abo ut? 4 What does Anna decide?

D

~ 2:37 With a partner, find suitable words to complete the useful expressions for meetings in the checklist. Then listen aga in and check your answers.

Useful expressions: Managing meetings Asking for opinions

Asking for clarification

What's your _ _ _ _? Would you _ _ _ _ ? Do you have any _ _ _ _ on ...?

Sorry, I don't see what you _ _ __ So are you that ...? When you say „ ., do you _ _ _ _ ... ?

Giving an opinion

Persuading

_ _ _ _ to think that ... lnmy _ _ _~ lt to me that ... I strongly that .„

Don't you _ _ _ _ that .„ ? Wouldn't you that ... ?

Disagreeing tactfully

Managing the discussion

I see your but „. I agree up to a but ... l'm I can't agree.

Do we all on that, then ? The next on the agenda is .„ Can we to the agenda? for coffee. Perhaps we should Could we back to this later?

lnterrupting Sorry to ---~ but . „ Could I just in here?

80

lh Business 2.0

Internet

research

D

With a partner, hold short meetings on the four issues below. Follow the structure provided. Take turns being A and B.

Nhat are the essentials of a successful meeting? Search for the keywords go/den rules of meetings to find out.

1 2 3 4

A vodka manufacturer offers to sponsor your end-of-year party. Do you accept? One of your suppliers uses child labour in Vietnam. What should you do? Advertisements for your product show only slim, beautiful people. Is that OK? Ethnic minorities and the disabled are under-rep resented in your fi rm. What can you do? Student B

Student A

Give an opinion.



Ask B's opinion. 1

... eWorkbook

•ow watch the video for this unit.

lnterrupt.

Persuade. Glossary

/ /

Disagree.

Ask for clarification.



Manage the discussion.

PAGE 156

dvil servant disabled ethnic minority -nisconduct

IJ

Work in small groups. Hold a management meeting to decide what to do in the following cases of employee misconduct in your company. For each case, discuss the following.

what action to take what corporate policy to adopt (if any) how you will implement your decisions

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

Mike Ho, a buyer in your

Marieta Myska, a sales

Joseph Fisher, a project

purchasing department, accepted

manager, obtained confidential

manager, used company

cash from suppliers. In return, he

information about government

resources and equipment to run

ordered extra stock at higher than

contracts by having a relationship

a club for disabled children at

average prices.

wit h a civil servant.

weekends.

flic Business 2.0

81

1

6 Company and community Il> the structure of reports

6.5 Writing

Reports and minutes

and minutes Il> linking words and

Discussion

expressions

D

Why should companies invest time and money in community projects?

Il> writing minutes

Model

O

Mirratec lndustries, a subsidiary of a multinational manufacturer of compressors for refrigerators and air-conditioning units, has a plant in the small Polish town of Bychawa. Read the report which Mirratec sent to Head Office, and the minutes of a management committee meeting at Head Office, and answer the questions.

1 What are the arguments for and against involvement in the community centre project? 2 What did a) Head Office and b) Mirratec decide?

Bychawa Community Centre project Earlier this year Mirratec was asked to invest in a project to build a Community Centre in Bychawa. As a rule, group policy is to give encouragement but only limited financial support to such community projects. However, in this case it was thought that the benefits to the company's image justified more active and extensive support, in particular after the recent difficult negotiations with the local authorities over the access road to the new workshop. Moreover, it was felt that employee involvement in the project would bring substantial benefits in terms of motivation and job satisfaction. lt is therefore recommended that the company should contribute 50% of the funding; in addition, selected employees should manage key areas of the project during work time, such as design, fundraising and construction. Naturally, the project will require a high level of commitment from our staff in order to complete all stages on time, and it is hoped that department managers will be able to reduce staff workloads for the duration of the project. In conclusion, it is believed that the community and the company will derive numerous benefits from the project and that overall, the company's image within the community will be greatly improved. lt is expected that an ongoing close relationship with the community will have a positive effect on two strategie areas of our development, namely expansion of our manufacturing facilities and recruitment of our workforce locally.

Minutes of the Management Committee meeting, 15 April Attendees: Jan Navratil, MD; Ines Caba, Production; Christopher Taberley, Finance

1. Bychawa Community Centre. JN reported that the plan had b een favourably received at h ead office. Even so, there were concerns about the size of the investment and the project's impact on productivity. But he stressed that group management were aware of the need for good relations with !ocal communities, and would support Mirratec's decision. Consequently, JN fett that they should go ahead.

IC agreed that it was important to improve public relations, but emphasised the risks involved for production, for example, absenteeism and quality issues. She claimed that the project could become an excuse to take time off work, especially during the construction phase in the summer.

~

82

CT reminded the meeting that only a small number of empJoyees would be concemed. Obviously department managers would organize cover for any absences. In other words, production sh ould not be affected. Furth ermore, managers of other departments were very happy with the project on the whole. In brief, he suggested that the benefits in developing team spirit were clearly far greater than any potentia! risk to productivity. Finally, it was agreed that the project should be approved. ~ __... ........ .....--..-

--

/11 Business 2 o

--

--... -~~------

.

_ __

._...

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - Ana lysis

Internet

research

Search for the keywords email ethics and make notes about ethical practice in electronic communication. Write a short report on your findings, using some of the linking words you studied in this module.

D

Read the quotes below and answer the questions:

1 'lt was thought that the benefits to the company's image justified more active and extensive support.' Identify five more impersonal reporting structures in the report in Exercise 2. 2 'JN reported that the plan had been favourably received at Head Office.' Identify seven more reporting verbs in the minutes in Exercise 2. 3 Why a re impersonal reporting structures used in the report, whereas active reporting verbs are preferred in the minutes?

Language focus I] Read the report and the minutes again. Underline the lin king words and complete the table.

Function

Linking words

Addition

besides, mo

Conclusion

lastly, in c

Consequence

so, therefore, c

Contrast

but, h

Equivalence

that is to say, n

Example

for instance, s

Generalization

in most cases, as a

----

- - - ----Highlighting ---

of course, n

Sum mary

to sum up, o

O

•f

,e

s

w

, in o as, f

e , on the w

mainly, chiefly, in p

Stating the obvious

, fur

, in ad

, es , ob

' cl

. in b

Replace the inappropriate linking words in bold with a better choice from Exercise 4.

Josiah Wedgwood was a pioneer in social responsibility, building a village for his workforce in 1769. For instance, his products combined technology with classical culture. More than a century later, George Cadbury developed social housing for his chocolate factory workers. As a rule, Cadbury's® became one of Britain's most respected companies. Bath men were pioneers of corporate social responsibility. Overall, they were also accused of patemalism. Today, sustainable development policies aim to manage the effects of business on employees, the community, and, on the whole, on the environment. Multinationals like Shell are focusing on the idea of being good neighbours, naturally, by consulting loca) stakeholders before beginning new projects which may affect them.

Eilossary

PAGE 156

Output

D ·ernalism :s tive discrimination

2.38 Listen to a later extract frorn the Mirratec Management Cornrnittee meeting as they move on to discuss the issue of diversity in Mirratec's workforce. Take notes. Then, with a partner, write a short summary of the discussion and decisions made. Use the minutes format on the opposite page.

/ h„ Business 2.0

83

6 Company and community li> discussi ng corporate

6.6 Case study Phoenix

image li> roleplaying a decision -

Discussion

making meet ing li>

O

writing a report on a meet ing

Would you like to have a recycling centre near your home? Why (not)?

Reading

D

Read the .Internet page about Phoenix and answer the questions.

1 What kind of corporate image does the company lry to project? 2 What do you imagine wo rki ng at Phoenix is like?



Home

• Spare parts •

Recycling

• Jobs wlth Phoenix • About us

researc

Phoenix's mission is to protect and preserve Australia's unique ecology. We take special care to ensure that hazardous materials and toxic substances are processed safely and securely with minimum risk to the environment or the population. At all our recycling centres across Australia, we believe in being good neighbours. We believe it is our duty to treat customers, employees and suppliers fairly, to respect the !ocal environment and to be involved in community causes.

• Contact

Internet

Every year almost a million of Australia's ten mi Ilion cars reach the end of their useful lives. Phoenix provides a valuable community service by recycling over 75% of each vehicle.

h

Search for the keywords avtomobile recycling contamination to find out more about the risks and perspectives in this industry.

Roleplay preparation Divide into three groups: Port Katherine Planning Department, Port Katherine Residents' Association, and Phoenix. Use the Exercises opposite (3, 4 and 5) to gather information for your group, in preparation for a public meeting (Exercise 6) to discuss the choice of site for a new recycling centre in Port Katherine. You will need to make a presentation at the meeting summarizing your views, stating which site yo u prefer an d why, and explaining why the other sites are not appropriate. You should also be prepared to ask the other groups questions, and argue against their proposals if t hey conflict with your interests.

r

Listening

O

2:39 Listen to part of a meeting at Phoenix's head office in Sydney and answer the questions.

1 Why is Port Katherine a good choice for Phoenix's new site? Give four reasons. 2 What are the pros and cons of sites A, B and C from your group's point o~ view? 3 What do you think 'Operation Charm and Diplomacy' is?

PORT KATHERINE

I

A

State Highway

N

T~Li"'

i

l

-

- School

I

Reading and discussion

El In your groups, prepare for the

"""'"'

public meeting by reading a message and answering some questions.

I

Group A - Port Katherine Planning Department: tum to page 116. Group B - Port Katherine Residents' Association: tum to page 118. Group C - Phoenix: turn to page 121.

~== Harbour

;

fire ,,.,..,,,,

2~ / Town

-

Town

Squ:r~s

Station

Hall

Park

/

B

_„,l

Business .j Park ~

O

Read the agenda. Then, in your groups, prepare your presentation and strategy for the public meeting.

Roleplay

O

Roleplay the public meeting using the agenda above.

Agenda Writing

D

Write a short report on the meeting.

Port Katherine Planning Department: write to Duncan Gillespie at the Lord Mayor's Office. Port Katherine Residents' Association: write to your members. Phoenix: write to your head office in Sydney.

1 Welcome and introdu ctions 2 Opening presentations • Phoenix • Port Katherine Planning Department • Port Katherine Residents' Association 3 Questions and discussion of the three possible sites 4 Summary and conclusion

hazardous res ident res ista nce

RevieV\T 5 Making deals

D

Complete these paragraphs about e-tailing using the words in the box. approach browsers databank expectation eyeballs merchandising purchase search ads website web chats

A Most visitors to a (1) don't actually buy anyth ing, so simply having lots of (2) ' _ _ __ doesn 't mean there will be lots of sales. In fact, if the site attracts visitors through paid (3) on Google or Yahoo!®, then bringing them actually costs money. B Customer service reps answer customer questions via on the site. When a customer engages live (4) in live chat with a sales rep, the average (5) _ _ __ doubles in value. C But instead of real customer service reps, many smaller e-tailers use animated characters that draw on a (6) of answers to commonly asked questions. E-tailers hope that the animated characters will turn (7) into buyers. D When someone is shopping at home, they have an (8) of privacy. Ted Martin, senior viceand operations at Overstock. president for (9) com, said: 'We're taking the conservative (10) _ _ __ right now, we don 't want to be intrusive.'

D

Complete this sentence about e-tailing using these words: consent, privacy, tracking, vio/ation.

Research shows that most online shoppers consider (1) their navigation of a site without their (2) to be a (3) of their (4) _ __

D

In each set of four below, match a verb on the left w ith a noun on the right to make collocations about an e-tail transaction.

1 look up 2 pay 3 place 4 click 5 6 7 8

browse debit send back ship

a) b) c) d)

on a link to getto the seller's site the product you want in a cart a product on a search engine by credit card

e) t) g) h)

the customer's credit card the product from the warehouse the site to fi nd a ny interesting products a faulty product under guarantee

D

The collocations below are useful in negotiating. Cross out the one verb in each group that does not collocate with the noun.

1 2 3 4 5 6

fill I offer I place I take an order ask for I be entitled to I find I offer a discount discuss I go over I put on I sort out the details make I put foward I put back I reject a proposal extend I meet I miss I take a deadline look for I meet I seek I reach a compromise

11 Complete each sentence with a collocation from Exercise 4.

1 lf you fai! to do something by the agreed time, yo u ---~the _ _ __

86

rl•e Business 2.0

If you tell a retailer you want to buy something from them, you an _ _ __ 3 If you finally get agreement after both sides had different starting points, you a _ _ __ 4 If you a u tomatica lły have the right to a !ower price, for example because of the quantity you arc ordering, then you _ _ _ _ a _ __ _ 2

O

Look at the seven options below. Cross out the three that can never be used.

If we increase I increased I will żncrease I would żncrease our order, do you give I will you give I would you give us a discount?

D

Wh ich version of the sentence in Exercise 6 is appropriate if you want to show you are unsure about increasing your order (it's just a possibility)? Write the whole sentence.

Il Which version of the sentence in Exercise 6 is the most common - you are just asking a simple question?

D

Complete the bargaining phrases in this dialogue using the pairs of words in the box. providing + agree

if + increased

unless + guaranteed

Supplier:

1 might consider red ucing the price (1) you your order. Customer: It would be difficult for me to incrcase my order, (2) you the price for two years. Sup plier: l might be able to guarantee the price, (3) you to a five-year contract.

lil] Choose the correct option. 1 What do you recommend to me I recommend me? 2 What do you advise to do I advise me to do? 3 l suggest you I suggest or dering 500 pieces initially, and then perhaps more later. 4 I advise that you I advise you to order 500 pieces ini tially. 5 l suggested him I suggested to him that he should order 500 pieces in itially.

m Complete the extracts from a business proposal using the words in the box. lowest agreed available below cha rges replacement require should unl ikely w ish

1 As , please find a proposaJ to install a series of photocopiers. 2 you require on-site support, our engineers are _ _ _ _ seven days a week. 3 In the event of a breakdown, we would provide a _ _ __ 4 Our are amongst the on the market. to place an order, we a 5 If you deposit of 250/o.

RevieV\7 6

I

Company and community

D The company should • • • • • • • • • • •

r n

a

enhance shareholder value. recognize employees' merit. give fair and adequate compensation. provide clean and safe working conditions. provide new equipment and new facilities. carry on research and develop innovation. encourage civic improvements. support good works and charities. protect the environment and natural resources. avoid exploiting developing countries. build a sustainable business.

And employees need to • • • •

have a sense of security in their job. have equal opportunity for jobs and development. feel free to make suggestions and complaints. feel they can align themselves with the company's goals.

D

Read the corporate social responsibiłity declaration above. Complete the definitions 1-10 with words from t he declaration.

the profit that a company makes for its investors

Complete the remarks of a chai rperson at vario us stages of a meeting. Use the phrases in t he box. any other business approving the minutes close the meeting getting side-tracked introduce the f irst item stick to t he agenda unanimous decision

apology for absence break for coffee come back to this have any views see your point t ake a vote wouldn't you agree

Begźnning

Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. Is everyone here? l have received just one (1) ___ from Celia. OK, 1 think we can begin. Let's start by (2) _ __ of the last meeting. Any comments? They're quite straightfo rward, I think. Good. Now, there is a lot to d iscuss today, so let's try to (3) _ _ . OK, who is going to (4) _ _ ?

Middle That's interesting, but I think we're (5) ___. Could we (6) _ _ _ later ? OK. Now, Antonio, we haven't heard from you. Do you (7) ___ on t his issue? ... Thank you, Antoni o. I (8) _ _ , bu t you have to consider the impact on our budget. (9) _ _ _ that thcre wi ll be su bstan tial costs if we do as you suggest? .. . O K, there seems to be a consensus, so we don't need to (10) _ _ . Th is would be a good time to (11) _ _.

End 2

money paid because someone is inj ured or has lost their job _ _ __ 3 rooms an d equipment that are provided for a partic ular purpose _ _ __ 4 o rganizati ons that give help to people who nccd it

5 the land, water and air that pcople live in _ _ __ 6

td

er

19

treating someone unfa irly in o rder to get a benefit for yourself _ _ __ 7 capable of continuing for a long time _ _ __ 8 a situation in wh ich people havc the same chances as everyone else _ _ __ _ _ __ 9 things you say or write when you are not happy _ __ I O agrec with and support pu blicly ( yourself with): _ _ __

O

Complete the sentences about ethical behaviour using the phrases a-h.

The company should .. . 1 acknowledge any problem _ . 2 act with integrity _ . .) compensate victims _ . 4 limit the impact of_. 5 negotiate settlements _ . 6 obey the law o r _ . 7 recognize merit when _ . 8 upho ld standards of_. ~L

a) common decency b) any problem c) that exists d) whi ch satisfy everyone

e) f) g) h)

Good, I think we've reached a (12) ___ on this. Before we finish we need to deal with (13) ___. Does anyone have any other issue that we haven't discussed ? OK, I th ink we can (14) _ _.

O

Put each verb in brackets into the co rrect form, active or passive. The fi rst two are p resent simple and the last four are past simpł e.

'The company (1) (try) to limit its impact on the environmen t, bu t somctimes mistakes (2) _ _ __ (make). It is true that some radioactive waste (3) _ _ __ (lose) in transit last wcek. H owever, I am plcased to report (take) action immed iately. T he driver that we (4) of t he truck (5) (find), and we (6) _ _ __ (dismiss) him after completi ng ou r enquiries. Press rcports that he had been drinking are comp letely exaggerated.'

O

Find pairs of linking w ords/ phrases w ith the same meaning. as a rul e clearly final ly in addition in conclusion in other words on the whole t hat is t o say

consequently in particular moreover therefore

especially in brief obviously to sum up

O fo r any damage caused staff perform well towards employees face a lawsu it or fine

Which two words/ phrases from Exercise 5 would you use to:

1 add a second poin t to support you r argument? _ _ __ 2 highlight one fact or point? _ __ _ 3 make a generalization? _ _ __

- - - --Business 2

87

7 Mergers and acquisitions .., the risks of M&A

7 .1 About business Risks and opportunities in M&A '

.., pros and cons of ta king over a business

Discussion

D Internet

researc

h

Search for the keywords surviving a merger to read about people w ho have experienced takeovers and the advice they give.

In financial terms, what are the benefits and risks when two people decide to get married? Think about living costs. purchasing power, employment, tax, investment, entertainment, etc. H ow do you think the situation is similar or different when two companies merge?

Skim reading

O 1 2 3 4

Read the article opposite and answer the questions. Who are the students and why do they want M&A classes? What lessons do they learn? What are good reasons for mergers and acquisitions? What are the wrong reasons?

Reading for detail

D

Read the article again. With a partner, discuss why these statements are T (true) or

F (false).

1 2 3 4 5 6

Every year over 500 mergers and acquisitions in the US fail to deliver increased value. American executives are keen to get a share in multi-bill ion dollar takeovers. Executives wishing to attend .\!l&A courses have to have an MBA. Experienced managers tell attendees about typical mistakes they have made. Because of the risks, business school professors do not recommend mergers. Shareholders can often only judge the success of thei r CEO 's acquisitions policy severa! years after a takeover. 7 Austin says that empire-building, d iversification and incrcasing debt are the wrong reasons for a merger. 8 According to Austin, many CEOs embark on mergers and acquisitions for irrational, emotional reasons.

Listening for gist

D

~ 2:40 Listen to an interview with Bernard Degoul ange, an M&A specialist at Banque de Reims, who tal ks a bout choosing targets for acquisition. What are the five Gs?

Listening for detail

O

~ 2:4 0 Listen again and answer the questions.

1 According to Bernard Degoulange, what is the best reason for a merger? 2 Explain how he uses the example of champagne and wh isky to show why external growth is necessary. 3 Explain each of the points summari zed by the five Gs. 4 What opportun ity does a merger offer the com petition , and why is it possible? 5 Why is a merger a traumatic period according to Bernard Degoulange? 6 How does he say companies sho uld help people get through this trauma ? Glossary

PAGE 156

due diligence gene homogenize open enrolment prestigious susceptibl e takeover bid turmo il

88

n,„ Business 2.0

Discussion

O

You are the owners of Bradburgers, a ha mburger restaurant in your town. With your five employees, you have established a reputation for fast. good qual ity food, and the business is making a good profit. One of you r competitors in the next street is Kadri's Kebabs, which sells takeaways and delivers kebabs to homes and offices. There are 15 employees. Kadri a nd his two brothers are excellent cooks, but poor managers; their keba b house is losing money, and is up for sale. What a re the pros and co ns of ta king over the business? Think a bout the five Gs in particular.

Lessons in MBcA SOME 1,500 TO 2,000 mergers and acquisitions are completed per year worldwide, of which around half are i n the US. With deals worth astronomical sums, ($25bn for HP® Compaq, $35bn for Daimler-Chrysler, and $77bn 5 for Exxon-Mobil,) it comes as no surprise that American executives are queuing up to go back to school for M&A classes. And although it's true that improving earnings and asset growth are not the only goals in takeovers, the fact that many mergers result in a net loss of value ·o suggests that schooling is sorely needed! Every year hundreds of executives attend M&A courses at prestigious institutions from New York to L.A. In these 'open enrolment' classes, the only condition of attendance is your, or rather your cornpany's, ability to pay the 15 fees: as much as $1,000 per day. At least that seems to demonstrate that the B-schools know something about improving earnings! So what do you learn in a week with America's top finance professors? 'We aim to equip partici pants with 20 techniques based on best practice in the key areas of merger activity performance; says Ted Austin from the Delaney School of Business. 'We cover all aspects of the conception, planning, due diligence, negotiation and integration stages: Austin also draws on case studies and 25 guest speakers to illustrate some of the most common acquirer errors: over-valuation, over-confidence, 'undercornrnunicating', and underestimating the value of your newest assets - the people in the company you've just

bought. In the turmoil of integration, your best engineers 3o and managers may be more susceptible to attractive offers from the competition. There is no doubt t hat M&A is a risky business. With a 70% plus failure -rate, you might t hink that B-school professors would do well to discourage their students 35 from launching takeover bids. But you'd be wrong. Austin describes some of the other (good) reasons for mergers and acquisitions: 'I suppose the most popular reasons mentioned in CEOs' messages to shareholders are developing synergies and making econornies of scale 40 these are sometimes conveniently lo ng-term goals! Other objectives rnay be increasing market share; cross-selling, when for example a bank can sell insurance to its existing clients; diversification, if a company is perceived to be too dependent on a niche market; or quite sirnply taking •5 on debt, the so-called poison pill, in order to make itself a less attractive target for would-be buyers: The bankers, brokers and lawyers will be pleased to know there are still many good reasons to merge. But what about the wrong reasons? 'They mainly involve 5-0 excessive pride or arrogance on the part of management; says Austin. 'Wanting to build too big an empire, too quickly, and overextending the financial, commercial and human capacity of the organization. These courses aim to help executives bring their CEOs back down to earth: 55 learning to follow your head rather than your heart is the key lesson in avoiding very expensive mistakes:

'A risky business with a 70% plus failure-rate.' l/;f Business 2.0

89

7 Mergers and acquisitions ~

financial informat ion

~

describing cha rts and graphs

~

Discussion

O

Match these newspaper headlines with the extracts they belong to. Decide why the headlines are good or bad news.

describing resu lts and co nsequences

o



Titanic Enterprises go under ......

?

,__,...

.....--....._

_:rN:W z~~~~e ~la~J

e

-

e

South American shareholders were ~ optimistic as the news filtered through of a probably return to profitability.

.J o - ______________

.......-=

....

~_...._......-.....-.

-

The futurology specialists will report a miraculous return on investment at tomorrow's AGM. ""--

o

BRIZAL COFFEE BREAK EVEN

-

o

- -*·------

w.A._.........

LIVERPOOL F.C. IN THE RED ........... „ .....

I

Predi~tions ,...._.............

..-

--------- -

--

_

-

___ ____

J

....... ~~

Profitability rose as sales of flig hts to rugby in ternationals took off. '"" ... -----~ ...-

o

Inc. make a profitj

...._........._ ___ ,....„....

-------

--~

.....

The music firm was a hit with investors as record revenues matched expenses.

~ES ~E~DS COVE'.'..:~STS

o

th~

After a series of expensive transfer deals club has failed to meet financial goals.

As the company's stock sank to rock-bottom, chairman Leonard Caprio described it as 'only the tip of the iceberg'. _._, -...-....................

-

...

...

--.-

Giving financial information

O

Read sentences 1-6 and a-f from a financial report. Mark each sentence to show whether the words in bold indicate an increase 71, a decrease ~or stability 7. Which phrase means something else?

1 2 3 4 5 6

D D

Last year ou r billings rose by 90%. Variable costs are falłing. We expect fixed costs to stabiłize. In 2001 our stock słi d to a rccord low. Production costs fluctuate over th e year. Liabilities reach a high when business is slow in August.

Choose the correct label, a or b, for each graph below.

a) Sales increased by $3M. b) Sales inc reased to $3M .

90

I/,, Business 2 .0

Our overheads shou ld level off. Our shares slumped during the crash. Our tu rnover al most doubłed . Cost of sales varies from month to month. Our debt peaks at the end of sum mer. t) Our operating costs are dropping.

Match each sentence 1- 6 with a sentence a- f with a similar meaning .

o

c _ _ _ _ _ __

a) b) c) d) e)

e

a) There was a decrease of 10%. b) There was a decrease to 10%.

o

o

a) Prices leli by €15. b) Prices leli to €15.

a) There was a rise of 30%. b) There was a rise from 30%.

Internet

research

Search for the keywords bulls and bears t o fin d "4.lt about two types of -tock market investors. Vhat ot her 'animals' .:an you fi nd on the ock markets?

O

Match the causes 1- 8 with the e ffects a- h in ea ch set of four below.

There was a conside ra ble improve ment in the company's image 2 We plan to acquire new technology; 3 As a result of ils strategie all iances. 4 A wave of corporate raids resulted in

a) b) c) d)

5

e) profi ts wi ll shoot u p dra matically. f) as a consequcnce of thcir diversification into new markets. g) bccausc of rumours of hostilc takcovcrs. h) as a result of cconomics of seale.

After th e mergcr, our profitab ility will improve significantly 6 Ouc to tower labour costs, 7 Thcy saw a slight increase in salcs 8 Share prices often go up sharply

as a result, debt will grow slightly. the company enjoyed moderatc growth . a sudde n surge in red unda nc ies. thanks to a joint ven ture with a prestigious American corporation.

O

The phrases in bold in Exercise 4 describe d ifferent degree s of cha nge. Put the m in order from sma llest (1) to la rg est (4).

2

3

4

grow slightly

Verb + adverb Adjective + noun

O

Complete the sente nce s below using phrases in the box. Sometime s th e re is mo re tha n one possible answer. as a result as a result of resulted in as a consequence as a consequence of

t hanks t o due to because of

l The FTSE 100 fcll again increasing cconomic un certai nty. 2 Rumours of a merger Tenzin Pharma ga ining 600. 3 Nidden PLC has successfull y rcsisted a raid ; its pricc has lcvellcd off. 4 Henry Halcn climbcd quickly excellent th ird quartcr results. 5 Pro fit warnings from several co mputer companies sign ificant drops in price. its stoc k fell to f22. 6 JTL Holdings· Brazilia n subsidia ry went bankrupt. Which phrases explain ca uses? Which introduce e ffects ?

listening for detail

Il

2:41 Liste n to a stock ma rket report and complete the gra ph of Fraxis Corp's sha re -price

history.

120

D.

D:

11 0

o(.)

en >< c(

D:

LI.

100

90 80

"'

~

g

70 60 50 40

30 20 10 1993 1994

be in the black bid

'ilter throug h 'lotation FTSE 100

•u rno ur

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

___,

------- -----------------... ------

2010

2012

now

torecasl

...

Presenting

(J With a pa rtne r, pra ctise d escribing the informa tion in a g raph. Student A: turn to page 116. Studen t B: turn to page 120.

Business :.i o

91

7 Mergers and acquisitions ~

will and going to

~

present continuous

~

could, may, might, be /ikely/unlikely, be bound to

Refresh your

memory

Future forms w ill + do /'li open the w indow. instant decisions, predictions, future facts going t o+ do

7.3 Grammar Arrangements, plans and contingencies

D

With a partner, look at Tom's d iary. Talk about his ar rangements, plans, and intentions for next week. Be careful to U!!e appropriate future forms.

On Monday, he's not working, so he'll probably sleep late. He might have breakfast at Starbucksn', and then he's going to clean his flat.

lt's going to rain. ~

plans & intentions, prediction based on present situation islare doing

I>

+

E·DIARY

\J

am

pm

+-

/'m seeing the doctor at 10.30. fixed arrangements for the future

Monday

Day off work 1 Sleep late, breakfast at Starbucks? Mu st clean fiat ! !

Eye doctor 3.4 5. Go swim ming later? Big match on TV; order pizza , invite Martin?

Tuesday

Drive car to garage for service. Bus to work? or wal k if sunny.

Marketing Presentation 2.OO (don't forget to ask Kate for help with PPT) Pick up car 6. 30.

Wednesday

No meetings. Paperwork, prepare for Thurs, etc.

Dinner with Ashley. Book nice restaurant, buy flowers !

Thursday

Customer visit. Train 7.30, arrive 9.30. Taxi to office, meeting 1O.OO

Lunch at The Tree (table booked) Ask customer about needs for next year. Home late.

Friday

Best day to ask boss about holidays? NB if Thursday successful.

Fin ish early. Call Ashley if dinner went well.

Saturday

My birthday! 23 - that's really old ! Buy food for tonight

Birthday party at Tom's house. Let's dance! lf Ashley can 't come, invite Kelly.

Sunday

Sleep? or play squash? Read newspapers Must phone Mum!

Help Tom clean up . Go for walk wit h Ashley (or Kelly?) if no rain. lf rain, cinema?

li> Grammar and practice page 134 Expressing likelihood

li> Grammar and practice page 135

O

Tell your partner what's in your own diary/ PDA/ smartphone/ head for next week.

Expressing likelihood

D

In small groups, t a ke turns to m ake predictio ns about the th ings below. Use expressions from the table oppos ite to evaluate the probability of your predictions actually happening .

1 2 3 4

a sports event the economy in your country your next exam/ test/evaluation the weather

5 6 7 8

the job market the next election next season's fas hions your own predictions

A: I think Brazil will win the World Cup. B: N o, it's unlikely. C: There's no way! Spain are much stronger! B: I think there's a good chance that the economy is going to continue getting worse before it gets bette1: A: Definitely. There 's no doubt that the recession is going to carry on for same time yet. C: l'm not so sure. I think we could see things starting to improve soon.

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I/,, Business 2.0

it 's unlikely there's not much chance it might just happen

it's highly unlikely it's impossible there's no way

there's a 50/50 chance it's possible it may happen it could happen it's likely

t here's a good chance it's highly likely it's almost certain def initely t here's no doubt it's bound to happen

SCALE Of PROBABILITY

Discussion

El Work in groups of three. You are futurists. Choose a col umn each, A, Bor C. Prepare a oneminute presentation d iscussing the like lihood of each eve nt happening by 2050. Using t he expressions from Exercise 3 again and take t urns to present your v iew s, a nswer questions and defend your ideas.

A

B

c

Everyone will work from home.

Everyone will go back to university every ten years.

Nobody will work mare than three days a week.

There w ill be a single world currency.

Mobile cities will be bui lt on the oceans.

Virtual offices wil l be accessible from anywhere in the world.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-

There w ill be hotels and conference cent res o n the moon .

Internet

research

Search for the keywords .Mvin Toffler to find :iut about this leading -uturist and his , ompany's work.

The majority of senior managers w ill be women.

-~~~~~~

Chinese will be the language of business.

Listening

li

2:42 Listen t o a conversation between t w o friends at a party, and mark the future events in the box U (unlikely) or P (planned).

O go freelance O start evening cl asses O stay at Artip O find a new job O Artip take-over O read t he job ads O g ive up smoking and drinking O retrain as a marketing assist ant Which arrangement has Ashley forgotten to mention?

Discussion

lll With a partner, discuss your plans, intentions and hopes for the future. Talk about: the rest of the day this evening tomorrow the weekend next week next month

next holidays next term next year your next job the next 25 years your retirement. (It's never too soon to plan ahead!)

n,, Business z.o

93

7 Mergers and acquisitions -

lll>

different visual ai ds

lll>

expressions for describing visu ais

Discussion

giving a presentation

D

lll>

7 .4 Speaking

-

Presentations - visuals

Mark these presentation tools E (essential) or N (non-essential) to a good presentation, then compare with a partner and explain your choices.

O a laptop O a video projector O a DVD player and TV O a laser pointer O a fl ip chart and pens O a blackboard and chalk O an interactive whiteboard (IWB) O a set of handouts O a 35-mm slide projector O presentation software Listening for gist

O :; 2:43-2:46

Listen to tour presenters. What mistakes are they making? Match extracts 1-4 with the tips fo r effective presentations a-d below.

a ) Don't put too much data on slides: no more than six lines of text, and no more than six words per li ne. O b) Too many visuals confuse the audience: don 't overload them with slides. O c) Don't be too tec hnical: adapt to the target audi ence, and don't read out text on slides. O d) Help the audience to u nd erstand by introducing, highlighting and explaining the most important information. O

Listening for detail

O :, 2:47

Listen to a better presentation. Which of the three slides a, b, or c below is the presenter describing?

o

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

0%

Iii

o

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

1

3

2

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20%

10% 0%

94

I " Business 2 o

iii

Intemet

research

łlh at do the tl:!rms vertical and horizontal ntegration mean? Find out abo ut current trends n vertica I i nteg ration i n the music, drinks or TV nd ustries.

D

~ 2:47 With a partner, choose the correct option in the checklist of useful expressions for presenting visuals. Then listen again and check your answe rs.

Useful expressions: Presenting visuals lntroducing a slide or visual l'd like you to look at this slide. M y next sl ide presents I shows I contains two charts ... Let's look I see I show at the second chart. Highlighting As t he graph shows , ... As you wi ll mark I notice I remark in the pi e-chart, ... As you can perceive I see I look, after a merger ... Contrasting in cont rast t o ... compared with I regarding I in relat ion to almost half who said ... moreover I notwithstanding I whereas it remains about the same in „. Explaining and interpreting The f igures seem to recommend I suggest I exp lain that ... Th is is because I resulting I due to a perceived drop .. . The results involve I indicate I interpret that reta ilers .. . as con trary I opposite I opposed t o manufacturers ... Th i s is t he resul t J reason I record ot improved product quality

„.

Presenting visuals

O

The pi e-chart shows how typical Ame ricans spend their income.



housing



transportation



food



disposable, i.e. health, lnvestments, entertainment, sports, communication, etc.

Draw two p ie-charts, showing how you use your income today, and how you think you might use it in 20 years from now. In small groups, present your cha rts using the framework below.

1 2 3 4 5

Introduce the fi rst chart. H igh light points of interest. Exp la in anything unusua l. lnterpret what your cha rt says about you and your li festyle. Repeat po ints 1-4 for your seco nd chart, a nd contrast the second cha rt with the first.

Presentation

O Glossary

PAGE 157

crucial det eriorate d isposable income high l ight overload

Work in groups of three. Your company, which ma nufactures tennis racquets, is looking for a suitable takeover target in order to d iversify and accelerate growth. Each person will present one company: decide together which is the best candidate for acquisition.

Student A: tum to page 115. Student B: tum to page 11 7. Stude nt C: tum to page 121.

Busrnes

2

o

95

1 Mergers and acquisitions .

'

Il> format of sl ides Il>

7 .5 Writing

~

-

Presentation slides

being brief and concise

Discussion

Il> writi ng presentatio n

slides

D .-

Decide which two of the following you would not expect to find in a presentation slide. Why not?

backgrounds bold text bullet points footnotes italics logos paragraphs

different fonts photos sound effects

Model

O

Read the three PowerPoint slides. Which is the best way of presenting the information, and why?

o

o

G

Guidelines for slides 1-2 slides/minute info in points max 6/slide keywords only

max 6 words visuals best

96

I ,

Business 2 o

Internet

research

Search for the keywords :Jeath by PowerPoint -:> find

out more the pros and ·ons of multimedia :iresentations. ~oout

Ana lysis

D

Compare slides A and B. Which words have been retained and what kind of words have been deleted in slide B?

Language focus

D

Underline the key words in each extract to include on a slide about writing presentations. Then reduce each point to six to eight words.

1 One of th e most challenging aspects of writing a presentation is the need to organize the information in a logical way. 2 Choose attractive background and text colours that arc co mfortable fo r th e audience to read. 3 Presentation software can be fun to use. Be creative, but do not include too many effccts which may distract your audience from your con ten t. 4 Make sure th e text is large cnough that the audien ce can read it easily from the back of the room. Also. use a standard font that is not too complicated or distracting. 5 Use positive statements li ke 'The figures show -·.' rath er than vague language like 'The data could possibly suggest ... '

O

Reduce this presentation extract to five points on one slide.

-

'l'm herc tlili morning to present the three possible scenarios which, in our discussions wi th the bank and our consultants, we have identified as the three most realistic futures for our company. Our first option is to do nothing: we know that the market is becoming mare and mare competitive, but if we are careful, we ca n continue to survh•e - at least for some years. Our second option is to borrow money to invest in new technologies in order, hopefulJy, to develop new, high-margin prod ucts for our existing customers, and for new rnarkets. The third and finał scenario is to launch a takeover bid to acquire Iticom, who already have the technology we need to enter those new rnarkets immediately. ladies and gentlemen, after carefully considering all the options, it is this third scenario which J intend to recommend. lt is, of course, a high-risk scenario, but it is a scenario which holds enormous potentia! for our company.'

Output

-

O • Glossary

bullet points distracting font vague

PAGE 157

2:48 Listen to a presentation about Galway Software. Take notes on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats the speaker has identified, and his proposal. Then write slides to illustrate the presentation.

Writing slides

O

Plan a short presentation on a subject of your chcice and write a maximum of six slides. Exchange slides with a partner and give each other feedback.

Busmcssz

97

7 Mergers and acquisitions li>

comparing financial information

7.6 Case study

li> ana lysis of the via bi lity of a merger

Discussion

D

Cal isto, IMM and Reysonido sell musical instruments in Central America. Look at the figures and compare the three businesses.

IMM

CALISTO Sales 'Cost of Sales Totll Oi>eratlng Expenses

FY ·1

FY ·2

(M$)

(M$)

(M$}

_

EBIT

15 7 .5 ------;;:~~:-9Jllm (1.5) (M$)

REYSONIDO

Sal es Cost of Sales - - rating Exp«111ses

(M$)

18 9 O (M$)

4

11 4.4 6

O

0.6

10

a;G1111"

EBIT (EBIT

FY (M$)

(M$)

20 10 1 (M$)

12 4.8 6- 1.2

=earnings before interest and tax)

Reading

D

Read the newspaper article and answer the questions.

1 How has Dylan achieved its impressive growth? 2 What effect has it had on the market? 3 Whi ch company has adapted best to the new market leader?

Dylan rocks instrument market New figures yesterday confirmed the meteoric rise of Dylan Instruments to number one in Central America's musical instrument market (see charts). Panama-based newcomers Dylan, who have modelled their business on PC direct sales giant Dell, have pushed former market leader Instrumentos Musicales Mejicanos (IMM) into second place. Under the charismatic leadership

of CEO Abejundio Dylan, the firm has used slick marketing and aggressive discounting to capture market share from all its competitors. 'We aim to have 50% of the !ocal market in two years' time,' trumpets Dylan. Competitors like IMM, Calisto and Reysonido are considering alliances to ensure their survival; severa! smaller players have already gone out of business.

Market share This year

Calisto 15%

98

lhe Business 2.0

Y-1

Y-2

Reysonido 11%

Reysonido 12%

Listening for gist

lntemet

research

How can smaller companies compete with a dominant market eader? Search for the keywords Avis: We Try Harder to read abo ut how Avis™ took on a giant.

O

2:49 Listen to a presentation by Calisto's President to the Board of Directors and list the company's six options in Column 1 of the table.

Opłio11
C..'Uł jobs

I.Jołes

- s11.....e słr11.łea'l5 "'s - - - - - wo-v.id red-v.u ope.-r11.łi1< eXpe-1
0

2.

3

- S11.....e

"'s _ _ __ _ - wo1Ald .,.e.d'Uce proJ-tAc.tio""' cosłs ~ ___ % - w01Aid i1'1ere11.se oper11.łi""a expe""ses _ _ _ per słrnt~'/1

e.11.r

- 1'te;
-

cosł

o'f s11.l.es W01Aid i11
- priee: _ _ _ __

- 11.dv11.1<ł11.o_e.s: _ _ __ _ - JiS11.dv11.,,.t11. es : _ _ _ __

0

- pr iee: _ _ _ __

- bo-ti'US: - --

-

1--8·~· Glossary

PAGE 157

charismatic meteor ie ruthless sii ck t rumpet

,.,.,

ref""'/1...e""łs :

- self o.ff

--

_ _ _ __

01AY - - - - -

Listening for detail

O

2:49 Listen again and complete the notes on Calisto's six options in Column 2 of the table above.

Discussion and presentation

li ł„ eWorkbook

Now watch the video for this unit.

In small groups, meet as consultants to Calisto's Board of Directors.

Review Calisto's six options, as well as your own ideas, and decide what strategy you will recommend. 2 Prepare a presentation outlining your recommendations to the Board, using slides to structure and support your arguments. 3 Give your presentation. Yours will be in competition with those of other groups. As Cal isto's Board of Directors, the class should ask questions and vote for the best presentation.

I he Business 2 .0

99

8 International trade ""

issues in sales mistakes

"" credit agencies and insurance

8.1 About business Export sales and payment Discussion

D

h researc

Internet

Fluctuations in the exchange rate between currencies can be an important issue in exporting. Search for the keywords Big Mac Index to find out a fun way of measuring t hese.

How can selling your product in other countries be more difficult than at home? With a partner, list four aspects of export sales where there may not be a level playing field .

Sean reading

O

Read the article opposite from a trade magazine. Which four export mistakes did Eisenhart Games make?

Reading for detail

D

Read the article again. Which eight lessons does Vincenti say exporters have to learn?

Listening for detail

D

~ 2:50 Listen to an interview with James Sullivan, a sales manager with Nehling and Hynes, an American credit agency, and answer the questions.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Which two kinds of service do credit agencies provide? How large is Nehling and Hynes' database, and why is this important? How are credit ratings useful? What proportion of European and US firms purchase credit insurance? Which advantage does credit insurance give Dary! Vincenti in Saudi Arabia? On average, how much does international credit insurance cost?

Reading for detail

D

Read this extract from a guide to methods of payment in international trade. Put the methods in order from the safest (1) to the riskiest (4) from the exporter's point of view.

O Open account

IO

Goods are shipped directly to the buyer, with a request for payment.

Adv;n~e pay~ent --

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-----

Payment is expected by t he exporter, in full, before goods are shipped.

IO Bills for collecti; , ; A bill of exchange is sent from the exporter's bank to the buyer's bank. When the buyer agrees to pay on a certain date. they sign the draft. The documents and goods are released to the buyer agai nst this acceptance.

-- O Letters of credit (L/Cs), also known as documentary credits (DCs)

Documentary credit is a ban k-to-bank commitment of payment: the buyer's bank guarantees that payment will be made when the shipping documents are found to be in compliance with terms set by the buyer. - - - - - - - - ---·-

-----------c.--.--------..----__...---------------.-._...,

Discussion

D

As the exporter, decide what methods of payment in Exercise 5 you would require from these customers.

Glossary

PAGE 1s1

chase creditworthiness level playing f ield take on board

think outside the box w it hout a trace w izard I

1 -----~

J /w Business 2.0

1 The buyer is a well-known co mpany in a large country in western Europe. This is a first order but you hope the buyer will become a regular customer. 2 The buyer is in a country where currency exchange is controlled by the government. Requests for foreign currency payments must be justified by supporting documents. 3 The buyer is a new customer in a country with a fragile economy and a poor credit rating. 4 The buyer is a large North American company with a reputation for slow payment. 5 The buyer is one of your suppliers in a neighbouring country. 6 The buyer represents a small company in a developing country and is a personal friend.

O

You and a friend design and sell your own line of T-shirts at rock concerts. You have been very successful in your own country, and now several contacts in other countries have ex pressed interest in your product . What problems do you anticipate if you start to export, and what solutions can you suggest?

learns from mistakes AT CHICAGO-BASE O EISENHART GAM ES, Daryl Vincenti is known as the 'export wizard'. Over the last three years, the pinball machine manufacturer has developed a profitable new market in the Middle East. 'Times are hard for pinball in the US.' says Vincenti. 'Competition from video games and computers has hit small manufacturers like us really ha rd, so we have to find new markets.' Eisenhart now has some 35% of a growing Middle East market, but it hasn't been easy. 'We made a lot of mist akes at the beginning,' confesses Vincenti, 'but we learned fast. We're now starting to work in S E Asia, and things are 10 much easie r because we've taken important lessons on board in the Middle East.' Vincenti puts using a good credit agency at the top of his lessons learned list. 'When you've invested time, effort and money in making an export sale, you want to get paid! After wasting a lot of time •s chasing payments, a friend introduced me to Nehling and Hynes. We learned that by using a credit agency to check out your customer's creditworthiness and to insure against non-payment, you can make export virtually risk-free.' Other lessons learned centred on adaptability. 'Be flexi ble: you have 20 to learn to think outside th e box,' says Vincenti. 'And don't assume that what works well in your domestic market will automatically go down well i n another. You should also be prepared to modify your product specifications to meet local conditions, and to focus on different aspects of the marketing mix. In the Middle East, for example, price is 2 not everything. We started out trying to sell on price: we soon learned that over th ere, image, quality and service are all more important.' Vincenti also stresses that would-be exporters should make a firm commitment to export, but focus on one market, rather than trying to sell all over the world. 'You don't succeed in export markets by giving Jr them a couple of hours a week when things are slow at home. You have to put in a lot of time, get out there and meet your customers, and manage your loca I distributors proactively - if you don't, it's "game over''. Eisenhart learned the hard way when they signed an exclusive deal with an agent in the Gulf; at the end of the first year, 35 sales were zero, and the agent had d isappeared without trace. A final lesson is to remember that appearances can be deceptive, warns Vincenti: 'One day we received a 15-word fax in approximate English from what seemed to be one man and a camel somewhere out in the desert. We thought it was a joke, but a week later we decided we "" should answer it anyway. They're now our biggest customer.'



~-------

--- ---

- - - - - - - - -- - - -

-

17" Business 2 .0

101

8 International trade .,.. collocations for making and processing payments

8.2 Vocabulary

.,.. credit and insurance .,.. exports

Collocations

D

Complete the collocations for talking about payment by choosing the correct noun in the box for each group of verbs. an application

a deal

an invoice

a payment

conditions

goods

issue

provide

settl e

load

query

ship

approve

state

negotiate

make

meet

4

comply w ith

reach sign

submit

2

5

vet

miss

3

6

chase

Oecide w hether the buyer or the seller carries out the actions above.

Phrasal verbs

O

Put the words in these guidelines for exporters in the correct order. Each sentence conta ins a phrasal verb.

1 2 3 4 5

check I customer's I your I on I creditworthiness I up I new doubts I insurance I if I you I take I about I getting I have I out I paid behind I their I customers I do I not I get I payments I with I Jet as I invoices I soon I become I they I chase I as I overdue I up act I getting I your I difficulties I quickly I if I customer I is I into

O

Match definitions a-e with the correct phrasal verb from Exercise 2.

a) b) c) d) e)

102

/J1e Business 2.0

get something officially from a specialist organization O moving towards a particular condition or situation O find out information about something or someone discreetly O find out what is being done about something O fail to do something at the right time O

Internet

research

. hat is a thesaurus a"1d when is it useful? earch for the ke yword 'lesaurus. The n, in an line thesaurus, search · r the nouns credit, sh and trade. Fo r each '"'OUn, find synonyms, 'ltonyms a nd common ~ locations.

Listening

D

2 s 2·55 Listen to five conversations abo ut export issues. Use verb-noun collocations from Exercises 1 and 2 to say what is happening i n each .

A Slovakian company has submitted a n application for credit. Bruno asks his colleague to on thei r _ _ __ The company is going to on a shipment. Thcy need to do th is to with the conditions in the contract. Franccsca's boss ask her to _ _ _ _ up an invoice. She docsn't want Kawasaki to get with their payments. Mr Takahashi the . He asks fo r morc time to pay. The company seems to be into difficultics. The companies talk about how the goods will be _ _ _ _ . In the end, they _ _ _ _ a deal.

l 2 3 4 5

Collocations How many two-word collocations can you make by combining th e words credit, insurance a nd customer with the nouns in the box? card claim credit insurance line loyalty po rtfolio safes terms period pol icy

O 1 2 3 4 5 6

Use collocations from Exercise 5 to complete these sentences.

Frcquent-flyer schemes, free gifts and credit are all ways of dcveloping _ _ __ To avoid cash-flow problems, sales teams need to be given a elea r _ _ __ An provides cover in case of an accident. Because old customers leave, a sales person must constantly be looking to add to their _ __ reduces the risk of default on export payments. After the fi re, the company filcd a fo r compensation.

Defining words

O

With a partner, practise defining words relating to business transactions.

Studen t A: usc the information bclow. Student B: tum to page 121. Give Student B definitions for 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 9 across. Student B will give you definitions for 1, 3, 5 a nd 8 down a nd 10 a nd 11 ac ross to help you complcle the crossword. ~

A V E ~

~

D o

U

B

T

s

~

E

A

N

A

A

E C o N ~ L

6

T

10

11

A

o

G

y

D E R A P O s

L

T L

A

o

N s

0

E P R E c

~

A

0

~

E

A

o

L

U T L

N o F

F

O N

E R

fi le a cla im forw arder frequ ent-flyer schemes get behind with

!lic Business 2.0

103

8 International trade 1111>

time expressions w ith in, on and at

8.3 Grammar Prepositions

_____,

1111>

1111>

ago, last, next, yesterday and tomorrow dependent prepositions

Refresh your

memory

in

periods the morning, July, the winter, 2007, the BOs on

days and dates Monday, the 77th, New Year's Day

Prepositions of time

D

With a partner, ask and answer the questions about your country using the appropriate preposition.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

When do most people start and finish work? When do students usually do most of their work ? When does the New Year begin ? When are the school holidays? What other times are popular for holidays? When is the best time for tourists to visit? What t ime do peopl e usually eat breakfast, lunch and dinner? Wh en is it im polite to telephone people? When are you allowed to make a lot of noise ? When are salaries usually paid ? H ow qui ckly do companies usually pay their bills? When are the sales?

at

times and special times 3pm, breakfast, the weekend, Christmas

0 expressions with last, next, ago, yesterday,

Dependent prepositions

O

Find the verb in each group that does not have the same dependent preposition as the other three. Write the preposition in the space provided. aga inst

for

from

to

in

of

on

w

with

for

tomorrow .... Grammar and practice page 136

1 2 3 4 5 6

li sten comply pay dep end result suffer 7 discuss 8 consist 9 Li sten 10 fight

~ sympathise wait rely invest emerge apply react belong insure

con sent resort vote insist borrow hear look approve leave protect

refer assoc iate object attend succeed account apologize think re late ask

(_to_) ( ) ( ) ( )

_ _

__ __ (__) (__ ) (__ ) (__)

__)

( (

__)

Listening for gist

O

~ 2:56-2:65 Listen to ten short dialogues and use a word from the box to describe what the people are discussing. Be careful to use the right preposition. access apologizing aptitude complying investing dependence hearing insuring

damage satisfaction

1 They are discussing property. what he said to her. 2 H e is talking about 3 He is lucky that there isn 't much his car. la nguages. 4 They a re admiring her 5 They a re worrying about their company's one big firm. 6 the American Food and Drug Administration is essential if they wan t to sell the product in th e States. 7 She is explaining t he company policy of _ _ _ _ non-payment. 8 They a re expressing their this year's results. 9 They are worri ed about not Taiwan. 10 There is as system failure, so they don't have _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ data.

I



I 104

1lie Business 2.0

l

Speaking

D

With a partner, or in groups of four, play preposition s t ennis. Student A 'serves' by sayi ng a verb from the list in Exercise 2. Student B 'returns' by saying a short sentence w ith the verb and correct preposition (without looking at the list!}. Student B then says another verb from the list which Student A 'returns' with the correct preposition and another verb, etc. Score a point each time your opponent answers incorrectly.

A: rely B You can rely on me to get the right answer. agree A: I don't agree with. that at all! react

Listening for detail O ,:i 2:66 Listen to the conversation between Paul, a manager, and his assistant, Jenny. Complete the schedule with the times or t ime periods, using the appropriate prepositions.

1

Jenny is picking up tickets

±ta.is e.vM1i~„ be.fere. l. .oo, 2 Jenny is dropping tickets off at office 3

Paul's flight leaves

4

Check-in opens

5 Finance meeting finishes 6

Paul's kids go to bed

7 Paul is staying in the States 8

Paul is attending six meetings

9 Paul's return flight leaves

10 Paul is preparing the Merosom pitch 11 Merosom announce their decision 12 Paul will read files for New York meetings

h researc

Internet

Search for the keywords

how to become a millionaire. As you read, make a list of five words followed by a dependent preposition, which you feel are usef ul to learn.

Glossary drop off jet-lagged pitch

PAGE 158

Speaking

D

Work in groups of three. You are going to hold a conversation about one of the subjects be low.

how to become a mi lł ionaire how to persuade a bank to lend you money how to get promotion

how to find and keep customers how to manage professional stress how to manage your boss

Student A: turn to page 117. Student B: turn to page 119. Student C: turn to page 120. //1eBusiness2.o

105

8 International trade .,.. expressions for checking understanding ..,. correcting and reformulating

8.4 Speaking Negotiations - diplomacy Discussion

O

Il>- roleplaying a negotiation

Read the information in the box. With a partner, discuss whether you think the countries and regions below are L (Jow-context) or H (high-context) cultures.

Low-context cult.ures

High·context cultures

Focus of negotiations

problem-solving, deadlines are important

relationship-building, time is flexible

Communication style

direct, verbal, few non-verbal signals

indirect, dislike conflict, avoid saying no

Business organization

individuals more important than the group

group more import ant t han individuals

O China O USA O Middle East O Latin America

O Australia D UK

ON

Europe O Japan

What does this mea n for international negotiators?

Listening for gist

El

~ 2:67- 2:69 Listen to three negotiation extracts. What went wrong in each case? Think about high- and low-context cultures, as well as the actual phrases used.

D

~ 2:70-2:72 Listen to alternative versions of the three negotiations. How do the negotiators avoid misunderstandings?

B

2:70- 2:72 With a partner, choose the correct options in the checklist of useful expressions for being diplomatic. Then listen again and check your answers.

Useful expressions: Diplomatic negotiations Checking understanding Correct me if l' m impolite I wrong I inappropriate, but you seem to be saying that .. . Have I got I seen I caught this right? Would I be true I fair I right in saying that ... ? lf l've understood just I correctly I really ... Correcting misunderstandings l'm afraid there seems to be a slight misunderstanding I mistake I mishap . l' m sorry, that isn't quite w hat I want I meant I expect ed. Perhaps I haven't made myself sense I right I elear. Reformulating let me put it another angle I way I time. What I w as trying to say I mean I tell was ...

Allow me to repeat I rephrase I reform that. What I meant I told I expressed w as „ .

Diplomatic language

O

Match the direct remarks 1-4 with diplomatic forms that were used in Exercise 3.

Direct

106

Diplomatic

l'm not ready to make a decision.

a) Perhaps we shou ld ta lk again in a few days?

2

This project is totally unrealistic.

b) I think we might need more t ime to explore all the implications.

3

Let's f inish the meeting now.

c) We would be very ha ppy to give you the same terms as Auckland, if you were in a position to order the same volume.

4

We won't pay for shipping u n less you give us a bigger order.

d) l'm afraid we feel there are stili quite a large number of difficulties to face in this project.

lbe Business 2 .0

Internet

research

Search for the keywords high low context po/ychronlc culture to f ind out more about Edward T Hall's work on culture and communicat ion.

O

Complete t he summary. Diplomatic language often uses:

moda! verbs like could, _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ __ softening adverbs like may be or _ _ __ qualifiers Jike a bit, rather, a Little or _ __ _ introductory warnings like /'m sorry, actually, _ _ __ (negative) questions rather than statements.

O

'Translate' the direct remarks i nto d iplomatic lang uage, and vice versa.

Direct

Diplomatic Wouldn't it be easier for everybody if we held the meet ing here rather than in Colombia?

2

lf you don't want to do business, just say so!

3 4

Actually, I was wondering whether you might reconsider your position on that particular issue? So you don't want to sell us your products? Couldn't we perhaps start a little earlier than 11 am tomorrow? We might find we would make a bit more progress.

5 6

That's not true. t never said that! To be honest, l'm incl ined to think that business trips aren't q uit e as useful as everybody says they are.

7 8

So you don't trust us t o pay?

Negotiating

l!I With a partner, take turns to choose a subject and hold short negotiat ions following the chart below. Be d ip lomatic!

1 2 3 4 Glossary

buying worldwide rights to your partner's movie script buying advertising space on your partner's car buying worldwide rights to using your partner's name buying eq uity in your partner's business

Student A

Student B

PAGE 158

consensus implication quit

Make an offer.

3

5

Check understanding.

4

Make a counter offer, or go to 5.

Correct misunderstanding, if necessary, reformulate offer.

łet eWorkbook

Now watch the video for this unit.

2

Accept offer, or go to 2.

1111' Business 2.0

107

8 International trade -- - - - - - - - - - - - - . li>

payment req uest s

8.5 Writing

Requests and reminders

li> sounding polit e

Discussion

li> w riting requests and reminders

D

Answer the questions below. Then compare your answers with a pa rtner.

1 What is your philosophy on credit? a) never borrow money b) use credit in moderation c) get as much credit as you can 2 lf you have to ask someone to repay money they owe you, how do you feel? a) embarrassed· b) angry c) nothing, it's only money 3 What would you write to remind someone they owe you money? Why? a) a text message b) an email c) a letter

Model

O

Read the emails below. Which email 1-4 is:

a request? O

a reminder? O

a refusal? O

a final demand? O

High light the phrases which helped you to decide.

o

[8:J

I4

INBOX

REPLY •

I FORWARD

o



this invoice has already been settled, please disregard th is email.

2

4 INBOX

1

REPLY 4"

o

FORWARD •

In answer to your enquiry of 2 September about trading on open account, we regret to inform you that we are unable to agree to your request due to your insufficient credit rating. We hope you will understand the reasons for this decision, and we trust that we can continue to do business together as in the past

I • INBOX

REP LY



FORWARD



Further to our email of 23 May, we have stili not received payment for the outstanding sum of € 15,789. We regret to inform you that we are suspending all shipments until this outstanding balance has been settled.

According to our records, our 1nvo1ce number 061704 for €15, 789 is now overdue. lf. however,

e

[8:J

[8:J

4 INBOX , REPLY •

I FORWARD •

As we now intend to place regular orders w1th you r company, we would appreciate being able to trade on open account. We are confident this arrangement will be to our mutual benefit, and we look forward to an early reply.

I

Ana lysis

D

Make complete sentences by using one phrase from each column . The first one has been done for you.

I am w riting to enquire

agree t o

which is stili outstanding.

2

I am afraid group policy

the sum of €21,552

to extend credit terms of 60 days.

3

We are pleased to

w hether you would be able

of this outstanding balance.

4

May I remind you that

your early sett lement

the terms you propose.

5

We wrote to you on 4 November

does not allow us

to our legal department.

6

Would you let us

regarding the balance of €12,650

is stil I outstanding?

7

We w ould appreciate

but t o pass the matter on

as soon as possible?

8

We shall have no alternative

know yo ur decision

to give more than 30 days' credit.

-------

------

---------------------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- Which sentences are used in:

a request? O a reminder? O a refusal? O an agreement?

1--

108

I Iw Busin ess 2.0

O

a final demand? O

Language focus

Internet

research

li Which is the most polite form, a or b? 1 a) In view of the increase in our vol ume of business, . b) Considering how much more business we're giving you, ... 2 a) About the longer credit you asked for, ... b) With regard to your request for improved credit terms, ... 3 a) Re: your letter dated 31/ 1, . b) Further to your letter of 31 January, .. . 4 a) We look fon~ard to recciving your order. b) We expect you to order quickly. 5 a) We're giving you a week to pay, . .. b) Unless we receive payment within seven days, .. 6 a) We would like to apologize for the delay in sending the enclosed cheque. b) We are sorry we took so long to send the enclosed cheque. 7 a) This was a n unfortunate oversight due to circumstances beyond our control. b) We forgot, but it wasn't our fault. 8 a) We can assure you that it will not recur. b) Don't worry, it will never happen again.

f your customers are

slow payers, one way to improve cash-flow is factoring. Search for the keywords factoring receivables to f ind out how factoring works, and its adva ntages and disadvantages.

O

o

~ ł • INBOX

Complete the emails using vocabulary from Exercises 2, 3 and 4.

REPLY •

I FORWARD •

o

INBOX I REPLY

In _ _ _ _ _ of the increase in our volume of

May I

- - - - - · I am writing to _ _ _ __ whether you would be prepared to _ _ __ _

€1O1,000 is stili

Would you let us soon as _ _ _ _ _ ?

~ 1•

INBOX

REPLY •





FORWARD

you that the sum of on your account?

We would appreciate your early this outstand ing _ _ _ __

credit terms of 60 days.

e

C8J I •

of

your decis1on as

FORWARD



o

C8J

l • INBOX

REPLY

ł'

FORWARD



~

With _ _ _ _ _ to your request for improved

We would like to

credit , I am afraid that group _ _ _ _ _ does not _ _ _ _ _ us to

sending the unfortunate

cheque. Th is was an due to circumstances

extend more than 30 days' credit.

beyond our

, and we can assure you

for the delay in

that 1t wi ll not

e

CB:;



INSOX

_ __ __

REPl.Y •

FORWARD



to you r email of 17 July, we

o

0

I•

INBOX

REPl.Y •

FORWARD



We wrote to you on 11 April _ _ _ _ _ the balance of €15,550 which is stili _ __ __

are pleased to agree to the you propose, and we look _ _ _ _ _ to receiving

Unless we receive payment _ _ _ _ _ seven

your order.

days, we shall have no t he matter on to our

but to pass department.

I

Which email is:

Glossary disregard extend factoring outstanding

overdue oversight settle

PAGE 157

a request? O a reminder? O a refusal? O a fina! demand? O an apology? O an agreemen t? O

Writing O work in groups of three to write and reply to requests and reminders.

Student A: turn to page 117. Student B: turn to page 119. Student C: turn to page 120.

fi,,

Business 2 o

109

8 International trade ~

managing cust omer credit

~

finding a solution for improving cash flow

8 .6 Case study Jeddah Royal Beach Resort Discussion

D Internet

researc

h

Search for t he key words collecting debt to f ind out how small bus i nesses ca n recover payments more quickly.

Brainstorm a list of services which large hotels can charge for in addition to accommodation.

Reading for detail

El

Read the extract from a business magazine and answer the questions.

1 How does giving credit increase room revenues and attract more clients? 2 Why do luxury hotels prefer to issue their own cred it cards rather than be paid by VISA, MasterCard®, American Express®, etc.? 3 What are the advantages for the customer of a 'cashless resort'? 4 Who is Riaz Hussain and w hat are his responsibilities?

THE JEDDAH ROYAL BEACH RESORT THE JEDDAH Royal Beach Resort is one of Saudi Arabia's n ewest and most luxurious hotels. In a fiercely competitive market where foreign corporations provide 75% of revenues, every hotel from the five-star palace to the one-star motel needs to increase room revenues to be able to invest in new facilities to attract new clients. One of the major incentives in the armoury of modern hotel marketing is credit. The Royal Beach, like many of its competitors, has its own credit manager, whose job is to manage the credit which the hotel uses to encourage customers to spend freely on additional services. One of Riaz Hussain's firs t innovations as Credit Manager was to introduce an in-house credit card to the Royal Beach. Such credit cards are increasingly popular, allowing hotels to develop customer Joyalty as well as to avoid paying commission to credit card cornpanies. The Royal Beach advertises itself as a'cashless resort': customers are able to use their electronic membership card to make reservations via the Internet, to speed up checkin and check-out, and to pay for a host of services including accommodation, telephone and fax, restaurant and bar bills, leisure activities, limousines, airline tickets and even cash advances with no exchange problems. With its own boutiques, nightclub, beach, water sports and golf course, it's easy for guests from all over the world to spend severa! days in the sun (and perhaps severa! weeks' salary!) with nothing more than their plastic smart card in their pocket. Riaz Hussain's responsibilities include vetting corporate and in dividual applications for credit, following clients who reach or exceed their credit lirnits, and organizing debt recovery from indelicate guests, or their corporate sponsors, who 'forget' to settle their bills.

110

'/he Busines5 2.0

Listening for detail

D

2:73 Listen to a conversation between Riaz Hussain and Frederick, the front office manager at the Jeddah Royal Beach Resort , and complete the customer database entries.

Customer:

C1111ton„w

j Ms Koepple

j Mr Kobayashi

j Mrs Saman

Company:

Cumpany:

Compauy:

Company cred't rating:

Ccmpany credit rating:

Company credit r,1tlng.

\ good / average / poor / unknown

\ good I average / poor / unknown

Current credit limit:

Current credit limit.

Credit limit requcsted:

Credit llmlt requested:

Credit limit requested:

Notes:

Notes~

Notei;:

!

good I average

I poor / unknown

Current credit limit.

o

D :; 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2:73 Listen again and answer the questions.

Why doesn't Riaz Jike having rock groups in the hotel? If Ms Koepple leaves today without paying, how much will the hotel lose? How much credit is Riaz prepared to allow her? Wh y does Frederick think Mr Kobayashi is a difficult c ustomer? Why is Frederick suspicious of him? What happened with Mrs Saman's company last year? Why are Mrs Sama n and her brother important for the hotel?

Discussion

O

Look at the chart showing the Jeddah Royal Beach Resort's customer payments. Describe the trends for:

1 cash payments

2 short credit periods

3 longer credit periods

4 uncollectibles.

CUSTOMER PAYMENTS • CASH



WEEll

• 1-4 WEEKS

• 4-12 WEEKS

• 12-26 WEEKS

• 26+ WEEKS

• WRITTEN OFF

LAST YEAR: 32%

20

17%

13'!'.

9%

6 .5 % 2.S%

"{_~'"':"-

.. · "-'~.-- ·.

THIS YEAR:

O Glossary

PAGE

armoury \oyalty uncol lect ible vulgar word of mouth

1ss

With a partner, talk about these questions. Then change partners, compare and explain your decisions.

1 How can the trends in payments be explained? 2 How can the hotel improve its cash flow? 3 How shoułd Riaz Hussain deal with each of the three customer applications in Exercise 3?

Writing

O

Write a short letter to each customer explaining your decision.

llw Business 2 .0

111

Revie-w 7 Mergers and acquisitions

D

Match each word or phrase about finance in the box with its defin ition below. acquisition assets due diligence economies of scale fixed costs liabilities liq uidity merger turnover variable costs. full investigation of a company's activities and finances the amount of money that a company owes _ _ __ the process of combining two companies to form a bigger one _ _ __ 4 something that someone buys (cspecially a company that has been bought by another company) _ _ __ 5 costs that alter directly when the business alters its level of output (e.g. raw materials, components, labour costs for factory workers) _ __ _ 6 costs that do not alter when the business alters its level of output (e.g. rent, marketing, management salaries) 2 3

D

Read this sentence:

There was a ___ increase in sales. Make adjectives that can go in the empty space using the letters and meanings given. (Clue: the letter in bold is always the first letter.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

abcdeeilnors (large) aacdimrt (sudden and surprising) adeem ort (neither big nor small) ahprs (sudden) acfgiiinnst (large or noticeab le) ghilst (small in size) ddensu (quick and unexpected)

O

Look at one way to show 'cause & effect':

The new technology we bought last year resulted in a significant increase in productivity. Now show 'effect & cause' using these words to complete the gaps: a, as, because, due, of, of, resu/t, thanks, to, to. The increase in productivity last year was

7 things such as money, buildings or equipment that a person or company owns _ _ __ 8 measure of a company's ability to quickly convert assets into cash _ _ __ 9 reductions in the cost of producing a unit of a product that occur as the output increases _ _ __ 10 total amount of money coming into a company from sales (usually given as an annual figure) _ _ __

O

Find words or phrases from the box in Exercise 1 that have the same or similar meaning to the following. cost of sales/direct costs _ _ __ overheads/indirect costs _ _ __ cash-flow _ _ __ debts _ _ __ revenue/income _ _ __

1 2 3 4 5

D

Match the words in the box with their definitions (and extra information). cli mb peak

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

112

dip rise

deteriorate slide soar

fl uctuate stabilize

I I I

(4)

the new tech nology we bought.

O

Complete the sentences using the most appropriate form: will, be going to or the present continuous. Use contractions (/'//, ł'm) where possible.

(describing your plans) N ext year (we/enter) the Croatian ma rk et by buying a small loca) firm. 2 (making a promise) Don't worry, (you/have) the goods by the end of the week. 3 (giving details of a fixed arrangement) (I/ meet) Barbara from 9:00 to 10:00 at her office, and I should be back around 10:30. 4 (making an instant decision) Is that my mobile phone ringing? I'm sorry, (l/turn) it off. 1

O

Complete this presentation extract using the words and phrases in the box.

jump

become higher (literally: to move up using your hands and feet) _ __ _ become less (li terally: to put something in to a liquid and quickly lift it out again ) _ _ __ change frequently, especially from a high level to a low one and back again _ _ __ stop changing and become steady _ _ __ get worse (opposite: improve) _ _ __ get worse gradually (literally: to move smoothly and quickly across a surface) _ _ __ increase (opposite: fali) _ _ __ increase quickly to a high level (literally: to fly high in the sky) _ __ _ increase suddenly and by a large amow1t (literally: push your body off the ground using your legs) _ __ reach the highest point before becoming !ower (the noun means 'the top of a mountain') _ _ __

/heBusiness20

(1) (2) (3)

as a result of however let's move on next slide shows notice from the chart resulted in seem t o suggest whereas

... OK,(l ) _ __ My (2) our administratio n costs one year th at the figures after the merger. You will (3) (4) no noticeable impact on costs the merger. But this hi des the real (5) situation. Initially, the merger (6) many large compensation payments for managerial staff who lost thei r jobs, and this increased costs. (7) , over the longer term salary costs are coming down as a result of the cuts. N ext year we expect administration costs to be 2.3M, (8) this year they will be about 2.9M.

RevieV\T 8 International trade

O

In each set of four below, match a verb on the left with a noun on the right to make phrases about export sales. 1 2 3 4

Don't sell Be Make Th ink

a) b) c} d)

proactive with local d istribu tors. a fi rm commi tment to export. outsidc the box. on pri ce rathc r than quality.

Trade Sign 7 Be prcparcd 8 ln vc t

e) f) g} h)

an exclusive deal. tim e, cffo rt and money. on open account. to modify product spccifications.

5 6

9

Ask

10

Chasing

11

Focus on

12

Don't assu me

payments can be donc by the cred it agcncy. j) a credit agency about a customcr's cred itworthiness. k) that what works in your d omestic ma rket will also work abroad. I) one market, rather than trying to sell a ll over the world .

O

Put the words in the diplomatic sentences into the correct order. Direct: / '// explain il again if you want. Diplomatie: il I let I me I way I another I put. Di rect: You are not convinced. Diplornatic: wrong I me I if I you I correct I bul I l' m I saying / that I seem I to I be I you I are I not I con vinced. Di rect: You are wrong' Di plomatic: l' m I a I s light I misundersta nding I there I secms I to I be I afraid. Direct : You do11 '/ wrderstand.' D iplomatic: I I e lear I myself I haven 't I made I perhaps. D irect: You wani to withdraw from the pro;ect, right? D iplom atic: you I wou ld I be I saying I I I right I in I that I want I to I wi th draw I from I the I project?

2

3

4

i)

5

O

Use the words in brackets to make the direct sentences more diplomatic. We need more time. (I think/ might}

O

Find two words in Exercise 1 that match with these definitions. 2

D

The collocations below are used in international business transactions. Cross out the one verb in each group that does not collocate with the noun.

1 2 3 4 5 6

2

T he re a re stili many di ffi cult ies. (l'm afraid/ quite a large number)

3

We must rcnegotiatc parts of the conlract. (perha ps/ should/one or two)

4

T hat wi ll be very expensive. (won 'tlrather)

the abi lity of a co mpany to repay debts _ _ __ trying hard to gct sorncthing you want _ __ _

issue I reach I set/le I query an invoicc assume I provide I load I ship goods chase I comply w ith I state I meet cond itions negotiate I reach I sign I state a deal check in I check out I chec/? up on a customer's creditworth incss fall behind I gel beh i11d I move behind with paymcnts

Il Complete this email se quence

early set tle ment furt her to according to have no alternative now overdue o utstanding balance pass th is matter regret to inform

D

The words in bold below are all in the wrong places . Put them in the correct places.

After the exporter and forcign customer finally ( 1) check up on a dea l, the expo rtcr will (2) comply with the goods and (3} rcach an invoice. Th e exporter must (4} issue all lhc condi tions in th e con tract. and if they do they can expect to be paid on time. lt is a was tc of time if they have to (5 ) ship custom ers who (6} chase payments. lf th erc is a problem with paymcn t, th e cxportcr can usc a cred it agency to (7} get behind with a c usto mer's crcd itwo rthiness.

O

Emai l 1 (Remindcr) (1) our records, o ur invoice n umber KL788 is (2} . The total sum is €25,600. We would appreciate your (3) of this (4) _ _ __ Em a il 2 (Fina l dcman d} our email of 14 Jun c re invoicc I
Complete the text with these time prepositions: at,

during, from, in, until, within. the 90s we worked with a seri es of different loca! agen ts. (2) 2002 we sta rted us ing APL, and they have been our exclusi vc agent (3) that time (4) now. They are very good at collccting payment from loca! custom crs, and we give th em the either 60 or 90 di scretion to ask fo r payment (5) days. They forward to us all payrn enls they havc collectcd.

using the words and

phrases in the box.

(1)

O

Match the words outstanding and overdue with their definitions. 2

not paid wh en expected; late _ __ _ not yet paid _ _ __

alter taking their commission, and we reccive money from

ml Which of the two words from Exercise 9 has a second

them (6)

meaning of 'excellent and impressive'?

the end of every mo n th .

Business 2

11 3

Additional

materiał

1.2 Vocabulary Work organization and responsibility Defining words (page 13, exercise 8) Student A

Give Student B detinitions for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9. Student B will give you definitions for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 to help you complete the crossword.

5

T R

6

A fi s

F E P..

'p L

1.6 Case study Counselling Roleplay (page 21, Exercise 6) Problem h o lder A: Tokyo You are experiencing culture shock in Tokyo. After two months in the marketing depanment of a large electronics company, you fecl that you havc achicvcd nothing. Your job dcscription is very general: you spend most of your time processing answers to long market survcy qucstionnaires. You are a very c reative person, but when yo u suggest new ideas at mcetings. they are usually met with silence. One colleague was very upset because you drew attcntion to a mistakc in his prescntation. Your apartment is vcry small and your journey to work takes 90 minutes cach way. Aftcr a long day at work. your colleagues do not understand thai you do not have time to go to the restaurant w ith them. You would like to learn japanese to communicatc bctter, but whcn you mcct Japancse people socially, they always want to speak English. You fcc l you arc wasting your time and learni ng nothing.

2.1 About business Call centres Roleplay (page 22, Exercise 6) 10

1.3 Grammar Past tenses and advice structures Giving advice (page 15, Exercise 9) Student A

D

You have recently started werk with a well-known firm of management consultants. Ask your partner for advice about the proble ms below, and react to their suggestions. Use the expressions in the box to help you. l

2 3 4 5

You work from Sam to 7pm cvery day but you can never finish your work. You find it difficult to set goals. Your clients don't take you seriously: they think you'rc too young for the job. Every time yo u call a friend, your colleagues givc you black looks. You have lots of idcas to share in meetings. but your boss kccps intcrrupting you. l'm having problerns with ... Can you give me any advice? Do you have any ideas about how to ... ? What do you suggest I do about ... ? I just can't seem to ... What would you do? I see what you mean, (but ...) You've got a point, (but ... ) You may be right, (but ... ) OK, point taken. Yes, you're quite right.

Role A You are going to take part in a debate. Try to convince the others in your group of the benefits of setting up your call centres in a low-cost country like lndia or t he Philippines. As well as your own ideas, refer to t he following: Outsourcing enables companics to red uce costs be morc competit ivc by offering customers lower priccs and bctter service prescrvc jobs in production bcnefit from morc competent and more motivated staff bring new technology to dcveloping countrics help developing countries to improvc thcir cconomics. Locating the call centre in your own country would be too cxpensive and using cloud·based technology could make the company over-dependent on technology you don ·t have in-house expe11ise to manage.

2.4 Speaking Dealing with problems by telephone Giving instructions (page 28, Exercise 1) Student A Without saying what it represents, g ive Student B instructions to draw the symbol in Grid 1. Student B will then give you instructions to draw another symbol in Grid 2. l

14

30

13

40

15

50

16

U

Your partner will tell you about their problems. Suggest two or three a lternatives for each problem. Use the expressions in the box to help you.

60

70

17

80

18

Have you tried -ing ... ? Have you considered -ing ... ? How about - ing ...? Have you t hought of -ing ... ? You could . . . Why don't you ... ? You might want to ...

90

19

99

88

66

77

55

1.4 Speaking Meetings one-to-one Roleplay (page 17, Exercise 7)

D

You arc a new en1ploycc at the R& O laboratory of a Finnish clcclronics company. You come from Brazil. You find the atmosphcre in the company miserable: peoplc worka/one. mostly in silence. so you try to make them happy by being friendly, sharing swccts and biscuits. and singing songs. You have a lot of work: becausc you work bcst in the cvcning, you stay late to rinish it. You think the centre would be more productive if cvcryonc rclaxed and cnjoycd thcir work. Your supervisor, Student B. has asked you to altcnd an informal meeting: this is an opportunity for you to explain your ideas and give Student B somc hclpful advicc.

D

You arc Student B"s supervisor al a large travel agcncy in Australia. You arc worried about Student B because he/ she rcfuses to commun icatc with other rnembcrs of staff and hardly spcaks in Staff mcetings. You havc given Student B a lot of responsibility bccause you fccl he/she has cxccllcnt potentia!, but hc/shc is not sharing the work with the team. The travcl business has a reputation for extreme stress, and you arc concerncd that Student B is trying to do too much. Australians valuc teamwork and considcr sports and social events an integral part of corporate life. Hold an informal meeting with Student B to advise him/her on how to relate to collcagues and achicve a bcttcr work·lifc balancc. Start the meeting by asking Student B if hc/ she is cnjoying the job.

IJ•

Business 2 o

ll

22

9

10

Student A

114

44

33

8

2 A

c

B

o

E G

F H

l I<

J L

M

o

N

Q

H

s u

T

w

V X

p

y

z

Additional materia!

2.4 Speaking Dealing with problems by telephone lmproving a conversation (page 28, Exercise 4) Read this conversation alo ud with your partner, then decide how the conversation could be improved and p ractise your improved version. Helplinc: C ustomer: H clplinc: Cu stomer: H elpline: Customcr: Helpline: Customer: H elpline: Custo m cr: H elplinc: Cu storn er: Hclp\ine: Customer: 1-lelplin e: Custorner: H elpline: Customer: Help line:

Yes? Oh, hello. Is that Autosales'' Yes. Oh, good. Weil, I'm calling about the new car l bought last weck. I t won 't start. Oh. Weil. can you do somcthing about it ? I ' m new herc. l don't know much about cars, actually. Weil, could you pul me through to sorncone who does? o. What do you mcan. ·110' ? I mean. n.o. I can 't. Thcrc's nobody else herc. Weil. can I leave a message? Yes, a\\ right Wha\'s your name? lt's McCready. Alistair McCready. Er, McWh al? No, McCrcady. Tha!'s M-C.C.H-E-A-D-Y. Got it. All righ t. Well, rll be cxpecting your cal\. Goodbye. Don 't hold you r brcath'

2.5 Writing Formal and informal correspondence Output (page 31, Exercise 5) Student A You work in the Accounts Oepartment at Relopharma. a medium-sized pharmaceuticals company. Compose and send business email 1 below, using a ppropriate style. When you receive an email from another student, read it, then answer it following the instructions in Exercise 2. Continue in this way until you have written and sent four e mails.



5.6 Case study St John's Beach Club Negotiating (page 73, Exercise 5) Student A (travel agent) Negotiate the bcst deal possible w ith th e buyer (Stu dent B). Your standard price is $ 150 per person per night. This includes all meals. drinks. snacks. activities and sports (exccpt golf). Remember you arc in competition with other travel agents for the same product. Scorc points as ind icated for each item bclow. Item Points Cos\ per person per night more than $ 140 2 • $120-$140 o • less t han $120 -5 Upgrade to execu tivc suite. per person, per nigh t

sso • $25 • $10 Number of participants 22 • 24 • 26 Number of nights 7

2 I -2 I

2 3

• 8 • 9 o r more

1 2 3

Free access to golf course

-1

7 .4 Speaking Presentations - visuals Presentation (page 95, Exercise 6) Student A Present the three s lides on Ultraxport and explain why this company would be a good acquisition.

D

You h avc a problem w ith the accounts payable databasc - some entries are disap pcaring. lt looks like some kind of virus. but your anti-virus software h asn't detected any p rob)cms. Write an email to your colleagu c, Studen t B, in Information Systems, explaining the p roblem and ask ing fo r help.

O

You have received an email about an in voice from Student Cat Nakisoft,

a software su ppli er. You have no records of !his in voice in your database. Write an email to Student B ask ing them to confirm the purchase and, if appropriate. to obtain a dupłicate invoice .

D

You have received anoth er email from Nakisoft about software training. Write to Stu dent B to compł ain: the week in qu estion is impossible because you have to close the accoun ts.

D

You have reccived an email Crom Nakisof\ about a patch . Write a 1·eply \o Stud ent C explaining th at the link on their webs itc doesn't work.

3.3 Grammar Articles, relative clauses and noun combinations Definitions game (page 41, Exercise 9) As Help the other team guess the noun combinations below by 9ivin9 definitions using a relative clause. lf you wal'lt to make it more difficult, use synonyms instead of the exact terms in the noun combinations. I 2 3

vertical writing languages a management consu ltancy firm a cu stomer satisfaction survey

4 5 6

pilfer-proof packaging stress-raising automation a sandwich degrce cou rse

4.3 Grammar Present tenses Asking questions (page 53, Exercise 6) Student A

D

You are interview ing Student B for a job at your sports club. Ask Student B the right questions to obtain the answers below. Score one point for each correct answer you receive.

I 2 3 4 5

At wcekcnds. Since I was at school. Several years ago. During the holidays. No, only a few weeks.

6 Th e Economist. 7 For two ycars. 8 No, not yet. 9 ln the ncxt six month s. 10 No, I haven't.

O

You are being interv iewed for a job at Student ll's community arts centre. Answer the questions they ask.

Ili" Business 2.0

11 5

2.5 Writing Formal and informal correspondence

7 .2 Vocabulary Business performance Presenting (page 91, Exercise 9)

Output (page 31 , Exercise 5}

Student A

Student B You work in the lnformation Systems Department at Rclopharma, a medium-sized pharmaceuticals company. Compose and send business email 1 bclmv, using appropriate style. When you receive an e mai l from another student, read it, then answer it following the instructions in Exercise 2. Continue in this way until you have written and scnl four emails.

D

Present Chanco's stock market history using t he information from the graph, explaining causes and effects.

t\JITlOIJrs

ofmergi:!r

D

You want your software supplicr. Nakisoft, to organize training on a new software tool for your Accounts Department as soon as possible. Writc an cmail to Student C at Nakisoft asking them to contac't Student A in your Accounts Departmcnt with dates for the training.

O

You havc received an email from your colleague. Student A, in Accounts. about a software problem. You think it could be a virus. Write an e mail to Nakisoft explaining the problem and asking them to contact Student A directly to rcsolvc the problem.

D

You have receivcd anothcr cmail from Student A about an invoice. Write an email to Student Cat Nakisoft apologizing for the delay and asking them to send you a duplicate invoice. O You havc received anothcr email from Student A about training. Reply to Student A explaining that there is no alternative.

new

40

marl(&ISln SEAsla consolidation

"' 30 ai:

suete$Slully resisiedraid

:5...

g

costs

1-~-.-~~-.-~--..--~--.-~~-r-~-.~~....-~~.--~-.-~

* * *

~

~

~

~~

~~

Grou p A - Port Ka the rine Planning Department

REPLY •

CUI

Cfa5h

V

20

o

Reading and discussion (page 85, Exercise 4)

~ 1 • INBOX

>iock market

10

6.6 Case study Phoenix Read t h e email y ou have received and answer the questions.

--

50

~~ YEAR

~~

~~

~~

~~

U

Listen to Student B's presentation of Bastilo Corp. and complete the g raph.

FORWARD •

50 H1, The Mayor has just received a letter from the Residents' Association about the Phoenix project. They' re very unhappy about site A. They're concerned about the nsks of large trucks passing close to the school, as well as the noise and dust, etc. As you know. the elections are coming up soon. so we don't want to upset these people. However, Port Katherine desperately needs new jobs and 1nvestment, so we can't afford to lose Phoenix. They've also promised to get involved in community projects. although we don't know yet exactly what that means. The Mayor would llke the Planning Department to set up and cha1r a meeting with the Residents' Association and Phoenix to talk th1ngs over and try to find an agreement. Could you arrange that for us? A few words about the other s1tes: we've invested a lot of money in the business park, site B, but for the moment it's stili cost1ng us money. lf Phoenix buy land on the business park, we'll recover part of our 1nvestment. the residents will be reasonably happy, and we'll benefit from higher tax rates than on s1tes A or C. There's plenty of space for expans1on (more iobs!) and there's no access problem. We can make some concessions on the price of the land if necessary. There are good reasons for choosing sile C, near the harbour. However. the big problem 1s access. We'd have to build a new access road, wh1ch would be very expensive. Let me know how the meeting goes. Thanks a lot. Duncan Duncan Gillespie, Lord Mayor's Office. Port Katherine

1 Who is the e mail from? 2 What is your role at the meeting? 3 Why is it important to keep the rcsidents happy? 4 Why is the Phoenix project important for the town? 5 Which is the best sile from your point of view?

116

I/,, Business 2.0

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Additional

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4.3 Grammar Present tenses

7 .4 Speaking Presentations - visuals

Present perfect and past sim ple (page 52, Exercise 3)

Presentatio n (page 95, Exercise 6)

Student B You and your pa rtne r work fo r an international recruitment agency. Yo ur clients a re looking for: l a Spanish-speaking science graduale 2 an undergraduale with ma rketing e.xperience 3 a grad uale accounta nt, to be a fu ture financc director 4 a French-spcaking graduale in business 5 a n arts undergraduate with experiencc in the Far East 6 a Po rtugucsc~spea king graduate with experiencc in sales. Yo u have each interviewed and tested five candidat es. txchange information w ith your pa rtner to complete the tables and decide together w hich candida t es are most su itable for each request.

Student B Present the th ree słides on Piezoteknik labs a nd would be a good acquisition.

Candidate

expłain



why this company

Management pot entia! test

Graduat ion

Work experience

last October, Maths

car sales in Argentina a nd Brazil

A+

next summer, Languages

marketing in Australia and Japa n

A

last November, Physics

call centres in California and Florida

B+

last September, Business

financial services B in Mexico a nd Quebec

last September, Finance

computing and accounts in China

Mr Salman

---Ms Bianco

- -~-

Mrs Grey Miss Rose

Mr Da Silva Mr Green

Mr Schwartz Miss Plum

Ms Violeta Mr Braun

C-

8 .3 Grammar Prepositions Speaking (page 105, Exercise 6)

2.1 About business Call centres Debat e (page 22, Exercise 6) Role C You a re going to t a ke part in a debate. Try to convince the others group of t he be nefits of using a cloud-based approach for your new call cent re w here agents werk from home, w herever they live. As well as your own ideas, refer to t he fo llowing: A cloud-based a pproach would allow your company t o radically reduce costs - you won't nced to pay for the maintenance and running of business premises be mor c competitive by offcring c ustomers !ower prices and better service preserve jobs in production hire the bcst st aff because you won't be limited by where lhcy arc !ocated offer a loca l service globally offer m ore flexibi!ity in terms of hours and working conditions

Student A Choosc six words from the list below and write them on separale small pieccs of paper. Hołd a conversation with Students Band Con one of the topics listed on page I 05. The goal is to use all six words in the conversation. The fi rst person to use all their words (with the correct prcposition) is the win ner.

hear (v) conform (v) re ly (v) look forward (v) respect (n) responsibility (n) dealings (n) substitute (n) object (v) depend (v)

8 .5 W riting Requests and reminders Output (page 109, Exercise 6) Student A You work at Red Sea Products Inc, a manufacturing company in Saudi Arabia. Compose and send business ema il 1 below, using appropriate style. When you rece ive a n email from another student, read it, then answer it follow ing the instructions in Exercise 2. Continue in t his way until you have written and sent four emails. O You have worked for severa\ years with Bcefcater Shipping Corp (Studem B), who ship your products all over the world. You currentły pay them at 60 days, and you ałmost nevcr pay late. However, your own customers are paying more and rnore slowły. Write to Beefeatcr asking them to increase your credit period to 90 days. O You have receivcd an email from Canada Import Co (Student C). one of your best custorners. Repły, agrecing to their request. bul reminding them politeły that thcy haven't paid a bill from last quarter. D You have received a reply from Becfcater to your request in Exercise 1. Send a cheque and an apology, or ask for more time. expłaining why you can't pay for the moment.

O

You have rece ived a repły from Canada Import to your reminder in Exercise 2. lf they scnt a cheque, send a fricndły reply, thanking them for the payment and reminding them that your payment terms for o pen account trading are strictly 30 days and no more. lf they didn 't scnd a cheque, send a finał dcmand threatening lega! action. and suspcnding the dccision to t rade on open account.

11,„ Business 2 o

11 7

1.2 Vocabulary Work organization and responsibility

1.6 Case study Counselling

Defining words (page 13, Exercise 8)

Problem holder B: Birmingham You were hoping thai the UK would be an exciting centre of popular culture, but after two months in Birmingham. you arc not cnjoying life. You live severa! miles from the city centre. and scem to spcnd a lot of your time on dirty, uncomfortablc buses. The weather is depressing; cold, grey and wet. and the food is bland and fatty with fcw fresh vegetables. You caught a cold soon after you arrivcd and it seems impossiblc to gct rid of il. People at work are fri endly, but the !ocal accent is really difficułt to understand. You are finding ie difficulc co make fricnds wieli English people, mainly bccause their idea of having a good time is going to a noisy pub and drinking as much as possible, or watching football, which you hate. You are starting to fecl lonely and depresscd: you are seriously thinking of giving up and going home.

Student B Student A will give you definitions for 1, 3 , 5, 7 and 9 to help you complete the crossword. Give Student A definitions for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10.

2J D

sA p p

"P R

I

41<

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E

s BH I R E

D

G

I.

fi

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1.3 Grammar Past tenses and advice structures Giving advice (page 15, Exercise 9) Student B U Your partner w ill te ll you about their problems. Suggest t w o or three alternatives for each problem. Use the expressions in the box to help you. Have you tried - ing „.? Have you considered -ing ... ? How abo ut - ing .. . ? Have you thought of -ing ... ? You could ... Why don't you „. ? You might want to ...

O

You have recently started work in a government de partment. As k your pa rtne r for advice about the problems below, and react to their suggestions. Use t he expressions in the box to help you. I Your boss doesn't trust you: she chccks every document you write and always manages to fin d something wrong. 2 You arc frustrated by all the procedures you have to respect: even the simplest lasks seem to take a long time. 3 The atmospherc in the office is vety sombre: your colleagucs are all much older than you. 4 You find it difficult to sleep at night because your job is so stressful. 5 You hatc writing rcports. but it's an important part of your job. l'm having problems with „ . Can you give me any advice? Do you have any ideas about how to ... ? What do you suggest I do about ... ? I just can't seem to . „ What would you do? I see what you mea n, (but „ .) You've gat a point, (but ... ) You may be right, (but .. .) OK, point taken. Yes, you' re quite right.

4.3 Grammar Present tenses Asking questions (page 53, Exercise 6) Student B You a re being interviewed for a job at St ude nt A's s ports club. Answer the ąuestio n s they ask. O You are interviewing Student A for a job at your community arts centre. As k St udent A the right ąuestions to obta in the answ ers below. Score one point for each correct a nswer you receive. 6 Yes, almost. l Yes. I am. 2 By bus. 7 Tomorrow morning. 3 Th ree timcs a day. 8 Yes, severa! limes. 9 No. not at the momen t. 4 Business English. 5 A long time ago. IO Since the beginning of the year.

U

Roleplay (page 21, Exercise 6)

2.1 About business Call centres Debate (page 22, Exercise 6) Role B You are going to ta ke part in a debate. Try to convince the others in your gro up of the advantage s of setting up a call centre in you r own country and the disadvantages of other so lutions. As well as you ow n ideas, refer to the following: Setting up your call centre in such a location w ould a llow your company to: offcr the best possible service. tailored to local needs crcatc jobs and help the loca! economy ensure !ocal success and acceptance of your business Outsourcing makes customets angry due to • language and cultural problems • opcrators not having sufficient loca! knowledge. Outsourcing is responsible for job losses in industrialized countrics exploitaiion of desperate workers in devcloping countries · emphasizing inequalities between North and South/ East and West • encouraging unrealistic expectations in the developing world. Using cloud-based technology where everyone works from home means thcre is no sense of team or company spirit. it is more complicated to monitor and product knowledge developmcnt and training are mare difficult.

6.6 Case study Phoenix Reading and discussion (page 85, Exercise 4) Group B - Port Katherine Residents' Association Read part of a letter your association has sent to t he Mayor, and a nsw e r the questions.

„. deeply concerned a bo ut pla ns to bu iId a recycling centre o n a site close to our school and a q u iet resid ential area. The idea of mo nster t ru cks on a n arrow road used by sma ll child re n to w al k to school is fra nkly t e rrifying and completely irresponsib le . Mo reover, the risks a nd nuisance to the school and the surrounding residents from noise, smoke, fumes and dust a re to tally unacceptable, not t o mention the fi re hazard and risk of soi! contamination from so many flam mable a nd toxic ma terials. The residents are prepared to take whatever measures a re necessary to resist t he chcice of site A. lf the recycling centre must be built in Port Katherine (su rely Perth, as a la rge industria l city, w ould be better fo r business?), site Cis clearly a fa r more logica l and environ menta lly ra tional chcice. This site is in an industrial environ ment , o n land wh ich is curre ntly derelict and w o rthless, with the a p propriate fire and e mergency services close by, a nd offers t he add ed a dvantage of convenie nt t ransport by sea as an ecological and econom ical alte rnative t o monster t rucks. As for t he chcice of site B, sure ly it w o uld make t he business park less attractive to other, less industrial, compan ies? As t he elections a p proach, we, the residents of Port Katherine, t rust t hat you will take t he necessa ry measu res to ensure t hat .. .

--- .- __________

__,

I How do the members of your association fecl about the environment? 2 What docs your association have in mind whcn it says 'whatever measures are neccssary to rcsisl lhe choicc of site A'? 3 Why do you think the Mayor and the Planning Departmcnt have to take your association seriously? 4 Which is the best sile fro m your point of view? 5 What are your objectivcs at the meeting''

11 8

/ /„, Business z.o

Additional matenal •

2 .4 Speaking Dealing with problems by telephone Giving instructions (page 28, Exercise 1) Student B Student A will give you instructions to draw a symbol in Grid 1. Without saying w hat it represents, give Student A instructions to draw the symbol in Grid 2.

13

14

30

40

15

50

16

60

17

70

18

80

90

19

99

88 66

77

-

55

44

33

22

Jl

10

9

8

A

B

c H

G I

-

J

L

K

s

effect (n) result (v)

8 .5 Writing Requests and reminders

T

'"'

Writing (page 109, Exercise 6)

w

V

f

z

2.5 Writing Formal and informal correspondence Output (page 31, Exercise 5) Student C You work at Nakiso[t, a small company spccializing in accountancy software. Rclopharma is your biggest customer. Compose and send business email I bclow: using appropriate style. When you receivc an email from another student, rcad it, thcn answcr it following the instructions in Exercisc 2. Continue in this way until you have writtcn and scnt four emails.

D

You have not reccivcd paymcnt for your invoicc 6695 KP for software you supplied four months ago. Write a polite email to Student A in Relopharma's Accounts Department asking if there is a problem.

O

You have receivcd an email from your custorncr, Student B. in Relopharma's lnformation Systems Dcpanment. Write an email to Student A tclling them !hat, as requcsted by Student B. you have set up the training for week 52. D You have receivcd ano\her email from your cuslomer, Student B. The problem is caused by a Trojan which is undetected by ami-virus software. The solution is to download a patch frorn your website and install it on each PC. Write an email to Student A explaining what to do.

O

insist (v) comment (v) complain (v) apologize (v) involvement (n) access (n) demand (v) attend (v)

p

R

Q

X

Stude nt B Choose six words from the list below and write them on separate small pieccs of paper. Hold a conversation with Students A and C on one of the topics listed on page 105. The goal is to use a ll six words in the conversation. The first person to use all their words (with the correct preposition) is the win ner.

M

"-0

N

u

Speaking (page 105, Exercise 6) F

E

Negotiating (page 73, Exe rcise 5) Student B (buyer) Negotiate the bcst deal possible with the travel agent (Student A). Rcmember you cannot excccd a giobal budget of $28,000. Score points as indicatcd for cach item below Ite m Points Cost per person per night more than Sl 40 O . $120 - $140 2 • less than $120 4 Upgrade lo execu\ive suitc, per person, per night $50 o • $25 I · SIO 3 Number of participants 22 o . 24 2 . 26 3 :'-/umber of nights 7 o . 8 I • 9 or morc 3 Free acccss to golf coursc I

8 .3 Grammar Prepositions

2

D

5.6 Case study St John's Beach Club

You have receivcd an email from Studen\ B abou\ an invoice. Wrilc a repiy to Student B attaching the document requestcd.

Student B You work at Bee[eatcr Shipping Corp. an international frcighl forwarding company. Composc a nd send business cmail I bclow, using appropriatc style. When you receive an email from another student, read it, then answer it following the instructions in Excrcise 2. Continue in this way untii you havc writtcn and sent four emails.

D

You havc reccntly shipped severa! containers of goods bought by Canada Import Co (Student C) from your customer Hed Sea Products Inc (Student A) to your warchouse in ew York. Canada lmport werc supposcd to collect the containcrs two months ago. but they arc stil! in your warchouse. Write to Canada Import. rem inding them about the containers and offering to ship them to Canada for $1.20 per mile per container. payrnent at 30 days.

D

You have reccived an email from Red Sca Products. Repty. agrceing to thcir request, but reminding them politely of an in voice for$ I 0,000 wh ich is ovcrdue.

D

You have rcceived a rcply from Canada I mport to your email in Excrcisc

1. Write a reply, eithcr agreeing to or refusing their requcst. and rcminding

them that the space thcir containers arc occupying in your warehouse is costing you 111oney, so you necd a quick decision on your offer to ship them to Canada.

D

You have received a re ply from Red Sca Products to your reminder in Exercisc 2. lf they sent a chcquc. scnd a fricndly rcply, thanking them for the paymcnt and reminding them that the new terms of 90 days mean strictly 90 days and no more. If thcy didn 't send a chequc, send a fina I dem and threatening legat action . and suspending the dccision to increase the credit period 10 90 days.

/TJ. Business 2 o

119

1.4 Speaking Meetings one-to-one

7 .2 Vocabulary Business performance

Roleplay (page 17, Exercise 7)

Presenting (page 91, Exercise 9)

Student B

Stude nt B

D

D

You arc Student Ns supervisor at the R& D laboratory of a Finnish electronics company. In Finland, peoplc likc to concentrate hard o n thcir work so that they can fi nish early and go home to enjoy sports and lcisurc activities. You have called Student A to an informal meeting bccausc same mem bers of your team have complained about hirn/ hcr: thcy say thai thcy can't organizc the work cfficicntly because Student A always arrives late. He/ She disturbs their conccntration by talking loudly to friends on the phone, singing and whistling. Hc/ She eals and drinks in the lab, which is aga inst company rules, takes long brcaks and wears unsuitable clothes. hl old an informal meeting with Student A to advise him/ her on how to adapt to the loca! work cultu re. Start the meeting by asking Student A if hc/ she is enjoying the job.

D

You are a new employee at a large lravel agcncy in Australia. You come from Vietnam, wher e modesty and discretion arc highly valued. You feel that sornc of your Austral ian colleagues have no rcspect for management: they arc always giving thcir personal opinions in mcetings, they call everybody by thcir first namcs, cven managers, and spcnd more time talking about rugby or cricket than working. Your supervisor. Student A, is a demanding manager who has set your department ambitious objectives; you are trying to do your besl to compensate for your colleagucs' incfficiency, so you work late in the evenings and al weekends. Conscquenlly, you have no time to socialize with othcr pcoplc in the company. You are not sleeping cnough, so you ha\'C to drink a lot of coffce to stay awake, and you feel vcry stresscd. Take the opportunily of the meeting your supervisor has asked for to suggcst, respectfully, lhat your colleagues should Lake their work mar e seriously.

=



Listen to Student A's presentatio n of Chanco a nd complete the graph.

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Present Bastilo's stock market history using t he information from the graph, explaining causes and effects .

1.6 Case study Counselling Roleplay (page 21, Exercise 6) Problem holder C: Chicago After two months in Chicago you feel miserable and exhausted. You come from a small, quiet town in the country. The noise and the speed of life in Chicago are driving you crazy. You work in an enormous open-space office in a large insurance company, where you arc constantly disturbed and find it impossiblc to concentrate. Your manager is not satisfied with the quantity of work you are producing and told you very directly that you weren't working hard eno ugh. You feel stressed out and are suffering mare and more from severe headaches. You would like to go and walk in a park to relax after work, but it's tao dangerous to walk the streets at night. You live at the YMCA Your neigh bours and colleagues are very friendly, and lhey arc always in viting you out in the evenings and at weekends, but they wam to go dancing or play sports and you just nced to rest and rclax.

50

40

A divmj!ication

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8.3 Grammar Prepositions

10

Speaking (page 105, Exercise 6) Student C Choose six words from the list below and writc them on separate s mall pieces of paper. Hold a conversation with Students A and B on o ne of the topics listcd on page 105. The goal is to use all six words in the conversation. The first person to use all thcir words (with the correct preposition) is the win ner. succeed (v) solution (n)

consent (v) wait (v) sympathize (v) comment (v) damage (n) invest (v)

tax (n) consist (v)

8.5 Writing Requests and reminders Writing (page 109, Exercise 6) Stude nt C You work at Canada Import Co, a company which imports goods from all over the world to North America. Compose and send business email I below, using appropriate style. When you receive an cmail from another student, read it, then answer il following the inslructions in Exercise 2. Conlinue in this way until you have written and sent four emails.

D

You have worked with Red Sca Products Inc (Student A} for more than two years and you are one of their best customers. Until naw you have paid by Bill of Exchange al 60 days, but you would prcfer to trade on open account in order to have mare flexibility. Write to Red Sea Products requesting th is change.

D

You have received an email from Beefeatcr Shipping Corp (Student B) offering to ship your containers from New York to Canada. Your current forwarding company charges $1.10 per mile per container and allows you to pay at 60 days. Write to Beefealer enquiring if lhey can improve their offer.

D

You have received a reply from Red Sea Products to your request in Exercisc l. Send a cheque and an apolo~·. or ask for mare time, explaining why you can't pay for the moment.

D

You have reccived a reply from Becfeater to your enquiry in Exercise 2. lf their terms are naw satisfactory, write an cmail confirmin g the order for shipping your containers to Canada. lf the terms are not satisfactory, write an cmail reject>ng their offer, apologizing for the delay in collccting your containers and promising to have them collected by ncxt week.

120

I lit' Business 2.0

Addit1onal

materiał



-1 3.3 Grammar Articles, relative clauses and noun combinations Definitions game (page 41, Exercise 9) Bs

Help the other team guess the noun combinations below by giving definitions using a relative clause. lf you want to make it mare d ifficult, use synonyms instead ot t he exatt terms in t he noun t ombinatio ns. l 2 3

4 5 6

a dead -cnd job b rand-building packaging matcrial-saving canon

7 .4 Speaking Presentations - visuals Presentation (page 95, Exercise 6) Student C Present the three slides on Yarax Sports and cxplain why this company would be a good acquisition.

call cen tre wages n ewly empowered adviscrs email risk policy

5.4 Speaking Negotiations - bargaining Negotiating (page 69, Exercise 9) Stude nt B Harry Petcrsen's app\ication service provider. Holman Multimedia, has gonc out of busin ess, taking with it Harry·s sile w hich was turni n g over a thousand dollars per day H a rry nccds to hire a new provider. T his time he is dcterm ined to ncgotiate a contracl which will protect h is business if th ere are problems. You represent Easytail. a new supplier. You r boss has givcn you a list of poims to negotiate below. Try to negotiate morc ·Ideals' than ' Unacceptables'.

ldeal

Accepta ble

Unacceptable

Set-up t ime

> 2 w e eks

2 weeks

< 2 w eeks

Cost

15% more than Ho lman

same as Ho lman

less t han Holman

Payment terms

< 30 days

30 days

> 30 days

Contract

> 18 months

12-1 8 months

< 12 mont hs

Penalties if site is offline

no penalt ie s

20--30 % of average turnover

> 30 % of

-Penalties ił

no penalties

contract is broken

20% of tumover for 1 month

a ve ra ge t urno ver > 20% ot

t urno ve r for 1 mo nth

6.6 Case study Phoenix Reading and discussion (page 85, Exercise 4) G roup C - Phoenix Rea d the email from Head Office in Sydney and answer t he q ue st ions.

i:8J



INBOX

REPLY •

8.2 Vocabulary International deals and payments Defining words (page 103, Exercise 7) Student B Student A w ill give you definitions for 1. 2, 4, 6, 7 a nd 9 across to help you complete the crossword. Give Student A de finitions for 1, 3, 5 and 8 dow n a nd 10 a nd 11 across.

FORWARD •

H1, Just a few word:. about the meeting 1n Port Katherine. We want you to represent Phoenix in the best poss1ble light - 'Operat1on Charm and Diplomacy', remember7 We need to make friends and to sell the benefits of havmg a Phoenix recycling centre in their town: protect the environment, new Jobs, mvestment, growth, higher profile f or the town. taxes. 1nvolvement in community projects, etc. By the way, on the subject of community projects, find out what they're interested in, but try not to make any expensive comm1tments, OKI Port Katherine will be our centre for most of Western Australia. In the long term. 1t could become the largest recycling centre on the cont1nent, so it's pretty important for us. lt's a good s1te for us, but they need us more than we need them. lf things get d1ff1cult, we can go somewhere else. S1te A has the best access, but there's the problem of t he school. S1te B is expens1ve, and it's not fiat, wh1ch means that limit1ng the risk of contamination by fluids is more diff1cult. Site C has poor access. u n less the town builds a new access road. And I don't th1nk they've really understood what having a recycling centre in the middle of the town would mean. Obviously, as we have our own trucking div1s1on, transport by sea is not an opt1on for us. Anyway, I know you'll do a good 1ob. Let me know how the meeting goes Justin

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What are you r objectives at the meeting? What sort of com munity p rojccts do you think Phoenix could support? What a re Ph oenix's plans for Port Katherine's futu re? Which is the best sitc for Phoenix" What argum ents can you use against choosing th e othcr sites?

f/1cBusiness2..0

121

Grammar and practice I

1 Corporate culture Past tenses

D

Read a diary entry written by Joelle, a student on a work placement. Of the verbs in bold, identify which are exampłes of the:

I was doing my work placement in a large bank near

to where I live. I was working in the back office (I had

O

asked to do something where I could deal directly

(

with clients, but they said no) . Anyway, one day ('

something really awful happened. My supervisor had given me same client information to enter ·1nto a data base, and I was ftlling in the various flelds on the screen. Whi le I was entering the information, I suddenly saw a name I r ecognized - it was a friend from school called Sylvie. lt seems that she had

(

applied for a loan to have same cosmetic surgery! Of (

Put one verb into the past simpłe and one into the past perfect in each sentence.

1 Before I (get) my full-time job at the bank, I _ _ _ _ (already/ work) there for severa! months as a n in tern . 2 It's OK, don 't worry, I Uust/finish) revising (call). for my exam when you 3 It (be) so nice to talk to Eva yesterday. I _ _ __ (not/see) her fo r ages. (not/meet) a man like Fabio before. He 4 (listen) to me. really

past simple past continuous past perfect.

(

O

course, the bank had strict conftdentiality rules and the next time I saw Sylvie I didn't mention anything. But, even so, I wish that I hadn't found out about it.

lt may not be necessary to use the past perfect if you use before or after to make the time sequence elear. Both underłined forms are correct:

Before I arranged the doctor 's appointment, I spoke I had spoken to my supervisor.

Underline the correct forms in bold. Sometimes both are correct, sometimes only one.

1 I understood the marketing part of the course much better afte r my internship finished I had finished. 2 The traffic was terri ble, and when I got there the meeting already started I had already started. 3 Before I was prornoted to Sales Director, I was I had been a sales consultant in our mai n city-centre branch. 4 By the end of the cou rse I realized that I bought I had bought over a dozen books.

O

Match the time expressions on the fett with the tense they are often used with on the right.

O

Complete the summaries of the main use of each tense in Exerdse 1 by writing the correct t ense name in each g ap.

1 while 2 already, by the end of 3 last year, two months ago

a) past sim ple b) past contin uous c) past perfect

Telling a story • You use t he t o show that one event happened before another. • You use th e to describe an activity in progress that gives t he backg round to the main events. • You use t he t o describe the mai n events of t he story.

D

Put o ne verb into the past simpłe and one into the past continuous in each sentence.

1

(revise) for my Econo mics exam when you _ _ _ (call). 2 I'm sorry, I (not/ hea r) what you said. I _ _ __ (read) this article about Joh nny Depp. 3 (see) Eva yesterday. She (talk) to some fri ends outside the li brary. 4 Wh ile I (work) in the bar last summer I _ _ _ _ (meet) this guy called Fabio.

IJ

Look at the sentences in Exercise 3 ag ain. In genera ł, does the activity in progress (past continuous):

1 stop when the main event happens? or 2 con tinue after the main event happens? or 3 either 1 or 2 - we only know by the con text.

122

1'1e Bus iness 2.0

O

When you t e ll a story, you can use the word anyw ay

to:

1 change the subject or 2 return to a previous subject. Find the word anyway in Exercise 1 and say how it is used .

D

When you t e ll a story, you can use the words in the box. Find pairs with the same meaning. actually after that apparent ly event ually in fact in the end it seems t hat obviously of cou rse t he next thing that happened w as

Gram mar and practice •

ni] Read a story written by Jane k, a student who ha d a holida y job. Put the verbs into the co rre ct fo rm: pa st simple (x7), past continuous (x3) a nd past p e rfe ct (x4). One day last summer I (1) (work) in a bar on the bcach. I (2) (j ust/lcavc) school and I was young and naive. Anyway, on thai day I (3) (serve) the drinks by mysclf - my othcr coll cagues (4) (not/ arrivc) for work yet. A man (S) (come) up to the counter and (6) (ask for) 'a wh isky on the rocks'. I (7) (want) to be hclpful, so I filled a glass with whisky. (8) (take) it over to where he (9) (sit) with his friends and (10) _ _ __ (place) it on the rocks next to him. The ncxt thing that happencd was lhcy all startccl laughin g and laughing. I (11) (nevcr/ be) so embarrassecl in my life. Of course, when I realized my mistakc l (12) (see) the funny side as well, and in the end eve rything (13) (be) OK. In fact, by the end of the evcning, I (14) (become) frien ds with them a ll. But. cven today. when I hear the phrase ·on the rocks' it reminds me o f that day.

m A story is o fte n t o ld in fo ur stages: 1 2 3

4

Background situation Problem Solution / rcsolution Comment

In joelle's diary entry in Exercise 1. the four stages arc:

1 from I was doing „. to „. said 110. 2 from A11ywa}' . ... to . surgery' 3 from Of course „ . to . „ a11ythi11g. 4 from But even so . „ to „ about it. „

Identify the four stagcs in Janek's story in Exercise 10. 1 from to _ _ _ _ __ 2 from to _ _ __ _ _ 3 from to _ _ _ _ __ 4 from to _ _ _ _ _ __

&E

Write a short story a bo ut s ome thing tha t ha ppe ne d to you while yo u w e re at work, for exa mpl e: wh ile you were doing a holiday job wh ilc you wcrc do ing a n in ternsh ip while you were hclping a famil y membcr.

Bcfore you begin, look again al the diary cntry in 1 and the story in Excrcisc 10. Also, usc the vocabulary in Excrcise 8 and Excrcisc 9 to help you.

Advice structures &!] Correct the m istake in e ach sente nce . 1 You should to do it today. 2 You ought do it today. 3 He shoulds do it today. -i Do I should do it today?

[C Yo u can g ive a d v ice us in g bo th must a nd should: You musi speak to your supe rvisor. You should speak to yo ur supervisor. Wh ich sen tencc means : ' lt's a good idea to speak to your supervisor'? W hich scntcnce means: 'lt's nccessary to speak to your supervisor'?

2

(EJ Complete the sentences by using t he verb apply in it s co rrect for m (apply , to app ly o r applying).

1

W hy don't you How about You o ugh t You should

2

3 4

for that job? for thai job? for thai job. for that iob.

m Grad e these re pl ies from 1 (agreement) t o 4 (disagreem e nt).

O

O

O O

No. that's not a good idea. T hat might be worth trying. I'm not sure about that because That sounds like a good idea.

„.

Should a nd must are examples of moda! verbs. Other moda I verbs are: can, could, will, would, may, migh t and shall. Moda! verbs have special cha racterist ics: • They are 'auxilia ry verbs' . Th is me a ns they are used w ith a nother ma in ve rb. You should team to set goals. • Two moda l verbs cannot be used together. NOT~

• They are fo llowed by the infi nit ive without to. NOT I must ro meet

łlim .

• They only have one form, so there is no third person -s, no -ing form and no -ed form . • To make a quest ion you put the mo da I verb in front of the subject. Should I ... ? Can I ... ? • To make a negative yo u put not after the moda! verb (often shortened to -n't) You shouldn't „. You can't „ . Moda I verbs a re used to expre ss ideas such as advice, ab ility, o bligation, pro babilit y. The same mo da! verb can have d ifferent meanings.

//1,· Business 2.0

123

2 Customer support

Yes/No quest ions

Wh- questions

D

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Complete the tab le with t hese aux iliary verbs: are, d id, did, do, does, had, ha d, has, have, is, was, were, would .

Present simple

_ _ _ _ you w ork there? _ _ _ _ she w ork there?

Present continuous

_ _ _ _ you w orking t here now ? _ _ _ _ he w orking there now ?

Past simple

_ _ _ _ you work there before? _ _ _ _ she w ork t here before?

_____

____ ----- -- - -

Past continuous

_ _ _ _ you w orking there t hen? _ _ _ _ he working t here then ?

__,

--------+--Present perfect

Past

_ _ _ _ yo u ever w orked there? _ _ _ _ she ever w orked the re?

perf~~ t __ y_ o_ u_a_lr_e_a_d_y_w_o_r_k_e_d_t_h_e_re_?_ she already w orked t here?

Modals

you work here next year?

Now complete the rule using these words: subject, main verb, auxiliary verb . You form yes/no quest io ns using: _ _ _ _ _ + _ _ _ _ _ + _ _ __ _

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Read Frank's answers in t he t e lepho ne conversation, t hen writ e Geet a's question s using t he same t e nse.

Geeta: Franie Geeta: Franie Geeta: Frank: Geeta: Frank: Geeta: Frank:

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(1) th is software from us? Yes, I bought it from you. (2) a guarantee? Yes, l have a two-year guarantee. (3) restarting the computer? Yes, I've tried doing that. (4) at your computer righ t now? Yes, I'm sitting at my desk. (5) th e software again, please? No, I won't reinstall it again 1 I thought you were a helpline, but you're not being very hel pful.

Underline the correct short answ ers.

1

Do you work in customer support? Yes, I work. I Yes, I am. I Yes, I do. 2 Are you work ing in customer support now? Yes, I work. I Yes, I am. I Yes, I do. 3 Did you work in customer support before? No, I didn't work. I No, I didn't. 4 Have you ever worked in customer support? No, I never worked. I No, I haven't.

124

!11e Business 2.0

You make questions beginning with Wh- or How to ask for more information. Complete the text using two of the fo llow ing items in each gap. How how far How much w ill does will are do

What

W hy

Providing back office functions for global business is vital for l ndia's econo my. (1) India earn from this per yea r? About $2 billion. (2) so ma ny compan ies o utsourci ng to l ndia? The answer is simple: it's cheaper. But (3) this process go? Surprisingly, not much furthe r, at least as far as India is concerned . The problems are poor infras tructure, labour shortages and, in particula r, wage inflation . (4) we know there will be a problem ? Because the same thing happened before: to Ireland in the 90s. So (5) companies do? They will simply outsource their business processes to other countries, such as the Phili ppines, Malaysia, Yietn am and Eastern Euro pean nations.

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Compare how What and Wh ich are used. Th en complete the sentences bel ow using Wh at o r Which.

Which + noun

What + noun • •

t hi ngs w ide choice

1 _ _ __ 2 ____ 3 ____ Sunday? 4 _ _ __

1 •



people and organizations limited choice

type of car do you drive? u niversity do you go to? day would be best fo r you: Saturday or time shall we meet? l'm free all day.

Sometimes who, what or which is t he subject of t he sentence. In t his case, you don't use an auxiliary verb.

Who told you? NOT Vlł!e did tel/ you? What happened? NOT Wł!at did łlappefl ?

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M atch the q uestions with t he answ ers.

1 Who called? 2 Who did you call? 3 Who got the job ? 4 Wh ich job did he get?

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a) b) c) d)

The one he wanted. Pete got it. I called Mary. Alice called.

W rit e the questions for the answers given.

1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ at the station? I met Sue. 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ at th e station ? Sue met me. 3 at the training day? Thierry spoke. ft was rea lly interesting. 4 abo~? He spoke about how to set up a small business.

Grammar and practice •

Making requests

Il Saying Help me with my bags! or even Help me with my bags, p/ease! can sound too direct. lnstead, use:

Polite request forms Can/Could you help me with my bags? Will/Would you help me with my bags? Do you think you cou/d help me with my bags? I wonder if you could help me with my bags. I was wondering if you could help me with my ba gs.

Add the word possibly in the correct place in this sen ten ce: 1 wonder if 1 could leave a few minutes early today?

2

Fill in the missing letters to make two more polite request forms. a) I'd be really g __ _ __ _ 1 if you could help me. b) l'd really a _______ _ e it if you could help me.

Giving instructions I!] Match phrases 1-5 with a definition a-e. 1 You can do it. 2 You might have to do it. 3 You don 't have to do it. 4 You mustn 't do it. 5 You have to do it. a) b) c) d) e)

O O O O O

It's necessary to do it. It's OK - you're allowed to do it. lt's not necessary to do it. I'm telling yo u not to do it. lt's possible that some action is necessary.

SlJ Choose the three phrases from the first group in Exercise 13 that mean the same as:

1 Don't do it! You need to do it. You needn't do it.

2 3

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Read the contexts 1- 4 then match each one with an appropriate request form a-d .

asking for help from a friend who should be helping you, but isn't O asking a small favour of your brother/ sister O asking a small favou r of a colleague who is doing something else O asking a big favour of a senior colleague who is doing something else O

1

2 3

4

a) b) c) d)

Can you give me a hand? Come on , give me a hand here! I was wondering if you could possibly give me a hand. Do you think you could give me a ha nd?

Ul]

• To say it is necessary t o do something, use: You have to do it./You'll have to do it. You need to do it./You'/I need to do it. (The forms w ith '// are more informal.) • To say it is not necessary to do somet hing (i.e. there is a choice), use: You don 't have to do it. You needn 't do it. • To say it is necessary not to do someth ing, use: You mustn't do it! Don 't do i t !

m In the affirmative, you have to and you must are

When you agree to a request, 'OK' can sound too relaxed and informal. There are other more customerfriendly alternatives. Fill in the missing letters.

very similar. But notice from the box above that, in the negative, you don't have to and you mustn't are different.

Can you give me a hand?

Complete the text below using have to, don 't have to o r mustn't.

1 2 3

Yes, _ _ c ___ _ _ . Yes, c __ ____ _ y. Yes, s _ _ _ .

m Match the first part of the phrase with the last part to make requests using mind.

1 Do you mind if I . . . 2 Would you mind if I . 3 Woułd you mind . . .

a) closed the w indow? b) closing the window? c) close the window?

Req uests w ith m ind mean: 'Is it a p roblem for you?' So answering ' no' means: 'no problem'. Wou/d you mind he/ping me with this software? No, not at all.INo, of course not.

You (1) work in customer support but, if you do, then you will somelimes be faced with very angry callers. Luckily, there are some techniques to help you. First, you (2) interrupt whi le the other person is speaking. They need to be able to express what they are feeling. Of course, if they're angry, then the message may get confused, so when they fin ish , you (3) ask short, simple questions to establish the facts. Most companies insist that during this first call you (4) accept any lega! responsibiłity for the problems, but that's OK - you (5) . You can, however, stili be sympathetic and try to help. Above all, your attitude is im portant - you (6) be calm and patient at all t imes.

m lf you want to refuse any kind of request, you can say:

A _ ___ __ _ I To be h _ _ __ _ , it's a bit inconvenient right now.

Jl,, Business 2.0

125

3 Products and packaging Articles

Defining relative clauses

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IJ

Co mp lete t he sentences using the, an or no a rticl e.

I have _ idea. Let's develop _ completely new model with extra features - we could call it 'Premia'. Of course, it would scil at _ much higher price. 2 When we launch _ new 'Premia' model, we will have to redesign _ packaging. We want to differentiate it from _ standard model we setl no\v. 3 Anyonc who works in _ marketing will tell you _ packaging is very important - _ products don't just selt themselves.

Here is the packa ge. We designed it last week. ' Here is the package which/that we designed last week. (NOT Here is the package which we designed ft last week.) Here is t he CV of the Portuguese candidate. She got the job. ' Here is the CV of the Portuguese candidate who!that got the job. (NOT Here is the CV of the Portuguese candidate who ffie got the job.) The underlined phrases are relative clauses. The words in bold are relative pronouns. You use which for things, who for people and that for both things and people. (In speech, that is more common for t hings, and who is more common for people.)

O

Complete the gram ma r rule s using the, a/an or no article. You use when the listener doesn't know which person or thing you are talking about because: • you are ment ioni ng it for the first time or • it is not specific. when it is elear which person or 2 You use t hing you are t al ki ng about because: • it 's elear from t he context or • there is on ly one or • you have alre ady mentioned it. when you are talking genera lly. 3 You use

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Join the sentences below. Write both relative pronouns. 1

FedEx® is an international company. It operates in the transportation business.

2

Charlie Wang is a dynamie man. He runs the New China Packaging Company.

Fill in the gaps using the or a/an.

I've brought with me _ mockup of our !atest GPS device - _ mockup shows how compact the new product will be. 2 I'd like to finish _ presentation by telling you _ story. 3 Have you heard about _ MP-bunny? It's _ electronic rabbit that dances and talks. 4 We've developed _ great new product - _ idea carne from our R&D department.

Read how to join two short sentences.

1

D

O

Look at the two joined sentences with the underl ined relative clauses in the box in Exercise 5.

In one of the sentences you can leave out the relative pronoun. Write the whole sentence again, w ithout any relative pronoun.

Fili in the gaps using the where necessary.

1 People say that _ money makes _ world go round. 2 _ money we spend on _ market research is only a small part of our whole budget. 3 _ football these days is much more commercialized than _ football they played 20 years ago. 4 _ plastic is often used as a packaging materia], and _ plastic we use is 1000/o biodegradable.

126

Re lative clauses without the relat ive pronoun

I h, Business 2.0

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Underl ine the correct words in bold t o make a rul e. Think about your last answer a nd look aga in at the box above to help you. • You can leave out who, which or that in a defining relative clause if they are followed immediately by a verb I a pronoun I a noun. • You must keep who, which or that if they are followed immediately by a ve rb I a pronoun I a noun.

Gra mma r and pra ctice •

Relative clauses with whose

0

The relative pronoun whose shows possession. Read the examples in the box.

Noun combinations

mRead the information about noun combinations in the box. A credit card is a card used for getting credit . A company credit card is a ca rd used for getting credit that has been provided by a compa ny. An insurance document is a document that sho ws you have insurance . A travel insurance document is a document that shows you have insurance fo r tra vel.

FedEx® is an intern ational co mpany. lts reputation is very good. 7 FedEx is an international company whose reputation is very good.

Charlie Wa ng is a dynamie man. His ideas about business are ve ry int eresting. 7 Charlie Wang is a dynamie man whose ideas about business are very interesting.

So, the main noun comes at the end, and any others describe it .

Combine these sentences using whose.

An adjective can come at t he beg inning. The examples below are all two-part adjectives. a long-łasting printer cartridge a high-quality water treatment system a six-month government training course

These are the views of the consultan ts. Their report was used by the government. 2

Look at this article about that German manufacturing company. Their prod uction was outsourced to Slovakia.

Prepositions in relative clauses

D

Tick {.f) the two sentences that are in modem spoken English.

1

Microsoft()l,, is a company about which I know quite a lot. Microsoft is a company whic h I know quite a lot about.

2 3 The person to whom I spoke was called Sandra. 4 The person I spoke to was call ed Sandra.

Normally you put a preposition at the end of th e relative clause (although this may not be the end of the sentence). The word w hom fo llow ing a preposition is rare in modern English. lt sounds very forma !.

Non-defining relative clauses

ml

Read the examples of non-defining relative clauses in the box. Fed Ex®, which is one of America's largest companies, has its head office in Memphis. Charlie Wang, who is President of New China Packaging, has some interest ing ideas about cross-functional teams.

Make two-word noun combinations from the words in each group.

1 rate 2 force

inflation

product

foc us

task

gro u p

3

forecast

aid

hearing

sa les

4

leader

stock

market

control

5

price

feedback

customer

range

IE Make three-word noun combinations by putting the words in the correct order.

1 product 2 hero 3 development 4 engineer 5 feedback 6 construction

team film strategy computer program bridge

design action staff software customer project

nl Choose the best adjective to put at the beginning of each noun combination in Exercise 12. Find a solution that uses each adjective once only. hard v~er k i fl g lon g-term nice-loo king over-budget self-e mployed web-based

Underline the correct words in bold to make rules. • A non-defin ing relative clause identifies exactly which person or thing we mean I simply adds extra information. • In a non-defini ng relative clause you use I do not use commas around the clause. • In a non-detining re\ative clause you can J cannot \eave out w ho or which. • In a non-defin ing re lative clause yo u can I cannot use

features

inflation rate, produ et f eatures

1 a hard-working product design team 2 a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ 3 4 5 6

a - - - - - - -- - - - - a - - - - - - - - -- - - a _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __

an _____________

that.

""Business z.o

127

4 Careers Present simple and present continuous

li Same verbs (called 'state' verbs) are not usually

D

used in a continuous form. Tick (.t) the verb forms that are correct. Change the incorrect forms in bold into the present sim ple.

Match the verb forms in bold in the sentences below with their uses a- d below.

1 I speak English mainly in my English lessons, and sometimes when I'm on holiday. 2 I'm bilingual - I speak French and German, like many Swiss people. 3 Don't ask me now - can't you see I'm speaking on the phone? 4 l've had a terrible argument with another team member, although we're stili speaking. a) Present continuous used for an action happening around now, but not at this exact moment. O b) Present continuous used for an action happening right now. O c) Present simple used for a fact or permanent situation. O d) Present simple used for a habit or routine. O

1

2

3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10

Common state verbs be believe belong cost depend know like mean measure need see seem t aste think understand want weigh

O

In these mini-dialogues the tenses are correct, but there are four mistakes of form . Find and correct the mistakes.

1 A: You work on Saturdays? B: No, luckily I not work on Saturdays.

2

C: You are going for an interview today? O: No, I not going today - the interview is tom orrow.

D

Put one verb into the present simple and one into the present continuous in each sentence.

1

2

Have you met Freda? She _ _ _ _ (come) from (come) over here Berlin. Oh. there she is. She

The soup is tasting delicious! The soup is boiling. Sorry, l'm not following you. Sorry, I'm not u nderstanding you. What are you saying? What are you meaning? This book is belonging to me. This book is sełling for €15 on Amazon. Please don't interrupt me - l'm doing a grammar exercise. This grammar exercise is easy - I'm knowing all of the answers.

Prese nt perfect

O

Match the verb forms in bold in the sentences below with their uses a- c.

I've worked here for nearly a year. l've worked in severa[ different bars and restaurants sin ce leaving university. I put my old camera for sale on eBay and I've sold it! With the money 1'11 be able to buy a better one.

1 2

3

a) Present situation caused by a past event.

Usually we (have) just two hours of English a week. But this month I (have) some private lessons to help me gct a better grade in the exam.

b) People's experiences up to now (when they happened is

D

not important). O c) Something that started in the past and continues up to the present. O

The time expression can give a clue about which verb tense to use. Look at the time expression in bold then put the verb into the correct form.

O

1 Right now I

perfect.

(do) two assignments, one for Economics and one for Quantitative Analysis. 2 Every semester we (have) an exam on all the materia! we've studi ed. 3 Once a d ay I (check) all my emails. 4 This week a friend from Ireland (stay) with me. 5 At the mome nt I (wait) to hear from an IT company who I sent my CV to. 6 From time to time I (do) a bit of work in my father's company - usually during the summer.

128

O

now.

//J Business 2.0

Complete the grammar explanations in the box with these words: present simp/e, present continuous, present

• The has severa I uses, but it shows th at the speaker is looking back from the present to the past. • The has severa! uses, but it shows that a present action or situation is temporary. • The has severa! uses, but it shows that a present action or situation is permanent. Now look back at all the example sentences on this page and compare with the explanations.

Grammar and practice •

O

Underline the correct words in bold.

• When you ta lk about people's experiences up to now, you use the or _ _ _ __ • When you focus on the act ion itself, not the result, you usethe _ _ _ __ • When you focus on the result. not the action, you use the _ _ __ _ • When you say 'how many' you use the _ __ __

1 I've been a student at this university for I since I was 19. 2 J've been a student at this university for I since three years.

3 I had a great time for I during my university days. 4 I had a great time for I during the first two years at university, but after t hat there was a lot of work. 5 I was a student at that un iversity since ma ny years I many years ago.

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Complete the rules in the box using these words: ago, during, for, since. _ _ __ : used with periods of t ime; used with the past simple and present perfect; answers t he question 'how long?' _ _ __ : used with periods of time; used with the past simple; answers the question 'when?' _ _ _ _: identifies the point an event began; used with the present perfect. _ ___ : used to say how far back in the past something happened; used with the past simple.

rI!] Complete the sentences with these words associated with the present perfect: ever, never, a/ready, just, yet. l

2 3 4 5

Erica? She's left. lf you go out to the car park, you'll catch her. Erica? She's left. In fact, she left severa! ho urs ago. Erica? She hasn't left . lf you go up to the second floor, you'll catch her. Have you been really late for an interview? What happened? We've received so many application forms for one job. It's amazing 1

Present perfect and present perfect continuous

m Read sentences 1- 8. A tick (.I) means correct, and a cross (.X) means incorrect.

1 l've lived here since last summer. O 2 J've been living here since last summer. O 3 She's been interviewing since Sam - she must be tired. O 4 She's interviewed since Sam - she must be tired. O 5 She's interviewed James Matthews an d has offered him the job. O 6 She's been interviewing James Matthews and has been offering him the job. O 7 I've written two assignments th is week. O S I've been writing two assignments this week. O

[E) Put each verb into the correct form: present perfect simple or present perfect continuous. Some sentences may use the same form twke .

(se nd off) job applications all summer but I stili (not/have) any luck. 2 l (send off) about 20 job applications this summer - perhaps I (apply) for the wrong kind of job. 3 Joanna looks really disappointed - she _ __ _ Qustlreceive) her exam resul ts and I'm sure she _ _ _ (fail). 1

Choosing forms: more practice i!] Put each verb into the correct form : present simple, present perfect or past simple.

1 Sales (go up) by 50/o last year. (go up) by 50/o so far t his year. 2 Sales 3 Sales (go up) by 50/o every time we have an advcrtising campaign. (wo rk) for Johnson & Johnson for two 4 I years. It's a good company, but now l think it's time for a change. 5 Aftcr university I (work) for Joh nson & Joh nson for two years. Then I was invited to join Novartis. 6 l (work) for Johnson & Johnson. There's a great atmosphere in my department.

IE

Complete the text by using each of these forms once: present sim ple, present continuous, present perfect, present perfect continuous, past simple.

'I really (1) (wan t) that job I (2) _ __ (apply) for a few weeks ago. I (3) (wait) for ages - 1 wonder if they (4) (decide) anything? l (5) (sleep) so badly at the moment.'

Refer to the examples above to complete the grammar rules in the box. Write present perfect, present perfect continuous, present perfect or present perfect continuous.

r /1 Business 2 o

129

5 Making deals

Types of conditionals

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Read sentences a-c below.

a) If I use Amazon, l buy more books than I really want, and then I don't have the time to read them afterwards! b) lf I use Amazon to find that book about marketing, it' lł arrive withi n a week, and I won't need to go round all the bookshops looking for it. c) lf I used Amazon to find that book about marketing, it'd be cheaper, but of course I wouldn't be able to look at it first. Now answer these questions by writing a, b or c. Which sentence shows there is a high probability of one event happening? O 2 Which sentence shows I'm just imagining one event th at is unl ikely to happen? O 3 Which sentence is not about one specific event? O 4 In which sentence could If ... be replaced with Whenever ... or Every time ... ? O

1

O

Refer to sentences a-c in Exercise 1. Complete these statements by underlining the correct words in bold.

1 Sentence a) is called the zero I first I second conditional and the time reference is past I present I future I genera ł. 2 Sentence b) is called the zero I first I second conditional and the time reference is past I present I future I general. 3 Sentence c) is called the ze ro I first I second conditional and the time reference is past I present I future I generał.

First conditional

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Correct the mistakes in these sentences. Think carefully about the word will.

1 If we will continue talking, I'm sure we find a compromise. 2 If I will agree to that price, can you sign today?

D

Match a n if clause 1-3 with a ma in clause a-c.

1 lf you b ri ng down the price, D 2 If they're asking for a d iscount, D 3 lf we've discussed all the details, D a) can we finish the meeting? b) we'll place an order. c) tell them it's impossible.

D

Underline the correct words i n bold to make a rule . Refer to Exercises 1-4 above to he lp you. The fi rst conditional refers to a likely I unlikely event in the future. In the if dause you use the present simple Iany present tense (simple, continuous or perfect) and in the mai n cla use you use will or other moda Is or the imperative.

130

l11e Business z.o

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Read the whole sentence then underline the phrase in bold that is best in the context.

1 If I get lost, 1'11 I I might call you on my mobile - there's nothing else I can do. 2 If you sign the contract today, we 'lł be able to I we might be able to deliver by the end of the month, but I can't promise anything because our factory is very busy at the moment. 3 If you give us a 50/o discount, 1'11 be able to I I should be able to place an order, but I just need to check with my boss first. ModaIs in conditionals have their norma I meanings. So: • will means 'the result is certa i n'. • shou/d means 'the res ult is probable'. • mightlcould mean 'the result is possible'.

O

Compare these sentences with the similar ones in Exercises 3 and 4.

l 'm sure we'll find a compromise if we continue talking. We'll place an order if you bring down the price. Now complete the rule: When the if cla use comes at t he end, you leave out the _ _ __ in writing.

if and when

O

In the sentences below you can use either if or when. Compare the two alternatives. lf the meaning is the same, write S. lf the meaning is different. write D.

1 Tf I When I use Amazon, I buy more books than I really want. D 2 If I When I use Amazon to find that book about Marketing, it'll arrive within a week. D Now underline the correct answers in bold.

a) In Sentence 1, the uncertainty about b) In Sentence 2, the uncertainty about

word if suggests certainty I using Amazon. word when suggests certainty I using Amazon.

• In zero condit ional sentences, if and when have the same meaning. • In first conditional sentences, if and when do not have the same meaning. lf shows uncert ainty and when shows certainty.

Gram mar a nd p ractice •



and unless

O

Underline the correct word in bold.

1 If I Unłess business improves, I'll lose my job. 2 lf I Unless business improves, we'll all get a pay rise. 3 Jf I Unless you put down a 100/o deposit, we can accept you r order. 4 lf I Unless you put down a 10% deposit, we can't accept your order.

providing (that)las long as, etc.

iIJ

Read the example sentence then underline the correct words in bold in the box to make a rule.

I might consider working abroad, providing (that)lprovided (that)las long as/so long as the money was good. The expressions providing, provided, as long as and so long as all mean if and only if. They emphasize the condition. They have a first I second conditional form, so they are followed by a verb in the present I past simple.

unless = if not Unless business improves, 1'11 lose my job. = Ił business doesn't improve, 1'11 lose my job.

Ul] Rewrite these sentences using unless. 1 lf we don't leave now, we'll miss the start of the film.

Verbs patterns with recommendlsuggestl advise

IE

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, we'll miss th e start of the film. 2 If he doesn 't agree to our terms, we should walk away from the negotiation. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, we should walk away from th e negotiation.

recommendlsuggest something recommend/suggest something to someone recommendlsuggest (not) doing something recommend/suggest (tha t) someone do something advise (not) doing something advise someone (not) to do something advise (not) doing something

Second conditional

m Read sentences 1- 4 then match the forms in bold

NOT I recommend yett this. NOT I rec.ommend yett doing this. NOT I recommend ił that you do this. NOT I advise yett doing this. NOT I advise #I-at you to do this.

with the ir best explanations a-d below.

1 If we increase our order, will you give us a discount? 2 If we increased our order, would yo u give us a discount? 3 If we increased our order it would b e very risky. We might never resell all the items to our customers. 4 lf we increased our order it would be too risky. We would never resell all the items to our customers. a) First conditional: there is a high probability of the event happening. O b) Second conditional: there is no probability at all of the event happening - it is purely imaginary. O c) Second conditional: there is a low probability of the event happening, but it is not out of the question. O d) Second conditional: there is no reference to probability, instead the speaker is using the past form to be indirect/ tentative/diplomati c. lt is easier for the other person to say 'no' without Josing face. O

Read the verb patterns in the box.

Now correct these sentences by deleting one word from each.

1 2 3 4 5

I suggest we to buy the cheaper model. I recommend it that we have a short break. I advise th.at you to look again at the figures. What do you suggest me? I recommend you not parking h ere.

i!l

Correct the mistakes in these sentences. They should both be second conditionals.

1 If I would be the boss of this com pany, I will improve communications by having regu lar meetings. 2 If we would paid a 500/o deposit now, you reduce the price to €25,000? The second conditional refers to an unlikely, impossible or imaginary event in the future. In the if clause you use the past simple and in the main clause you use would! mightlcould. The second conditio nal can also be used to make the speaker sound indirect/tentative.

Jl„ Business 2.0

131

6 Company and community The passive

D

Compare sentences a and b then answer the questions below.

a) Our subcontractors employed a lot of illegal immigrants last year. b) A lot of illegal immigrants were employed by our subcontractors last year. 1 Which sentence are you mare Iikcly to hear in a spokcn conversation? O 2 Which sentence are you more likely to read in a written report? O 3 Which sentence uses a passive verb? O 4 Rewrite sentence b so that the person or thi ng that did the action (the agent) is not mentioned.

O

D

Complete the t able. Do not mention the agent.

Active form

Passive form

We make car parts here.

Car parts

2

They're polluting the river.

The river

3

We obeyed the law.

The law

4

They've offered me the job.

5

They were selling fake goods.

Fake goods

6

We can change t his po licy.

This policy

7

They might fi ne us.

We

8

I w ill decide this lat er.

, This

Read the sentences a- d then answer the questions below.

O

a) A lot of production has been moved overseas to countries where Iabour is cheap. b) New laws have been introduced to protect health and safety at work. c) The company ad mitted that mistakes had been made. d) It was agreed that compensation would be paid to the employees who lost their jobs.

1 We have put the environment at the centre of our future planning. The environment - - - - -- - -- - - - 2 Johnson & Johnson introd uced the idea of corporate social responsibility. The idea of corporate social responsibility _ _ __

1 Which sentence uses the passive because the agent is obvious (it is clearly 'the government')? O 2 Which sentence uses the passive because the agent is unknown? O 3 Which sentence uses the passive because we are not interested in the agent (it is a group of people, but exactly who is irrelevant)? O 4 Which sentence uses the passive because the writer does not want us to idenbfy the agent? O

D

Compare two w ays to end this sentence.

Many tourists enjoy taking a cruise along the Danube, but over recent ycars ... 1 ... the river has been pollu ted by raw sewage, agricultu ral chemicals and industrial waste. 2 ... raw sewage, agricultural chemicals and ind ustrial waste have polluted the river. Which ending makes a better l ink to the t o p ie of the first part of the sente nce ('the Danube')? O • The passive is used when t he agent (t he person wh o does the action) is o bvious, unknown or unint eresting. • The passive is also used to bring a topie to the fro nt of a phrase so t hat it links t o the same t opie just mentioned. • The passive is more common in w riting, and gives a forma !, impersonal style.

132

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Rewrite the sentences using a passive form . Decide whether or not to mention the agent.

3 Someone services the elevator every week . The elevator - - - - - - - - -- -- 4 That guy with the crazy look in his eyes serviced the elevator last week. The elevator - - - - - - - -- - - - 5 The company is hiring 100 new employees this month. A hundred new employees - - -- - - - - - - 6 A problem delayed my fl ight. My flight _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 7 A major security alert involving 80 Chechnian terrorists delayed my flight. My fli ght - - -- - - - - - -- 8 We must protect the environment. The environment - - - - - - - -- - - - -

O

Rewrite the phrase in bold so that there is a better link to the first part of the sentence.

A terrible gas leak occurred in Bhopal in 1984 - it seems that an act of sabotage caused the disaster.

Grammar and practice •

Reported speech

Reporting verbs: say/tel//ask

O

Match reported speech 1- 7 with the quotations a - h. One reported version is used twice.

EI!]

Telling a friend about the conversation later:

2 3

She said (that) „ . I .. . shc did that. O 2 „ . she would do that. O 3 ... shc had done that. O 4 . .. shc was doing that. O 5 „ . she might do that. O 6 ... shc could do that. O 7 „ . she musl do that. O

She said I told that she would do that. She said me I told me that she would do that. She said to me I to ld to me that she would do that. 4 She askcd me th at I wh at I wou ld do. 5 She askcd me that I if I wo uld do that. 6 She askcd me what I was doing I was I doing. 7 She askcd me w hcn l would arrive I would I arrive. l

You say something. You tell somebody. You say something to somebody. To repo rt a question you use ask + a question word (what, when, etc.) or if. The word order of a reported question is like a normal statement, not like a question.

The actual words she spoke: a) b) c) d) c) f) g) h}

'l'm doing that. · '!'li do that. ' ' l'vc done that. · ' I did that.' 'I do that. ' 'I can do that. · 'I may do that.· 'f must do lhat.'

Other reporting verbs There are many other verbs to report what people say. Study the table.

Il

Put a tick (.I) if the sentence is possible, and a cross (.X) if it is impossible. Think about if you are reporting

• Verbs like say, followed by 'someth ing': admit, announce, claim, explain, imply, reply, state. NOT She explained tts the situation. • Verbs like te//, followed by 'somebody': assure, inform, persuade, reassure, remind. NOT She inforrned Mat the situation was under control. (Correct: informed me that)

something which is stili true. H e said he would be herc this afternoon. I need to s peak to him. O 2 He said he will be here this aftcrnoon. I necd to spcak to him. O 3 H e said he would be herc this aftern oon. But hi s secretary has just called to say that he can't make it. O 4 He said he will be herc this afternoon. But his secretary has just called to say that he can't make it. O

D

Read the actua l words spoken then underline the correct words in bold in the rep orted vers ion. Actual words spoken on Mo nday: 'We'll give you o ur answer lomorrow.' Reporting to a colleague on Tuesday: She said thal we'd I th ey'd givc yo u I me our I their answer tomorrow I today. When you report what someone said earlier, the original verb tense moves back in time: • present simple 7 past simple, etc. (see Exercise 7 above) • will 7 would Both the past simple and present perfect cha nge t o the past perfect. There is no change for must, should, might, could, would.

You don't have to change the verb tense if t he statement is stili true. Sometime s a pronoun or time expression changes as well.

Underline the correct form in bold.

• A few verbs can be followed by 'something' or

'somebody': guarantee, promise. She guaranteed (us) that the goods would be here.

m Report the phrases in bold using the verbs in brackets. lnclude the word me where possible. 1

2

3

· 1t's a reałl y good deal - you won 't find this price anywhcrc on the market.' (persuade) He persuaded me that it was a reallv good deal 'We're stoppin g all produ ction until we discover the ca usc of the pollution in the rivcr.' (announce)

She - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -' Don't worry. we have fitte d new filte rs to make sure that the system is clcan and safe.' (reassurc) He _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _

~

4

·oo you want to know what we can do about thi s situati on ? We can d o absolutely nothing.' (reply) She _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ __

li Busin \!SS 2 o

133

7 Mergers and acquisitions

will

D

Match the forms of will in sentences 1- 5 w ith their best explanations a-e below.

a) The merger will take place next January. b) I think the mergcr will probably take place sometime early next year. c) I'll open the window - it's a bit hot in here. d) I'll carry your suitcase to the car. e) I'll call you next week. Bye! 1 a prediction about the future based on an opinion or belief O 2 a future fact O 3 a promise about the future O 4 a n instant decision - sometimes referring to something immediate, not in the future O 5 a n offer of help - sometimes referring to something immediate, not in the future O will has t w o main uses: 1 predictions and facts about the future 2 decisions, promises and offers of help that w e make at the moment of speaking • The second use is informal, and in this use will is usually contracted to '//. • Decisions, promises and offers of help are often combined: OK, /'li email the information to you this aftemoon. (instant decision + promise) /'// speak to my boss and see if we can do that. (instant decision + offer of help)

O

Read the extract from a presentation then add the word will in three places and won't in two places.

'Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. I've called this press conferen ce because of the rumours circulati ng in the media about our M&A strategy. Over the next few years our bank become a major player in Central Europe, and naturally we look at strong !ocal banks as possible targets for acquisition. But we make any decisions until we have studied the market carefully. There has been much comment about possible job cuts, but I want to reassure you that the staff of a bank are amongst its most valuable assets. When we do make a move, there be significant job losses at the bank we acquire. In any case, we deal with this issue at the time, and I have no further comment to add now.'

D

Read these two sentences.

1 There will be significant job losses. 2 There won't be significant job losses. Now add the word probably in the correct place to both sentences (but not at the beginning).

IJ Match comments 1-5 with responses a-e below. 1 Bye ! 0 2 Are you ready to order now? O 3 Can you send me a copy of your new brochure? 4 I only have an hour to get to the airport. O 5 Are you going for a drink with you r colleagues? a) b) c) d) e)

/Iw Business 2.0

O

Of course, 1'11 put one in the mail this afternoon. Bye 1 I'll see you to mo rrow. Don't worry, 1'11 call a taxi. Yes, but I don't th in k I'll be back late. Yes, I'll have the roast Jamb.

D

Look at the use of 'li in responses a-e in Exercise 4. Which one is the best example of:

1 2 3 4 5

a prediction? a future fact? an instant decision? a promise? an offer of help?

be going to

O

Read the information about be going to in the box.

Be going to has two main uses: 1 predict ions, especially w here there is strong evidence in the present situation Look out! lt's going to fal/. 2 plans and decisions w e have already made. We 're going to cut forty jobs next month.

Now decide how be going to is used in each sentence. Write prediction or plan.

1 It says in this a rticle that there are going to be job cuts in our banking sector because of all the foreig n acquisitions. _ _ __ 2 I'm going to see my bank manager about the loan next week. _ _ __ 3 You want delivery by the end of the month? That's going to be difficult. _ _ __ 4 We're going to launch the new model at th e Frankfurt Motor Show. _ _ __ 5 There's too much to do before th e deadline. We're not going to have enough ti me. _ _ __ 6 We want to expand our operations in Central and Eastern Europe, so we a re going to open new branches in Bratislava and Warsaw. _ _ __

D

Read the evidence in the first sentence. Then use the words in brackets to make a prediction with be going to.

1 American banks want to expand in Slovakia. (Citibank/ make a bid for Tatra Banka.) 2 There's too much to do before the deadline. (We/ not have enough tim e.)

134

O

-~--

Grammar and pra ctice •

------

Present continuous

The present continuous is slightly more likely if the arrangement is fixed, with a time and a place. l'm going to see my bank manager next week. l'm seeing my bank manager at 11 :30 next Tuesday.

IJ

Read the information about the present continuou s in the box . The present continuous has a present time reference (see Grammar and practice 4 page 124). lt also has a future time reference: to talk about fixed arrangement s. The fixed arrangements are often social arrangements and appointments. There is usually a time phrase. l'm seeing my bank manager at 11 :30 next Tuesday.

Expressing likelihood

EI!]

Use these expressions to complete the sentences below. M atch the expre ssions in the box with the degree of probability in brackets. it's almost certain to it's likely to it might it might just it will defin itely there's not much chance it will t here's no way it w ill

Now complete th e t ext by putting the verbs into the correct fo rm of the present continuous.

'l (lly) to Paris on Thursday mornin g. Louis and Isabelle (come) from Lyons to joi n us. We (give) a prescn tation aboul the merger to institutional investors on Friday morning, at the offices of B P Paribas.'

(lOO°'o) (90°0) (70%) (50%) (20°0) (10%) (0°o)

1 2 3 4 5

6

be a success. be a success. be a success. be a success. be a success. be a success. be a s uccess.

will or going to?

7

O

m Rewrite each sentence with o ne of these words

Read th e inforrnation in the box.

SO

that the probabi lity changes as shown in brackets. Often either will or going to are possible, and you cou ld use both in the same situation. However there are some small differences that can influence your choice. Predictions: • Will is more likely if the prediction is based on the speaker's thoughts and opinions. • Going to is more likely if the prediction is based on evidence in the present situation. Decisions: • Will is more likely if t he decision is spontaneous, made at the moment of speaking. • Going to is more likely if the decision has been made previously, and so now it is a plan.

al most definitely definitely go od highly just

fully

1 There's a chan ce the merger wi ll go a head. (50%-7 700o) There's a good chance the merger will go ahead. 2 The merger wi ll go ahcad. (lQOOo-7100% with emphasis)

3 The merger won't go a head. (OOo-?OOo with emphasis) 4 The mcrger might go ahead. (50% -7 2000) 5

The merger is ccrtain to go a hcad. (100% -790%)

Now underline the form in bold that is more likely (but remem ber that both are possible).

6

lt's likely the merger will go ahead. (700o -790°o)

l

7

2 3 4

Have you heard the news? Citibank will make I are goin g to ma ke a bid fo r Tatra Ban ka. The UK wi ll probably start I is probably going to start using the euro cventually. l f you're busy, J'll come back I J'm going to come bacie la ter. I was tal kin g with my frie nds ycsterday - we'll go I we're go in g to go skiing in the Alps.

going to or present continuous? Read the information in the box.

[El

We expect th e merge r to go ahead. (700o -7900o) Write T (true) or F (fa lse) aft er each statement.

1 The th ree al tern ativcs in bold bclow a ll have approximatcly the sa me meaning. D The merger mayl might/could go ahead. 2 The th rce altcrn ativcs in italics below a ll havc approximately the same meani ng. D The merger may not!might not/could not go a head. 3 The two alternalives in ital ics below have approximately the same meaning. D The merger shouldl is lik.ety to go a head.

Going to and the present cont inuous are both used for plans and arrangements. Nearly always both are possible in the same situation. Going to is slightly mor e likely if it's just a plan.

//., Business z.o

135

8 International trade I

Prepositions of time

O

Complete the sentences wit h these prepositions. after from

at on

O

Cross out the one incorrect word in bold in each sentence.

1 I'm away from Monday by I to I until Wedn esday. 2 What did you do at I during I in I over the holidays? 3 H ow lo ng was h is presentation? O h, it lasted durin g I for about an hour. 4 D uring I While my time at university I learned a lot about economic theory. 5 D uring I While I was at university I learned a lot about eco nomic theory. 6 Last ye ar I In the last year sales were sligh tly better than th is year. 7 Last year I In the la st yea r sales have been improving; by the end of the year we pred ict growth of around 2%.

D

Cross out the o ne word or expression that is n ot used w ith the prepositio n at the beginning.

2

on

3 at

_ _ _ _ means 'up to'. _ _ _ _ means 'on' or 'before'.

by during for until w ithin

1 My flight gets in _ _ _ _ 20: 15, a few hours _ _ _ _ yours. 2 l'll be away Mo nday, 11 ) une, and I won't be back Wcdnesday, 20 June. 3 My holidays begin Monday, 11 )u ne. 4 The meeting shou ld have fin ish ed 4.30pm at the !atest. about ten days the 5 l 'll be away m onth of June. 6 When I get back there are a few things I need to sort out, but you'll hear from me a few days.

1 in

Now complete th e explanation in the box by w rit ing by or until.

April I 2006 I the 90s I lunch I the morning I t he su mmer I th e third quarter I t he 2lst century Friday I Friday morning I 2 Apri l I Ch ristmas Day I the summer I my birthday h alf past ten I the weeken d I lunch I Ch ristmas I the end of the week I the morn ing I night

O

Complete each sentence with i n time or on t ime.

I got to the airport - but another few minutes and I would have missed my fligh t. I gol to the airport , and had a chance to look at th e stores. lf you order today, you'll get the goods for Ch ristmas. You can trust us to deliver your goods _ _ _ _ every time.

2 3

4

Now complete the explanation in the box by w riting in time or o n time. _ _ __ means 'w ith enough t ime' (usually: to do something else). _ _ _ _ means 'at t he right time' .

D

Complet e the explanation in the box by writing these ph rases: at the end, by the end, in the end, towards the end, at last. •









D

Writ e at the beginn ing o f each t ime expression e ither in, on , a t or 0 if no prepositio n is used.

1 _ _ _ _ th is morning 2 _ _ __ ycstcrday aftcrnoon 3 _ ___ la st night 4 _ _ _ _ the day before yesterday 5 _ _ _ _ a few days ago 6 _ _ __ last week

D

Complete each sentence with by o r until.

1 2

I need your report Friday. l'll be away Friday lunc htime, but I' m free all Friday afternoon. I waited _ _ _ _ ten and then left. ten I ha d dealt with all my emails.

3 4

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I In· Business 2.0

means 'eventually' or 'final ly' . The nego tiation was going nowhere, and _ _ __ we }ust walked away. refers to the last part of something. _ __ _ of the negotiation their line manager will have to sign the contract. means 'at ' or 'before t he end' . _ _ _ _ of the negotiation we had explored every p ossib/e op tion. me ans 'near the end'. _ _ _ _ of t he negotiat ion our lega / team w ill have to start preparing the contract. shows pleasure because something happens t hat you have been w ait ing for. _ _ _ _ the negotiations are finished! Let 's all g o out for a mea/ to celebrate.

Il

Look at th e alternat ives in bold and write S (same meaning) o r D (different meaning).

1 We appointed a sales agent in O ctober, and the folłowing month/ the mo nt h a fter th at we started to get o ur fi rst orders. D 2 We appointed a sales agent in O ctober, a nd soon a fter/ shortly after we started to get our fi rst orders. D

Grammar and practice •

Verb + preposition

7

D

Match the verbs on the left in each group of five with a construction on the right.

1 apologizc 2 succeed 3 rety 4 conform 5 convi ncc 6 7 8 9 10

hcar insist look forward comp lai n wait

a) b) c) d) c)

to som ethi ng somcbody to do something in d o ing so mething on somcbody to do something for (not) doing something

f) g) h) i) j)

to doing somcthing about somcthing from somcbody to som ebody about so me th ing for something on doing someth ing

[Il]

Use a verb + preposition from Exercise 9 to complete these sentences.

2

3

4

My so up was cold, s o I the waiter. He the poor service. and said he would bring some hot soup immcdiately. Wh ile I' m away on business I _ _ __ __ _ _ my secretary to do cverything. lf anything im portant ha ppens, she cal ls me or scnds an cmai l so that I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ it straight away. The sala rics in our company shou ld _ _ __ _ __ _ those in oth er simi lar companics. l"ve bcen saying th at fo r agcs, and l'vc now _ _ _ _ _ _ __ convincing senior management. We a ll get a i ooo pay rise next mon th ! !'li ask the waiter to brin g the bi ll, and I _ _ __ _ __ _ paying. You can pay whcn I visit you in your country. a nd l to doi ng that vcry soon.

8

Don 't worry, l 'm quite OK. I _ _ __ _ __ _ an allergy to dairy products, but ifs nothing scrious. I you up to a poin t, but I thi nk thcre are some important issues th at you haven't considered.

Noun + preposition (f) Complete the sentences using these prepositions. for

for

for

for

in

on

on

to

to

with

A co mpany's image can be seriously damaged by involve mcnt _ illcgal trading practices. 2 Bi lis of cxchangc are no substitulc _ careful cred it checks. 3 Credit insurance can eliminate the need _ letters of credit. 4 Credit rat ings a re a sol ution _ t he problem of evaluati ng risk. 5 lt's important to be tra nsparent in deal ings _ fore ign gove rnmcnts. 6 Late paymem can havc a damaging effcct _ a compa ny's cash-ll ow. 7 1 cgoti ators should show rcspcct _ othcr cultu rcs. 8 Some countrics levy a spccial tax _ im ports. 9 The se ll cr's bank may havc access _ inform at io n about the buye r's credi t-worthincss. 10 The se ll er's ban k takes rcspons ibility _ obtai ning payment.

n:J

Find a word in Exercise 12 that means:

1 th e act of ta king part in an actjvity or event _ _ __ 2 something that is used instcad of somethi ng else

[D Use a verb from A and a preposition from B to complete the sentences. Sometimes it is necessary to add a third person-sto the verb.

5 6

A

agree insure

apply invest

com ply suffer

depend

consist

7

B

aga inst

2 3

4 5

6

3 4

for

fr om

in

of

on

with

with

As wcll as owning stocks a nd bonds. a good way to diversify your portfolio is to _ _ _ _ _ _ __ pro perty. Th e sh ipping cost two figurcs: the tran sport itsclf, and the insu ran ce. H calth and safely is a big issue thcsc days. a nd the co mpany has to all the regu lations in thi area. lt a ll what yo u mea n by 'profit'. Arc you talking about gross profi t. or net profi t? lf thcre was a fire in the factory, o r a serious accident, it would be a disaster - we mu st _ __ _ _ _ __ these kinds of risks. Ruth persuaded m e to the salcs job, but l'm not sure that I wan t my carecr to go in that dircction.

8

measuremcn ts of how good som eth ing is _ _ __ the business relati o ns hip that you have with an o thc r person or o rganization (pl ural) _ _ _ _ harmful _ __ _ to officia lly rcqucst paymenl, espccialły of a tax an arnount of m oney that you have to pay to the governmenl _ _ __ the dcgrcc to wh ich a n o rgan izati on is lik c ly to pay back m oney that they borrow _ _ __

I• Busme'ls2o

137

Recordings Business fundamentals Company types and structures 1:01-1 :OS Mina: l'm a geologist with a well-known multinational corporation - maybe you even own shares in our company. Our core business is mining - gołd, silver, 'Copper, iron and so on. We have a complex structure: each geographical region has a loca! management structure, but individual 12roduct managers also report to diffcrcnt functional managcrs al HQ R&D, finance. marketing, etc. lt"s a huge opcration, so decision-making can be very slow! Marty: l"m a frcelance photographer, so I run my own business. I do a lot of weddings. partics and so on. Because l'm selJ. employcd, I can do things my way, which is great: on the other hand. it's financially risky. For example. if the business got in to trouble. I could losc my home. Owen: We make lurniturc for firms like Ikea. l son of super~isc prudu.c.t.ion. and my sister runs the office. but in fact my dad decidesevcry1hing. He's the General Manager.t!t 's a family business; there arc six shareholders altogcther. but we can't really do anything without Dad. Isabelle: I share an office and an assistant with three other lawyers. I specialize in employment law,-advising companies on H R issues. My partners each have their own specialization, and Sarah. our assistant. works for all of us. I n theory, as managing partner. l 'm the boss. but in practice we each look after our own clients. So it's a very flat structure, there's no real hierarchy. Frank: I work for a hairdressing franchise - my job is to rccruit and manage new franch isees; l report directly to the CEO. We help franchisces to set up salons, promote our products, and ultimately. increase our shareholdcr value. lt's good business fo r them. but although they nianage their own limited companies, thcy don'l have any real say in how things arc done; there's a procedurc for everything and I mean ~thing '

1 Corporate culture 1.1 About business Work culture and placements 1:06 I got my first placement in a PR firm in Paris. Our tcachcrs had told us to be careful about dress code, being on time, and so on. But I had a problem I really wasn't expccting. The first day, I arrived at eight thirty and I was a bit surprised bccause l had to wait an hour and a half for my supervisor to arrive. [n [act, most pcople carne in at about eleven o'clock. But everybody was very friendly. T hcy gave me a project to work on and I thought, great, l can really do a good job here and, you know, make a good i111prcssion. Weil , for the first two weeks I worked from nine in the morning to about scvcn in the evening. I didn't really have a social life becausc 1 only got home about eight, but, like I said, I wanted to make a good impression. But then gradually, pcople becarne less fri endly, and stopped talking to me. I couldn't unders tand why they werc giving me thesc

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llw Business z.o

funny looks, especially when I went home in the evening. Anyway, in the end. l went and asked my supervisor what l 'd dane wrong. And in fac t the problem was that most people didn't go home until 9 or lOpm. So because I left at about sevcn, I was breaking the unwritten rules. They all thought I was lazy' l mean, J knew I was the first to leave, but l arrived at 9am, and I was working really hard, you know?! But as far as they were concerned, you couldn't do any real work before clevcn, so arriving at n ine in the rnorning didn't count!

S: B:

S: B:

1:0 7 I 'm a departmcnt manager in the civil service. The department's actually very informal and friendly - wc'rc all quite young and cvcryone's on first name terms. We a ll have lunch together in the canteen and we oftcn go to the pub for a d rink aftcr work. We havc one or two interns per year. We try to make them fee! at home and part of the team, and usually it's fine. But, a year or two ago, I had a problem with an intern I was supervising. At first, everything was fine. Monica was very bright and f1iendly, and got on well with everybody. But then one day we had a crisis in the office. My manager needed one of Monica's files for an important meeting at lOam . We couldn't find it, and unfortunately Monica wasn't in the office; she wasn't answering her phone, and she d idn"t arrive until ten fifteen' In fact, she'd been to the dcntist's, but she hadn't told me that she'd be late. Weil, as you can imagine, I was slressed out and I made it very elear that this was unacceptable. And Monica jus! burst into tears, so I had to tell her th at, you know, !hat was unprofessional too. Anyway, after that, things were nevcr the same. She stoppcd socializing with the rest of the team; she wouldn't say anyth ing in meetings and she didn't evcn eat in the canteen w ith us any more. I tried to explain that it was my job to tell her when there was a problem, and that il wasn't personal. But she couldn't accept that. For her, a boss was a boss. and a friend was a friend. and you couldn"t be a boss and a friend .

1.2 Vocabulary Work organization and responsibility 1:08 Bertram: All right. Sam, welcome to San Antonio. Now: I just want to tell you who's who at Warndar, so you know who to go to when you have questions, OK ? Sa m: OK. B : Now, lers start h ere in Marketing; J'm the Business Development Manager, and I have a team of four reporting in to me; two salesmcn, Jakc Smith. our Art Dircctor, and Saidah Hussain. who's our PR Officer. You'll be working mai nly with Jake and Saidah in P R. but you're going to report directly to me . S : All right. B : As I told you, we'rc 11 small company, so the organization is simple for the moment, but we"re growing fast. so that's going to change as we hire new staff. For examp le , right now we don't really have an HR department - Monica Overstreet, o ur Office Manage r, takes care of HR. S: Yes, I met Ms Overstreet last time I was herc. B: That"s right. She also looks after finance, and she has two accountants working

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under her. Now then, as you probably know, Warndar Technologies was founded by Merilyn Warner, a ur CEO, and David Darren, who's now COO. C O O? Yeah. Chief Operating Officer. Basically, David runs the business on a day-to-day basis. Merilyn deals with strategy; she's often away at aur parent company in Houston. Uh-huh - so Warndar is a subsidiary of the I rysis group, right? That's right. They took us over a couple of years ago. Anyway, there arc three other departrnent heads who all report to David. Roxanc Pawle is our IT Manager in charge of IT and Tcchnical Support. She's new she jo incd six rnonths ago when our old IT Manager resigned. Really? Yeah. H e was appointed Head of IT in a big firm up in Washington. Nice job, but too much s tress. They fired him after only three months' Wow~

B: Yeah. Anyway, Roxane has a web developer and two support cnginccrs reporting to her. OK? Now, the biggest department herc is R& D. Doug Pearson has seven research scientists in the lab. Doug coordinates our development programs ; so he lia ises with me in Marketing and with our Program Manager, Herb Monroe. Herb manages the Engineering Department. and he's responsible for building our product package. He has a team of three: two software engineers and a technical writer. S: OK. B: All right, I think t hat's everyone. So, let's go and meet Saidah - unless you havc any questions?

1.3 Grammar Past tenses and advice structures 1:09 Do you know the one about the CFO an the crocodiles? Weil, there was this CEO, who was giving a party for his executive team . Over the years, the boss had done very well for himself, so he was proudly showing the executives around his luxurious country house. Anyway, at the back of the house, he had bu ilt the largest swimming pool any of diem had ever seen. Absolutely huge. you know? But t he pool was fu ll of very hungry crocodiles. So, the CEO said to his cxecutives, 'The most important quality for an executive is courage. Without it, you will never becomc a CEO like me. So, this is my challenge to each of you: if anyone can dive into the pool , swim through those crocodiles and reach the other side, 1 will give the m anything they want. My job, my money, my house, anything" Weil, of course, everyone laughed at the challenge and nobody took it very seriously. Anyway, they bad just startcd to follow the CEO towards the barbecue when suddenly there was a loud splash. Evcryone turned around and ran back to the pool where the Chief Financial Officer was swimming for his life. The crocodiles had almost caught him when he reached the edge of the pool. He'd just managed to climb out of the pool when h e heard the mouth of the biggest crocodilc c lose shut - snap - beh ind him. Weil , the CEO shook the CFO's hand and said,

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·J'm really impressed. Umil you divcd into that pool. I never imagined you had such courage. You accepted my challenge and now anything I O\\ n is yours. Tell me what I can do for you.' The CFO was stili rccovering fro111 the swim. He looked up at the CEO and said, 'You can stan by tclling me who the heli pushcd me into the pool!'

1.4 Speaking Meetings one-to-one 1:10 Vcrsion l Sim on: Moming. Tiffany. Good weekend? Tiffany: Oh, yes. 1t was cool. And you? S: No, not really. Listcn, Tiffany, come into my office, I nced to talk to you. T: Oh no, what now? S: Look, I hear you had a problem with Maureen on Friday. T: Oh. that. Yeah. That idiot refused to help me! Who does shc think she is?! S: You mustn't talk about your colleagucs likc lhat 11/!aurccn ba vcry cxpcricnccd assistant and a valuable membcr of the team. T: Maybc, but she stili refuscd to help me. S: Ye~. but she had a good rcason to refuse. Maurccn was vcry busy on Friday and you didn't ask for help; you dcmanded her immediate au enlion. As a future manager, you should show respect to all lhe staff. T: But I was just lrying to finis h the job. S: Weil, you won't get results from peoplc like Maurecn if you're rude. T: Look, I was tired . I had a difficult weck. OK? S: Tiffany, cvcryone gcts tired, and r m getting tircd of your attitude. You apologize, o r there'll be trouble. Do you understand? T: Me? Apologizc to some stupid littlc seeretary? No way! 1:11 Version 2 Simo n: Morning, Tiffany. Good weekend? Tiffany: Oh ycs, it was cool and you? S: Ycah I had a good weekend too - aparl from having to finish off this report. How about you? What did you do? T: I went to the swimming pool yesterday. Gorgcous wcather. S: Sounds good. Er, Tiffany, have you gol a minute'? T: Sure. S: Come in. I just wantcd to havc a quick word. Erm, I hcar you had a problem with Maureen on Friday. T: Oh. that. Yeah. That idiot refused to help me! Who does she think shc is?! S: Weil, Tiffany. I think perhaps you should be morc careful about hO\\ you talk about your collcagues. Maureen is a very cxpcricnced assistant and a valuable mcmbcr o( the team T: OK. but she stili rcfused to help me. S: Weil, you mighl want to think about why shc couldn't help you. i\laurecn was , ery busy on Friday, and I understand you didn't rcally ask for help so much as demand her immediate attcntion. We try hard to rcspect all our staf! herc. As a future manager, I think you ought to do the same. T: But I was iust trying to finish the iob. S: Weil, I undcrstand that, and I appreciate that you work hard and that you cxpcct othcr peoplc to show the same commitment. But, don't you think you might gct better results from people like

\laurecn by bc111g a little more diplomatic? T: Yeah, OK. 1'111 sorry, you're right. 1 was tircd. I didn't mcan to be rude. S: OK. ft can happen to anyone. \\'hy don't you ask Maurecn to have a coffce with you. and just elear the air? OK? T: OK. Thanks, Simon.

1.5 Writing A placement report 1 :12 Jason: I li, Jason' Alex: Oh hi, Ale.,. ): Do you fee\ likc going out tonight? Thcre's a new Will Smith movie on at nine fiftecn! A : Oh yeah. Look. I Cl love to, but f' ve gol this essa~ to finish. and thcn f\·e got to \Hitc my placement report j : Placement'? Oh. that's interesting. I didn't know you did a placement. What did you do? A : I spcnt thrcc months ncar Birmingham at a place callcd Diftco They cxpon construction equipment. j : Oh yeah. good job ''as it? A: ft was all right. Thcy'rc a bit crazy therc. People workcd rcally hard. somctimes from cight in the morning to nine or ten in the evening. j : Hmm. Sounds likc school' A: Ycah~ Anyway, I was in chargc of preparing sh ipping documents. Il was lucky we did intcrnational trade last semestcr. Il really helped me understand what was going on. J: Preparing sh ipping documents, eh? Sounds boring. Didn't like international trade much mvself. Did you get on well with your bos;'? A: Oh, she was very strict. But, OK. I supposc. Shc didn't scrcam at me or anything whcn l did somcthing wrong. j : Why, did you get things wrong a lot? A: 'ah. On ly once when I sent a containcr tO Austria instead of Australia. ): You're joking! A: Weil , it wasn't my fault. This guy on the phonc had a rcally strong accent. I didn't undcrstand half of whal he said. J: So you scnt a container to Austria? What an idiot! A: Weil, I bet you wouldn't do any better. Anyway. it was interesting. 'cos they had this rcally sophistica1ed automatic system. but you can't cvcr c liminate human error complctely. ): Yeah, right. the guys at IBi\1 only tested thcir systcms with monkeys, thcy didn't ci.pect ~ou \O be using them~ A: OK. OK ow. if you'vc finished taking the mickey, l\:c gm an essay to \Hite. J: o, come on. l'rn just ioking. l'm really intcrcsted in Diftco I need 10 find a placement for next summer. A: Weil. it's a good placement for first-years. but I think second-ycars should have more rc:.pon,ibility. I was hoping to get some management cxpcrience but I mostly workcd alone. so it wasn't that great. ): You wouldn't recommcnd it. then ? A: No. I learncd quite a lot in thrce months, but I ccrtainly wouldn't like to work thcre. f: Mm , I sec what you mean. . A: Listen, now l've told you all about 11, you couldn't help me with the report , could you? lf we finish by nine , we can stil\ make it in time for the movie. Look, l've alrcady made thesc notes. You just have to writc them up for me

1.6 Case study Counselling 1'13 i\O\\. before '' c go on. 1'11 1ust summanze the three points wc'vc already discussed . Firstly. the goal of counselling is 10 help another person manage a per.ona! problem using thcir own resources. Second!~. counsclling is about listcning, not about telling. ft 's about talking to someonc tmd helping. not about persuading or manipulating. And, counsclling is about assisting and cxploring problems. lt's not about rcassuring someonc or sol\ ing lheir problems for them. Thirdly. the thrcc phascs of counselling: Phase one. talk. This is whcrc you encouragc the probkm holdcr to talk about the problem. and to stan to understand hm' thcy fecl about the problem und why thcy feel that wa~ . Phase t\\O. think. This is where you encouragc them 10 think about the problem and reasscss it. YOu help them to sec their situation from a new pcrspcctive. so that they can considcr the diffcrcnt options for dealing with the siwation. And phase three. act This is wherc you help them to choose their own solution and to cstablish an action plan to managc the problem. OK. arc there any qucstions?

2 Customer support 2.1 About business Call centres 1:14 lntcrviewer: Groupon is currcntly the world's fastcst gro'' ing company. v. ith 35 million registered users all around the world. How do you keep so many customers happy? Manager: \\'ell. one of the key factors has been cloud computing. Wc're no'' in -ł5 countries around the world. and we got therc in about a ycar and a half. ff it wasn't for the cloud architccturc "c havc in place, we could ne' er ha•c done that. I : Can you givc us an example? M : Weil. ,,c\:e reccntl ~ adopted Natterbox. Basically, it's software that decides hO\\' valuablc or how urgent a call is, and then transfers that call to the bcst person to answcr it. lf an imponant clicnt calls and the salcsperson is not at their dcsk, the call is pushcd through to th cir mobile. lf thcy don'\ pick up, the sy~tcm records a voicemail that can be acccsscd online. I: So if the salespcrson is on the road, or in a restaurant „. M: They stili gct the call '\ es. I: And whcrc do your call centre staff work? M: Weil. from our call centre in London we pro\ide customcr sc~ice for England. \\'ales. Scotland. lrcland and Dcnmark. But we employ agents who come from all those rcgions. cach\\ ith their m>n cultural familiarity and local knowledgc. ' atterbo:-. recogmses the location of the incoming pl10ne numbcrs and dirccts the call to a customer service agent from the right region I: So if 1'111 calling from Scotland. the person who an~\\crs the phone will be Scouish. and if l'm calling from Denmark „. M: The agent will be Danish. I: Excellcnt! M: Yes. ft abo means we answer evcry call. Beforc we had anerbox. our customer service departmcnt wasn't handling arouncl 500 o o! the calls - the) '"ere just coming in and getting lost. And pcoplc hate it

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whcn a machinc answen. their call. it's 1er; fru strating. \Vith Natterbo\. they get through to the right person straight away I: So, in thcory. the salcs person or the customcr sen icc agent could be anywherc in the world : in London. in lndia or in t he Ph ilippincs. in a call centre or working from home? M : Exact ly.

2.2 Vocabulary Customer service and telephoning 1:15-1 22

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Operator: ow. don't worry, madam. This is just a minor problem that a few customcrs expcricnce at first. Jt will only iake a łe11 minutes to rcsoll·c. o r ir you woułd łike more information about our products. pleasc press four. C us tomer: All I want is to speak to a hu1~1a11 bcrng. not a stupid. condescending. brnrn lcss piece of ~ilicon! Operator: All right. sir Yc . it is an unusual problem, and it"s a little complicated. but you·n be pleased to kno\\ there is a solution. Customcr: Oh. that's wonderful You're so cle1er! Thank you so much!
2.3 Grammar Asking questions and giving instructions 1:23 A: Welcome back to Gucss the Product. Our next mystery product is a fairly simplc but cxtremcly uscful piece of technology. Panel. you've just ten qucstions to help you ·gucss the product'! B: O l<. Is it advertiscd on TV? A: No, it isn't. C: Do you usc it for work" A: Yes. you do. D : Would you find one in C\CI) office? A: Yes. you would. C: Can you put it in your pocket? A: Yes. you can D: Did it exist twemy years ago? A: No. it didn't C: Docs it usc electricity'> A: Yes, it does B: Do you usc it to spcak to people" A: No, you don't C: Is thcrc a conncction 11ith compute rs? A: Yes, thcre is. B: Docs it cost morc than S30? A: o, il docsri't O: Can you usc it to storc data? A: Yes. you can. Al l right, that's ten questions. Now. have you ·gucssed the product'? D : We think it's a USB mcmory s tick. A: Yes! Wcll donc! You'vc corrcctly ·guessed the product''

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1:24 Steve; OK. Pete. First of a ll. you open the pnntcr -..:o. wait a minute. don't just open Il. select ·change cartridge· from the menu. Pete: From the menu" Do I havc to switch the printer on? S : Er, ycs. o f coursc you havc to switch it on. othcrn ise you can't usc the menu! P: Oh. right. Wliat about the computer? S: No. that's all right, you nccdn "t switch the PC on. just the printer. P: All rig)lt. So. the printer's on , sclecl ·change cartridge', OK. and open the printer. What now ? S: o no11 you gcntly remo'e the old cartridge. 0 011·1 force it. lf il's difficult you might havc to pull it back first. th~n Up\1 ards. P: Bac~11 ards. then upwards. All right. l've got IL S: OK So 11011 you can install the ne\1 cartridge YOu"ll nccd to rcmove the adhcsin~ tape first. but be careful you don't touch the pn11ted circ:uits - thcy're 1er. fragi le. • P: You ncedn't 11orr; l'm bcing vc11 careful. OK. that's it. S: Right. lt "ll ask you il }Oli wan t to align the 11c11 cartridge, but you ncedn'l bother. Usually it's fine as i1 is. P: Ol<. W hat aboul the old o ne? Can I just throw it in the trash? S : Oh no, don"t throw the old cartridge away. You can rccydc them. P: Oh yes: righ t. Listcn. lhat's great. J rcally apprcc1atc your help. Is there anything I can do for you '> S: · o. that's all right. Pete You necdn't 11or11. Just buy me a coffcc somc time!

2.4 Speaking Dealing with problems by telephone 1:25 Helpline: Thank you for calling the Supernord helpline Plcasc hold the line. Dean: Good moming. Dean speaking. How can I help you? C us to mer: Oh, good morning. Yes. l'm afraid your program isn't \1orking properly. D: Oh, 1'111 sor11r to hear that. What exactly sccms to be the problem? C : Weil , t he thing is, I can't pul thosc automalic labie thingies in my documents. D : l'm sorry, it's not a vcry good line. Could you spcak up a littlc'? C: Yes. sorry. l'm on my mobile. Is that bettcr? D : Yes. 1hat's much bcttcr. thank you. C: ~li right. Anyway. I was just saying. I can't rnsert thosc tables D : Oh, I sec. You'rc having trouble importing sprcadshects into a Supernord documcnt? C: Yes. that's right D : All right. 1'11 put you through to our sprcadshcct spccialist. C: Thank 1·ou D : Hello?· C: Yes? D : l'm sorry, the number's busy. Cou ld I ask her to gct back to you in a fcw mi nutes? C: Yes, lhat's fine. D : OK. thcn. So. you·re on 0680 425232? C: That's right. O : And could I havc your name plcasc? C: Wyndham . Delia Wyndham. D : Is that Wyndham with a 'y'? C: That's righ1 W.Y-N-D H-A-M.

D : Thank you. ,\Is Wyndham. l'm sure 11c·11 be able to sort it out. C: Thank you very much. D : 1 ot at all. Goodbye.

1:26 Operator: Customer support. May I help you? C us1omcr: Yes, wcll. l'm having trouble with Word. O : Weil. lei me sort that out for you. What C\actly seems to be the problem? C: ft docsn't work. lt won 't acccpt anything whcn I typc. O: I sec. Ho11 long hme you bcen ha\'ing this problem ? C: Weil. about ten minutcs. O : And was it working properly bcfore thai? C : Sure. I was just typing away. and a ll of a s udden the words went away. O: You mcan lhcy jus1 disappcarcd? C: Yes. )ust likc that. O : o \I hat does your screen look like no11? C: othing. O : Nothing? C: l t's blank. Like I said. it won't accept any1hing whcn I type. O : Uh-huh . ~ave you tricd hitting ' Escape'? C: Yes. othrng happcns. O: OK. Did you quit Wo rd ? C: I don't kno11. Ho'' do ł tell if I quit? O: Can you sec the too lbar o n the screen? C: What's a toolbar? O : 01<, ncver mind . Can you movc the cursor around on the crccn? C: Therc isn't a ny cur or. I told you, f can 'I typc anything O : I sec. Docs your monitor havc a power indica1or? C: What's a monitor? O: lt's the thing \lith the screen on it that looks like a TV Docs it havc a littlc light that tclls you whcn it's on? C: I don't kno11 O: Weil. could you lool.. on the back of the monitor and find 11 herc the power cord gocs int o it ? Can you ce thai'? C: Yes. I think SO. O : Great. m1 you just have to follow the cord to the plug. and tell me if it's plugged in to the wall. C: Er. ycs. it is. O : All right. Now, when you wcrc behind the monitor, did you notice that thcre were ~wo cables pluggcd into the back of it , not iust one?

C: o. O : Well. 1here arc I necd you w look back thcre again and find the other cabie. OK. herc it is. C: O : G ood. Could you te ll me if it's pluggcd securely into the back of your computer ? C: I can't rcach. O : Uh-huh. Weil. you don't ha1·e to w uch it. Can you just sec if it's plugged in ? C: o. lt 's too dark. O : So. you mcan the lights are off'? C: Yes. O : Weil, couldn't you just tum on the light? C: I can'!. O: No? Why not? C: Becausc therc's a power cui. O: A power f\ power cut? Ah. OK. I can handle this nmv. Listen. for the power cut, 1'11 havc somconc call the c lectrici ty company. For your Word problem , do you stili havc t he boxes a nd manuals and packing stuff your computer ca me in ? C: Weil. yes. I keep them in t he closet. O : Good. l 'd \ikc you to go and gc\ them. \o

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unplug your '~'iem and 10 pack li up 1us1 likl· il "'as "hen you goi ii. Then I wani you 10 take it back 10 the store you bough1 it from C: Real!~? Is it 1ha1 bad" O : Yes. l'm afraid il is. C: Weil. all right thcn. I suppose. \ \'hat do I tcll 1hem? O: Tell them you'rc too stupid to own a computcr.

2.6 Case study Cybertartan Software 1:27 lntc rvi cwcr: o. Lauric. thcsc recrui1111cnt and turnmer problcms wc'rc having - i, ii just a qucstion of money? Lauric McAllistcr: \\'cli of rnurse sa larics arc not terrihl~ auracti,·c t hcse days. The~ werc quitl' good a fe\\ ~can. ago "hen the cemrc opened. but the\ ha,·en't rcally incrcascd with the co<,t of living. cspcc i all~ no" house priccs arc so c'pcnsivc herc. so wc'rc finding 11 morc difficult to a11rac1 pcoplc from out,ide the arca. But. actually. salarics arc not the biggcsl problem. Basic.iii~ 1hcrc arc \wo rc<.hons '' hy our turnovcr is high working Londition~ and job sa11sfaction I : I sec. What's the maller with working conditions? \\ l' gi\'c them free coffee. don·l we? LM: Weil . things arc ver~ cliffcrent no\\ from whcn we startcd. In the past, the volume of ca lIs was much !ower. ;o things wcre morc reJa,cd \ d,·isers had time to chat or havc a cigarcllc bctwccn two calls ow. the workload i> much hca, ier. and the supcn isors have 10 be \'C~ strict about brcaks. Two bathroom breaks per d<1y. and twcmy minutcs for lunch. Therc's a 101 of unhappiness about tbat And punc1uali1~. "cli. the bu-. scnicc herc b 101ally inadcquate A lot or ad,1sers can ·1 afford a car. so transport 1s a real problem. cspecially at night I: Yes. I can SCl' why 1ha1\ a problem L\1: And thcre arc linie things. you knu\\. like having your °''n personal space. \\'hen you sharc your dcsk with ~·our colleagues on the othcr sh1fts. you can't reali~ pcrsonalizc anything. I : I Im. M.iybc thcre arc things thal ca n be i111provcd thcre. \Vhat's 1hc problem with job sa1isfac1ion" LM: Time. most l~ Our software producls hm c bcco111e so campie\ I hat customcrs nccd more and morc help. There are morc calls thun we can answcr....o ad,·iscr; havc to keep them as shon as possiblc Tlwt's fruslrating bccausc thcrc isn't time to bu ilei a rcla11onship w11h the customer. somctimc thcrc isn't C\"Cn time 10 c\plain the solution properly. And then of course they say if the~ can·1 spcnd longcr on the phonc. the~ would likc 10 send out instrucuons b\ email I: Yes. wcll. the ~ustomers would likc that 100. bul we can·1 chargc them for it Iikc we can phone calls' LM : E~actly. And we rea li~ necd 10 giv c the adviscrs morc training. cspeeially the new peoplc. but thcrc just isn't time. Thcy often ha\"c 10 read out instructions fro111 the manuał. it's not much fun answering quc~t ions whcn you don't rcally unclc rstand the answcrs yoursclf' I: No. I can sce that Ll\I : Of course the thmg the~ rcally don'I like is the shift system Thcy work one ''cek in

the morning. from 6am to 2pm. one weck in the aftcrnoon fro m 2pm to lOpm. and one weck nights. IOprn to bam. I mcan. it s OK for young. sinf!lc pcople. but it's i111poss1blc for women "ith childrcn. so that\ a wholc rntegory of the populalion we havc 'irtually no chancc of employ ing. .\nd 'orne pcople actually like work111g nights. so the~ would happily swap their clay sh ifts with other collcagues who don 't want to work nights - bul the company wpn't lct them. ll 's company policy. but it's 100 ngid, it's jw,1 not rcalistic . Anyway, perhaps you sho uld tal k tu the advisers themsclves - gcl it straight from the horse·s mouth , as thcy sa~

3 Products and packaging 3.1 Abo ut business Packaging 1:28 lntcrvic\\er: ;\ Jr \\ ang. you ohen say thai packaging is ·thl' 111anufac1urcr·s last chance 10 'edu ce \hc customcr' Why is thai') Wang: )c; ln today's highl~ compctiti\'c nrnrketplacc, man~ products a rc almost idcn tical. So branding b not cnough. That's espccially true herc in Asia. \vhcrc thcre may be literally hundrcds of competitors making the ~a mc product in the same ci ty You have to diffe rcnliatc: you havc to co111munica1c the diffcrencc which makcs your product a bcuer chou:c I agrcc with jack Trout when he says, 'Every aspcct of vour comrn unications should reflccl vour differcncc The bouorn line is you c~11·1 O\Crrommumcalc ~our diffcrcnce · I : So. packaging i<> they should know~ your product ha<, to pitch its promisc to the cu;tomcr 111 thrce scconds or less. from up to llftccn fcet ;may. lf your packaging is not attractivc. cffcc tivc and distinctivc, ho\v urc you going to co111municatc ih diffcrcncc" I: OJ<. 'o packaging is c rilicnl, and manu facturcrs ' pend mill ions of dollars on il , o ''hY arc therc so many fai lurcs? W: The big problem is a lack of communication. 1ypically thcre arc se\-eral diffcrcnl group' of cxpcrls. all working in 1hc1r own ~pcc:1alizcd field market rcscarch pcopłl· "ho knov\ nothing about dc~1gn , designer-. "ho kno\\ nothing about manufacturing. and production peoplc who knO\\ nothing about consumcr necds. Tradi11onally. you keep your design team wcll away from business and manufacturing constraints bccausc vou don't want 10 limit thcir creati•ity Lnfortuna1cly. the resuh is inev-itably a compromisc. You start out with an origina l. crcat ive idea. bul then you find out it's impractical. for rcasons of cost or tcchnical li111i1ations. So, it gets watcrcd dm\ 11, simplificd. 11claplccl . In the end. you are kil \\ ith a package which is cas~ to make. c.isy 10 tran-.port and" ithin budget. but it"s no longer \\hat the consumcr wan leci! So. you gcl focu~ groups "herc

consumcrs don t rcally lil-c an~ of the conccpt; that arc prcscntC'd. Thai mcans. cithcr you stan all o\·cr agam. or you ha,·e 10 choosc the least unpopular opuon' I: Ho\\ cło ~ou annd thi> problem at i\c\\ China Packaginp,'1 W: Weil b,1,icall~. "hat we do is bu iId what we call a ·1ask lorct". Th1, is a cross fu11c1ional team \\lth pcopk from a ll the differcnt dcpartmcnh imolvcd in the pro)l'Ct \\ c pul them all t0gethcr in a hotel. with al I the tools thcy nced to producc mocl n.:cd arc frcquentl~ t\\O different thing'. \\C also ohscnc them using the product Frcqucntly, we can dctcct bchaviour> and nccds 1ha1 the con>umcr is nOl l'\Cn consc1ous of I: Rcally" Lh·huh o. who clsc i' invoh·ed? W: 1\larkcting. manufacturing. dcsigncrs. consułlant - l'vcryone who has a stakc in the product I: And ho" long dol'S the proccss ta kc'.' W: Tradit ionally. months or somctimcs years. Bul today. our ta'>k forccs can usually del i, er an op11111al ;oluuon 111 one weck. somct1111cs less J\nd remem ber. whcn thcy dcliver. cvcrv aspcct of the package is comumer·,·alidatcd. realistic and feasible o. tlm C\trcmch short turn-around means that the manufo~turer can n·act wą \Cr~ quickl~ to ehangcs in the market. almost in real 11111c

3.2 Vocabulary Specifications and features 1 29 1 34 A: I \H111l to listc11 lll English '-'1ilc I go jogg1111! b thai possible" B : Oh. yeah Jogging. cycling. sk1ing

whmcvcr you li kc. 01h111g can stop it. I cvcn droppcd mine down Iwo flights of stairs. and" hen I picked it up. it was st iii work111g. 2

C: I he.ir you bou)!hl one of those new robots. \\'hat do you think of it " D : It"s fantastic' I u ... cd 10 spl•nd hours clcaning the fiat 1\ow I can just program tht:' rohot and ...11 back and watch it \\Ork. C: That\ incrcdiblc ' I must gct one 3

E: I reali\· hkc the rnlour. lt's a beautiful car: F: Yes. a~d it's an intcrcsting 'hape too. Quite unu~ual \ "ery diffcrcm from othcr cars in this catcgol'). isn't it " 4 G: \Jom." hat's in this bottle" I can"t open it'. li : Gi'c 1hat 10 me. dcar. You mus111·11ouch 1ha1 Jt\ for cleaning the kitchcn, and it"s dangcrous. Fortunately. 1hcy pul it in a spccial bonie that children can·1 open 5 I : Quick. it's staning 10 ram and therc's a pa llct of thosc ell'c:tronic toys outsidc! J: OK . l 'łl 1110,·l' it 'traight a\\J\ But don'l worn the bow> arc made of spccial papcrboard \ liulc rain \\On't do an~ dam age

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6 K: Arc you sure rll be ablc to record T\ programmcs·> I mean. l'm not vcry good at anything tcchnical. L: Oh, yc~. No worries. My five·year·old can opcrate this model 11·s dead easy.

1.35 Good aftcrnoon cverybody. lmagine you·re on a fishing trip. ll's the middle of the night. lt's dark, it's foggy. and you're sailing your boat bctwcen dangcrous rocks. Arc you afraid? Not at all. You arc suprcmcly confident. checking and adjusting your routc with just a touch of a fingcr on a screen. How do you do it? Wc\I , l'm here today to \ell you abou\ \he ChartTcch i3. an cxtraordina11c nautical information system. where a touch-controlled screen enablcs you to operate severa! different navigation functions \\ith the touch of a finger. Let 's start "ith Touch Screen Comrnand. fu„1 by touching the screen. you can ,;e\\ and change charts, calculate distances. crea1e a route and a lot morc. The large colour displa) screen automa1ically shows you a bird·s-e\·e ,·ie\\ of where you are and wherc you·re going \loving on to what's below the water. Thanks to the radar overlay. you see exac1ly whal the fish arc secing. And the Touch Screen 30 Fishfindcr. will help make your fishing trips considerably more successful! Now, can I iust tum to communications? The ChartTech i3 can send fax. email and voice rnessages. You can rcquest and receive wca Iher reports based on your actual GPS position. And you can even automatically monitor vital onboard systcms when you're a way from you r boa1. o. 1'11 just sum up the ChartTech i3's main featurcs. Let's just go back to our midnight fishing trip. First. Touch Screen Command lcts you navigate bet\\CCn the rocks ,,;th just one finger and a bird's-eye view. Secondly. the underwatcr radar and fishfinder shows vou ''herc the rocks arc. and '''herc the fish- arc hidmg. Finalls. the communications funciions mean you can rcccivc and send importam data on the \\Cathcr. ~our location and vour bont at any moment.· • l'd like to finish by inviting you to try the ChartTcch i3 for yoursclf. Our website has an incrcdibly rcalistic simulation thai you can try out without ever gctting your feet wet. Thank you vcry much.

3.3 Gra mmar Articles, relative clauses and noun combinations 1:36 Synth voice: Pleasc record your product re' iC\\ and ,1-our rating out of fivc after the becp. Thank you for your feedback. Customcr: This 1s easily the best phone l'w had so far lt's the perfect phone for the basie user I ha' e al ready bumped it and droppcd it a fcw limes but it's still going strong. The battery life is incredible. Overall. it's a real \\Orkhorsc - 1here areno frills. but it docs what a ccllphone needs w do. I ratc it fi, e out of five. 1:37

Sy11lh voice: Pl case rccord your product revicw and your rating out of five after the bcep. Thank you for your feedback. Customcr: I hale this phonc. lt's too small - I can't open the nip cover" ith one hand. Thcre's no screen on the outside to sec the callcr idcnllty. The reception is horrible.

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li drops calls probably 3000 of the time. Thcrc is a very long key delay. which is mcredibls annoying. I am anxiously awaiting the day I can upgrade and get rid of this monstra ity l rate it zero out of fo·e.

1:38 2

Synth voice: Pleasc rccord your product rcvicw and your rating out of five after the bcep. TI1ank you for your feedback. Cuslomer: 1'vc had the phonc fo r about 1hrec \\lccks. I like the sizc and the design. The fcaturcs arc good too. lt's easy enough to usc. and it has survived a couple of drops. Howcvcr. the alarm clock won·1 \\ork an\ morc. J'm not too sure about the intc;nal antcnna. I hale having a full signal ''hen making a call. only to have a dramatic drop when I put the phonc to m~ head. E\crybody sa~s it's the tcfecom company's fault. not the phone. or maybe I ju t got a bad one \Vc'll sec. l'm going to li) the 9200 ne\l. I would gin• it a rating of thrcc out of five.

3.4 Speaking Presentations structure 1:39 Vcrsion l A: Um. shall l start thcn? OK, l know, erm, l know you're going 10 be very excited by the Pingman, like me! So. l'm sure you'll have lots of qucstions. And. pcrhaps we'll take qucstions aftcr the demonstration. OK, urn. we'vc done lots of tests. which havc all bccn very positive, and, er, there arc lots or differcnt markcts for the Pingrnan. children. adults. dogs. businesses, and so on \\'e think 1here·s an enormous po1cntial for this product ... Umil 110\\, GPS tracking sy tems have been 100 bulk~. too heavy and too unreliable indoors 10 be used as personal tracking dcvices Our Pingman wcighs only 75g. and. wcll. wc'll show you hO\\ it works in a fe,, minutcs on the. er. the Internet. So, you know. you can connect to the Internet from an}\\ herc in the world, and just ping your uscr to know exactly where they arc. Within one metrc „ er. Nobody clsc has a product likc this on the market, >O we want you to approvc the in vestment, bccau1>c thcrc·s a huge market. B· What do you mcan by 'ping'? A: Oh, yc>. on the Internet. you tell a satellite to scnd a signal 10 the devicc. and the dc\'ice amwcrs the signal, and then the satcllite can calculate the device's e;xact location \nyway. it only weighs 75g. did I say 1hat alrcadv? Yes. er. 75g. it's five ccntimetrcs in length and about three point fi\e ccntimetrcs wide, so, about half the sizc of a ccllphone. and there arc differcnt modcls for children or adults. Tc ts wcre rcally positive. and our sales forccasts arc C\Cellenl. There·s also a model lor anrrnals: it's built into a collar so. if you losc your dog, for example, you just ping il łrom the Internet to know where it is. So, er, unlcss you want to ask questions. I think wc'd bctter have the demonstration. Urn. Oh, I forgot to mcntion profitability. We think il will. er, will be profitable. Very profiwblc. OK. arc there any questions? o? No quc>lions? Urn. OK then. lct's havc the dcmonstration. lt's, er. at the back of the room Yes. Er.

1:40 Version 2 A. Good morning evcrybod~ . \\'ould you likc to knO\\ at all times exactly where your young chrld or teenager is? How comforting \\Ould it be to know that vour eldcrly mother is safely• back home rr"om the shops? How much \\Ollld it be worth to know prccisely whcre your sales rcps or technicians werc? And how much time would you savc if you kncw where your dog was hiding'? Wcll. hcrc's the answer. l'm herc this morning to prescnt the Pingrnan, u revolutionary new personal GPS tracking dcvice and 10 ask you , mcmber> of the Board, 10 approve the im·cstmcnt nccded to start production. O\\, I kno'' you·re going to be ve11 cxcitcd by the Pingman, so l'm going IO give you a qu1ck O\ en'ie\\ of the product in about fihccn rninutcs. After that. therc'll be a hands-on demonstration. and l'vc allo,,ed somc time for questions and discussion aftcr thai. But if you have any qucstions 1ha1 can ·1 wait. reel free IO intcrruput me. OK? l'vc dividcd my prcsentation imo three sections. First of all, l'm going to talk to you about the background 10 this project and the current offcrs on the market. After thai, l'll be talking about the prototype, the spccificaiions and the data we've collcctcd from tcsts and focus groups. Finally, Ia like to prcsent a business plan which will show you why we cxpecl the return on investment in this product to be condsidcrablc. OK, so, lel's start with the background. :'\O\\, GPS tracking systems arc not new. but umil nO\\ thcy\e been 100 hea\'y. and too unrcliablc indoors to be used as a personal tracking de' ice. What's new about the Pingman is that we can build i1 into a '' rist strap or collar small and light cnough to be \\Orn comfortabl} by a small child or a dog. For the fir..l time. it will be possible 10 locatc the wearer via the Internet. anywhcrc in the world . indoors or out, 24 hours a day. „ docs thai answcr your qucstion? Ol<. so. l'cl likc to wrap up th e prcsen tation and move on to the demon>tration. Lct me jus\ summarize whal l'vc alrcady told you. Firstly. I cxplained why thcrc is a huge market just waiting for this product. Sccondly. I prese111cd the differcnt specifications for the child. adult and anima( vcrsions we intcnd to launch. and the positive rcactions \\C'\'c had during trials. Last. but not least. I ha,·e gi' en you the strongcst possiblc rcasons '' hy you should approvc this in\'Cstment. C'Ctraordinary i.ales forecasts. i>lrong cash flow and unprecedcnted profitability Now. if youCI like 10 1110\'e 10 the back of the room. our R&D staff arc ready IO start the dcmonstration and to answer your quc;tions Thank you vcry much for your attention. 1:41 l'vc dividcd my prescntation inlO thrcc sections. First or all, l'm going to rem ind you of the background 10 this project and the currcnt offer on the market. Aftcr !hat. I'li be t~lking about the prototype, the spccifications and the data "c'vc collected from tests. focus

Recordin9s •

groups and market studies. Finally. l'd like to present a business plan: this will show you why we expect a return on investment that is without prcccdent for our company. Is everybody happy with that agenda?

3.6 Case study Big Jack's Pizza 1:42 Jack Jr: OK, so. we all agrec on that then? A complctcly new range of pizzas for the 21 st cen tury, featuring fu sion cuisinc with the best of contemporary Chincse and Western innucnces? Great. wc·11 nced at least fivc really new recipes, so see what you can come up with. Mick: We'll need new namcs for cach new pizza, then, Jack ... J: Of course, but we can come back to that later. OK. so, can we movc on to point two - new promotionaJ ideas? What suggestions do we have? Billie? Hillie : Weil. obviously with the new pizza range we should do a re-launch. And what about doing specials at different times in the year? You knmv, ew Year. National Day. Dragon Boat Festival ... J: Weil, Billic, it's been done before, but I gucss we could do !hat. Why not? Mick'? M: What about BOGOF? J: l'm sorry? M: You know, B-0-G-O-F - buy one, get one free . Two pizzas for the price of one. And another idea would be IO have a two-pizza box. The pizzas stay honer when you have two in a box. J: Hmm „ . l'm not sure that's a direction we really want to go in. The franchisees won't like it, and we want to get away from the rdea that Big Jack's is just good for filling your stomach. M: Well, what about a gourmet club? Customers get special privileges if they become members. Or feature differcnt national cuisines cach rnonth - Jndian in the first month. Thai in the second. and so o n? B: Yes, that's good, Mick. And don"t forget the Internet - what if you could build your own pizza and order your take-out or delivery online? J: Sounds like it might be expensive. Billic, but ycah,_that"s morc the kind of thing I had rn mrnd. Anyway, let's go on IO points threc and four on the agenda. I think we can take them togeiher, bccausc the box dcpcnds very much on the logo and the colour scheme. Billie, I think you fee! strongly abour this? H: Yes, )~ck, I do. Wc've had our currcnt logo cver smcc your dad started the business. The Big jac k l_ogo was perfect 30 ycars ago, but ~ l~t of thmgs havc changed sincc Big jack s lllnc. Apart from anything else, the symbolism is all wrong, and rcmernber, people are very scnsitivc to that kind of thing herc. J: What do you mcan. the symbolism is all wrong? Green and red are the colours of Italy. it's what pizza is all about! H: f. laybc, but the green chequered tablccloth on the round table - it symbolizcs old-world values that peoplc in Hong Kong )Ust don't identify with. And ii's wellknown that green isn 't a good colour for packaging for Chinesc peoplc. M: Oh, r cally? Why's that? B: Oh , yo_u know, it's that thing about green hats - rt means your wife is, you know.

sceing another man .. J: Billie. this is all very intcresting. but M: o. hang on. jack. I think Billic"s right. We have to take this kind of thing in to account. And the box; the box is rcally 11nportant. Jt's easily the best way we have to communicate with our customcrs. Couldn't we have amore cxciting box, as well as new colours and graphics? I mean, every baker in the city sells pizza in the same swndard bo.x as us. We nccd 10 c\iffcrenliate'. An octagonal box would be good. maybc with a window so you can see the dclicious hot pizza you·rc carrying? j: Weil, as long as il doesn't complicate storagc or delivcry. 1 don't sec why not. But 11 seems to me we need to gct more advice on this. I trust you'll agrce thai we need to have some brand-building and packaging consultants work on this „. we'll consider their proposals at our ncxt meeting.

4 Careers 4.1 About business Career choices

from people \\ho are al ready working in the sector. Social media sites like Facebook and Google+ are a great way to contacl people who can share thcir expcrience.

1:44 Part 2 Thai brings us to the last Lhing, the thing only ,\'.Q.\! can do: understanding what makes ~ happy. Now, you're probably thinking, that's easy; money - the more. the bclter~ jlaughterj Wcll, actually there's a great deal of rescarch that sh~ws lh!ll, ahhough having ~ mone~ rs very rmportant, having !J1Q.a: money doesn t actually make you any happier. In fact, pe?ple _who bt!licve thai happiness depends on bemg n ch, famous or beautiful arc ll1Q[!; likelv to suffer from depression than the rest of us. • What ~ seem 10 make most people happy is surprlsingly simplc; things like contact wit~_other peoplc, variety. autonomy ~nd recognruon. Working with peoplc you lrkc and respcct. having a wide range of different activities, and being able to decide what you do and whcn you do it arc major sou:ces o_f satisfaction. The feeling that you ~c doing something useful. that you're mak_rng the ',"orld a bctter place is also a big motrvator. Il s 111tercsting that people who run their own businesses, or who work in small companics where they fee\ they are in control are usually happier than average. e\'Cn though they probably carn !ower salaries and havc less jo_b s~curity than thcy would in a largcr orga111sat1on. . O\V. just before I finish. !et me ask you thrs: do you ever get so involved in what you·re doi~g th.at yo~ just forget everything clsc. and t1111e 1ust nrcs? Yeah? lt's a feeling you often get when you do things likc team sports. playing or listening to music. writing. pam~mg. repairing or im•eming things. Thesc arc tl!nes when most peoplc say thcy are happrest. and they're called ·flow· activitics. lf you ~no"'. w~at makcs you happy. and if you can 1den11fy 1obs that let you experience that ·flow', then you havc almost ccrtainly found the key to choosing your idea! career.

1:43 Part l Basically there are just five rhings you need to know about choosing a carecr. 1\vo of thosc are th!ngs you really shouldn"t do; iwo of them arc thrngs you absolutely ~to do. and th cn the last thing is somcthing only you gu) do. Ol<, let's start wi1h the two things you really shouldn't do. The fast sounds very simple. but can actually be very difficult to avoid : you shouldn't Jet other people decide. Oon't choose a career just bccause your parcnts, or ~our te~chcrs, or your friends want you 10 do r~, or thrnk Y?u"cf be good at it. Choosing the nght career rs one of the biggest decisions you'!I cver have to make, so don't choosc for other people, choose for yourself. You'll have lots of opportunities IO make other people happy, but this one is for you: this is maybc the one time in your life when you necd to be totally selfish and choosc what fecls right for you. Secondly, you shouldn't choosc a career 4 2 Vocabulary Careers, personal just becausc irs something you're good at. skills and qual ities ow d~n't get me wrong: if you're good at somethrng, and you genuinely love doing it. 1:45 well that's grcat. so go for it'. But all too often B: All right. So lhat brings us 10 Rachel I meei people who chose a carcer in science Ratcliff. You 'vc flagged her as a high-flicr. ro: exan~ple, just becausc they werc good at . Shc's certainly very committcd to her science ~n school. And although they're stili work. good at n. actually they hate it. So pleasc, A: Absolutely. Rachel is doing a terrific job don"! choose something that you"rc good at for us. She's '.ln exccllent team-player, and but that i.ml going to make you happy. she really en1oys taking initiative. The ow. what about the two things you rcally problem is that she's ambitious and we ~to do? Well, the first one sounds like don't have any ways to satisfy her ambition something from a l right nmv. the Himalayas and spcnd a couple of ycars Shc's obviously had othcr offcrs. perhaps learning martial ans if you like, but there are from a headhunter. and she"s thinking also a lot of simple, vcry practical persona lity about resigning. tests you can usc at home. Tests like Myers B: Hmm ... lt would be a shamc w Jose her. Br~ggs or Keirsey are not a hundred per cent Solutions? rehable, but the} really can help you identify A: Weil. we could offer her a two-year what sort of person you are. You'll find lots assign111ent in Germany. I know thcrc's a o r tests online, or you can ask you r carecr advisor for help. vacancy over there for someone "ith her profile, and shc'd ccrtain ly be able to make The second lhing you ~ to do is 10 find a valuable contribution. But I don"t know out what sort of work is available and what whether she'd agree. Shc has a fiance, so il il involvcs. Your pcrsonality test r~sults will may be difficuh. Another possibility would guide you IOwards the kind of careers that be to send her on an MBA course, and should suit your profile: then. you nced to find start prcparing her for senior management. out as much as you can about them, preferably B: You really think she's that good? A

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potentia! MBA? Weil. lei me think about that one. 1'11 come back 10 you in a couple or days.

A: 01<. B: By the way. how is young Paul Stevens getling on? I bclicvc he had a problem with his manager? A: Yes, that 's right. He was working to very s1ric1 dcadlincs. and just needed a break. l'm working closely wit h him now. and cvcrything's fine . Hc's back on the h ighfli ers' list. He has strong negotiating skills, and I th ink hc'll be an excellent engineer. B: Good. Ol<, then, let's move on to Michael Diegel. He's a new hire too. isn't he? A : Yes. Michacl's becn with us almost a year no~v. and we've markcd him as a concern bccause he's not really delivering the goods. He arrived with a fantastic rcsume. lot of ski lis and ome good experience. but he's consis1cntly undcrperformed, he just isn't ablc 10 managc the workload. B: Hmm „ . Any idea why? A : Weil. l'm not too sure. Some people in the dcpartmcnt fcel thal it's a problem of motivation: he doesn·1 like Seat1le. and he wams to move cas1. But ot hers of us fecl that pcrhaps he jus1 doesn'I havc the s1rcngths thai his resume claimed. Al t he moment he sccms to have more wcakncsscs than strenglhs. B: So. w hat do we do, givc him an officia! warning? Tell him we'll fire him if he doesn 't dcliver? A: Maybc. Bul wc've already invcsted too much t ime and money to jusl dismiss him. How about offering him an casier posit ion in Chicago? Something that won't be so difficult. lf he realizes that the job here in Seanie is 100 much for him. pcrhaps he'd be more motivaied to perform at his real le\'el. \foving to Chicago would be a good way 10 save face. B: Yes, that ' not a bad idea Could you liaisc wilh his manager. and sec what's availablc in Ch icago or Boston. then come back 10 me? A : Ol<. B: Good. 1 ow thcn. we come to our old friend Shane Garney, Mr Wannabe himself. Is he stili on the high-fli crs list? A: ot rcally. 1lc 's morc o f a concern now. He certa inly has the skills, but he's getling greedy. We gave him a big raise six mont hs ago whcn he was promotcd, but now he says it's not enough. He says hc's had a much bcltcr orfer from the competilion. B: Weil, l think it's time we had a serious talk wilh Mr Garncy. He nceds to undcrstand 1hat. although we apprcciatc ambition, our corporate pol icy is 10 reward achievement. not potentia!. A : H m. The problem is. of course. that hc's very well- connccted. You remembcr that hb father's a senator. Wouldn·1 it be easier to givc Shanc a small raise to keep him happy? B: Yes. I'm fully awarc or 1hat, and l 'm aware lhat governmenl contracts are very im porianl to this company. Bul if Shane is only interested in money, he should join his fathe r in Washi ngton. The answer is ·no'. lf he t hinks he can get a better deal somewhcrc clsc. t hcn fine. he can resign. We havc a lot of good pcoplc likc Rachel Ralcliff who wou ld be happy Io takc his place.

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4.3 Gram mar Present tenses

to gain expcricnce and lcarn new skills. H opefully. in five ~·ears' time, I would be ready to movc up to a position with morc responsibility.

1:46- 1:55 A : Weil, the job's yours if you want it. B: Weil. thank you \ery much, I'm delighted to accept. 2 C: Congra1ula1ions! Don 't forgct. the degrec ceremony's next Friday! D : Thank you. s ir' E: Thank you vcry much! 3 .

F: early fin ished now. G: Wow! Seventccn candidates in one day! And it's almost dinner time. What t ime did you start? F: Eigh1 o 'clock this morning! 4 H: Ten kilomctres! Phew' When thcy said 'rccruitment tests'. I thought they meant IQ and graphology. 1101 an army assault coursc!

B Interviewer: HOll do you motivatc peoplc to do their besl? B: Weil. I think therc arc two importalll aspccts to this question. The first is to crcatc a positivc atmosphcrc. rr pcople fcel happy about whai t hey're doing. lhey're much more motivated to work towards a common goal. So making sure they understand the objectivcs and the process, and that the atmosphcrc is pleasant and relaxed - thosc a re re
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I : Have you scen the rcsults. Jon? J: Ycah. I: Oh. Oh, l 'm so sorry. J: lt's all right. lt 's not the end of the world.

lnterviewer: Wha1 arc your weakncsscs? C: Weil, or coursc, l'm awarc that the rc arc arcas thai I can improvc on, but I havc to say. as far as this job is concerned, I do11'1 feel that I have any significant weakncsses. And if I do idcntify a problem, I takc action to resolve it. Take time management, for inslancc. A couplc of years ago. I realizcd I wasn't t he most organizcd person in the world, so I fo llowed a t ime management course. I applicd what I lcarned, and now I would say thal organizat ion is one of my strengths. D l n terviewer: Can you give an example of a situalion you found stressful. and how you copcd with the stress? D : Yes. Last term , for example. I was on a work placement \\'herc my supervisor bad to go off sick for threc weeks. so the company askcd me to take over responsibility for the project. lt mcant a hugc workload, "hich was prctty strcssful. Anyway, I sal down and planned out exactly whal I had IO do cach day for thosc lhrce wccks. I also planncd a n hour cach cvcning in the gym. Thai really hclpcd to case the stress. I managcd to fin ish the project on time, and in much bcltcr shapc than when I staiicd! Does t hal answcr your ques1ion?

6 K: I stili think Ms Brown has more relevant experiencc than the 01hers. L: Look, we'rc not gctling anywhere like lhis. Why don'l we meel again tomorrow? And, rcmember, we can a lways ask all four candidates back for a second interview if we stili can 't decide.

7 M: Nick? Are you coming out for a drink? ah. Go1ta finis h my CV M: You s tili working on 1ha1 CV?! I mean. how long can it takc to say you've goi no skills. no qualifications, and you've never clone an honcst day's work in your life?! ': Vcry funny.

8 O : Hey, Paula. how did the interview go today? P : Oh . so-so. Pretly much the same as the last

26. O : Ah. Weil. l'vc got to hand il to you Paula. you ccrtainly don'! givc up casily. 9 Q: Look out! R: Ooh, too late. O h dcar, it's all over your papers. Sorry about that. thcse c ups are vcry easy to knock over, aren't they? Q: 1 ever mind. R: H ope it wasn'l anything important. Er. are you herc for the interviews, then? Q: Yes, as a mallcr or fact I am. l'm conducting the intcrvicws, actually. lt's l\l r Singh. isn'l it? R: Ooh!

10 S: T: S: T:

. 98. 99. 100! There we arc! Finished! Finished what, Sally? You don't mcan . ? Yep )ob applications. Started this morning. One hundred job applications?! You're kidding!

4.4 Speaking Job interviews 1:56- 1 :59 A J nt er vie wer: Whcrc do you see yourself in five years' time? A: Weil, that's a difficult qucstion to answer: let's just say thai I sec myself as a top performing cmployee in a leading company. likc this one. I plan

4.6 Case study Gap years and ca reer breaks 2:01- 2:06 l\ly gap year? Oh yes. it was a fantas1ic experience. Il was betwcen my second and third years at university. I \\Cnt to epal 10 teach English. I think I learncd more in 1ha1 year than in three years at university. Il was incredible. Everybody should do il.

2 I went to live wit h a fam ily in Dublin for a year before starting my degree course. Of course. it was rcally good for my English . and interesting from a c ui tu rai point of view. But it was prctty boring going back to school fo r anot hcr ycar, cven if il was in English. 3 l'vc had a grcat ycar. l'vc becn around the world. working for two or three wecks, then moving on to the ncxt place. l'vc just gone back to my job. and now I havc a much

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clea rcr idea of where l'm going and what I want to achievc. My only regret is not doing somcthing to help people. If I could do it again, l'd definitcly volunteer for charity work. probably in Africa. 4 Yeah, I took a gap year beforc starting business school. J necded to earn some money. so I worked in a car facto ry. lt was heli. l've never been so bored in my life. I suppose I learned somc valuable lessons, but now I wish l'd done somcthing more exciting. gone somcwhere exotic. I fee! I wasted a year of my life. 5 l'd been in the same job for about twenty years, and I decided I needed to step back and think about what I wantcd t o do with the rest of my life. So l took a sabbatical. Fortunately my com pany was very understanding. l lravelled in lndia for six months. the n wrote a book about my cxperiences. It complctely changcd my o utlook on life. l'd recommend it to anybody. 6 f've just started studying medicine. l wanted to get away from my parcnts and see the world. so l'vc just come back from ninc months in East Africa. lt was rcally hard. J almost carne home after the first week. l' m glad l staycd, because I fett ! made a difference to peopfe's lives - a vcry small difference, but a differcnce all the same. But if I'd known w hat it would be like, l'm sure r wouldn't have gonc .

5 Making deals

S : Why would I want to do !hat? Anyway, l wouldn'l know how l' m not really inlo tech nica! stuff. I : All right. Last question then ; how interested are you in becoming th e mayor of your favourite coffee-shop, or t he queen of lipstick? S: A lipstick expert? Nah, not rcally my thing. But wait a minute, what about shoes? Jessica Johnson, the queen of shoes? Oh. yes. I can see it now!

5.2 \1ocabulary Negotiating and retailing 2:08- 2:15

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5.1 About business Retailing 2:07 Inte rviewer: Excuse me. madam, could r ask you a few questions? Shopper: Jt's miss actually, but all right then. if it doesn't take tao long. 1.: Thank you, miss. only a t:ouple of minutes. l 'd like you to tell me how interested you are in same of t he opportunities offercd by Internet services like Facebook and Foursquare. S: Oh , l'm on Facebook. of course! Jessica Jo hnson, Miss Basildon twenty-twelvc! I : Rea lly? Actually, I don't need your name, just a rating betwecn zero and five . Zero means you're not intercsted at all, five means you're very interested. S: O K. \: Su, how intcrested arc you in chccking in to shopp ing venues and letting your fri ends know wherc you are? S : Oh, can you do that? So you can meet up for coffee. or go and try on smne shoes togelher? Oh, ycs, thai sounds cool ' I: Su t hat 's a five !hen? Right. And what about winn ing gift certificates or prizcs aftcr a certain number of check-ins? S: O oh . wow' I love free stuff, don't you? l: Uh-huh. Now. how about receiving information on special deals from storcs? S: Weil, yes. I s'pose so. But not too many, you know what I mean'> I can never rcsist a special offer' I end up spcnding more i han I can afford ! I: OK And how intercsted arc you in checking in to a p roduct by scanning a UPC? S: Scanning a what? I: A UPC. You know. a bar code. S: What, on my iPhone? I: Yes.

So that's five hundred al 12 curos a box, t hen. And you need them by Wednesday, you say? Considering th is would be a regular order, I think two and a half t housand is stil! a bit expcnsive. How about if we paid cash? Could you give us an extra zoo? No, J'm sorry, ihat's my fina] offer. I can't go any tower than that. And then wc'd need you to be available five or six weeks a year. O r maybe a bit less. Anyway, we can talk about it. Nothing's decided yet. Yes. we usually ask for 20% now, and the balancc on delivery. Look, this just is n't good enough' lf you don '! deliver until tomorrow morning, it'll be too late! Wel\. there's not much betwecn us now. What do you say we split the differencc?

2:16-2:20 1 Jive hundred at 12 euros a box 2 3 4 5

two and a half thousand an extra 200 five or six weeks a year We usually ask for 20% now.

5.3 Grammar Conditionals and recommendations 2:21 Petra: OK, we have to decide how to divide this list of responsibilities bctween us. What a re your priorities? Jan: Weil, l'd rcally like to go the conference in Madagascar. Could r suggest thai you go to Siberia? lf you agreed, I'd be willi ng to take my holidays in January and Jet you take yours in August. P: l'm sorry, but l'd really like to go to Madagascar loo. I could n't agrcc to your proposal, unless you wcre prepared to take your holidays in January and go to the exhibition in Kazakhstan. J: Hmm ... Weil, I might consider going to Kazakhstan . l've got an uncle who lives there .„ P: Great\ J: .„ providing you looked after the foreign customer at the tennis tournarnent - I know nothing about te nnis. P : OK. we're ma.king progress. So, can l iust summarize the position so far? You can go to Madagascar. as long as you also go to Kazakhstan, and you !et me take my holidays in August. OK? J: OK. But only if you do the tennis weekend. P: All right, no proble m, l'll handle the tennis. if you take your holiday in January. J: And you go to Siberia. P : Oh, now wait a minute. J never agreed to that' r couldn't possibly go to Siberia

unlcss you were a ble lo ...

5.4 Speaking Negotiations bargaining ~ 2:22 Part 1 lngrid: So, Harry, you want to set up an e-business to sell music - mp3s and so on? Harry: No. not mp3s - sheet music. You know. printed music for musicians to play, \ikc song books, orchestra! parts, and so on. At the moment we scil through our network of s hops in Denmark, but l 'd like to set up an e-business . I: To reach t:ustomers worldwidc? H: Exactly. But the problem is, we don'! havc the skills, the staff. or the money to do it ourselves. I: Well. H arry. Holman Multimedia can offcr a complete package solution. We design , build and manage your websitc. and process your sales. We deal with the payments, we can even handle the logistics for you if you want. Although l suppose you'll send most of the music electronically. right? H : Yes - as PD F files. I t's much easier for us. and the customer gets immediate delivcry. I : Exactly. So all you have to do is make sure you have the product in stock, and count your profits! H: And pay you a monthly fee, is that right? I : That's right, Harry. No capital investment, no new staff, no overheads. And once you start selling music all over the world, that monthly fee is going to look vcry small. H : All right lh cn, Ingrid , I think wc're in business. Su what's next? I: That's terrific, Harry! OK, well, can you tell me exactly what you want the site to do? You see, it all depends .

~ 2:23 Part 2, Version I H : So, how soon can you delivcr. and how much is it going to cost? I : OK. look. l' m going to write down a figure per month here. just su it's elear, thcn you can tell me what you think. There, how do you fee! about that? H : Wow~ No, there's no way I could pay thai' l: Well, l might possibly be able to bring it down a little, but only if we had a thrccyear contract. H : A t hree-year contract! No, I can't agrec to that. I : Weil, in that case. I can'! bring the monthly fee down , l'm afraid. H : And I can't commit myself to three years. I: Weil, Harry, you have my phone number. lf you cha nge your mind, just give me a call.

2:24 Part 2, Vers ion 2 H: So. how soon can you deliver, and how much is it going to cost? I: OK, look. l' m going to write down a figurc per month here. iust so it's elear. !hen you can leli me what you think . Therc. how do you feel about thar> H: Wow! Is thcre any way we could bring it down, say 10%? I : Well , I might possibly be able to bring il down a litilc, but only if we had a t hreeyear contract. H: Weil, f'd be rcluctant to agree to a thrce· year contract unless you could guarantcc a maximum down time of 24 hours per month . Could you do that?

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I: Let me reassure you on that point, Harry. Our sites and servers are very, very stable, and average down time is less than 24 hours per year. So we're happy to guarantee less than 24 hours per month, as long as you choose our platinum service level - but of course, it's more expensive. H : Weil, I don't rcaily want to increase the budget. Hmm ... What about lead time? Can you have the sitc up and running by next month? I: Not unless we hire a nother developer. I suppose we could do it, providing you paid a year's fees in advance. H : Hmm ... I : Normaily. development time is around three months. H : Look, let's split the difference. I can pay six months in advance. on condition that you have the site online in two months. And if you can bring t he monthly fee down Soto and include the platinum service, l'il agree to the three-year contract. I: You're a tough negotiator, Harry. But, OK. I think we can agree to that. H: Excellent!

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I might possibly be able to bring it down a little, but o nly if we had a three-year contract. I might consider reducing the price, if you increased your order. I'd be relucta nt to agree to a three-year contract, unless you could guarantee a maximum down time of 24 hours per month.

5.6 Case study St John's Beach Club

~ 2:28 Loretta: Oh, Malcolm, there you are. I just wanted a quick word. Malcolm : Sure. Shall we use my office? L: No, here is fine. I think 1"11 have a coffee too. M: Black, no sugar? L: Yes. Thanks, Malcolm. I saw your memo about the incent ive trip - it sounds great. J wish I was going! M: Weil, why don't you ? It would be an excellent opporiunity to get to know the sales team better. L: Yes, it would, wouldn't it? But I just don't have the time, l' m afraid. Anyway, the reason I wanted to catch you was to confirm the budget. M: Ah, yes. L: I spol
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along. They've all worked fa ntastically hard this year. Yes, J agrce. lt would encourage the reps who a lmost made it inlo the top ten. I always think it's hard on number eleven! It'll be about a week, like last year, l suppose? Weil, again, if we can squeeze a couple more nights out of the budget, that would be great. But we'll see. OK. Malcolm. Let me know what you decide. Sure. Thanks, Loretta.

6 Company and community 6.1 About business Corporate social responsibility ~ 2:29 Part 1 Interviewer: My gucst today is Estela Maldonaldo who is the co-founder and Chief Executive of 'Beach Hut'. Argentina's most successful chain of beach cafes. Estela, Beach Hut is not only a very profitable business, but it's also famous for its ethical principles. Are profit and social responsibility really compatible? Estela: Absolutely. I opened the first Beach Hut in Pinamar in 1998 with a close friend who. Iike me, had just lost her job. We both felt we'd been badly treated, and we wanted to prove a point. Unlike the multinationals we used to work for, we set out to to treat our employees well, to look after the environment, and to support the !ocal community. And of course we also wanted to make a litile money' I : And today you have, how many. t hirtyseven cafes? E: Yeah, number thirty-eight opens next month . 1: OK, so you've grown incredibly quickly, and you've won a number of awards along the way. How exactly have you managed t hat? E: Wc've always felt t hat our employces should come first. Of course we love our customers, and wc're very grateful to our shareholders. But our philosophy is th is: if you make your staff your first prior ity, if you make s ure they'rc happy and mot ivated, then they're going to look after your customers and so the business is going to do well. And whcn the business does we\!, shareholders are rewarded too.

2:30 Part 2 I: So, Estela, tell us something about your environmental policies, how have they helped you? E: Right from the start, we wanted to be the greenest cafe in town. We do everything we can to reduce our carbon footprint : we have solar panels on the roof, we recycle, we use biodegradable packaging ... I: And all your food and drink is locally sourced? E: Yes. We work with !ocal businesses as much as possible, we want to be part of the !ocal community, not a big brand that just takes people's money without giving anything back. But it makes good business sense too because it means we get quality produce and minimise our transport and logistic costs.

I: Right, so this is not just about altruism, then ? The bottom-line is just as important? E: Everything is linked. We can only give someth ing back to the community if we make a profit. but taking care of the environment and t he !ocal community is very good P.R. - and that makes il easier to attract customers and to recruit good staff. lt"s a virtuous circlc' I: I understand you also run educational programmes fo r children in schools. How does that help your business? E: Argentina's beachcs arc an incrcdibly beautiful and precious resource - but they're also very fragile. We scnd volunteer staff mem bers to teach schoolchildren how to protect our natura! environment. Of course, it doesn't have an immediate impact, and it doesn't bring customers through the door the next day. But in the medium a nd long term, having the environmental awards, and displaying the logos on our website and on our packaging really helps to build a posit ive image. The market is extremely competitive, but our customers are very loyal because they know we share the same values. They know we're not short-term driven; we have to think more long-term about building sustainable businesses, and it's the same fo r society in generał. lf you want a society that cleans up the beaches a nd plants trees a nd uses hybrid vehicles, you have to think long-term. The short-term model just doesn't work - not fo r business, and not for society.

6.3 Grammar The passive and reported speech 2:31- 2:36 1

Leila Belabed: Mr Bullard, the mayor is very upset. You've just dismissed 500 people from the facto ry' Have you fo rgotten thai when your company arrived, you promised to create jobs for our town? 2 Geoffrey Bullard: Weil, of course J understand that you are upset, Ms Belabed . Unfortunately. new technologies have revolutionized our industry. You must understand thai wit h new automated machinery, we will no Ionger necd so many operators. 3 LB : I know that it is difficult to rcmain competitive, but what about t hese pcople and their fami\ies? \\'s a disaster for them. What are you intending to do to help them, Mr Bullard? 4 GB: Please call me Geoffrey. Of course we share your concerns. We are setting up an outplacement service to help people find new jobs, and l 'm confidenl that most of them will find work very quickly. 5 LB: But what about those who don't, Mr Bullard? How will they survive? T hese people don't have a lot of savings, you know! Are you offering them financial help? 6 GB: Yes, of course. Ms Belabed, you don 't need to worry about that. Each person has already received a generous redundancy payment. And we're a lso making inierestfree loans and advice available for those who want to start their own businesses.

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--- 6.4 Speaking Meetings - teamwork 2:37 Anna: Do we all agree on that. then? All right. The next point on the agenda is company policy on gifts. What's your feeling? Personally, I tend to think that we need ... Stan: Sorry to inte rrupt, but . A: Yes, Stan. Go on. S: Weil, in my opinion, accepting any k ind of gift from a supplier is unwise. Would you agree, Anna? A: Weil, Stan, on the whole, ycs. I would. Now, recently we had a major problem with our packaging suppliers. They were sending 'thank-yous' to our buyer's home. S: Sorry. Anna. I don'! see what you mean. Jon: Gifts, Stan. Cases of champagne, I believe. S: Champagne? Oh, that was nice of them! A: Well, I agree up to a point. but unfortunate ly aur buyer, Mr Vieri , not only accepted the gifts, but also actively encouraged the supplier to send more. S: Weil, I feel strongly that we should dism iss Mr Vieri' l t's bad for the company's image. J: Stan, I sec your point, but you can't just dismiss someone for making one mistake! S: So are you saying that we should keep him? l' m afraid l can't agree, Jon! lt's not right. and he should leave the company. J: But Stan, don't you think that everyone should have a second chance? I mean . A: Jon, Stan, can we stick to the agenda? We're not here to talk abo ut Mr Vieri ; we're here to decide on a elear company policy for the future. S: Yes, but wouldn't you agree that his behaviour was unethical? So he should be dismissed. Magali: Could I just come in herc? A: Yes, Magali, do you have any views on this issue? M: l'm sorry, Anna. When you say this issue, do you mean just our policy on gifts. or the wid er issuc of corporate ethics? li seems to me that we need to go further than just A: Sorry, Magali. but perhaps we should break for coffee. I think we're all a bit tired. Could we come back to this later?

6.5 Writing Reports and minutes 2:38 Jan : All right, then. Let's move on to point two on the agenda; diversity. As you know, our workforce is stili 80°,o małe. What's more, we have very few employecs from ethnic minorities. The genera ł feeling within the group is thai we need to take measures in order to reflect the increasing diversity . lnes: Sorry to interrupt, Jan , but when you say ' measures·. do you mean positive discrimination? Hiring women in preference to men, for instance? Because that's all very well in sales and admin , but I really, really can't see women doing the heavy jobs in production. And anyway, l'm not sure that positive discrimination is the right way to approach the problem. Christopher: No, I don't think it is either. Il seems to me that we would just go from one extreme to another - you know, all aur employees would be middle-aged fema le. ) : Point taken, Christopher. But, seriously, that's what we want to avoid - extremes. In fact, what we need are measures to ensure that we don't discriminate against anyone

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on whatever criteria, whether it's their age. their race, their gender, their religion. or anything else. But Jan, don't you think that's just an HR problem? I mean, they're the people who interview the cand idates, not us. Nine times out of ten, we only see a shori·list of the people thcy've already approved. lt's even worse when we recruit from the agencies. That's another problem, by the way: half of the people they send us are absolutely hopeless. l" don't know how they select them, but honestly . Yes. Christopher. I know the agencies are a problem, but I think we're getting sidetracked here. Could we agree thai we'll talk about the agencics ncxt Monday? OK. Good. So, getting back to diversity. lnes. what can we do to attract more applications from women? Weil, for a start, we should offer mare part-time positions. Flexible hours, longer holidays when the schools are closed, a four-day week. You know, jobs that women with families can manage. That's really obvious. J've been saying this for years' I mean, why don 't we start by allowing our present staff to go part-time if they want to? I can think of at least four women who'd be delighted to work part-time! That would mean we could offer ma re part-time jobs to new candidates. Yes, l nes, thank you. That's an excellent idea. Shall we get HR to work on it'> Christopher? That's fine by me. All right, that's decided then. All right, shall we break for coffce now, or take point three first?

6.6 Case study Phoenix 2:39 Justin: ... so we all agree that we need to keep an eye on that one. All right, that just leaves point six on the agenda ; the new site for the South West. Helen, can you bring us up to date ? Helen: Yes, Justin. There's good news: we·ve identified three possible sitcs in a place called Port Katherine. Glenn: Nevcr heard of it! H : Weil, it's a small town about 30 miles south of Perth . lt's exactly what we were looking for; close to Perth , but fa r enough away not to attract too much attention from the environmentalists. G: Weil , that's good news! We don'! want another disaster like Cairns. Those Greens have absolutely no idea what this country would look like if we didn 't recycle ca rs~ J: Yes, a ll right, Glenn. Shall we Jet Helen finish? G: Oh, yes. Sorry, mate. J: Helen? H: Thank you. Port Katherine's population is only about three and half tho usand. so Glenn will be happy to know that there shouldn't be tao much !ocal resistance. And the !ocal authorities are desperate to attract new business and jobs to the area. J: Sounds good. You said there were three possible sites? H : Yes, that's right. l've put all the details in this handout. There you are, Glenn. G: Oh, yeah . Thanks. H : Now, Site A is a good one. lt's a greenfield site just on the edge of town. There are

severa! plus points. Firstly. it's closc to the highway, so access for our trucks is easy. Secondly, the price of land is reasonable. And thirdly, it's a nice flat sile to build on. J: Any negatives? H : Weil, just one. It's right next to the loca! school. G: Uh-oh ! H: But I don"t think it's going to be a problem. I spoke to someone at the planning department, and they were very enthusiastic. Sites B and C are also possible, but they have other problems. Site B is on a business park, so no problems with residents, but it's a bit expensive and taxes will be h igher. Site C is actually in the town centre. G: Oh, yeah. perfect! 20-ton trucks in the h igh strcet' H: Actually, Glenn, it's not that bad. lt"s on a big ald factory sile near the harbour. We'd have to demol ish the a ld building. and access would be a bit of a problem, but they could build a new road. lt's possible. ): OK, thanks, Helen. Excellent work. !'Il send somebody out there to sta rt talking to the locals. G: 'Operation Charm and Diplomacy', eh? ): Yes. H: Hmm .„ Better not send Glenn, then!

7 Mergers and acquisitions 7.1 About business Risks and opportunities in M&A 2:40 lnterviewer: lf m ergers are so difficult to do well, why bother with external growth at a ll ? Why not just grow internally? Bernard Degoulange: Weil, the most common reason, and probably the best reason for a merger. is !hat your customers a re asking you for something you can't deliver. Let's say you sell champagne. If people are satisfied with your champagne, they're going to start asking you for wh isky, simply because everybody would like to be able to get the solution to all of life's problems from the same place. Now, if you can't give your customers the whisky they're asking for, you have a problem. Because howevcr satisfied they are w ith your champagne. they're going to go somewhere else for whisky, and that's when you risk losing those customers. I: What advice would you give on find ing the right company to a cquire ? BD: Personally, I have five points that I want to examine when looking at a possible acquisition : the five Gs. lf I don't get good answers to at least four of them, l don't do the deal. The first of the five Gs is Goals. Are aur goals compatible? Are both companies trying to achieve something similar? lf not, keep looking. Secondly, Gains. I want to know if there will be real gains in terms of economies of scale. And will these gains compensate for perhaps not being able to react as quickly to new trends in the market because of the size of the organization? Being bigger is not always better. The third point is G enes - and by that I mean company culture. There's no point in trying to merge a traditional. hierarchical family business with a fast-moving start-up with a relaxed management style. lt just

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won't work, ihe cultural genes are too different. lt's not cnough to find a partner whose strengths compensate for your weaknesses. and vice versa: there has to be a real synergy in cult ure and personality. I: OK. so, Goals. Gains and Genes. What are ihe other two Gs? BD: Geography and Growth. Arc the companies bascd in the same city or geographical arca? lf not, communication between headquarters is much more difficult, and the Gains are harder to achievc. I: And Growth? BD: Will the mergcr providc technology or skills that you don't have now. which would takc ioo long to develop yoursclf, and which will unquestionably allow your company to grow? lf the merger will open new markcts, which would otherwisc be inaccessible. then it rnakes sense. I: When you've identified the right partner, how can you make sure the rnerger goes smoothly? BD : The most irnportant thing is to look after your people: employees. management and of course customers, but especially employees. First of all. you have to keep them focused and productive. A merger is a wonderful opportunity for everybody to iake their eye off the bali - and so it's a great opportunity for the competition to jump in and takc market sharc from both companies in the mcrger. Secondly You havc to help employees get over thcir feelings of loss and perhaps anger as quickly as possible. and accept the new situation. Whenever therc is a mergcr, two companies die and a new company is bom. l t's essential to help people get through that traumatic period. to explain how things will change and what their new rolcs will be. and to get them 10 accept th e new organization and their new identity. lt's cssentially about communication, sometimes counselling, and compensating thosc who leave the company, whether by ch o ice or not.

7 2 Vocabulary Business performance 2:41 Oxter Holdings today conlirrned that they havc increascd thcir bid for Fraxis Corp. to $98 per share . Fraxis Corp. was floated in 1993 at just $15 per share. After a sudden drop of $3 in 1994, the stock rose gradually over the next two ycars to rcach $50 in earl~ 1996, when Fraxis acquired one of their smallcr compctitors. immco. The market was not cnthusiastic about the takeover, and Fraxis fcll sharply by over 4000. lt thcn recovcred slightly and levcllcd off around the S30 dollar mark for the ncxt thrcc ycars. In 2000, Fraxis CEO Alex Firman announccd an alliance with the European market leader Haffmann ; the reaction was immediate. The stock pricc climbed to S65 as institutional investors rushed to share in the profits. The alliance has been a great success; with the exception of temporary falls to $50 in 2006 and S59 in 2011. Fraxis has climbed steadily to peak at $95. shortly after Oxtcr's first offer of $90 a share was rejected last week. Analysts believe that Fraxis are unlikely to accept anything less than $ 11 O. so expect Io sec the pricc jump to SJOO plus when trading opcns on Monday.

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7.3 Grammar Future forms and expressing likelihood 2:42 Ashley: Emma, Happy ew Year'. Emma: Happy ew Ycar' A: What a re you doing all alone over here? I haven't had a chance to talk to you all evcning. Have somc more champagne! E: No. I shouldn't. l' m going io give up smoking and drinking this ycar. lt's my ew Year's resolut ion. A: Reafly'?! Weil, you can start tomorrow. Come on. Em, it's New Ycar! E: Oh, all right. just a drop. Thanks. Anyway, what about you. Ashley? What's the ew Year going to be likc for you? Have you made any resolutions? A: 1 o, not really. Bul l'm definitely going to find a new job. Thcrc's no way l' m staying at thai company for anothcr year. E: Right. Have you got anything in mind? A: No, but I 'm going to read the job ads until I find someth ing good. l'm bound to find something better than what I do now. E: Oh . l'm sure you'll find something easily. Or you could go freelancc. with the talent you've got . A: Freelance?! Weil. I suppose I could. but I think it's unlikely. lt's far too complicated. 1o, l'm just going to choosc about ten or 12 jobs to apply for, go along to the interviews. and we'll sec what happens. l'm going to take my time. not rush into anyt hing. E: Right. I think that's vcry scnsible. A: So. what about you? Arc you going to stay at Artip ? E: I doubt it. A: Really') ! Are you going to lcavc. or are they going to throw you out? E: We il . both of thosc are quitc likely, actually. The company's bcing takcn over in February, so we don't know what will happen . I mean, thcy're bound to make rcdundancies, we just don't know how many. Anyway, l'm starting evening classes next week. l'm going to retrain as a marketing a ssistant. A: Excellent' Weil, here's to a successful New Year for both of us! E: Yes, cheers' But. Ashley, isn't the re another New Year's resolution you've fo rgotten to tell me about? Is that a real diarnond? Who·s the lucky man, thcn'?

7.4 Speaking Presentations - visuals 2:43- 2:46 A

ow. my next slide shows how the number of takeovers is likely to increase over the next decade. This one gives a breakdown by scclor. This next slide highlights the probablc effect on company performance. And this one. this one and now this third slide show how sharc prices will fali. ow, the next slide shows orne vcry B interesting data. As you can sec - oh, perhaps you can't sec - l'm sorry, the figures arc rathcr small. Anyway, the forc cast is particularly good, in contrast to the data for the last thrcc years. which is in the. ah, sma llcr table, over here, which you. ah, can't rcad ei ther. C lf you look at the next slide, you'll see that we collected data using a Grossman scheduled EMTI questionnaire modified [rom the standard C DF rapid assessmenl surveys procedure. and compensated for

statistical significance using an unbiased rellcx standard dcviation algorithm. D O I<. customer reactions to price and service levels after mergers: 30% of customers noticed an improvement: 49 sa id things had got worsc. Enn , customer satisfaction by sector: almost 90o down in retail: stable in the service and financial sector: and soo up for manufacturing companies.

2:47 How will our cusw mers react to a merger? My next slide shows two charts which illustrate the problem. Recenlly, customers of large Spanish companies were askcd if they felt that prices and service had improved. remained the same or deteriorated as a result of a mcrger. As you will noticc in the piechart, only a third or customcrs noticed an improvcment, compared to alrnost half who said that th ings had got worse. Let's look at the bar chart, wh ich shows customcr satisfaction by secwr. As you can sec, after a merger, customcr satisfaction falls by an average of alrnost ninc per cent in the rctail sector, whercas il remains about the same in the service and financial sector. and rises by five per cent on avcrage for manufacturing companies. The figures seem LO suggest that. on the wholc, customers arc always likcly to rcact ncgatively to mergers. This is due to a pcrceived drop in levels of service after a mergcr. The results indicate that retailers, where service is crucial to customer satisfaction, are particularly affected, as opposed to manufacturers, who benefit from mergers. Of course. this is the result of improved product quality and design. which are the most important factors for their customers.

7.5 Writing Presentat ion si i des 2 :48 Good morning e\'eryone, and thank you for coming. Two months ago, you asked me to conduct a strategie analysis of the company's strengths, weaknesses. opportunities and threats. l'm herc today to prcsent my findings. and to make recommcndations on the basis of those lindings. I intcnd first to givc a short summary of the company's position, and then to invitc you to ask qucstions and give your rcactions to my proposals. lf anything is not elear, plcase fee( free to imerrupt me. First of all. l'd like to remind you of the company's main strengths. Galway Software has a reputation for innovation and quality in developing highly-spccialized customer applications. We are ablc to provide excellent service L11anks to our small team of cxpert enginccrs and developers. What's more. our finances have been carefully and cautiously rnanagcd : as you can sec from the fi gures on this slide, today the company is in good financial health with practically no debt. However. there are also a number of weakncsses which must be considcred. The first, small weakness is office space. We just don'l have enough. The second, more significant weakness is costs. As this graph shows. our devclopment costs havc risen steadily, whcrcas market prices arc falling. Il is bccoming increasingly difficult to mainlain our profit margins. The principal explanation for these high costs is the high salaries we have to pay to attract cxpericnced devclopcrs. A third, associated problem is

Recordings •

recruitment: in spite of high salaries, we are finding it increasingly diffic ult to attract young engineers w ho prefer to join large international companies. This brings me to perhaps the most s ignificant weakness. and a problem which I want to come back to in a few moments whcn l talk about threats, and that is our sizc. As a small company in a very specific niche market, we are vulnerablc. If things went wrong with just a few of our big customers, we could have serious difficultics. But before looking at the threats, let's move on to opportunities. In particular, new tech nologies and a ehanging world economy arc opening up exciting ways of re-thinki ng our business activities. For example, the new mem ber states of the European Union in Eastern Europe have cxcellent schools and univers ities: their young engi neers are talented, well-trained and keen to acquire experience in companies like ours. Another possibility is to do part of our development work o ffshore, in countries like lndia where labour costs are significantly !ower than in Europe. Last, but ccrtainly not least, we must look at opportunities in our own industry: competition is fierce. and a process of consolidation is under way. Many firms are forming allianccs o r launching takeover bids in order to exploit synergies, to make economies of scale and to diversify into new market segments. I believe these arc opportunities we should not ignore and I will be making a specific recommendation in the last part of my presentation. So, l've talked about our strengths, our weaknesses and our opportunities. I want now to explain why one of the opportunities I have just d escribed is also a scrious threat. And finally, to look at threats: in the conlext of the consolidation I referred to earlier, Galway Software, as a small. successful, wellmanaged company with no debt, is a perfect target for a takeover. lt is only a matter of time before a big inte rnational firm comes knocking at the door w ith its cheque book open .. „ Unless we move first. In the last pa1i of this presentation, I am going to rccommend that Galway Software should itself launch a takeover bid. The re are many good reasons for this. Firstly, external growth with a reasonable amount of debt will make us less vulnerable. Secondly, a takeover will allow us to diversify into new markets. to expand our customer base and s pread our risks, and to make economies of scale. And thirdly, the ideal candidate, Oranmore Video Games, which is based just 20 miles away, c urrently has more developers than il needs, and has a lot of unused office space. l 'm going to give you a handout which gives more details of why I believe we should acquire Oranmore „ .

7.6 Case study Calisto

~ 2:49 Pres ide nt: As you know, this year Calisto has lost one point five million dollars. Obvi ously this s ituation cannot continue. Unless we take action now, we will go out of business next year. We have severa] options to consider. Our firs t option is to adopt the same strategy as IMM. IMM have reduced their operating expenses by 20% over the last two years. However, they have achieved this by ruthlessly cutting jobs: o ne fifth of IMM 's staff havc been made redundant. Hcre at Calisto we havc a long tradition of looking at'ter our staff,

and l do not wish to choose this option unless the rc is n o other alternative. Our second option is to fo llow the example of our friends at Reysonido, and buy European technology w hich would reduce our cost o f sales by 10-15%. However, we estimate that this investment would inc reasc our operating expenscs by half a million dollars a year. A third option is to cut our prices in o rder to increase sales. We cstimate a price cut of 100,0 might increase next year's sales to $'16.5 million - assuming, of course, that our competitors do not reduce their priccs. Howevcr, our cost of sales would increase to just under nine million dollars. My friends, there are three more options w hich I havc not yet discussed with you. but which I would like you to consider carefully. O ption number fou r is a rnerger. !MM have offered us three million dollars, which, in view of our desperate situation, is a very reasonable offer. I f we agreed to a merger with !MM, the new company would be the new market leader, and be in a far better position to compete with Dylan. However, there would no doubt be some redundancies in order to make econom ies of seale. Now, option five. Th is is a high-risk stratcgy, bu\ we must cons ide r all possiblc solutions. In order to compete with Dylan, we nced to be bigger; one way to obtain that criticaJ s ize is by a cquisi tion. Our fift h option is to a cquire Reysonido. Reysonido are likely to accept a takeover bid of around four million dollars. As well as synergy and economies of scale. this acquisition would also give us another bonus: access to the technology which means Reyson ido's cost of sales is l 0% !ower than our own. O f coursc. we would need lo borrow the money, and the repayments would represent around half a million dollars per ycar over ten years: not so unrealistic wilh combined sales of 25 million , I believe. The finał optio n is one which I sincerely hope you will not choose. That is, to close the company, and sell off our assets to pay our debts. I have kcpt it until last in order to stress that it is a serious option. All right, l'm sure you are anxi ous to ask questions. After that, l would like us to consider all the options in detail ; everybody's contributions will be valuable. Thank you.

8 International trade 8.1 About business Export sales and payment 2:50 lntervie we r : Mr Sullivan, can you tell us first what exactly credit agencies do? Jam es Sulłivan : Weil, basically. we offcr a range of services in two main arcas: information and insurance. Some of our clicnts arc interested in information to help th em manage credit risk. and others come to us for insurance. But many companies, like Eisenhart Games, need both information and insurance. I : What sort of information can you provide? JS: We havc details of over 50 rnillion businesscs in countries all over the world. So, for example, we can help Dary! by telling h im how businesses and countries

in the Middle East are doing financ ially; we can tell him if his prospective customcrs pay, and how quickly they pay; and. in particular, we can warn him if one of his customers gets inio financial difficulty. I : And you give each company a rating which indicates how reliable they are'> JS: Yes, companies - and also countries - are given a rating. This givcs us a quick guide to how safcly you can do business with a particular company or in a particular country. Actually, there's much more than just the rating. Clients like Daryl receive detailed credit rcports which help them decide if and how to work with diffcrcnt com pan ies. I : I see. Now, what about credit insurance? Is that something new ? JS: Weil. it's relatively new over hcre in t he States, but not in Europe. European companies have been using it for a long time. Seventy per cent of European companies use credit insurance, whereas in the States the figurc is below 5%. I : Why is !hat? JS: Essentially because European firms have to cxport, bccause their interna! markets a re too small. Until now, the majority of American firms have clone most of their business in America, so thcy didn't necd credit insurancc unless the c ustome r was very risky. Nowadays, crnnpanics like Eisenhart need to export. so they're d iscovering the advantages of credit insu rance. For example. il rneans that in Saud i Arabia, Dary! can trade on open account, with no nced for letters of credit, which take a lot of ti me and are relatively expensive. I : I sec. Talking of expense, what does credit insurance cost? JS: We il , of course. il depends on the contract. The more risk the insurcr takes on . the highe r the premium will be. But, on average, I would say, for international credit insurance, between a quarter and 1% of salcs.

8.2 Vocabulary International deals and payments 2:51-2:55 1 A: Bruno, have you seen th is letter from those people in Slovakia? B: No, what do they want? A: Weil, they say t hey're ready to place a large order now if they can pay next year. B: Weil. you'd bctter do some rcsearch on the company. Make sure they can pay! But be discreet. We don't want to upsct them .

2 C: J'm stili worried about sending thcse parts by sea. They're quite fragi le, you know. O : WeH, don't wony We're meeting the insu rance people tomorrow. If anything goes wrong, we'll be covcred. C: But the insurance premium will be expensive. won't it? D: Probably. But we havc to do it anyway. lt's one of the conditions in the contract. No insurance. no deal. 3 E: Francesca, have we received a payment from Kawasaki? F: No. And l've already sent two reminders. E: 1\vo? Listen, could you give them a call?

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If we're not careful, they'll be late every month, and I don't want to have the same problems we had last year. 4 F: So, could you send the payment as soon as possible, Mr Takahashi? G: Well, it's just that there seems to be a small problem with your invoice. lt's morc expensive than we expected. F: J'm sorry, Mr Takahashi, but the invoice is for exactly the same amount as our quote, wh ich you accepted. G : Ah, yes. Wcll, as we are regular customers, could you perhaps wait two or three weeks? We just have a small cash-flow problem at the moment. l'm sure you understand, Ms Trevi. lt's nothing to worry about . 5 H: Weil, we'll accepc your terms providing you deliver direct to our factory. I : H mm ... Our customcrs normally collect the goods from the port of entry. H: But you said yourself these pa11s are fragile, so surely il would be better for the same forwarder to deliver all the way to the door? That way there's less risk of dam age. I : Weil, you have a point there, I suppose. H: And this will be a regular order, so it means a lot of business for the forwarde r. l 'm sure you can negotiate good terms with them. I : Yes. Yes. you're right. OK, then. lt's a deal.

8.3 Grammar Prepositions 2:56-2:65 1

A: lt seems to me that with interest rates so low, property is stili a better choice than the stock market. B: Yes, you're right. l think a small flat in the town centre should give a good return

2 C: 1 think you should talk to her. She's stili upset. O: OK, OK. l 'll call her and tell her J'm sorry. 1 didn't mean what 1 said. 3 E: What state is it in after the accident? F: Weil, it could have been worse. Apart from a broken windscreen and headlights, there are only a few scratches on the paintwork. I was lucky. 4 G: lt's amazing. She already speaks seven different languages. and she's picking up Chinese really fast! H: Yeah, some people just have a gift, 1 guess.

8 O : Weil, sales are up 300%, we've reduced costs, our stock price has almost doubled and shareholders are delighted! Everything's worked out perfectly 1 P: Yes. It doesn't get any better !han this. 9 Q: Have you had any news from Taiwan? R: No, not a word. l t's strangc. Usually they're in touch at least once a week. 10 S: Hey, Terry. H ave you changed the passwords? l can't get into the databasc' T: No, l'm having the same problem. l'vc tried everything but the system won't let me in.

~ 2:66 Paul: Oh . Jenny,
8.4 Speaking Negotiations diplomacy 2:67- 2:69

5 I : You desperately need to get some more

J:

contracts. Relying on just one big firm is so dangerous. Yes, 1 kno\v. But we've always done most of our turnovcr with them.

6 K: The Amcricans a re much more demanding. The Food and Drug Administration are terribly strict. But if you want to scil in the States, there's no other way. L: Yes, thcre's no choicc. Wc'll have to adapt the product to thcir norms. 7 M: What if we dcliver the goods but thcy don'! pay? N : Weil , we have a policy which covers that risk. For a small percentage of the value of the goods, we will guarantee to pay you if the customer defaults.

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A : l 'm afraid l think we might nced more time to explorc alt the implications, and pcrhaps to include some of our senior management in the discussions. B : Look. Mr. Yamada, J've already been here a weck. and I have a piane to catch this evening. If you don't want to do this deal, jus! say so'. I mean, when I get back, I have to tell my boss we have a contract, or explain why 1 failed to get one! 2 C: We feel that there are stili quitc a large number of difficulties to face in this project. and thesc will take a vcry considerable amount of time and money to rcsolvc. O: OK, Amal. let's sit down and work out a sched ule.

C: I am not sure that at this stage a schedule is appropriate, in view of the considerable ... cultural differences between our com pan ies. O : Weil, we need to start work soon if we want to meet the deadlines. C: Frau Meier. perhaps we should talk again in a few days, by telephone? O : Are you saying you're quitting the project?' C: lf you insist on putting it in those terms, then. yes, 1 think probably that is best. 3 E: And you pay the shipping costs. F: No, as I told you . our prices are ex works. You pay for shipping. E: So you don't want to sell us your machine tools? F: No. why do you say that? l never said that! E: Your terms with Auckland lndustries last year included shipping. I believe. F: Yes, but !hat was a much larger contract. E: So our order is not very important for you?

~ 2:70- 2:72 1 A : l' m afraid I think we might need more time to explore all the implications, and perhaps to include some of our senior management in the discussions. B: Uh-huh. Yamada-san, correct me if l'm wrong. but you seem to be saying that you·re not completely convinced by this deal. A: l 'm afraid there seems to be a slight misunderstanding, Mr Bryson. Let me pul il another way. We are as enthusiastic about this deal as ever, but here in japan, il is very important to take the time to consult everybody, and to be sure there is a consensus. B: A h, yes, l understand. lt's im portant for me to keep my board informed too. 2 C: I' m afraid we feel thcre are stili quite a large number of difficulties to face in this project. and these will take a very considcrable amount of time and money to resolve. O: OK, Amal, have 1 got this right? You're saying that you're not sure we have the time or the money to make this project a success? C : That's right. Especially in view of the considerable. er. cultural differences between our companies. O : So, would l be right in saying that you are considering withdrawing from the project ? C: No, l' m sorry, Sabine, that isn't quite what I meant. What I was trying to say was, we need to take our different approaches to these problems in io accouni. but l'm sure we can find solutions. O : Yes, l'm sure we can. Perhaps we should talk again in a few days, by telcphonc? C: Yes, that would be fine.

3 E: And if l'vc undc rstood corrcctly. you will pay t he shipping costs. F: l' m sorry, pcrhaps I havcn't made myself elear. The price we quotcd was ex works. But we can quotc including shipping if you li kc. E: But didn't you say you would give us the same terms as for Auckland l ndustries last year? F : Ah, I see, yes. Well, allow me to rephrase that. What l meant was, we would be very happy to give you the same terms as Auckland. if you were in a position to order the same volume.

8 6 Case study Jeddah Royal Beach Reso rt •

2:73

Frederi ck: Good C\'Cning. Riaz! Riaz: Oh. hello Frederick. Everything OK? F: Yes, fine, thanks. I just wanted IO givc you thesc applications, if you've got a moment? R: Yes. of coursc. Have a scat. F: Thanks. R: Ol< , so what have we gol here? F: Weil , first of all. lhere's Ms Koepple in room 406. Shc's with Cool Breeze. ll's a record label based in Buenos Aires. Now. I know you don't like record companies, but R: Yes, Frederick. and you know very well why I don't like record companies and those vulgar rock groups they send us. always causing damage and disturbing the other guests. Argentina, you say? f: Yes. But \Is Koepplc says they want to organizc a big conference for their e'ccutivcs. Thcrc won't be any rock groups or that kind of thing. just corporate C\cCutivcs. So, they're applying for our credit card. R: Weil, it's true we necd to develop in the confcrcncc market. lt's good business, and it often brings in more business by word of mouth. But Argenlina „ . OK. leave it with me and !'li look into it. How big is Ms l
F: But there are ten of them this time, and she's sucha wondeńul linie old lady! R: I should rcally suspend their credit and insist on cash in ad\'ance. They're on, let's sec thirty thousand dollars. It's just too big a risk Have you seen the )atest cash-flow figurcs? Our customers arc taking longer and longer to pay, and uncollcctiblcs havc gone over 300! I'm getting a lot of prcssure from management to takc firm action. F: Weil , be carcful; Mrs Saman told me yeśterday thai her brot her is a very senior governmcnt officia). And rcmcmbcr, we have a lot of gucsts lrom Egypt now. We don't want to upsct them. R: Yes. that's truc. You nc1cr know who Mrs Saman might talk to. She's a very influcntial old lady. All right, leave it with me, Frederick. 1'11 let you know what I dccide tomorro\\.

R: Weil , he may be difficult but his credit's good. He secms to have built himself quite an empire over thcrc. l
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Glossary The definitions for the words in this glossary are from the Macmillan Dictionary. The red words are high-frequency w ords, that is to say that they are among the 7,500 which native speakers use for 90% of what they speak or write . See http://www.macmillandictionary.com for more information.

1 Corporate culture 1.1 About business Work culture and placements assignment /;}'sammont/ noun [count or uncoun.t] task given as part of yo ur studies or your job: His first assigmnent as a reporter was to cover the local election. autonomy /:i:'ton;}mil noun [uncount] the power to make your own decisions: New regulations have severely restricted the autonomy of doctors. beating /'bi:t11J/ noun [count] the act of hitting someone hard a number of times as a punishment: The man had been given a severe beating. dress code /dres bud/ noun !count] a set of rules about what you should wear in a particular place or at a particular event: The dress code in aur office is very fonnal: everybody wears a suit. etiquette /'et1kct/ noun [uncount] a set of ru les for behaving correctly in a particular situation: Office etiquette demands that you don't read other people's messages. initiative iI 1111J;}t1v/ noun (u nco unt] the ability to think of ideas and take decisions independently. Take the in itiative: to take the first step or be the first to take action: She would have to take the initiative in order to improve their relationship. intern / 1111t3:(r)n/ noun [count] a student or recently qualified person who works in a job in order to get experience: Most employers prefer interns who already have some wor!~ experience. pick up / p1k 'Ap/ phrasal verb [transitive] to learn information or a new skill without trying or without meaning to. 1

1.2 Vocabulary Work organization and responsibility on a day-to-day basis /on :i dei t;} dei 'bc1s1s/ phrase used for saying how often something happens. O n a daily/ monthly/annual, etc. basis: Safety equipment was checked on a daily basis. o rganigram /:i:(r)'g;enognem/ noun [count] a drawing or plan that gives the names and job titles of a ll the staff in an organ ization or department. predecessor /'pri:d1 ,scs;}(r)/ noun [count] the person who had the job before: Alexander seems to have learned nothing from the faults of his predecessors. take over /tc1k ';;iuv;;i(r)/ phrasal ve rb [transitive] to take control of something: IBM is taking over a much smaller company.

1.5 Writing A placement report appendix /;}'pend1ks/ noun [count] a section giving extra details at the end of a book or document: Technical specifications are included in the appendix to Chapter 9.

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gearbox / 1g1;;i(r) 1boks/ noun [count] a metal box that contains the parts of a vehicle or a machine that change engine power into movement. mailshot /'me1lJotl nou n [count] a letter or advertisement sent to many people at the same t ime. rapport /rre'pJ:(r)/ noun [singular o r uncount] good relationship and understanding between people. take the mickey /te1k O:i 'miki/ phrase BRITI SH l NFOR ~t AL to laugh at somebody, usually in a friendly way. waste /we1st/ no un [count or uncount] useless materials that are Ieft or thrown away: A bill was introduced to clean up toxic waste from [ocal factories.

1.6 Case study Counselling body language /'bodi ,lre1Jgw145/ no u n [uncount] the movements or positions of your body that show other people what you are thinking or feeling: Their body language betrayed the tension between them. bounce back / 1bauns 'b;ek/ ph rasal verb [intransitivel to become healthy, happy or successful again after something bad has happened to you. echo /'ekou/ verb [transi tive] to express someone else's ideas or to say the same words that someone else has said : Blake echoed the views of many employees. headache / 1hede1k/ nou n [count] a pain in your head: I 've got a splitting headache (=an extremely bad headache). open question / 1Jup;}11 'kwestf(;})n/ noun [cou nt] a question with a wh- question word, as opposed to a closed question which has a yeslno answer. outlook /'aut,luk/ noun [singular] your generał attitude to things: share an outlook: They shared the same kind of outlook on life. paraphrase /'prer;;i 1fre1z/ verb [transitive] to express what someone else has said using different words: ft is particularly important when paraphrasing to be sure that you do not distort the meaning of the original statement. perspective /pJ(r)'spekt1v/ nou n 1 [count] a way of thinking about something: 2 [uncount] a sensible way of judging the importance of something in comparison with other things: keep something in perspective: It 's important to heep things in perspective and not dwell on one incident.

2 Customer support 2.1 About business Call centres bus lbAs/ verb [transitive] to take someone somewhere by bus. copycat /' kopi 1kret/ a dject ive similar to something else and considered to be a copy of it: copycat crimes. tax break /treks bre1k/ noun [count] a reduction in the tax that you must pay: A tax break for college.

Glossary

tax holiday / 1treks 'hol1dc1/ noun [count! a temporary period, duri ng which time the government removes certain taxes (usually sales tax) on certain items, in o rder to encourage the consumption o r purchase of these items. twentysomething / 1twcnti,sAm811J/ noun [count! refers to the age of someone who is between twenty and twentynine.

2.2 Vocabulary Customer service and telephoning dip fkl\p/ noun [count1 a small object that holds something in position: hair clip. earth 13:(r)8/ verb [transitivej BRITISH to connect a piece of electrical eq uipment to the ground so that it is safe: Make sure the machilw is earthed properly. retain /n'tem/ verb [transitive] to keep someonc or somcthing. side-panel /'said ,pam(o)l/ noun [count] a fiat part of a box or other object that can be removed. slot /slot/ noun [count] a long narrow hole that you can fit something into. upset /Ap'set/ adjective very sad, worried or angry about something: Why are you so upset?

2.4 Speaking Dealing with problems by telephone Come again? /kAm o'gen/ INFORMAL used for asking someone to repeat w hat they h ave just said. crash lkrreJ/ verb [intransitive or transitive] CoMPUTING if a computer or computer program crashes, it suddenly stops working. freeze /fri:z/ ve rb (intransitive or transitive] CoMPL!TlNG if a computer screen freezes or is frozen you cannot move anything on it because there is something wrong with the computer.

2 .5 Writing Formal and informal correspondence accounts payable /;:i,kaunts 'pe1ob(o)I/ noun [plural] MAINLY AMERICAN a record of how much money a company owes other people or companies for goods and services. ASAP /1e1 es e1 'pi:/ a b breviat io n as soon as possible. crack /krrek/ verb [transitive] to damage something so that a line appears on its surface, but it does not break into pieces: I dropped a plate and cracked it. duplicate /1dju:plike1t/ adjective made as an exact copy of something else. inconsistency / 1mkon's1stonsi/ noun [count] something that does not match something else. patch /pretJ/ noun [count] a piece of software that you add to a computer program to improve it or remove a fault. Trojan (horse) / 1tr;iud3(;i)n h:i:(r)s/, noun [count] COMPUTING a program that seems useful but is designed to cause damage, for example by destroying information. write-off /ran of/ noun [count] a vehicle or machine that is so badly damaged that it cannot be repaired.

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2.6 Case study Cybertartan Software 1

come up with /,kAm Ap w1ó/ ph rasa l verb [transitive] to think of somethi ng such as an idea or a plan. from the horse's mouth /from o;i 1h:i:(r)s,1z 111au8/ INFORMAL information from the horse's m outh comes from someone who is directly involved. obsolescence /,obs;:i'lcs(;i)ns/ no un [uncount] the state of something which is no longer used: planned obsolescence the practice of mak ing products that will not last long, so that people wi ll need to buy new o nes. shift /J1ft/ noun [count] a period of work in a factory or business where some people work during the day and some work at night: a three-shift system. staff turnover /sta:f 't3:(r)Muvo(r)/ noun [count or uncount] the rate at w hich people łeave jobs and new people arrive: a high turnover of statfl personnel swap /swop/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to give something to someone in exch ange for something else: Do you want to swap seats? triple /'tnp(;i)I/ verb [transitive] to increase something so that it is three times bigger than before: He helped triple the value of the company.

3 Products and packaging 3 .1 About business Packaging focus group /' faubs ,gru:p/ noun [count] a small group of people who are in terviewed together a nd give their opinions to help a company make decisions. frustration /fr11'stre15(:i)n/ noun [count or uncount] the feeling of being frustrated. interface / 1mt;i(r)'fe1s/ ve rb [intransitive] interact and communicate with each other. provocation / 1prnvo'ke1J(o)n/ noun [count or uncount] the act of doing or saying something deliberately in order to make somebody angry or upset. She bursts into tears at the sligh test provocation. rage /re1dy' noun [count or uncount] a very stro ng feeling of anger: MA!NLY JOURNALISM angry violent behaviour in a public situatio n: ft is elear that air rage is naw on the increase. resistant /n 'z1st(o)nt/ adjective able to resist something: a disease that is resistant to antibiotics. trigger /'tng;i(r)/ verb [transitivej to make somethi ng happen: to trigger an alarm. wrap /rrep/ verb [transitive] to cover something by putting something s uch as paper o r plastic around it: I wrapped my present for my sister's birthday.

3.2 Vocabulary

Specifications and features attention-grabbing l:ł' tenJ(;i)n 1grreb11JI adjective an attention-grabbing remark or activity is one that is intended to make people notice it. bird's-eye view / 1b3:dz a1 'vju:/ nou n [singular] a good view of something from a high position. blueprint /'blu:,pnnt/ noun [count] a drawing that shows how to build somethi ng.

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chart ltJa:(r)t! noun [count] a map used for navigation in boats or planes. foolproof /'fu:l,pru:f/ adjective very well designed and easy to use so that it cannot fai! and you cannot use it wrongly. This recipe is foolproof: it works every time. mockup i'mokAp/ noun [count] a model of a future product that is the same size as th e real thing. overlay /';iuv;i(r),le1/ noun [count] a set of extra information that is added to a picture by a computer. retardant /n 'ta:(r)d(;i)nt/ adject ive slowing down a process. This door is fire retardant. tamper with /'tremp;i(r) ,wio/ phrasal verb [transitive] to touch something and change it in a way that will damage it.

3.3 Grammar Articles, relative clauses and noun combinations bump lbAmp/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to hit against something solid: The car bumped into a tree. drop calls /'drop b:lz/ phrase to fai! to connect incoming calis. empowerment /Jm'pau;i(r)m;int! noun [uncount] giving control or power over something. flip cover /'flip ,kAv;i/ noun [count] part of a mobile phone which folds over the keypad. get rid of /get 'nd ;iv/ phrasal verb [transitive] to throw away, give away or sell a possession that you no longer want: I have to get rid of my ald computer. no frills /'n;:iu fnlz/ expression used for something which is good enough but has no unnecessary extra features : A simple meal with no frills. rating /'rertuJ/ noun [count] a measurement of how good or popular someone or something is: The guide gives restaurants a rating out of ten. workhorse / 1w3:(r)k, h:i:(r)s/ noun [count] a very useful piece of equipment that you use a lot: My ald car was a great workhorse.

3.4 Speaking Presentations - structure hook /huki noun [count] a curved piece of metal for hanging things on; a method for getti ng peo ple interested and attracted to something: Hang your coat on the hook. lecture /' lektj';:i(r)/ noun [count] a talk to a group of people about a particular subject, especially at a college or university: This lecture about the Dark Ages was really fascinating. overwhelmingly /,;mv;:i(r)'welmnJli/ a d verb very strongly: They voted ove1whelmingly against the proposal. ping /p11J/ verb [transitive] CoMPUTING to send an electronic signal requesting an answer from a device: l'll ping it to you late1: tracking / 1trreku1/ noun [uncount] the act of following or looking for a person, anima! or thing. wrap up / rrep 'Ap/ phrasal verb [i ntransitive or transitive] INFORMAL to finish someth ing: That ;ust about wraps i t up for today. 1

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3.5 Writing A product description alloy l'reb1/ no un (count o r uncount] a metal that is made from combining two or more metals. benefit /'benrfn/ noun [count or uncount] an advantage you get from a product or situation. f eature /'fi:tj';:i(r)/ noun [count] an important part or aspect of a product. intuitive lm'tju:uv/ adjective an in tuiti ve system is easy to use because the process of operating it is very n atura! or obvious. plug-in l'plAgm/ noun [count] CoMPUTING a software addition wh ich allows an application to perform additional functions. quibble /'kw1b(:i)ll noun [count] a complaint o r criticism about something that is not important: no quibble guarantee a promise to refund the customer without questioning their reasons for dissatisfaction . stand out /,strend 'aut/ ph rasal verb [intransitive] to be easy to see because of being different.

3 .6 Case study Big Jack's Pizza BOGOF l'bogof/ abbreviation buy one, get o ne free.

chequered /'tfeb(r)d/ adjective a chequered pattern or design consists of squares in two or more different colours. dine-in /,dam 'mi adject ive used to describe meals taken in a restaurant: dine-in cun-y. franchisee / 1frrentj'a1'zi:/ noun [count] a person or company that has t he franchise to sell a particular type of goods or services. fusion cuisine / 1fju:3 n kw1 1zi:n/ noun [uncount] a particular style of cooking food combining Chinese and Western recipes. gourmet / 1gu;i(r)me1/ noun [count] someone who knows a lot about good food and wine. slide !sla1d/ verb [intransitive] to move across a smooth surface. strengthen /'stre!J8(:i)n/ verb [tran sitive] to make something stronger. threat i8ret/ noun [count or uncount] something that could cause harm. USP /ju: es 'pi:/ noun [cou nt] Bus1NESS unique selling point! proposition: the th ing thai makes a product or service different from others.

4 Careers 4 .1 About business Career choices earth-shattering /13:(r)8 Jret(;:i)rnJ/ adjective extremely surprising and important. inertia h'I13:(r)J:i/ noun [uncount] a situation in which something does not change: a feeling of not wanting to change things. jump in at the deep end /,dy.mp 'm ,ret ó:i 'di:p ,end/ phrasal verb [intransitive] to become involved in a difficult situation with little preparation.

Glossary

pick someone's brains / 1p1k 'sNnWAflZ ,bremv expression

to ask someone questions to get advice or information: I wanted to pick your brains about this idea l 've had. posse /'posil noun [count] I NFORMAL a group of friends. start the hall rolling /,sta:(r)t oe 'b:i:l 1rnul11y expression to make something start happening. stay put / 1ste1 'put/ verb [intransitive] to remain in one place or position. treadmill /'tred,nul/ noun [count] a situation that is very tiring or boring because you do the same things continuously. I NFORMAL

4.2 Vocabulary Careers, personal skills and qualities controversial /1kontra'v3:(r)J(a)l/ adjective a controversial

subject, opinion or decision is one that people disagree about or do not approve of. flag /fta:g/ verb [transitive} to mark something so that you will be able to find it again. headhunter /'hed,hAllta(r)/ noun [count] a person or company who searches for geod staff and tries to persuade them to ieave their jobs and go to werk for another company. liaise /li1e1Zi' verb [intransitive] if one person liaises with another or people liaise, they talk to each other and tell each other what they are doing, so that they can work together effectiveiy. multitasking /,nlAlti'ta:skuj/ noun [uncount] doing severa! things at the same time. on t he spot !,on oa 'spot/ expression immediately. unconventional /,Ank:m'venJ(a)nal/ adjective different from what most people consider to be usual or norma!. wannabe /'wonabi/ noun [count] I NFORMAL someone who wants to be famous or successful.

4 .3Grammar Present tenses assault course /a's:i:lt ,b:(r)s/ noun [count] an exercise

involving running, climbing and jumping, used in military training. hand /ha:nd/ verb [transitivej to give something to someone with your hand; you have to hand it to someone expression SPOKEN used for saying that you admire someone for something they have done. knock over /,nok 'wva(r)/ verb [transitive] to hit something so that it falls: The car knocked him over. relevant /'re!av(a)nt/ adjective directly connected to what is being discussed or considered. undergraduat e l,Anda(r)'gned3u:it/ noun [count] a student who is studying for a first degree at a college or university. You're kidding /j:i:(r) 'krdnJ/ expression mainly spoken used for saying that you do not believe what someone is saying.

~

4.4 Speaking Job interviews achievement /a'tJi:vrmmt/ noun [count] a particular thing

that you have succeeded in doing after a lot of effort. cope with /'kaup ,wio/ verb [intransitive] to deal

successfully with a difficult situation or job. rapport /rre'p:i:(r)/ noun [singular/uncount] a relationship

in which people like, understand, and respect each other: Having good rapport with your clients is essential. regardless of /n'go:(r)dlas gv/ phrase without being affected by. strength /strel)0/ noun [count] something that someone does well: Ron's main strength is his ability to motivate players. w eakness /'wi:knas/ noun [count] a fault or problem that makes someone less effective or attractive.

4 .6 Case study Gap years and career breaks eco- /i:kau/ prefix relating to the environment: used with

some nouns and adjectives. find your feet /,famd ja(r) 'fi:t/ expression to start to fee!

confident and familiar with something. step back /,step 'ba:k/ phrasal verb [intransitive] to stop for

a moment in order to consider something objectively. tangible /'trend3ab(a)I/ adjective important and noticeable:

tangible evidence. underprivileged /1AIJd:i(r)'prrv;ilrd3d/ adjective not having

as many advantages or opportunities as most other people.

5 Making deals 5.1 About business Retailing bricks-and-mortar i,bnks rend 'm:i:(r)t'J(r)I expression a

building, when you are thinking of it in connection with how much it cost to build or how much it is worth: They put their money into bricks and mortar. claw /kb:/ noun [count] the sharp curved part at the end of sam e animal's toes, for example a cat. hit /hit/ noun [countl a piece of inforrnation that a computer program finds for you: I searched for the name 'Mundy' and got over fifty hits.

5.4 Speaking Negotiations - bargaining down time /'daun ,tamll' noun [count or uncount] period

during which equipment or a machine is not functional or cannot work. lead time /'li:d ,ta11n/ noun [count or uncount] the time between starting and completing a production process. package f'prek1d3f noun [countj a set of products or services that are sold together as one unit. reluctant /n'IAktant/ adjective not willing to do something. t entative /'tent:it1v/ adjective not definite or certain.

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5.5 Writing A proposal

6.4 Speaking Meetings - teamwork

cash flow / 1ka:J Jfau/ noun [uncount] the rate at which a

civil servant / 1s1v(:i)I 1s3:(r)v(:i)nt/ no un [count] someone

business takes in money through sales and pays it out fo r the things it needs to continue operating. contingency plan /k;">n 1und3(;;i)nsi 1pla:n/ noun [uncount] a plan that helps you to prepare for possible bad events. mail order /,meII ':i:(r)d:i(r)/ noun [uncount] a way of buying goods in which you order them by post or by telephone and they are posted to you. merchant account / 11113:(r)tJ(;;i)nt :i,kaunt/ noun [count] a special account for performing e-business transactions. set -up fee /'set Ap ft :/ noun th e price you have to pay to have a piece of equipment installed.

6 Company and community 6.1 About business Corporate social responsibility altruism /'a:ltru,rz(;;i)m/ noun [uncount] a way of thinking

and behaving that shows you care about other people and their interests more than you care about yourself. biodegradable / ba1;;iud1 'grc1d;;ib(;;i)I/ adjective biod egradable substances can be broken into very small parts by bacteria so that they are not harmful to the environment. credo !'kri:d;;iu/ noun [count] a statement of your beliefs. hybrid l'ha1bnd/ noun [count] a mixture of different things or styles. sustainable /s:i'stern:ib(;">)l/ adjective capable of continuing for a long time at the same level. virtuous circle /'v3:(r)tJu;;is 1s3:(r)k(;;i)l/ noun [singular] a process in which a good action or event produces a good result that also causes the process to continue so that more good results happen. 1

6 .2 Vocabulary Meetings, ethical behaviour and social performance damage limitation /'da:m1d3 1l11m 11e1J(;">)n/ noun [uncount]

the process of trying to limit the amount of damage that is caused by something. e xtravagant hk'stra:v;">g;">nt/ adjective extreme, excessive or unreasonable. misleading /mrs' li:dn)f adject ive giving th e wrong idea or impression and making you believe something that is not true. settlement /'set(;i) Jm;mt/ noun [count] an officia) agreement that ends an argument between two people or groups.

who works for a govern ment depa rtment. disabled /d1s 1e1b(;">)ld/ adjecti ve someone who is disabled is

unable to use part of their body or brain properly because of injury or disease. ethnic minority /1e8n1k rna1'noreti/ noun [count] a group of people who have a different culture and different traditions to most people living in a place. misconduct /m1s'kondAkt/ noun [uncountable] unacceptable behaviour.

6 .5 Writing Reports and minutes derive /d1 1ra1v/ verb [transitive] to get a feeli ng from

something e.g. pleasure, satisfaction: derive something from something: They derive great enjoyment from these simple games. greenfield site /'gri:nft:ld ,san/ noun [count] a piece of land that has never been built on before. paternalism /p:i't3:(r)n;;i,hz(;;i)m/ nou n [uncou nt] governing like a father, by looking after people but also taking away their freedom and responsibilities. positive discrimination / 1poz::>11v d11sknm1 1ne1J(;;i)n/ noun [uncount] the practice of giving special benefits to people from a group that was treated in an unfair way in the past.

6 .6 Case study Phoenix hazardous /'ha:z:i(r)d;">s/ adjective dangerous, especially to

people's health or safety: These chemicals are hazardous to human health. resident !'rez1d(;">)nt/ noun [count] a person who lives in a particular place. resistance /rr 1z1st(;">)ns/ nou n [uncount] dislike of o r opposition to a plan, an idea, etc.

7 Mergers and acquisitions 7.1 About business Risks and opportunities in M&A due diligence / dju: 'd1hd3(:i)ns/ noun [uncount] 1

investigation of a company's activities and finan ces before investment or acquisition. gene /d3i:n/ noun [count] information in cells that determines a person's characteristics : He believes that shyness is in the genes. homogenize /h:i mod3;ina1z/ ve rb [transitive] to make things the same, often so th at the result is boring. open enrolment /,:iup;">n m'r:iulm:inu noun [count] a university class which anybody can join. prestigious /pre'st1d3Js/ adve rb respected and ad mired as very important or of a very high quality. susceptible h;;i'sept;;ib(;">)l/ adject ive easily influenced o r affected. takeover bid / 1te1k 1:iuv;i(r) 1b1d/ no un [count or uncount] an offer to buy the shares in a company and take control of it: Shareholders have accepted a takeover bid. 1

6.3 Grammar The passive and reported speech leakage !'li:k1d3/ noun [uncount] an amount of liquid or

gas escaping through a hole in something. protr acted /pr;">1tra:k11d/ adjective FoR:vrAL contin uing for a

long ti me, especially longer than is norma! or necessary. stakeholder / 1ste1k1h;">uid;">(r)/ noun [count] a person or

company that is invo lved in a particular organization, project, system, etc„ especially because they have invested money in it.

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Glossary

~

turmoil 't3:(r)m:nl noun [uncount] a state of excitement or uncontrollcd activity.

.2 \locabu My

Busir esc; performance

s

e

be in the black ibi: m o;i 'bla:ki expressio n to have money in your banl< account or more money than you owe: We've

been in the black for over a year naw. :J bid noun [count] an offer to givc a particular amount of money for something, for example at an auction: We received a bid of {5,000 for the table. filter through /filt;i(r) '0ru:i verb [intransitive] if news or infomation filters through to people, they receive it gradually or after a period of time: News of the decision filtered through to reporters. flotation /ffau'te1J(;i)n/ noun [count or uncount] B USINESS the sale of shares in a company for the first time. FTSE 100, the /,futsi wAn 'hAndrnd/ noun [unco unt] the Financial Times Stocl< Exchange index; an average of the prices of shares from the top 100 companies on the London stock exchange. rumour /'ru:m;i(r)/ noun [count or uncount] unofficial information that may or may not be true: He'd heard rumours about same big finan cial deal. L

le

1.4 Speaking Presentations - visuals crucial l'krn:J(;i)l/ adjective extremely important; crucial to:

Listening to customers' needs is crucial to designing good products. deteriorate /d1 1u;iri;ire1t/ verb [intransitive] to become worse: The economic situation is deteriorating. disposable income /d1 1sp;iuz;ib(;i)l 'nkAm/ noun (uncount] money that you have left to spend after you have paid your bills. highlight /1ha1 1la1t/ verb [transitive] to emphasize or underline part of something: The presenter highlighted the need for a quick decision. overload /1;iuv:i(r) 1l:iud/ verb [transitive] to put too mu ch of something on something; to present people with too much information for them to understand easily.

7.5 Writing Presentation slides bullet points /'buht p~mts/ noun [coun t] a circle printed before each item on a list. distracting /d1 1stra:kt1l)/ adjective preventing you from concentrating on something: This noise outside the

classroom is very distracting. font /font/ noun [count] TECHN ! CAL the style of letters and numbers used in a document. vague /ve1g/ adjective not clearly explained or very detailed : Witnesses gave only a vague description of the

charismatic 1krenz 1ma:11k/ adjective a charismatic person has a strong pcrsonality that makes other pcople like them and be attracted to them. meteoric /1mi:ti1onk/ adjective becoming very successful very quickly. ruthless /'ru:6\;is/ adjective willing to make other people suffer so that you can achieve your aims. slick /sl1k/ adjecti ve done in a very impressive way that seems to need very little effort. trumpet /1trA111p1t/ verb [transitive] to announce something publicly in a way that is intended to make it seem very important.

8 International trade 8 .1 About business Export sales and payment chase /tJe1s/ verb [transitive] to try hard to get something you want: Many companies are still chasing debts that are

mare than five years ald. creditworthiness /1kred1t 1w3:(r)óin;is/ noun [uncou nt) ability to repay debts. level playing field /,lev(;i)\ 'ple11J fi:ld/ noun [singular] a situation that is fair for everybody involved. take on board / 1te1k on 'b:l:(r)d/ expression to conside r a n idea, to accept crit icism and learn from past mistakes. think outside the box /'0r1Jk aut1sa1d ó;i 'boks/ expression to find new and unusual ways of doing things, especiaUy solving problems. without a trace /w1ó'aut o 1tre1s/ expression no sign that someone has b een present; disappear without trace: She

was seen last week, then disappeared without trace. wizard /1w1z;i(r)d/ noun [count] someone who is very good at something.

8.2 Vocabulary International deals and payments file a claim / 1fa1l ::i 1kle11n/ verb [transitive) to present a claim so that it can be officially recorded and dealt with. forwarder /'fa:(r)w;i(r)d;i(r)/ noun [coun t] firm specializing in arranging storage and shipping of merchandise on behalf of its shippers. frequent-flyer scheme /1fri:kwent1fiai;i(r) ,ski:m/ noun [count] a system to encourage people to travel with the same airline by givi ng them reductions or gifts. get behind wit h / 1get b1 1hamd 1w1ó/ phrasal verb [intra nsitive] if you get behind with work or payments, you have not done as much work or made as many payments as you should have: She'd been ill so often that, she was

getting behind with her schoolwork.

driver.

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8.3 Grammar Prepositions drop off /,drop 'of/ phrasal verb [transitive) to take something to a place and not stay th ere long: Is it OK if I drop the documents off later? jet-lagged / 1d3et,la:gd/ adjective feeling tired a nd sometimes confused after a long flight. pitch /puf/ noun [count) a n oral proposal designed to persuade someone to buy your product or suppqrt you.

8 .4 Speaking Negotiations - diplomacy consensus k:in'sens;:is noun [uncount] an opinion that a ll members of a group agree with. implication / 11mph'ke1J(a)n1 noun [count usually plural] a possible effect or result: We need to consider the financial implicalions. quit /kwit/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to leave a job or project: She quit a~er only six months in the job.

8 .5 Writing Requests and reminders disregard / 1d1 sn 'go:(r)d/ ve rb [transitive] to pay no attentio n to something. extend llk'stend/ verb [transitive) FoRMAL to agree to lend someone money or give them credit. factoring /' fa:kt;:irn3/ nou n [uncount) selling a company's receivable invoices in order to obtain funds more quickly. outstanding /out'sta:nd11J adjective an amount of money that is outstanding has not yet been paid. overdue / 1;:iuv;:i(r)'dju: adjective if a payment is overdue, it should have been paid before now. oversight ';:iuv:i(r),san/ noun [count} something you do not th ink of which causes problems Iater. settle /'set(;:i)I/ verb [transitive) to pay all the money you owe someone: He has thirty days to settle his bill.

8 .6 Case study Jeddah Royal Beach Resort armoury /'o:(r)nmi/ noun [usually singular) a set of skills, equipment or powers that is available for someone if they need it. loyalty "lo1;:ilt i/ noun [uncount} co ntinued usc of the products or services of a particular business: A high level of brand loyalty. uncollectible 'nk;:i'lekt;:ib(;i)I noun [count] a bad debt which cannot be recovered. vulgar /'vAlg;i(r) adjective someone who is rude, unpleasant, and offensive. word of mouth ' ,w3:(r)d ;iv 'mau8/ expression information communicated by people speaking informally to each other.

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